Federal Register Notice,
June 11, 1997; 62(112):31713-31721
Archaeological and Ethnological
Material From Peru
OF THE TREASURY
19 CFR Part 12
Ethnological Material From Peru
Customs Service, Department of the Treasury.
A. Chipped Stone: Projectile
Paijan Type Points
B. Polished Stone
Size: 8 cm.--18 cm.
Color: Generally reddish,
orange, or yellow. Can be made of quartz.
Size: 2.5 cm.--15
Paracas Type Points
Can be ovaloid or lanceolate.
Color: Generally bright
reds, yellows, ochers, quartz crystals, milky whites, greens and blacks.
Size: .3 cm.--25 cm.
and lanceolate. Show marks of pressure-flaking. Often they are broken.
Color: Generally black.
Size: .8 cm.--18 cm.
Shape: Concave indentations on the surface from working. Color: Greens,
reds, and yellows.
of dark colored-stone, sometimes streaked. They have a highly polished,
very smooth surface. Some show external carved decoration. Diameters range
from 12 cm--55 cm.
C. Carved Material
vessels of dark-colored stone. Generally have flaring sides. Typical of
the Late Horizon. They are highly polished and may have external carved
designs or may be in the shape of heads. 18 cm.-- 28 cm. in height.
vessels in the form of camelids with a hollow opening on the back. They
are black to greenish-black and highly polished. .8 cm.--16 cm. in length.
anthropomorphic figurines, frequently found in Middle Horizon contexts.
The almond-shaped eyes with tear-bands are characteristic of the style.
Larger examples tend to be of lighter- colored stone while the smaller
ones are of dark stones. 12 cm.--28 cm. in height.
shapes, most commonly are doughnut-shaped or star-shaped heads, generally
associated with Late Intermediate Period and Inca cultures. Commonly black,
gray, or white, .8 cm.--20 cm. in diameter.
shapes, frequently with one flat surface; highly polished. Generally of
dark-colored stone, 3 cm.--12 cm.
heads have an anthropomorphic face, prominent lips, and enormous noses.
Some, especially those carved of diorite, have snake-like traits. The carved
surface is highly polished.
Pre-Columbian Perishable Remains
with high-relief design. The upper surface has a patina. They range from
20 cm. to more than 1 m. in length.
most common form is a bell-shaped beaker with a flat base, though some
have a pedestal like a goblet. Decoration varies with the period:
Pre-Inca: Very rare,
they have straight sides and incised or high- relief decoration. Some have
of ritual or ceremonial use made of a single piece of wood. They can be
distinguished on the basis of two or three of the following traits:
Inca: Generally they
are incised with geometric designs on the entire exterior.
Colonial Inca: Lacquer
painted on the exterior to depict scenes of daily life, nature, and war.
On the lower third,
the staff may have a metal decoration.
blocks of wood, such as wooden columns (orcones) to support the roofs of
houses: Chincha, Chimu, and Chancay cultures. Individuals may be depicted
standing or seated on a pedestal. In the upper part there is a notch to
support the beams, which generally has a face, sometimes painted, at the
base of the notch. Their length varies, but they are generally at least
a meter or more.
The body itself is
cylindrical and of variable length.
The upper third may
have decorations, including inset shell, stone, or metal. Some staffs function
as rattles, and in these cases, the rattle is in the upper part.
lidded boxes, carved of two pieces of wood. Generally the outer surface
of box and lid are carved in relief. Chimu-Inca cultures. They measure
approximately 20 cm. x 10 cm.
supports for a reflective surface of polished anthracite or pyrite. In
some cases the upper part of backs of mirrors are worked in relief or have
inset of shell. Moche culture.
Paddle and rudder--Large
carvings made of a single piece of wood. Paddles have three parts: the
blade and the handle (sometimes decorated), and an upper decorated part,
which can have metal plaques or decorative painting. Rudders have two parts:
the blade and a handle which may be carved in relief. Chincha culture.
Paddles can be 2.30 m. in length and rudders are up to 1.4 m.
and spoons made of wood decorated with zoomorphic or anthropomorphic motifs.
and whistles. Trumpets can be up to 1.2 m. long and are generally decorated
on the upper third of the instrument. Whistles vary a great deal from the
undecorated to those decorated with human forms. Moche, Huari, and Inca
interesting are Chavin pieces with incised decorations. The bones are generally
the long bones of mammals. They vary from 10 cm.-25 cm. in length.
rectangles of bone about 10 cm. in length. Chincha culture.
(flutes) and antaras (panpipes) in various shapes. Paracas, Chincha, and
pots, and holders for lime (for coca chewing). Most interesting are those
which are carved or pyroengraved. Produced from the Preceramic onward.
small flutes, and whistles. Inca examples may have incised decoration,
or decoration with cords and feathers.
(especially in Chancay culture), panpipes, and whistles. Flutes are often
pyroengraved. Panpipes can have one or two tiers of pipes, which may be
lashed together with colored thread. Nazca culture.
over a cane armature, in the shape of a lidded box. Sometimes the basketry
is made of several colors of fiber to work out geometric designs. Some
still hold their original contents: needles, spindle whorls, spindles,
balls of thread, loose thread, etc. Chancay culture.
shells (Strombus galeatus, Malea ringens, etc.), some, especially those
from the Formative Period, with incised decoration.
Pre-Columbian Human Remains
beads and charms worked of shell, chiefly Spondylus princeps, used mainly
in necklaces and pectorals. Moche, Chimu, and Inca cultures.
The human remains included
in this listing demonstrate modifications of the remains due to ritualistic
practices or other intentional treatment of the deceased.
Peruvian mummies were
formed by natural mummification due to the conditions of burial; they have
generally not been eviscerated. Usually found in flexed position, with
extremities tied together, resulting in a fetal position. In many cases
the cords used to tie the body in this position are preserved.
B. Deformed Skulls
Many ancient Peruvian
cultures practiced cranial deformation. Such skulls are easily recognized
by their unnatural shapes.
C. Skulls Displaying
Trepanation is an operation
performed on a skull; the resulting cuts, easily visible on a bare skull,
take various forms. Cuts may be less easily distinguished if skin and hair
a. Straight cuts:
these cuts are pointed at the ends and wider in the center. Openings made
this way have a polygonal shape.
D. Pre-Columbian Trophy
openings: the openings form a discontinuous line. The resulting opening
has a serrated edge.
c. Circular: generally
made by a file. The resulting hole is round or elliptical, with beveled
or straight edges. This is the most common form of trepanation.
Trophy heads can be
identified by the hole made in the forehead to accommodate a carrying cord.
When the skin is intact, the eyes and the mouth are held shut with cactus
thorns. Finally, the occiput is missing since that is how the brain was
removed when the trophy head was prepared.
E. Shrunken Trophy
Heads From the Amazon
These heads have had
the bones removed and then have been cured to shrink them. They are recognizable
because they conserve all the traits of the original skin, including hair
and hair follicles. The mouth is sewn shut and generally there are carrying
cords attached. There may be an obvious seam to repair the cuts made when
the skin was removed from the skull. Finally, the skin is thick (up to
2.5 mm.) and has a dark color. Trophy heads vary between 9.5 cm. and 15.5
cm. in height.
Tattooing in pre-Columbian
Peru was practiced mainly on the wrists. Most common are geometric designs,
including bands of triangles and rhomboids of a bluish color.
G. False Shrunken Heads
False shrunken heads
can be recognized because they are made of the skin of a mammal, with some
of the fur left where the human hair would be. The skin is first smoked,
then pressed into a mold to give it a face-like shape. The eyes, nose,
mouth and ears are simple bumps without real holes. Further, the skin is
very thin and yellowish in color. Often the "heads" have eyebrows and moustaches
formed by leaving some of the animal hair, but these features are grotesque
because they appear to grow upside down.
A. Objects directly
related to the pre-Columbian past, whose pre- Columbian design and function
are maintained with some Colonial modifications or additions in technique
cotton and wool.
textiles are characterized by the cut of the cloth, with the four borders
or selvages finished on the same loom. Clothes are untailored and made
from smaller pieces of convenient sizes which were then sewn together.
Colonial indigenous textiles of the period are differentiated from pre-Columbian
textiles primarily by their decoration: western motifs such as lions, heraldic
emblems, and Spanish personages are incorporated into the designs; sometimes
fibers distinct from cotton or wool (threads of silver, gold, and silk)
are woven into the cloth; and the colors tend to be more vivid because
the fabrics were made more recently. Another important characteristic of
the clothing is the presence of tocapus or horizontal bands of small squares
with anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, phytomorphic and geometric ideographs
and designs. Characteristic textiles include:
or square pieces of various sizes.
woman's dress consisting of two or three long horizontal pieces of cloth
sewn together that was wound around the body and held in place with "tupus"
Man's shirt with an opening for the head. Sometimes has sleeves.
Mantle: Rectangular piece of cloth that women put over their shoulders
and held in place by a tupu; standard size: 40'' x 45''. Generally has
a tripartite design based on contrasting panels that alternate bands with
decoration and bands with solid colors.
A woven belt, generally using tapestry technique.
gilded silver, copper, bronze. May have inlays of precious or semi-precious
were used to hold in place llicllas and ancus. They are pins with a round
or elliptical head, with piercing, repousse, and incised decorations. The
difference between pre-Columbian and ethnological tupus can be seen in
the introduction of Western designs, for example bi-frontal eagles and
Cochas or Cocchas
Description: The most
common form is a beakerlike cup with truncated base. After the Conquest,
keros started to be decorated with pictorial scenes. The most frequently
used techniques include incision, inlaying pigments in wood, and painting.
Ideography includes geometric designs, figures under a rainbow (an Inca
symbol), ceremonial rituals, scenes of war, and agricultural scenes. Sometimes
are in the form of human or zoomorphic heads.
vessels with two or more concentric interior compartments which are linked.
Often decorated with volutes representing reptiles.
Description: The post-Conquest
aribalos have a flat base, often using a glaze for finishing, and the decoration
includes Inca and Hispanic motifs.
Material: Stone, ceramic.
B. Objects that were used
for religious evangelism among indigenous peoples.
Description: One of
the characteristics of pacchas is that they have a drain which is used
to sprinkle an offering on the ground. They have pictorial or sculpted
relief decorations symbolizing the benefits hoped for from the ritual.
In Colonial paintings
and sculptures Western religious themes were reinterpreted by indigenous
and mestizo artists who added their own images and other characteristics
to create a distinct iconography.
Specific types of objects
used for religious evangelism during the Colonial period include the following:
Types of statues include:
sculpted image: In the Peruvian Colonial period these were made of
maguey (a soft wood) and occasionally of cedar or walnut.
Images made of
a dough composed of sawdust, glue and plaster: After they are sculpted,
figures are dressed with cloth dipped in plaster.
Images to be dressed:
These are wooden frames resembling
mannequins, with only
the head and arms sculpted in wood (cedar or maguey). The images are dressed
with embroidered clothes and jewelry. Frequently other elements were added,
such as teeth and false eyelashes, wigs of real hair, eyes of colored glass,
and palates made of glass.
Catholic priests provided
indigenous and mestizo artists with canvases and reproductions of Western
works of art, which the artists then "interpreted" with their own images
and other indigenous characteristics. These may include symbolically associating
Christian religious figures with indigenous divinities, or rendering the
figures with Andean facial characteristics or in traditional Andean costume.
In addition, each church, convent, monastery, and town venerated an effigy
of its patron or tutelar saint, some of them native to Peru.
are architectonic structures made of stone, wood, or other material that
are placed behind the altar and include attached paintings, sculptures
or other religious objects.
Objects Used for
Mass Ritual: Chalices, cibaries, candelabras, vials for christening
or consecrated oil, reliquaries, vessels for wine and water, incense burners,
patens, monstrances, pelicans and crucifixes. Made out of silver, gold
or gilded silver, often inlaid with pearls or precious stones. Techniques:
casting, engraving, piercing, repousse, filigree.
Notice and Delayed Effective Date
Fixtures for sculpted
images: Areoles, crowns, scepters, halo, halos in the form of rays,
and books carried by religious scholars and founders of religious orders.
vestments: Some ecclesiastical vestments were commissioned by indigenous
individuals or communities for the celebrations of their patron saint and
thus are part of the religious legacy of a particular town. In such cases,
the vestment has the name of the donor and of the town or church as well
as the date.
These are representations of miracles or favors received from a particular
saint. They can be made of different materials, usually metal or wood,
and come in a variety of forms according to the type of favor received,
usually representing parts of the human body in reference to the organ
healed or agricultural products in recognition of a good harvest or increase
in a herd.
Because the amendment
to the Customs Regulations contained in this document imposing import restrictions
on the above-listed Peruvian cultural property is being made in response
to a bilateral agreement entered into in furtherance of the foreign affairs
interests of the United States, pursuant to section 553(a)(1) of the Administrative
Procedure Act, no notice of proposed rulemaking or public procedure is
necessary. For the same reason, a delayed effective date is not required.
Because no notice of
proposed rulemaking is required, the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility
Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply. Accordingly, this final rule is
not subject to the regulatory analysis or other requirements of 5 U.S.C.
603 and 604.
This amendment does
not meet the criteria of a "significant regulatory action" as described
in E.O. 12866.
The principal author
of this document was Peter T. Lynch, Regulations Branch, Office of Regulations
and Rulings, U.S. Customs Service. However, personnel from other offices
participated in its development.
List of Subjects
in 19 CFR Part 12
Customs duties and
inspections, Imports, Cultural property.
Amendment to the
Regulations Accordingly, Part 12 of the Customs Regulations (19 CFR
Part 12) is amended as set forth below:
1. The general authority
and specific authority citation for Part 12, in part, continue to read
U.S.C. 301, 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 20, Harmonized Tariff Schedule
of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624;
Sections 12.104 through
12.104i also issued under 19 U.S.C. 2612;
Sec. 12.104g [Amended]
2. In Sec. 12.104g,
paragraph (a), the list of agreements imposing import restrictions on described
articles of cultural property of State Parties is amended by adding "Peru"
in appropriate alphabetical order under the column headed "State party",
the description "Archaeological artifacts and ethnological material from
Peru" under the column headed "Cultural property", and the reference "T.D.
97-- 50" under the column headed "T.D. No."
3. In Sec. 12.104g,
paragraph (b), the list of emergency actions imposing import restrictions
on described articles of cultural property of State Parties is amended
by removing the entry for "Peru" in its entirety.
George J. Weise,
Approved: June 5, 1997.
John P. Simpson,
Secretary of the Treasury.
[FR Doc. 97-15428 Filed
6-10-97; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4820-02-P
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