Sec. 514.2  Definitions.
Accompanying spouse and dependents means the alien spouse and
minor unmarried children of an exchange visitor who are
accompanying or following to join the exchange visitor and who
are seeking to enter or have entered the United States
temporarily on a J-2 visa or are seeking to acquire or have
acquired such status after admission. For the purpose of these
regulations, a minor is a person under the age of 21 years old.
Accredited educational institution means any publicly or
privately operated primary, secondary, or post-secondary
institution of learning duly recognized and declared as such by
the appropriate authority of the state in which such institution
is located; provided, however, that in addition to any state
recognition, all post-secondary institutions shall also be
accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or
association as recognized by the United States Secretary of
Education but shall not include any institution whose offered
programs are primarily vocational in nature.  Act means the
Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, as
amended.
Agency means the United States Information Agency.
Citizen of the United States means:
(1) An individual who is a citizen of the United States or one of
its Territories or possessions, or who has been lawfully admitted
for permanent residence, within the meaning of section 101(a)(20)
of the Immigration and Nationality Act; or (2) A general or
limited partnership created or organized under the laws of
the United States, or of any state, the District of Columbia, or
a territory or possession of the United States, of which a
majority of the partners are citizens of the United States; or
(3) A for-profit corporation, association, or other legal entity
created or organized under the laws of the United States, or of
any state, the District of Columbia, or a territory or possession
of the United States, which:
(i) Has its principal place of business in the United States, and
(ii) Has its shares or voting interests publicly traded on a U.S.
stock exchange; or, if its shares or voting interests are not
publicly traded on a U.S. stock exchange, it shall nevertheless
be deemed to be a citizen of the United States if a majority of
its officers, Board of Directors, and its shareholders or holders
of voting interests are citizens of the United States; or 
(4) A non-profit corporation, association, or other legal entity
created or organized under the laws of the United States, or any
state, the District of Columbia, or territory or possession of
the United States; and
(i) Which is qualified with the Internal Revenue Service as a
tax-exempt organization pursuant to Sec. 501(c) of the Internal
Revenue Code; and
(ii) Which has its principal place of business in the United
States; and
(iii) In which a majority of its officers and a majority of its
Board of Directors or other like body vested with its management
are citizens of the United States; or
(5) An accredited college, university, or other post-secondary
educational institution created or organized under the laws of
the United States, or of any state, including a county,
municipality, or other political subdivision thereof, the
District of Columbia, or of a territory or possession of the
United States; or
(6) An agency of the United States, or of any state or local
government, the District of Columbia, or a territory or
possession of the United States.
Consortium means a not-for-profit corporation or association
formed by two or more accredited educational institutions for the
purpose of sharing educational resources, conducting research,
and/or developing new programs to enrich or expand the
opportunities offered by its members.  Entities that
participate in a consortium are not barred from having a separate
exchange visitor program designation of their own.
Country of nationality or last legal residence means either the
country of which the exchange visitor was a national at the time
status as an exchange visitor was acquired or the last foreign
country in which the visitor had a legal permanent residence
before acquiring status as an exchange visitor.
Cross-cultural activity is an activity designed to promote
exposure and interchange between exchange visitors and Americans
so as to increase their understanding of each other's society,
culture, and institutions.
Designation means the written authorization given by the Agency
to an exchange visitor program applicant to conduct an exchange
visitor program as a sponsor.
Director means the Director of the United States Information
Agency or an employee of the Agency acting under a delegation of
authority from the Director.
Employee means an individual who provides services or labor for
an employer for wages or other remuneration but does not mean
independent contractors, as defined in 8 CFR 274a.1(j).
Exchange visitor means a foreign national who has been selected
by a sponsor to participate in an exchange visitor program and
who is seeking to enter or has entered the United States
temporarily on a J-1 visa.  The term does not include the
visitor's immediate family.
Exchange Visitor Program means the international exchange program
administered by the Agency to implement the Act by means of
educational and cultural programs. When "exchange visitor
program" is set forth in lower case, it refers to the individual
program of a sponsor which has been designated by the Agency.
Exchange Visitor Program Services means the Agency staff
delegated authority by the Director to administer the Exchange
Visitor Program in compliance with the regulations set forth in
this part.
Exchange visitor's government means the government of the country
of the exchange visitor's nationality or the country where the
exchange visitor has a legal permanent residence.
Financed directly means financed in whole or in part by the
United States Government or the exchange visitor's government
with funds contributed directly to the exchange visitor in
connection with his or her participation in an exchange visitor
program.
Financed indirectly means:
(1) Financed by an international organization with funds
contributed by either the United States or the exchange visitor's
government for use in financing international educational and
cultural exchanges, or
(2) Financed by an organization or institution with funds made
available by either the United States or the exchange visitor's
government for the purpose of furthering international
educational and cultural exchange.
Form IAP-66 means a Certificate of Eligibility, a controlled
document of the Agency.
Full course of study means enrollment in an academic program of
classroom participation and study, and/or doctoral thesis
research at an accredited educational institution as follows:
(1) Secondary school students shall satisfy the attendance and
course requirements of the state in which the school is located;
(2) College and university students shall register for and
complete a full course of study, as defined by the accredited
educational institution in which the student is registered,
unless exempted in accordance with Sec. 514.23(e).
Graduate medical education or training means participation in a
program in which the alien physician will receive graduate
medical education or training, which generally consists of a
residency or fellowship program involving health care services to
patients, but does not include programs involving observation,
consultation, teaching or research in which there is no or only
incidental patient care. This program may consist of a medical
specialty, a directly related medical subspecialty, or both.
Home-country physical presence requirement means the requirement
that an exchange visitor who is within the purview of section
212(e) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (substantially
quoted in Sec. 514.44) must reside and be physically present in
the country of nationality or last legal permanent residence for
an aggregate of at least two years following departure from the
United States before the exchange visitor is eligible to apply
for an immigrant visa or permanent residence, a nonimmigrant H
visa as a temporary worker or trainee, or a nonimmigrant L visa
as an intracompany transferee, or a nonimmigrant H or L visa as
the spouse or minor child of a person who is a temporary worker
or trainee or an intracompany transferee.
J visa means a non-immigrant visa issued pursuant to 8 U.S.C.
1101(a)(15)(J). A J-1 visa is issued to the exchange visitor. J-2
visas are issued to the exchange visitor's immediate family.
Non-specialty occupation means any occupation that is not a
specialty occupation (q.v.). Non-specialty occupations range from
unskilled occupations up to and including skilled occupations
requiring at least two years training or experience.
On-the-job training means an individual's observation of and
participation in given tasks demonstrated by experienced workers
for the purpose of acquiring competency in such tasks.
Prescribed course of study means a non-degree academic program
with a specific educational objective. Such course of study may
include intensive English language training, classroom
instruction, research projects, and/or academic training to the
extent permitted in Sec. 514.23.
Reciprocity means the participation of a United States citizen in
an educational and cultural program in a foreign country in
exchange for the participation of a foreign national in the
Exchange Visitor Program. Where used herein, "reciprocity" shall
be interpreted broadly; unless otherwise specified, reciprocity
does not require a one-for-one exchange or that exchange visitors
be engaged in the same activity. For example, exchange visitors
coming to the United States for training in American banking
practices and Americans going abroad to teach foreign nationals
public administration would be considered a reciprocal exchange,
when arranged or facilitated by the same sponsor.
Responsible officer means the employee or officer of a designated
sponsor who has been listed with the Agency as assuming the
responsibilities outlined in Sec. 514.11. The designation of
alternate responsible officers is permitted and encouraged. The
responsible officer and alternate responsible officers must be
citizens of the United States or persons who have been lawfully
admitted for permanent residence.
Specialty occupation means an occupation that requires
theoretical and practical application of a body of highly
specialized knowledge to perform fully in the stated field of
endeavor. It requires completion of a specified course of
education, where attainment of such knowledge or its equivalent
is the minimum competency requirement recognized in the
particular field of endeavor in the United States. Some examples
of specialized fields of knowledge are public and business
administration, agricultural research, architecture, engineering,
computer and physical sciences, accounting, and print and
broadcast journalism.
Sponsor means a legal entity designated by the Director of the
United States Information Agency to conduct an exchange visitor
program.
Third party means an entity cooperating with or assisting the
sponsor in the conduct of the sponsor's program. Sponsors are
required to take all reasonable steps to ensure that third
parties know and comply with all applicable provisions of these
regulations. Third party actions in the course of providing such
assistance or cooperation shall be imputed to the sponsor in
evaluating the sponsor's compliance with these regulations.