Federal Register Notice,
June 11, 1997; 62(112):31713-31721
Archaeological and Ethnological
Material From Peru
OF THE TREASURY
19 CFR Part 12
Ethnological Material From Peru
Customs Service, Department of the Treasury.
these principal cultures and main classes of objects:
of cloth sewn into a bag shape and stuffed with cotton of vegetal fibers.
Generally the cloth is made in tapestry technique. 60 cm. x 40 cm.
cloth of cotton on which designs are painted. Range between 20 cm. and
are usually made of feathers, especially white, green, and dark brown,
which are attached to cloth and fitted to a cane or basketry frame. Feathers
on the upper part are arranged to stand upright.
decorated with bird feathers, especially panels and tunics. They vary in
shape and size; generally they depict geometric motif and volutes. Vary
from 20 cm.--3 m. in length, and may be up to 1.5 m. in width.
panels may be of two types: tapestry weave or plain- weave cotton. Isolated
anthropomorphic designs predominate and may be associated with zoomorphic
motifs. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m.
Belts and Sashes--Generally
made in tapestry technique, and predominantly of red, white, ocher, and
black. As with other Chimu textiles, they generally depict human figures
with rayed headdresses. Up to 2.20 m. in length.
are commonly found in Chancay culture, sometimes with pieces of the textile
still on the loom. Often these pieces of cloth show varied techniques and
are referred to as "samples." 50 cm. x 20 cm.
panels of cloth with tapestry woven borders.
dimensional human figures stuffed with vegetal fiber to which hair and
other decorations are added. Sometimes they depict lone females; in other
cases they are arranged in groups. Most important, the eyes are woven in
tapestry technique; in fakes, they have embroidered features. Usually 20
cm. tall and 8 cm. wide.
Chancay culture, false heads are made on a cotton of vegetal fiber cushion
covered with plain-weave cloth, decorated with shells, beads, metal, wood,
or painting to depict facial features. They sometimes have real hair. Usually
30 cm. x 35 cm.
sizes and styles. Some are in plain weave, others in gauze, still others
are in tapestry technique or brocade. They are recognized by their iconography,
which includes geometric motifs, birds, fish, plants, and human figures.
Miniatures are tiny; regular size examples are about 50 cm. x 50 cm.
belts are multicolored, with geometric motifs rendered in tapestry technique.
Sometimes the ends are finished in faux-velour technique. 2 m. x 5 cm.
panels may be made in tapestry technique or may be painted on plain weave
cloth. In these latter cases, the panels may depict fish, parrots, monkeys,
viszcachas, felines, foxes, and human figures. Vary in size from miniatures
to 4 m. x 2 m.
standards are supported on a frame of straight reeds covered with cotton
cloth which is painted in anthropomorphic designs in ochers and black.
Sometimes they have a handle. 20 cm. x 20 cm.
of cloth made in openwork gauze technique, with very fine cotton threads.
May have embroidered designs in the same thread that depict birds or other
flora and fauna. Usually 80 cm. x 80 cm.; some are smaller.
Cloth--Cloth made in three dimensions, using needles. Of many and bright
colors, knitted in long strips. Each figure is approx. 5 cm. long x 2 cm.
include miniature and regular-sized tunics. They are generally of one color,
mostly light brown. The neck edges, hem, and fringes have multicolored
geometric designs. Fringes end in woven braids. Vary in size from miniatures
up to approx. 1.5 m. x .8 m.
are bags of many sizes, from miniatures to large ones, generally with a
narrow opening and a wide pouch. Some are decorated with fringe. Their
iconography resembles the unku (tunic), stylized designs in yellow, red,
and dark and light blue.
sashes are made on special looms. Their ends are decorated with plied fringe.
Cloth--Most common are those made in the tie-dye technique, in which
the textile is knotted and tied before it is dyed, so that when it is untied,
there are negative images of diamonds, squared, and concentric dots. Most
common are orange, red, blue, green, and yellow colors. Vary from approx.
20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m.
of the Tie-Dye cloth, in which little panels are made and later sewn together
so that the resulting textile includes rectangles of tie-dyed panels of
different colors. The cloth may have a decorative fringe. Vary from 20
cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m.
made of a flat piece of cloth with colorful borders depicting stylized
geometric motifs. They terminate in fringe. 50 cm. x 30 cm.
is of vegetal fiber provided with twisted cord into which feathers are
inserted. Commonly two colors of feathers are attached in this way, such
as orange and green, or yellow and blue. 30 cm. x 20 cm.
by a complex and abstract iconography. Made in tapestry technique with
a range of colors, including browns, beiges, yellows, reds, oranges, and
greens. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2.0 m. x 1.8 m.
with an abstract and geometric iconography. Commonly the designs repeat
in vertical bands. Generally these tunics have a cotton warp and camelid
fiber weft. Some are so finely woven that there are 100 threads per cm
(2). Vary in size from miniatures up to 1.5 m. x 80 cm.
common are the so-called "four-corner hats" made in a faux-velour technique
that results in a velvety texture. On the base cloth, small tufts of brightly-colored
wool are inserted.
or sashes--These garments are made in tapestry weave or faux-velour
technique and depict geometric motifs.
have an opening which is somewhat narrower than the body, with designs
depicting felines, camelids, human faces, and faces with animal attributes.
shoulder poncho--Paracas esclavinas are unique for their decoration
with brightly colored images in Paracas style such as birds, flowers, animals,
and human figures. Vary in size from miniatures up to 60 cm. x 30 cm.
mantles can be divided into five types, based on their decoration. All
are approximately 2.5 m. x 1.6 m.
a. Mantles with a
plain field and woven borders;
gauzes are made of one color, such as lilac, yellow, red, or grey. They
are generally rectangular and have a soft and delicate texture. Approx.
1 m. x 1 m.
b. Mantles with decorative
(embroidered) borders and plain field;
c. Mantles with decorative
(embroidered) borders and a decorative stripe in the center field;
d. Mantles with embroidered
borders and center field embroidered in checkerboard-fashion;
e. Mantles with embroidered
borders and alternating diagonals of embroidered figures in the center
panels are generally of cloth and may have been used for utilitarian purposes.
They are generally undecorated. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8
skirts are of two types: some are plain, made of cotton with decoration
reserved for the ends; there are others that are elaborately embroidered
with colorful images rendered in wool. These often form sets with mantles
and other garments. Skirts are rectangular and very wide, with two fringed
ties. 3 m. long and 70 cm. wide.
of cotton, not as large as skirts, and may have embroidered edges.
slings are decorated in Cavernas style, made of vegetal fiber, and are
of small size, generally 1.5 m. x 5 cm.
are numerous examples of animal skins reported from Paracas contexts, including
the skins of the fox, vizcacha, guinea pig. Most are poorly preserved.
bags are usually square, small, and have a short handle. They are made
in tapestry technique with brightly-woven designs. Principal colors used
are white, black, red, light blue, and ocher.
by their iconography, these tapestry-technique panels may show people on
balsa-reed rafts surrounded by a retinue. They are rendered in a geometric
fashion, and are outlined in black and shown in profile. Scenes of marine
life and fauna predominate. Vary from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m.
canes are "woven" together in a twill technique using colorful threads
that depict anthropomorphic designs. Approx. 10 cm. x 10 cm.
panels are small, made in tapestry technique, of cotton and wool. Vary
from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m.
are two types of Inca slings. Ceremonial ones are oversize and elaborately
decorated with geometric motifs, with long fringes. The other type is smaller
and utilitarian, almost always with decoration only on the pouch and far
ends. The decoration is geometric and the slings have fringed ends.
Pre-Columbian Metal Objects
tunics are well-made and colorful, mostly in red, olive green, black, and
yellow. Decorative elements may be arrayed checkerboard fashion and are
found on the upper and lower part of the garment. Vary in size from miniatures
up to approx. 1.5 m. x 80 cm.
by their bright colors, they have an opening that is narrower than the
body and a wide pouch with long fringe and handle. Vary in size from miniatures
up to 30 cm. x 20 cm.
are made in cotton using the double-cloth technique, based on light brown
and beige. Lines of geometrically-rendered llamas predominate. Vary in
size from 20 cm. x 20 cm. to 2 m. x 1.8 m.
mantles are of standard dimensions, sometime more than a meter long, generally
rectangular. They are multi-colored and made of cotton warp and wool weft.
Most common colors are dark red, olive green, white, and black. Generally
2.5 m. x 1.6 m.
quipus (knotted string mnemonic devices) are made of cotton and wool cords,
sometimes with the two fibers plied together. Rarely is their original
color preserved, though sometime one sees light blues and browns. Some
are wrapped with colorful threads on the ends of the cords. 80 cm. x 50
zoomorphic figures, some of which are hollow and others which are solid.
They may be of gold and silver, they may be gilded, or of copper, or bronze.
Sizes vary from 2 cm.--20 cm. in height.
B. Small Plaques
Thin sheets of gold,
silver, copper, or gilded copper, used to cover the body and made in pieces.
They have repousse or punched designs on the edge and middle of the sheet.
Average .6 cm in height.
Almost always T-shaped
and solid. There are also axes in a traditional axehead shape. May be of
bronze or copper.
D. Mace Heads
These come in a great
variety of shapes, including star-shaped, flat, or of two or three levels.
They may be made of copper or bronze. Most have a central hole through
which a wooden handle was affixed.
E. Musical Instruments
Trumpets: Wind instrument
with a tubular body and flaring end, fastened at the joint. May be of copper
Bells: Of varying
shapes and materials (including gold, silver, copper, and silver-plated
shaped from a sheet of hammered metal, with or without a clapper. Can be
of copper or silver. Up to .5 m. in height.
Rattles: Musical instrument
with a central hold to accommodate a handle. May be of copper or bronze.
Vary from 6 cm.-25 cm. in height.
Jingle Bells: Spherical
bells with an opening on the lower part and a handle on the upper part
so they can be suspended from a sash or other garment. They contain a small
stone or a little ball of metal. The handles may be decorated. Jingle bells
may decorate another object, such as rhythm sticks, and may be of gold,
silver, or bronze. Used in all pre-Columbian cultures of Peru.
shaped like a bivalve with repousse decoration. Made of copper.
Quenas (flutes): Tubular
instruments, generally of silver, with perforations to vary the tone.
Knives vary depending
on their provenance. They can have little or no decoration and can be of
different metals or made of two metals. The best known are the tumis from
the Sican culture, which have a straight or trapezoidal handle and a half-moon
blade. The solid handle may have carved or stamped designs. Generally made
of gold, silver, or copper. In ceremonial examples, the blade and upper
part may depict an anthropomorphic figure standing or seated, or simply
a face or mask with an elaborate headdress, earspools, and inset semi-precious
stones. Tumi handles can be triangular, rectangular, or trapezoidal, and
blades can be ovaloid or shaped like a half-moon.
With a straight shaft
and pointed end, pins can be flat or cylindrical in cross-section. Most
are hammered, and some are hollow. They can be of gold, silver, copper,
bronze, gold-plated silver or may be made of two metals. Some pins are
zoomorphic; others have floral images, and still others depict fish. Some
have a round head; others have a flat, circular head; still others have
the shape of a half-moon. There are hollow-headed rattle pins; others have
solid anthropomorphic images. Most are up to 50 cm. in length, with heads
that are up to 10 cm. in diameter. The small pins are about 5 cm. in length.
There are a variety
of metal vessels; they may be made of gold, silver, gilded silver, gilded
copper, silver-covered copper, and bronze. There are miniatures, as well
as full-size vessels. Such vessels are known from all cultures. Forms include
beakers, bowls, open plates, globular vessels, and stirrup-spout bottles.
The exact form and surface decoration varies from culture to culture. Shapes
include beakers, bowls, and plates. Average .5 m.-.3 m. in height.
May be made of gold,
silver, gilded silver, copper, gilded copper, silver-covered copper, or
may be made of two metals. They vary greatly in shape and design. The best
known examples come from the following cultures: Moche, Sican, Chimu, Huari,
Inca, Nazca, and Chincha. The northern coast examples often have insets
of shell, precious or semi- precious stones, and may have plant resins
to depict the eyes and teeth. Almost all examples that have not been cleaned
have a surface coloring of red cinnabar. Examples from Sican measure up
to 49 cm. in width by 29 cm. in height. Miniature examples can measure
7 cm. x 5 cm. Miniature masks are also used as decorations on other objects.
Copper examples generally show heavy oxidation.
Thin or thick sheets
of metal made to encircle the head. They may be of silver, gold, copper,
gilded silver, silver-covered copper, or may be made of two metals. Some
examples have a curved central part, and may be decorated with pieces of
metal and real or artificial feathers that are attached with small clamps.
Found in all cultures.
L. Penachos (Stylized
Stylized metal feathers
used to decorate crowns. May be made of gold, silver, copper, or silver-covered
M. Tocados (Headdresses)
which may be simple or complex. They may be made of one part, or may include
many pieces. Found in all cultures. They may take the form of crowns, diadems,
or small crowns. They may have two stylized feathers to decorate the crown
and to hold it to the hair (especially the Chimu examples). Paracas examples
generally have rayed appendages, with pierced disks suspended from the
ends of the rays.
Long pieces of cloth
that are wrapped around the head. Metal ornaments may be sewn on turbans.
Found in all cultures; the metal decorations and the cloth vary from culture
of gold, silver, or copper.
P. Lime Spatulas
a straight handle has a slightly spoon-shaped end. The handle may have
an anthropomorphic figure. Made of gold, silver, or copper.
Q. Ear Spools
Ear spools are generally
made of a large cylinder which fits through the earlobe and an even larger
disk or decorative sheet on one side. The disk may be decorated with repousse,
stamped, or engraved designs, or may have inset stone or shell. May be
made of gold, silver, copper, or made of two metals. Ear spools are found
in all cultures. The largest measure up to 15 cm. height; typical diameter:
5 cm.-14 cm.
R. Nose Ornaments
Of varied shapes, nose
ornaments can be as simple as a straight tube or as complex as a flat sheet
with repousse design. In the upper part, there are two points to attach
the ornament to the septum. They may be of gold, silver, or copper or may
be made of two metals.
Decoration to be suspended
from the earlobes.
Simple bands with or
without designs. Some are two bands united by filigree spirals. Some have
inset stones. May be of silver, gold, copper, or alloys.
Bracelets are made
of sheets of metal with a straight or slightly trapezoidal shape, with
stamped or repousse designs. Some are simple, narrow bands. Found in all
cultures and with varied designs. May be of gold, silver, bronze, or alloys
of copper. Generally 4 cm.-14 cm. in width.
Necklaces are made
of beads and/or small carved beads. May be of shell, bone, stone, gold,
silver, copper, or bronze. The beads are of varied shapes. All beads have
two lateral perforations to hold the cord.
Made in one piece,
with two identical ends and a flexed central handle. They are of varied
shapes, including triangular, trapezoidal, and ovaloid. The middle of the
handle may have a hole so the tweezers can be suspended from a cord.
X. Feather Carrier
Conical objects with
a pointed, hollow end, into which feathers, llama skin, or monkey tails
are inserted and held in place with tar. They may be made of gold, silver,
or gilded or silver-plated copper.
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Revised: March 12, 1999
FROM THE FOLLOWING:
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