Federal Register Notice:
March 10, 1995; 60(47):13352-13361
Pre-Hispanic Artifacts From
DEPARTMENT OF THE
19 CFR Part 12
From El Salvador
U.S. Customs Service, Department of the Treasury.
2. Other Small
2a. Spindle Whorls
Small ceramic disc-shaped
artifacts with a central perforation. As viewed in section, these are thicker
toward the center. They may have incised or mold-made decoration. These
are often mistaken for ceramic beads and many may be strung together for
transport or display.
2b. Ceramic Seals
Classic to Protohistoric Periods. Different varieties are documented in
relation to Late Classic Phases and ceramic complexes (Lepa, Payu, Tamasha)
through the Postclassic (Guazapa, Cuscatlan, and others).
Carefully formed and smoothed. Many were slipped, and run the full range
of black through brown through red. Fugitive white paint has been noted
as a rare filler for incised designs.
(2.1-3.2cm) in diameter. Holes are always close to 0.25" (0.6cm) in diameter.
Referred to as spindle whorls or malacates (see for example Longyear 1944;
Sharer 1978; Andrews 1976).
Ceramic seals present
a high-relief pattern on clay surface and are thought to have been used
with paint to stamp designs for body and/or textile decoration. Some were
used to impress designs on still-wet pottery objects. Some seals have been
found still covered with red pigment.
Seals may be flat,
with a spike handle on the rear, or cylindrical and used by rolling. Cylinder
seals usually have a central perforation that would have allowed a stick
to be passed through and facilitate their use like rolling pins.
date, seals have been found in El Salvador in contexts ranging from the
Late Preclassic and Late Classic Periods (in relation to the Chul, Caynac
and Payu Ceramic Complexes and the Tamasha Phase).
Well-smoothed and sometimes slipped surfaces. Color ranges from black-brown
through reddish-brown and red.
seals=1.2-5" (3-13cm) in diameter; cylinder seals may be 2.4-5" (6-12cm)
Usually referred to as seals or stamps, flat or cylindrical (see Sharer
1978; Demarest 1986; Amaroli 1987).
Very small ceramic
objects made in the form of jars or flasks. Often made of a very fine cream
colored ceramic. These may be modeled to resemble squash effigies, or may
include stamped designs include Maya glyphs, humans forms, or animals.
Miniature vessels often contain residuals of red pigment. Late Classic
(4-10cm) in height.
This category includes
several varieties of spool-shaped artifacts that functioned as earspools
and as labrets. Often a short tab extends from one side, while the other
may have modeled (and sometimes mold made) decoration. Alternatively, the
spool sides may have incised decoration. Early Preclassic through Postclassic
Periods (Sharer 1978; Amaroli 1987).
3. Ceramic Vessels
do not exceed 1.3" (3.4cm) in their maximum dimension.
3a. Polychrome Vessels
Vessels: Hemispherical bowls, bowls with composite walls, cylindrical
vases, and jars with painted designs in red, black and optionally yellowish
orange on a cream to light orange base. The red paint used is almost always
specular (small flecks of crystals flash as the vessel is moved in strong
light). Copador paste is cream colored (or sometimes very light brown)
and is not very hard or dense. Designs (usually on the exterior) may include
bands of motifs derived from Maya glyphs, seated individuals, individuals
in a swimming position, melon-like stripes, birds or other animals, and
others. Rare examples have excavated lines or patterns. Copador Polychrome
may usually be distinguished on the basis of its specular red paint and
cream colored paste.
3b. Vessels With Usulutan
Classic Period (defined as a member of the Payu Ceramic Complex, also found
commonly in Tamasha Phase deposits (Cara Sucia)).
This type is closely related to Copador Polychrome, with which it shares
a cream colored paste and the hemispherical bowl form (rarer forms in Gualpopa
are: flat bottomed bowls with vertical walls, and composite walled bowls).
Designs in Gualpopa are painted in red (which unlike Copador is not specular)
and black on a cream-orange base. Gualpopa motifs are simpler than Copador.
Most common are geometric designs (spirals, "melon" bands, chevrons, and
others), but repeating birds, monkeys, or designs derived from Maya glyphs
may be found.
diameter may vary from 4-12" (10-30 cm), the height of cylindrical vases
may range from 6-12.5" (15-32 cm), and jar height ranges from approximately
5-11" (12-28 cm).
Referred to as the Copador Ceramic Group (Sharer 1978).
Classic, especially the first part of this period. Defined as a member
of the Payu Ceramic Complex.
Formerly referred to as "false Copador" due to its close resemblance to
Copador Polychrome. Arambala may be differentiated from Copador by its
reddish paste (contrasting with Copador's cream paste) and the use of a
dull red paint (rather than Copador's specular red paint). Apart from these
two differences, however, Arambala closely duplicates Copador's repertoire
of vessel forms, dimensions, and decoration (please refer to the description
for Copador Polychrome for this information). A cream-orange slip was added
over Arambala's reddish paste to approximate Copador's base color, but
this slip often has a streaky appearance.
range from 6-15" (16-38 cm).
Termed as the Gualpopa Ceramic Group (Sharer 1978).
Classic Period. A member of the Payu Ceramic Complex and present in the
Tamasha Phase of Cara Sucia.
Vessels: Flat bottomed bowls with flaring walls, usually large. Provided
with 4 hollow supports that may take the form of pinched cylinders or cylinders
with human or animal effigies. Intricate painted designs were executed
in black-brown, dull red, and orange, on a cream to cream-orange base.
A large portrayal of a human or animal is featured on the interior center
of these vessels, and the rims often have a distinctive encircling twisted
rope and dot design. Some examples have a few curving lines of broad (up
to 0.5" or 1.3 cm) Usulutan negative decoration. Campana Polychrome paste
is dense, hard, and brick red. Other forms include small bowls without
supports, with flat bottoms and flaring walls, and cylindrical vases with
bulging and sometimes faceted midsections and occasionally short ring bases.
The cylindrical vases usually feature panels on opposing side of the vessel
with human or animal designs, and may have very short and wide tabular
the description for Copador Polychrome)
Defined as the Arambala Ceramic Group (Sharer 1978).
Classic Period. Present in association with the Payu Ceramic Complex (Sharer
1978), the Lepa Phase (Andrews 1976), and the Tamasha Phase (Amaroli 1987).
Mostly cylindrical vases, usually with very short and wide tabular supports.
The larger examples may have two opposing modeled head handles just below
the rim representing monkeys or other animals. Bold designs are painted
on a cream to orange base, using different combinations of black, dull
red, dark orange, and yellow. The normally invisible paste is brick red.
Black was often used to create ample panels (or even to cover almost the
entire vessel) as a backdrop for featured designs. The principal designs
are strikingly displayed and can include: mat patterns (petates), twisted
cord patterns, animals (jaguars, parrots, owls, and others), humans, sea
shells, ballcourts (represented by a two or four colored "I"-shaped drawing)
and other motifs. Humans are often arrayed in finely detailed costumes
and may be represented playing musical instruments, sowing with a digging
stick, armed for battle, seated within a structure, or in other attitudes.
A decorative option was to excise or stamp designs in panels or registers.
Size: The large
bowls with supports range from 10-20" (25-50 cm) in diameter. The small
bowls without supports are usually 6-9" (16-22 cm) in diameter. Cylindrical
vases range in height from 7-10" (18-25 cm).
Formal Names: Termed
as the Campana Polychrome Ceramic Group (Sharer 1978).
The remainder of the
vessel (or, if a featured motif is lacking, all of the vessel) is decorated
with panels and registers with circumferencial bands near the rim and geometric
patterns elsewhere. Other vessel forms known for Salua are short cylinders
ranging grading into bowls, convex walled bowls (i.e., with bulging sides),
composite walled bowls, and jars. Strangely enough, despite their exceptional
decoration, colored stucco was sometimes used to cover areas of Salua vessels
(when eroded this stucco leaves chalky traces). Salua vessels have rarely
been found filled with red pigment.
Classic (associated with the Payu Ceramic Complex and the Lepa Phase).
Hemispherical and composite wall bowls, and jars; bowls may have basal
flanges or slight angle changes near the rim. Bowls may have small solid
or larger hollow supports. Quelepa Polychrome has a hard and very white
base (slip) over a fine red paste. On this white base were painted designs
in orange (often applied as a wash over most of the vessel), red and black;
very rarely a purple paint may be present. Designs include "checkerboards",
sunbursts, circles, bands, wavy lines, and others. Animals may be depicted
on the interior or exterior (jaguars, birds, and monkeys have been noted).
Size: The cylindrical
vessels grade into vertical walled bowls over a range of heights from 3.5-12.5"
(9-32 cm). Bowl diameters range from 6-12" (15-30 cm).
The name Salua is a local term employed in the National Museum of El Salvador.
It has been long recognized that probably several different ceramic groups
are lumped under this term, and that at least some of these groups probably
correspond with the so-called Ulua or Sula Valley Polychromes of neighboring
Honduras (which in recent years have been divided among several ceramic
groups). Sharer (1978) cites Salua as a special group of the Payu complex,
termed Special: Polychrome B, and he also mentions the name Salua Polychrome.
At Quelepa it was noted as an unnamed ceramic group referred to as Dark
Orange and Black on Orange (Andrews 1976). Several examples are illustrated
in Longyear 1944 and 1966. It is interesting to note the relative abundance
of Salua Polychrome in national and private collections in El Salvador
in comparison with Honduran collections.
Classic (a member of the Lepa Ceramic Complex).
Los Llanitos Polychrome:
Flaring walled bowls, most or all with solid tabular supports (supports
may have effigy decoration). A cream colored slip was applied a red paste.
Orange paint was applied to the entire interior of the bowl and in small
areas bordered by black on the exterior. In addition to orange and black,
colors may include dull red, sepia, and rarely purple. Two designs diagnostic
of Los Llanitos Polychrome are a "five-fingered flame" and stacks of three
or four horizontal bars of decreasing length.
may measure from 4.5-15" (11-38 qcm) in diameter.
Termed as the Quelepa Polychrome Ceramic Group in Andrews 1976.
Classic (a member of the Lepa Ceramic Complex).
Flaring walled bowls with flat bases and 3 or 4 hollow conical supports
with simple applique. Red and black-brown designs were painted over a cream
slip in registers, including spirals, stepped frets, bars, and dots.
(18-32 cm) in diameter.
Termed Los Llanitos Polychrome by Longyear (1944) and as the Los Llanitos
Polychrome Ceramic Group by Andrews (1976).
Postclassic (a member of the Ahal Ceramic Complex).
Machacal Purple Polychrome:
Bowls (hemispherical, composite walled, or vertical walled with convex
bases). With the exception of vertical walled bowls, these may be supported
by ring bases, pedestal bases or 4 hollow cylindrical supports. Possesses
an orange base slip with red and dark purple designs. Purple designs in
the form of an horizontal "S" on the vessel exterior are common. Vessel
bottoms usually have a simple purple design that some people have considered
to vaguely resemble a bird. The generous use of purple paint on an orange
base slip is a distinctive characteristic of this variety.
(17-26 cm) in diameter.
First defined in Chalchuapa as the Chinautla Ceramic Group in Sharer (1978)
due to its similarities with the "Chinautla Polychrome tradition" found
mostly in the Guatemalan highlands. Most would probably now agree that
this tradition may be subdivided into several distinct and locally distributed
ceramic groups, of which the Chalchuapa variety would be one.
of the Early Classic and beginning of the Late Classic.
Hemispherical bowls, bowls with rounded to almost flat bases and flaring
walls (these may have three hollow cylindrical or conical supports with
effigy decoration as an option, often in the form of bird heads), cylindrical
vases with ring bases, jars. Red, black, and yellow paint was applied over
a very smooth white slip with a "soapy" texture. Usually over half of the
vessel was left white. Designs include registers with geometric designs,
human figures, and others. Rare vessels may have unusual forms and appendages.
(13-29 cm) in diameter.
Formal Names: Termed
Red and Purple on Orange by Boggs (in Longyear 1944), and Machacal Purple-polychrome
by Sharer (1978).
Hemispherical bowls, often slightly flaring from just under the rim. A
cream base slip (often streaky in appearance) was painted with designs
in brown-black and red. Animals rendered in a distinctive silhouette style
were painted on opposing sides of the exterior (monkeys, lizards, and birds
seem to be represented), with large solid circles, squares or cross-hatch
designs between the two. The upper portion of the exterior body is divided
by bands in a register holding step frets, circles, and/or other designs.
range from 6-11" (15-28 cm) in diameter; cylindrical vases range from 6.5-12"
(17-30 cm) in height.
Formal Names: Long
called Nicoya Polychrome due to its relationship with the different varieties
grouped under that name first defined for Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The
variety found in El Salvador differs sufficiently from those varieties
in forms and decoration to be considered as an additional type.
Known in bowl forms with a streaky cream to orange base slip. Black
circumferencial bands define registers that usually enclose alternating
spirals and stylized animals outlined in black with orange infilling.
(15-20 cm) in diameter.
Formal Names: Termed
Chancala Polychrome by Boggs (1972).
Termed Salinitas Polychrome by Boggs.
Here are included several
different varieties of ceramics that prominently feature Usulutan decoration
as their distinctive trait. Usulutan decoration is a negative technique,
resulting in light-colored lines against a darker background. The light
lines were achieved by applying a resist substance and then covering the
vessel with a slip that fired a darker color. Since this failed to adhere
to the areas with resist, these maintained their lighter shade (a simplified
explanation). In its most elaborate version, the resist substance was applied
with a multiple brush with as many as seven small brushes fastened in a
row, allowing the creation of swirling parallel lines. The base color on
these vessels ranges from salmon pink to dark yellow, with the lines being
a lighter shade of the same. Some varieties have red paint added as rim
bands or (in the case of the Chilanga Ceramic Group) simple designs. Formal
names for the ceramic groups considered here are: Jicalapa, Puxtla, Izalco,
and Chilanga (Sharer 1978, Demarest 1986, Andrews 1976).
3c. Plumbate Vessels
with a glazed appearance. Surface color ranges from dark brown-black to
lead-colored to salmon-orange, and sometimes all are found on a single
vessel. Some areas may be iridescent. This is an extremely hard ceramic
and "rings" when tapped. Vessel forms include a variety of forms of jars,
bowls, cylindrical vases, and may even include figurines. Effigy decoration
3d. Olocuilta Orange
and Santa Tecla Red Vessels
Classic (San Juan variety) and Early Postclassic (Tohil variety).
Both San Juan and Tohil varieties are found in El Salvador (Sharer 1978).
It is interesting to note that approximately one third of all Tohil vessels
recorded in the only pan-Mesoamerican inventory to date were from El Salvador
These two distinctive
varieties of Late Preclassic ceramic vessels share many forms and types
of decoration. Forms include a variety of bowls that may have very wide
everted rims with scalloped and incised designs (in extreme cases the rims
may be extended to form fish or other animal effigies when viewed from
above). Bowls may also include faceted flanges. Some bowls may take the
form of toad effigies. Usulutan decoration (very often poorly preserved)
may be present. The Santa Tecla Red variety is distinguished by its dense
dark red slip, while Olocuilta Orange has a light orange slip (often with
a powdery texture when slightly eroded). Santa Tecla Red may have graphite
rubbed into grooves.
3e. Incised or Excised
Preclassic (Chul and Caynac Ceramic Complexes).
Santa Tecla and Olocuilta Ceramic Groups (Sharer 1978; Demarest 1986).
Please note that in these sources "Olocuilta" (which is the name of a Salvadoran
town) was misspelled "Olocuitla".
Here are considered
different varieties of ceramic vessels whose salient visual trait is decoration
based on incision or excision.
vessels have a smooth streaky black to brown slip with (post- slip) incisions
on the exterior forming geometric designs. These incisions are sometimes
filled with red or white pigment. Forms include a variety of bowl forms.
Defined as part of the Chul and Caynac Ceramic Complexes of the Late Preclassic
Period (Sharer 1978; Demarest 1986).
3f. Vessels With Red
variety of bowl forms of a dark and dull red color with fine post-slip
incised geometric patterns. Defined as part of the Chul and Caynac Ceramic
Complexes of the Late Preclassic Period (Sharer 1978; Demarest 1986).
Cylindrical vessels with a band of false glyphs or geometric designs carved
below the rim. Details within this excavated band may be emphasized with
incision. Vessel bodies are usually tan colored, and cream slip was sometimes
added over the exterior, avoiding the carved band which sometimes was painted
with red slip. When the cream slip is present, negative designs of dots,
circles, water lilies, or egrets may be barely visible on the vessel body.
The name of this Late Classic type is provisional and was proposed by Boggs
based on its abundance in the Chalatenango area.
Red Excised: Cylindrical
vessels with a band of false glyphs or geometric decoration excised below
the rim and vertical excised grooves usually covering the rest of the exterior,
sometimes with two opposing excised panels representing animal heads or
other designs. Slipped with a dark red-orange color. Short solid tabular
or nubbin supports may be present. Provisional name for a Late Classic
type common in central El Salvador.
Cylindrical Vases: Cylindrical vases, orange to brown in color, with
fine incision including geometric motifs and monkeys. The rim area is distinguished
by a band or groove. Late Classic Period.
Here are grouped together
varieties of ceramic vessels whose principal decoration was executed in
Marihua Red on
Buff: Forms include: hemispherical bowls, bowls with rounded bases
and flaring walls (these usually have three hollow or cylindrical supports,
sometimes in the form of bird heads), and jars with three handles. Broad
red lines form geometric designs on the buff colored interior of bowls
and the exterior of jars. Designs include arcs, crosses, step frets, ehecatcozcatl
(split snail shell motif), and others. Very rare are finely incised designs
in a band on the exterior of bowls. Postclassic Period (Haberland 1964).
3g. Jars With Modeled
all known examples are jars. Part of the jar exterior (reddish brown in
color) is painted with a dense and hard red paint that is finely crazed.
The paint may cover the upper portion of vessels, or may be distributed
as panels, large dots or arcs. Rarely the entire vessel exterior is covered
in red. A decorative option was to apply white paint in circles (applied
with a hollow cane) and/or zigzagging lines. This white paint is also very
hard and was applied over red painted areas. A small rabbit applique may
appear on the vessel body. Late Classic Period (Beaudry 1983).
Delirio Red on White:
Hemispherical bowls (sometimes made into an armadillo effigy by means of
a shingled exterior and appliqued head and tail), bowls with flat or slightly
rounded bottoms and flaring walls (these may have hollow cylindrical supports),
jars (which may have a pair of effigy head handles below the rim), and
other minor forms. A hard white slip was painted in red with very intricate
geometric designs. Naturalistic forms are very rare. Late Classic Period
(Lepa Ceramic Complex--Andrews 1976).
Cara Sucia Red Painted:
Jars with dull red-orange paint over a cream-orange slip. The lower
body is divided by vertical pairs of bands. Birds or other motifs may be
painted on the shoulder of the vessel. Late Classic Period.
Here are grouped together
different varieties of ceramic jars that sharing the presence of effigy
faces or heads applied to the vessel neck. Motifs include: old man, man
with goatee and closed eyes, monkey, bird, and schematic humans.
3h. Tiquisate Vessels
Tiquisate vessels are
entirely orange (ranging from light cream-orange to deep orange in color).
Their surface is very hard and may "ring" when tapped. Vessel forms include
hemispherical bowls and cylindrical vases. Decoration may take the form
of rows of bosses, incised geometric designs, or stamped scenes of humans,
animal heads, twisted bands, or other designs. Late Classic.
3i. Fine Paste Vessels
Forms include small
flat bottomed bowls with vertical walls and hollow rattle supports, and
piriform vessels with ring bases. Vessels walls are very thin and "ring"
when tapped. An orange may be applied to the vessel with the exception
of the base. Fine incising may be found on the exterior of bowls and may
retain white and blue post-fire paint. Terminal Classic Period.
3j. Cara Sucia Pedestal-based
A distinctive type
of bowl with a tall pedestal base. The bowls often have a basal flange,
and red painted zones are sometimes found on the interior. Late Classic
3k. Stuccoed Vessels
Here are grouped a
variety of vessel forms and types whose common denominator for the purposes
at hand is the presence of stuccoed decoration. The stucco involved is
usually a white kaolin clay with blue, blue-green, red, yellow, or brown
pigment mixed in, and probably had (originally) an organic binder or agglutinate.
Since that binder long since ceased to function, the stuccoed decoration
tends to be very fragile. Designs are usually simple bands or geometric
motifs, but occasionally human or animal figures may be represented. Entirely
stuccoed vessels seem to be most common in the Late Classic, and perhaps
especially so in the Terminal Classic.
3l. Guazapa Scraped
Jars with a brown body,
over which was applied a cream colored slip that was finger dragged (like
finger painting) while it was still wet, creating curving or wavy designs.
A reddish-orange wash was sometimes applied over the scraped slip. Early
and Late Classic Periods.
3m. Ancient Imports:
Late Classic Palmar and Other Lowland Maya Ceramics
Several vessels of
so-called "Peten Glossware" have been found in El Salvador that include
the formally defined Palmar Ceramic Group, and may also include examples
of the Saxche Ceramic Group and others (Sharer 1978). To date, three such
vessels have been found in scientific excavation (one in a Tazumal tomb
in the 1940's, a Palmar vessel in an offering with an eccentric flint in
San Andres in the 1970's, and a Palmar vessel in a grave on the outskirts
of San Salvador in 1993). Several others have been documented in looting
situations, including three recorded by Sharer (1978), and in private collections.
Although these vessels were not made in the territory of El Salvador, they
were definitely ancient imports and as such form part of Salvadoran cultural
heritage, providing important testimony relative to long- distance social
and economic relationships.
Forms include bowls
with flat or slightly rounded bottoms and walls ranging from slightly flaring
(nearly vertical) to broadly flaring walls; shallow simple bowls; tecomates
(spherical forms with a small orifice); and cylindrical vases. Bowls may
have ring bases, hollow cylindrical supports, or other forms of supports.
Decoration consists of an orange or cream base slip over which were painted
designs in black, red, and sometimes yellow. Designs include: glyph bands;
humans standing, seated, dancing, or in other attitudes; heads (human,
animal, God K, and others); animals in different positions; and other themes
rendered in Late Classic Lowland Maya style.
4. Ceramic Drums
Ceramic drums comprise
a globular body with a short rim on one extreme (over which the drum surface
was stretched) and a long open shaft on the other extreme (which served
as a stand). The body may have incised decoration. Surfaces are usually
slipped and well polished, and may range from dark brown-black to brown
to brownish red in color. Late Classic Period.
5. Incense Burners
5a. Ladle Censers
This category groups
together a variety of different spoon or ladle shaped incense burners.
These have a handle (which may be a hollow tube or a flattened loop) which
supports the "spoon" or "ladle" that actually held the embers over which
incense was sprinkled. The ladle portion may have holes perforated to facilitate
the circulation of air, and in the taller, more cup- like versions these
holes may take the form of crosses or step frets (these are the so-called
"Mixteca-Puebla" style censers). Animal heads, claws, or other effigies
may be added to end of the handle.
with three vertical prongs at the top and two long vertical flanges on
the sides. Effigy faces may be added to the vessel bodies (bats have been
noted). Post-fire paint added in red, orange, and white. Late Preclassic
and Early Classic Periods (Sharer 1978).
5c. Lolotique Spiked
The bowl-shaped censer
body is supported by a tall pedestal base with perforations in the form
of two large squares or circles, or slits. Short spikes cover the base
and body. May retain remnants of post-fire red or white paint. Late Classic
Period (Andrews 1978).
5d. Las Lajas Spiked
censer covered by short spikes. Incised or modeled decoration may be found
on the everted rims found at top and bottom. An internal shelf may be present
to hold the large clay dish that supported the embers. Early Postclassic
Period (Fowler 1981).
5e. San Andres Stone
censers of hard volcanic stone with columns of spikes on part of the exterior.
The upper part of these censers have a dish-like depression to contain
embers. Late Classic Period.
5f. Large Effigy
of censers whose common traits are their relatively large size and the
prominent presence of elaborate effigies covering much or all of the censer
body. In extreme cases, the censer is entirely concealed within a virtual
ceramic sculpture. As an alternative to a single large effigy, some present
several figures on a single censer, or a single element (like a head) repeated
several times. Recorded effigies have included: the god Tlaloc (identifiable
by a large ring around each eye); an individual with bulbous protruding
eyes; the god Xipe Totec (appearing as an individual wearing a flayed human
skin); jaguars; monkeys; iguanas; large saurians (so- called Earth Monsters),
GIII (a manifestation of the Sun god identifiable by a twisted cord extending
vertically between the eyes and catfish-like barbels curling from the sides
of the mouth); and others. Mostly Late Classic and Postclassic Periods.
Large goblet shaped
vessel forms (essentially a large bowl with walls that begin as vertical
and midway to the rim moderately flare outward, with a pedestal base),
usually with signs of burning on the interior base. These censers may be
unadorned, or may have two or three hollow head effigies rising directly
from the rim, or they may have many small effigy heads attached in a row
around the vessel just below its rim (monkey and iguana heads have been
documented). Lids, when present, may appear as inverted bowls, with or
without an effigy figure on top (one example has a large seated monkey).
Late Classic Period.
6. Mushroom Effigies
Though some regard
these as phallic effigies, most agree that mushrooms are represented. Two
varieties are presented here.
6a. Ceramic Mushroom
Tall hollow bases rise
from a flaring base and taper upwards to support the mushroom "cap". The
body may be plain or may carry red paint and fine incisions (usually in
the form of rows of triangles). Probably Late Preclassic and Early Classic
6b. Stone Mushroom
Usually made of fine-grained
volcanic stone. The shaft of the mushroom rises from a base that may be
cylindrical or square, and occasionally has short supports. Near the "cap"
may often be found two raised bands representing the point from which the
cap separates from its stem as it opens. Late Preclassic and Early Classic
7. Stone Sculpture
7a. Preclassic Animal
in volcanic stone representing very stylized animal heads (Demarest 1986).
These have usually been interpreted as jaguar heads, but reptilian elements
may also be present. These were apparently architectural elements associated
with Late Preclassic Period pyramids.
in volcanic stone in the Cotzumalhuapa style (see Parsons 1967, 1969).
Themes known from El Salvador include: a snake emerging from the ground,
a skeletal figure with a hat resembling a derby, a coiled snake, and a
disk with a jaguar face. Some of these are made from two stones which connect
by means of a hidden tenon. Late Classic Period.
7c. Tenoned Head
Long sculptures of
volcanic stone with an animal head at one end and an undecorated tenon
at the other, intended to be mounted in monumental architecture. The heads
usually represent a bird or reptile. Late Classic Period.
7d. Balsamo Sculpture
These portable sculptures
are usually made of vesicular volcanic stone and represent a human form
in a squatting position. The vertebrae are usually indicated as a notched
ridge on the individual's back. Although this form predominates, a grasshopper
sculpture is also documented. Postclassic Period.
yugos (yokes) made of dense volcanic stone. Very rare examples may carry
carved decoration. Late Classic Period.
Thin ballgame hachas
usually representing animal or human heads (a variety of other designs
are also found, such as a coiled snake and a skull). Made of fine-grained
volcanic stone. Some examples have iron pyrite "eyes" and traces of red
paint. Late Classic Period.
7g. Effigy Metates
Metates with a thin
and slightly curving body, with an animal head at one end. A tail may be
present at the other end. These are usually supported by three tall supports.
Made of dense volcanic stone. Late Classic and Early Postclassic Periods.
8. Small Stone
8a. Jade or Similar
Lustrous and hard green-colored
stone crafted into: beads (spherical, globular, tubular, discoidal); pendants
(plain or with human or animal effigies, including so called "axe gods"
and canine tooth effigies); plaques (or pectorals) with elaborate designs;
masks; mosaics; earspools; animal or human effigies (heads or full figure);
or schematic squatting human forms (similar to examples from the El Cajon
area of Honduras).
8b. Eccentric Chipped
Flint, chert, or obsidian
flaked into eccentric forms. These may include: a zigzag lance point form,
a disc with three prongs or spike on one side, and elaborate large effigy
eccentrics apparently meant to serve as scepters (similar to those found
in caches at Copan, Quirigua, and other sites). Late Classic Period.
8c. Obsidian Artifacts
Prismatic blades, bifacial
artifacts (lance points, arrow points, "knives"), cores, and other objects
made from obsidian (a black colored volcanic glass).
8d. Pyrite Mosaic
A mosaic of carefully
fitted plaques of iron pyrite placed on a thin disc- shaped backing made
of stone or clay that may have designs on one side. When new, the pyrite
reflected light brilliantly, but archaeological specimens have often lost
their shine due to oxidation (the pyrite may convert to a brownish black
crust). Late Classic and perhaps other periods.
8e. Paint Pallets
Small artifacts of
vesicular volcanic stone with a dish shaped or squared depression on one
surface. Some pallets are simple, being essentially natural cobbles of
a flattened oblong shape with the depression worked on one surface, or
sometimes two depressions on opposing surfaces. Others are elaborately
carved and may include four supports and animal or human head effigies.
Traces of red pigment have been found on some pallets. Late Classic and
possibly other periods.
Thin bowls carved from
light colored translucent stone (which in different cases has been labeled
as marble, alabaster, and onyx). At least some of these may be ancient
imports from the territory of Honduras. Late Classic Period.
Tabular dense stone
artifacts with numerous longitudinal parallel incisions worked on one or
both broad faces. On one variety (Classic and Postclassic Periods), three
of the four narrow sides have a broad groove meant to receive a very pliable
stick wound around it as a handle. The other variety considered here has
an integral stone handle (Late Preclassic).
These were originally
mounted on wood handles for use as hatchets or adzes. Made of very dense,
fine-grained stone and are often highly polished near the bit and sometimes
over the entire body. Some examples are made of jade or stone resembling
9. Metal Artifacts
9a. Copper Celts
Mounted on wooden handles
for use as hatchets or adzes. Long copper celts with a rectangular cross
section. May have a dark patina. Postclassic Period.
9b. Copper Rings
Copper finger rings
made with the lost wax technique. Documented examples include filigree
details or effigy heads. Terminal Classic and Postclassic Periods.
9c. Copper Bells
Copper bells, plain
or with effigies, usually made by the lost wax technique. Postclassic Period.
9d. Tumbaga Artifacts
Tumbaga is an alloy
of copper and gold. Artifacts made of Tumbaga may present a mottled surface
looking golden in parts. Tumbaga artifacts documented for El Salvador include
small animal figurines made by the lost wax technique, and a small hammered
sheet mask with eyes and mouth cutouts. Late Classic Period.
of Notice and Delayed Effective Date
Because this amendment
is being made in response to a bilateral agreement entered into in furtherance
of the foreign affairs interests of the United States, pursuant to Sec.
553(a)(1) of the Administrative Procedure Act, no notice of proposed rulemaking
or public procedure is necessary. For the same reason, a delayed effective
date is both impracticable and contrary to the public interest.
Because no notice of
proposed rulemaking is required, the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility
Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply. Accordingly, this final rule is
not subject to the regulatory analysis or other requirements of 5 U.S.C.
603 and 604.
This amendment does
not meet the criteria of a "significant regulatory action" as described
in E.O. 12866.
The principal author
of this document was Peter T. Lynch, Regulations and Disclosure Law Branch,
Office of Rules and Regulations, U.S. Customs Service. However, personnel
from other offices participated in its development.
List of Subjects
in 19 CFR Part 12
Customs duties and
inspections, Imports, Cultural property.
Amendment to the
Accordingly, Part 12
of the Customs Regulations (19 CFR Part 12) is amended as set forth below:
1. The general authority
is revised and specific authority citation for Part 12, in part, continues
to read as follows:
U.S.C. 301, 19 U.S.C. 66, 1202 (General Note 20, Harmonized Tariff Schedule
of the United States (HTSUS)), 1624.
also issued under 19 U.S.C. 2612.
2. Paragraph (a) of
Sec. 12.104g is added to read as follows:
Sec. 12.104g Specific
items or categories designated by agreements or emergency actions.
(a) The following is
a list of agreements imposing import restrictions on the described articles
of cultural property of State Parties. The listed Treasury Decision contains
the Designated Listing with a complete description of specific items or
categories of archaeological or ethnological material designated by the
agreement as coming under the protection of the Convention on Cultural
Property Implementation Act. Import restrictions listed below shall be
effective for no more than five years beginning on the date on which the
agreement enters into force with respect to the United States. This period
may be extended for additional periods of not more than five years if it
is determined that the factors which justified the initial agreement still
pertain and no cause for suspension of the agreement exists. Any such extension
is indicated in the listing.
material representing Prehispanic cultures of El Salvador
Sec. 12.104g [Amended]
3. Paragraph (b) of
Sec. 12.104g is amended by removing, from the listing of emergency import
restrictions, the entry for El Salvador.
George J. Weise,
Approved: March 7,
Dennis M. O'Connell,
Acting Deputy Assistant
Secretary of the Treasury.
[FR Doc. 95-6122 Filed
3-9-95; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4820-02-P
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