(a) Claims. |
(1) Any person who makes claim that the person knows or has reason to know--
(i) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;
(ii) Includes or is supported by any written statement which asserts a material fact which is false, fictitious, or fraudulent;
(iii) Includes or is supported by any written statement that--
(A) Omits a material fact;
(B) Is false, fictitious, or fraudulent as a result of such omission; and
(C) Is a statement in which the person making such statement has a duty to include such material fact; or
(iv) Is for payment for the provision of property or services which the person has not provided as claimed; shall be subject, in addition to any other remedy that may be prescribed by law, to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each such claim.
(2) Each voucher, invoice, claim form, or other individual request or demand for property, services, or money constitutes a separate claim.
(3) A claim shall be considered made to USIA, a recipient, or party when such claim is actually made to an agent, fiscal intermediary, or other entity, including any State or political subdivision thereof, acting for or on behalf of USIA or such recipient or party.
(4) Each claim for property, services, or money is subject to a civil penalty regardless of whether such property, services, or money is actually delivered or paid.
(5) If the Government has made any payment (including transferred property or provided services) on a claim, a person subject to a civil penalty under paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall also be subject to an assessment of not more than twice the amount of such claim or that portion thereof that is determined to be in violation of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such assessment shall be in lieu of damages sustained by the Government because of such claim.
(c) No proof of specific intent to defraud is required to establish liability under this section.
(d) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim or statement under this section, each such person may be held liable for a civil penalty under this section.
(e) In any case in which it is determined that more than one person is liable for making a claim under this section on which the Government has made payment (including transferred property or provided services), an assessment may be imposed against any such person or jointly and severally against any combination of such persons.