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Federal Register Notice, June 11, 1997; 62(112):31713-31721

Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Peru

Background  
I. Pre-Columbian Textiles 
II. Pre-Columbian Metals  
III. Pre-Columbian Ceramics  
 
IV. Pre-Columbian Lithics
V. Pre-Columbian Perishable Remains  
VI. Pre-Columbian Human Remains  
VII. Ethnological Objects

DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY  

Customs Service  
19 CFR Part 12  
[T.D. 97-50]  
RIN 1515-AC17  

Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Peru  

AGENCY: U.S. Customs Service, Department of the Treasury.  
ACTION: Final rule.  



Previous Section  
  

II. Pre-Columbian Metal Objects  

A. Idols  

Anthropomorphic or zoomorphic figures, some of which are hollow and others which are solid. They may be of gold and silver, they may be gilded, or of copper, or bronze. Sizes vary from 2 cm.--20 cm. in height.  

B. Small Plaques  

Thin sheets of gold, silver, copper, or gilded copper, used to cover the body and made in pieces. They have repousse or punched designs on the edge and middle of the sheet. Average .6 cm in height.  

C. Axes  

Almost always T-shaped and solid. There are also axes in a traditional axehead shape. May be of bronze or copper.  

D. Mace Heads  

These come in a great variety of shapes, including star-shaped, flat, or of two or three levels. They may be made of copper or bronze. Most have a central hole through which a wooden handle was affixed.  

E. Musical Instruments  

    Trumpets: Wind instrument with a tubular body and flaring end, fastened at the joint. May be of copper or bronze.  
    Bells: Of varying shapes and materials (including gold, silver, copper, and silver-plated copper).  
    Conos: Instrument shaped from a sheet of hammered metal, with or without a clapper. Can be of copper or silver. Up to .5 m. in height.  
    Rattles: Musical instrument with a central hold to accommodate a handle. May be of copper or bronze. Vary from 6 cm.-25 cm. in height.  
    Jingle Bells: Spherical bells with an opening on the lower part and a handle on the upper part so they can be suspended from a sash or other garment. They contain a small stone or a little ball of metal. The handles may be decorated. Jingle bells may decorate another object, such as rhythm sticks, and may be of gold, silver, or bronze. Used in all pre-Columbian cultures of Peru.  
    Chalchachas: Instruments shaped like a bivalve with repousse decoration. Made of copper.  
    Quenas (flutes): Tubular instruments, generally of silver, with perforations to vary the tone. 
F. Knives  

Knives vary depending on their provenance. They can have little or no decoration and can be of different metals or made of two metals. The best known are the tumis from the Sican culture, which have a straight or trapezoidal handle and a half-moon blade. The solid handle may have carved or stamped designs. Generally made of gold, silver, or copper. In ceremonial examples, the blade and upper part may depict an anthropomorphic figure standing or seated, or simply a face or mask with an elaborate headdress, earspools, and inset semi-precious stones. Tumi handles can be triangular, rectangular, or trapezoidal, and blades can be ovaloid or shaped like a half-moon.  

G. Pins  

With a straight shaft and pointed end, pins can be flat or cylindrical in cross-section. Most are hammered, and some are hollow. They can be of gold, silver, copper, bronze, gold-plated silver or may be made of two metals. Some pins are zoomorphic; others have floral images, and still others depict fish. Some have a round head; others have a flat, circular head; still others have the shape of a half-moon. There are hollow-headed rattle pins; others have solid anthropomorphic images. Most are up to 50 cm. in length, with heads that are up to 10 cm. in diameter. The small pins are about 5 cm. in length.  

H. Vessels  

There are a variety of metal vessels; they may be made of gold, silver, gilded silver, gilded copper, silver-covered copper, and bronze. There are miniatures, as well as full-size vessels. Such vessels are known from all cultures. Forms include beakers, bowls, open plates, globular vessels, and stirrup-spout bottles. The exact form and surface decoration varies from culture to culture. Shapes include beakers, bowls, and plates. Average .5 m.-.3 m. in height.  

I. [Reserved]  

J. Masks  

May be made of gold, silver, gilded silver, copper, gilded copper, silver-covered copper, or may be made of two metals. They vary greatly in shape and design. The best known examples come from the following cultures: Moche, Sican, Chimu, Huari, Inca, Nazca, and Chincha. The northern coast examples often have insets of shell, precious or semi- precious stones, and may have plant resins to depict the eyes and teeth. Almost all examples that have not been cleaned have a surface coloring of red cinnabar. Examples from Sican measure up to 49 cm. in width by 29 cm. in height. Miniature examples can measure 7 cm. x 5 cm. Miniature masks are also used as decorations on other objects. Copper examples generally show heavy oxidation.  

K. Crowns  

Thin or thick sheets of metal made to encircle the head. They may be of silver, gold, copper, gilded silver, silver-covered copper, or may be made of two metals. Some examples have a curved central part, and may be decorated with pieces of metal and real or artificial feathers that are attached with small clamps. Found in all cultures.  

L. Penachos (Stylized Metal Feathers)  

Stylized metal feathers used to decorate crowns. May be made of gold, silver, copper, or silver-covered copper.  

M. Tocados (Headdresses)  

Headdress ornaments which may be simple or complex. They may be made of one part, or may include many pieces. Found in all cultures. They may take the form of crowns, diadems, or small crowns. They may have two stylized feathers to decorate the crown and to hold it to the hair (especially the Chimu examples). Paracas examples generally have rayed appendages, with pierced disks suspended from the ends of the rays.  

N. Turbans  

Long pieces of cloth that are wrapped around the head. Metal ornaments may be sewn on turbans. Found in all cultures; the metal decorations and the cloth vary from culture to culture.  

O. Spoons  

Utilitarian object of gold, silver, or copper.  

P. Lime Spatulas  

Miniature spatula: a straight handle has a slightly spoon-shaped end. The handle may have an anthropomorphic figure. Made of gold, silver, or copper.  

Q. Ear Spools  

Ear spools are generally made of a large cylinder which fits through the earlobe and an even larger disk or decorative sheet on one side. The disk may be decorated with repousse, stamped, or engraved designs, or may have inset stone or shell. May be made of gold, silver, copper, or made of two metals. Ear spools are found in all cultures. The largest measure up to 15 cm. height; typical diameter: 5 cm.-14 cm.  

R. Nose Ornaments  

Of varied shapes, nose ornaments can be as simple as a straight tube or as complex as a flat sheet with repousse design. In the upper part, there are two points to attach the ornament to the septum. They may be of gold, silver, or copper or may be made of two metals.  

S. Earrings  

Decoration to be suspended from the earlobes.  

T. Rings  

Simple bands with or without designs. Some are two bands united by filigree spirals. Some have inset stones. May be of silver, gold, copper, or alloys.  

U. Bracelets  

Bracelets are made of sheets of metal with a straight or slightly trapezoidal shape, with stamped or repousse designs. Some are simple, narrow bands. Found in all cultures and with varied designs. May be of gold, silver, bronze, or alloys of copper. Generally 4 cm.-14 cm. in width.  

V. Necklaces  

Necklaces are made of beads and/or small carved beads. May be of shell, bone, stone, gold, silver, copper, or bronze. The beads are of varied shapes. All beads have two lateral perforations to hold the cord.  

W. Tweezers  

Made in one piece, with two identical ends and a flexed central handle. They are of varied shapes, including triangular, trapezoidal, and ovaloid. The middle of the handle may have a hole so the tweezers can be suspended from a cord.  

X. Feather Carrier  

Conical objects with a pointed, hollow end, into which feathers, llama skin, or monkey tails are inserted and held in place with tar. They may be made of gold, silver, or gilded or silver-plated copper.  

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