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Federal Register Notice, June 11, 1997; 62(112):31713-31721

Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Peru

Background  
I. Pre-Columbian Textiles 
II. Pre-Columbian Metals  
III. Pre-Columbian Ceramics  
 

IV. Pre-Columbian Lithics 
V. Pre-Columbian Perishable Remains
VI. Pre-Columbian Human Remains
VII. Ethnological Objects


DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY  

Customs Service  
19 CFR Part 12  
[T.D. 97-50]  
RIN 1515-AC17  

Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Peru  

AGENCY: U.S. Customs Service, Department of the Treasury.  
ACTION: Final rule.  



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III. Pre-Columbian Ceramics   

A. Chavin   

    Date: 1200-200 B.C  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: A grey-black color. Incised, modeled, and high and low- relief are combined to work out designs in grays and browns. The surface may also juxtapose polishing and matte finish in different design zones.  
      Forms: Bottles, plates, and bowls.  
      Size: 5 cm.-30 cm.  
      Identifying: Characteristic traits of Cupisnique and Chavin ceramics include: globular body with a flat base and stirrup spout; thick neck with an obvious and everted lip. Chavin style also includes long-necked bottles, bowls with flaring walls, and highly-polished relief-decorated surfaces.  
      Styles: Chavin influence is seen in Cupisnique, Chongoyape, Poemape, Tembladera, Patapo, and Chilete.
B. Vicus   
    Date: 900 B.C.-A.D. 500  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Geometric designs in white on red, made using negative technique. There are also monochrome examples.  
      Forms: Anthropomorphic, zoomorphic and plant-shaped vessels. Some have a double body linked by a tube or common opening.  
      Size: 30 cm.-40 cm. tall. 
C. Viru or Gallinazo   
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Negative technique over orange background.  
      Forms: Faced anthropomorphic and zoomorphic vessels, face bottles for daily use in dwellings, "ancheros" (type of pot without a neck and with a horn-shaped handle).  
      Size: Up to 15 cm. high.  
      Identifying: The surface is basically orange; the vessels have a truncated spout, an arched bridge (like a tube) as handle, and geometric symbols in negative technique (concentric circles, frets and wavy lines). When the vessels represent a face, the eyes are like "coffee beans," applied on the surface and with a transverse cut. 
D. Pucara   
    Date: 300 B.C.-300 A.D.  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Slip-painted and incised. Modeled elements include stylized felines and camelids, along with an anthropomorphic image characteristically depicted with a staff in each hand. Vessels are typically decorated in yellows, black, and white on the red background of the vessel. Designs are characteristically outlined by incision. There may be modeled decoration, such as feline heads, attached to the vessels.  
      Shapes: Tall bowls with annular ring bases predominate, along with vessels that depict anthropomorphic images.  
      Size: Bowls are up to 20 cm. in diameter and 20 cm. in height. 
E. Paracas   
    Date: Developed around 200 B.C.  
    Characteristics   
      Vessels are typically incised, with post-fired resin painting on a black background.  
      Size: 10 cm.-15 cm. high 
F. Nazca   
    Date: A.D. 100-600.  
    Characteristics   
      Color: Typically very colorful, with a range of slips including cream, black, red, violet, orange, gray, all in a range of tones.  
      Slip: Background slip is generally cream or orange.  
      Shapes: Cups, bowls, beakers, plates, double-spout-and-bridge bottles, anthropomorphic figures, and musical instruments.  
      Decoration: Realistic drawings of fantastic creatures, including the "Flying God." In late Nazca, bottles are broader and flatter and the designs are arrayed in broad bands. Typically have decorations of trophy heads, geometric motifs, and painted female faces.  
      Size: 5 cm.--20 cm. 
G. Recuay   
    Date: A.D. 100-700.  
    Characteristics   
      Slip: Both positive and negative slip-painting is found, generally in colors of black, cream and red.  
      Shapes: Sculptural, especially ceremonial jars known as "Paccha" which have an elaborate outlet to serve a liquid.  
      Decoration: Usually show groups of religious or mythical personages.  
      Size: 20 cm.--35 cm. in height. 
H. Pashash   
    Date: A.D. 1-600.  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Positive decoration in black, red, and orange on a creamy-white background. Some show negative painting.  
      Shapes: Anthropomorphic vessels, bottles in the form of snakes, bowls with annular base, and large vessels with lids.  
      Size: The anthropomorphic vessels are up to 20 cm. in height, serpent bottles are around 25 cm. wide x 10 cm. tall, and lidded vessels are more than 30 cm. in height.  
      Motifs: The decorations are rendered in positive or negative painting in zones that depict profile-face images of zoomorphic figures, serpents, or worms, seen from above and with trapezoidal heads. 
I. Cajamarca   
    Date: A.D. 500-900.  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting with geometric designs, including stepped triangles, circles, lines, dots, and rows of volutes. They may include stylized birds, felines, camelids, batrachians, and serpents. Spiral figures may include a step-fret motif in the base of the bowls.  
      Shapes: Pedestal base bowls, tripod bowls, bottles with annular ring base, goblets, spoons with modeled handles, bowls with carinated edges. 
J. Moche   
    Date: A.D. 200-700.  
    Characteristics   
      Forms: Stirrup-spout vessels, vessels in the shape of humans, animals, or plants.  
      Colors: Generally red and white.  
      Manufacture: Often mold-made.  
      Size: 15 cm.--25 cm. in height.  
      Decoration: Wide range of images showing scenes of real life or mythical scenes depicting gods, warriors, and other images. 
K. Tiahuanaco   
    Date: A.D. 200-700. Characteristics   
      Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting on a highly polished surface. Background is generally a red-orange, with depictions of human, animal, and geometric images, generally outlined in black and white lines.  
      Shapes: Plates, cups, jars, beakers, open-backed incense burners on a flat base. 
L. Lima   
    Date: A.D. 200-700.  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Pre-fired slip painting with interlocking fish and snake designs, geometric motifs, including zig-zags, lines, circles, and dots.  
      Shapes: Breast-shaped bottles, cups, plates, bowls, and cook pots.  
      Styles: Related to Playa Grande, Nieveria, and Pachacamac styles. 
M. Huari   
    Date: A.D. 500-1000.  
    Characteristics   
      Colors: Orange, cream, violet, white, black, and red. Motifs: Anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, and plant shapes, both stylized and realistic. In Pachacamac style one finds vessels with a globular body and long, conical neck. In Atarco style, there is slip painting that retains Nazca motifs, especially in the full-body felines shown running.  
      Slip: Background slip is commonly cream, red, or black.  
      Styles: Related to Vinaque, Atarco, Pachacamac, Qosqopa, Robles Moqo, Conchopata, and Caquipampa styles.  
      Size: Most are around 25 cm. tall. Robles Moqo urns may be up to 1 m. in height. 
N. Santa   
    Date: Derived from Huari style, around A.D. 800.  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Slip painted with figures and designs in black and white on a red background. There are also face-neck jars.  
      Shapes: Effigy vessels, face-neck jars, double-body vessels.  
      Sizes: 12 cm.--20 cm. tall.  
      Shapes: Jars have a globular body and face on the neck. The border may have black and white checkerboard. The body sometimes takes the shape of a stylized llama head. Common are white lines dotted with black. Double-body vessels generally have an anthropomorphic image on the front vessel, and a plain back vessel. 
O. Chancay   
    Date: A.D. 1000-1300.  
    Characteristics   
      Treatment: Rubbed surface.  
      Slip: White or cream with black or dark brown designs.  
      Molds: Molds are commonly used, especially for the anthropomorphic figures called "cuchimilcos," which represent naked male and female figures with short arms stretched to the sides.  
      Size: 3 cm.--1 m. 
P. Ica-Chincha   
    Date: Began to be developed in A.D. 1200.  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Polychrome painting in black and white on red.  
      Designs: Geometric motifs combined with fish and birds.  
      Shapes: Bottles with globular bodies and tall necks and with flaring rims. Cups and pots.  
      Size: 5 cm.--30 cm. high. 
Q. Chimu   
    Date: A.D. 900-1500.  
    Characteristics   
      Slip: Monochrome. Usually black or red.  
      Shapes: Varied shapes. Commonly made in molds. They may represent fish, birds, animals, fruit, people, and architectural forms. One sees globular bodies with a stirrup spout and a small bird or monkey at the base of the neck.  
      Size: Between 30 cm.--40 cm. in height. 
R. Lambayeque   
    Date: A.D. 700-1100.  
    Characteristics   
      Color: Generally black; a few are cream with red decoration. Shapes: Double spout and bridge vessels on a pedestal base are common. At the base of the spout one sees modeled heads and the bridge also often has modeled heads.  
      Size: 15 cm.--25 cm. in height. 
S. Inca   
    Date: A.D. 1300-1500.  
    Characteristics   
      Decoration: Slip painted in black, red, white, yellow, and orange.  
      Designs: Geometric designs (rhomboids and triangles) and stylized bees, butterflies, and animals.  
      Sizes: 1 cm. to 1.5 m. in height. 
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