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Federal Register Notice, April 22, 1997; 62(77):19488-19492

Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Canada

Background Ethnographic Material Culture Archaeological Artifacts

Customs Service 
19 CFR Part 12 
[T.D. 97-31] 
RIN 1515-AC14 

Archaeological and Ethnological Material From Canada 

AGENCY: U.S. Customs Service, Department of the Treasury. 
ACTION: Final rule. 

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Ethnographic Material Culture  

Below is a representative list, subject to amendment, of objects of ethnographic material culture, organized by the primary type of material used to make the object.  

In accordance with Canadian law, restrictions only apply to ethnological material listed below which was made, reworked or adapted for use by an Aboriginal person of Canada who is no longer living, which is greater than 50 years old, and which has a fair market value in Canada of more than $3,000 (Canadian).  

Ethnographic material from the following Aboriginal cultural groups is included in this list and is subject to United States import restrictions: Inuit (Eskimo); Subarctic Indian; Northwest Coast Indian; Plains Indian; and Woodlands Indian.  

Ethnographic material from the following cultural group is excluded from this list and is not subject to United States import restrictions: Plateau Indian.  

This section is organized by the primary type of material used to make the object.  

  I. Animal and Bird Skins (Hide), Fur and Feathers  

  1. Hunting and fishing equipment:
    • Quivers (arrow cases);  
      Rifle scabbards/holsters and bandoliers (ammunition belts); and  
      Kayaks, canoes and other boats made of skin or hide. 
  2. Horse trappings: 
    • Saddle bags and throws, blankets, etc. 
  3. Clothing (often decorated with beads, buttons, hair, fur, shells, animal teeth, coloured porcupine quills): 
    • Belts, dresses, jackets, leggings, moccasins, robes, shirts, vests, parkas;  
      Yokes, beaded;  
      Headdresses, decorated with feathers, hair, fur, and/or horn; and  
      Ornaments, jewelry and other accessories (including necklaces often with hide-covered stone). 
  4. Other sewn objects: 
    • Cradle boards and covers;  
      Bags, pouches;  
      Rugs; and  
      Tipi covers (with or without paint or other decoration). 
  5. Skins with applied writing, drawing, or painted decoration, design or figures.
  6. Musical instruments: 
    • Drums. 
  7. Prepared Skins of Birds and mammals used in sacred bundles or as wrappings.
  8. Parfleches (all-purpose hide containers, folded and/or sewn, with or without painted or other applied decoration). 
II. Wood, Bark, Roots, Seeds  
  1. Weapons and hunting equipment: 
    • Tomahawks; Snowshoes;  
      Sheathes for knives;  
      Paddles; and  
      Canoes and other boats (carved wood, birchbark).
  2. Containers: 
    • Baskets, pouches, bags, mats; and  
      Boxes and chests (bark, root, wood), often elaborately carved or painted. 
  3. Domestic utensils and tools: 
    • Bowls;  
      Spoons, ladles;  
      Spindle whorls (small, usually circular flywheels to regulate textile or other spinning);  
      Adzes (axe-like tool for trimming and smoothing wood) and other woodworking tools;  
      Bark beaters; and  
      Mat creasers. 
  4. Furniture: 
    • Chairs, backrests, settees (seat or small bench with back); and  
  5. Carved models: 
    • Animal and human figurines; and  
      Miniature canoes and totem poles. 
  6. Toys, dolls and games. 
  7. Musical instruments: 
    • Drums;  
      Whistles, flutes, recorders; and  
      Rattles, sometimes elaborately carved in animal or human form and painted or otherwise decorated. 
  8. Ornaments and accessories: 
    • Pendants, chains and other jewelry;  
      Combs; and  
      Birchbark belts. 
  9. Hats (spruce root, wood, bark, woven grass). 
  10. Ceremonial objects: 
    • Pipes and pipestems;  
      Masks and headdresses (wood or cornhusk, often complexly carved and painted, usually resembling animals, or human faces, sometimes contorted);  
      Rattles (see description above in G.);  
      Staffs, standards (ceremonial poles, in some cases used to support banners or flags); and  
      Birchbark scrolls with carved pictographic designs or figures. 
  11. Totem poles, house posts and wall panels (usually carved and/or painted). 
III. Bone, Tooth, Shell, Horn, Ivory, Antler (Items Made From, or Decorated With)  
  1. Carved hunting and fishing equipment (such as carved bow handles).
  2. Weapons and tools: 
    • Clubs;  
      Needles and sewing kits; and  
      Shuttles (small instrument containing a reel or spool or otherwise holding thread or other similar material during weaving or lace- making). 
  3. Carved figurines: 
    • Representations of people, fish, animals. 
  4. Ornaments and other accessories: 
    • Combs;  
      Beads and pendants; and  
      Snow goggles and visors. 
  5. Ceremonial objects: 
    • Masks (see description in II J.); and  
      Amulets and charms. 
  6. Miniatures and game pieces: 
    • Especially cribbage boards. 
  7. Pipes. 
  8. Musical instruments: 
    • Whistles. 
IV. Stone, Argillite Stone, Amber  
  1. Hunting and fishing equipment: 
    • Bola and bola weight (weapon consisting of long cord or thong with stone balls at the end);  
      Blubber pounder;  
      Harpoon head;  
      Net weights; and  
      Toggles (rod, pin or bolt used with rope to tighten it, to make an attachment or prevent slipping). 
  2. Tools: 
    • Snow knives; and  
      Ulus (crescent-shaped knife with small handle on side). 
  3. Domestic utensils: 
    • Plates, platters, bowls;  
      Lamps (bowl or trough-shaped) and wick trimmers;  
      Boxes; and  
  4. Ornaments and other accessories: 
    • specially incised pendants. 
  5. Ceremonial objects: 
    • Masks; and  
      Seated human and animal figure bowls. 
  6. Pipes: 
    • Argillite, catlinite and steatite, often ornately carved with animals and human designs. 
  7. Carved figurines: 
    • Especially carved argillite figural groups and miniature totem poles. 
V. Porcupine Quills (items made from, or ornamented with)  
  1. Drinking tubes; and
  2. Ornamentation for clothing and other sewn objects, usually colored. 
VI. Textiles (Cotton, Wool, Linen, Canvas)  
  1. Decorated cloth panels and ceremonial dance curtains; 
  2. Garments and accessories: 
    • Belts, dresses, hats/hoods, jackets, leggings, moccasins, robes, shirts, vests, aprons, tunics;  
      Blankets or capes, often decorated with buttons, quillwork, beads, shells; and  
      Pouches and bags. 
  3. Wrappings for ceremonial objects; 
  4. Canvas tipis and tipi models; and 
  5. Woven blankets (incl. Chilkat blankets of woven mountain goat wool and cedar bark, with elaborate coloured designs). 
VII. Metals (Copper, Iron, Steel, Gold, Silver, Bronze)  
  1. Weapons and shields: 
    • Daggers. 
  2. Hunting and fishing equipment: 
    • Fishing lures. 
  3. Tools: 
    • Snow knives; and  
      Ulus (see description under IV B.). 
  4. Clothing and hair ornaments; 
  5. Ceremonial objects: 
    • Masks;  
      Rattles, charms; and  
      Coppers (large flat copper plates with beaten or incised decoration). 
VIII. Clay  
  1. Figurines (people, fish, animals); 
  2. Pipes; and 
  3. Pottery vessels and containers such as bowls or jars. 
IX. Beads (Glass, Clay, Shell, Bone, Brass) (Items Decorated With)  
  1. Horse gear (bridles, saddle bags, decorative accessories); 
  2. Bags, pouches, parfleches (see description in I H.), and knife sheaths (decorative); 
  3. Clothing: belts, dresses, leggings, moccasins, shirts, vests, jackets, hoods, mantles/robes; 
  4. Musical instruments: 
    • Drums; and 
  5. Ceremonial/sacred amulets and objects 
X. Hair (Items Decorated With, or Made From Human or Animal Hair)  
Ornamentation used on clothing and other sewn objects, such as pouches, ceremonial objects.   

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