ARTICLE-BY-ARTICLE ANALYSIS OF THE ANNEX ON TERMS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS STRUCTURE AND OVERVIEW OF THE ANNEX

The Annex on Terms and Their Definitions (the Annex) consists of a preamble and 124 numbered paragraphs, each of which sets forth a term and its definition. All of the terms and definitions provided in the Annex are used in at least one of the other Treaty documents. The number contained in parentheses following the paragraph number is the paragraph number of the equivalent term and definition in the Russian text, because the terms are listed in alphabetical order in the English and Russian texts. The numbers of the definitions are not used elsewhere in the Treaty; definitions are referenced by the term itself.

Additional terms are defined or described in other Treaty documents, including the following terms (with the corresponding references):

"accessible" (Twenty-third Agreed Statement);

"categories of data" ( paragraph 1 of Article VIII of the Treaty)

"front section of a fundamentally new design" (paragraph 4 of Article III; Twenty-fourth Agreed Statement);

"item of inspection" (paragraph 20 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol);

"item of continuous monitoring" (paragraph 21 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol);

"large enough to contain" or "large enough to be" (paragraph 22 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol);

"launch equipment" (subparagraph 4(b) of Section V of the Conversion or Elimination Protocol);

"not equipped" (Seventeenth Agreed Statement);

" point of entry" (paragraph 1 of Section IV of the Inspection Protocol);

"sequential inspection" (paragraph 33 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol);

"unique identifier" (paragraph 1 of Annex 6 to the Inspection Protocol); and,

"accountable throw-weight" and "maximum calculated throw-weight" (paragraphs 2 and 4 of Section I of the Throw-weight Protocol).

For the convenience of readers, numbers have been provided below that correspond with the numbers given to the English-language order in the Definitions Annex.

1. The term "air base" means a facility at which heavy bombers or former heavy bombers are based and their operation is supported, but it does not include production facilities for heavy bombers, heavy bomber flight test centers, or training facilities for heavy bombers. "Based" is not further defined but the term is used in the Treaty in the sense of a permanent facility that supports long-term operations rather than temporary stationing. The term "air base" is routinely used in the Treaty with a further description of what category of heavy bomber is based at that air base, such as "air base for heavy bombers equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs" or air base for former heavy bombers." Air bases for heavy bombers and air bases for former heavy bombers are listed in Annex C to the Memorandum of Understanding, according to the category of the heavy bomber based at such air bases. Former heavy bombers are permitted to be based at air bases for heavy bombers. Only air bases at which former heavy bombers are based, and at which no heavy bombers are based, are referred to as air bases for former heavy bombers.

2. The term "aircraft" means any manned machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from interaction with the air other than the interaction of the air with the Earth's surface. This term does not include hovercraft but it does include dirigibles, wing-in-ground effect vehicles, helicopters, and gliders. Although wing-in-ground effect vehicles normally derive their support from the interaction of air pressure below the wing with the earth's surface, some machines also are capable of flight at higher altitudes outside the range of the ground effect. Since the definition of the term aircraft refers to machines that can derive support" from interaction with the air other than interaction of the air with the Earth's surface, wing-in-ground effect vehicles with such flight capability are aircraft" within the context of the Treaty. In accordance with the Ninth Agreed Statement, lighter-than-air aircraft such as balloons, drifting aerostats, and dirigibles shall not be flight-tested with, equipped for, or deployed with nuclear armaments. This term is used in paragraph 19 of Article V of the Treaty in terms of prohibiting flight testing, equipping, or deploying with nuclear armaments aircraft that are not airplanes but that have a range of 8000 km or more, and prohibiting flight testing, equipping, or deploying with long-range nuclear ALCMs aircraft that are not airplanes.

3. The term "aircrew member" means an individual who performs duties, associated with inspections or continuous monitoring activities on the territory of the inspected Party related to the operation of an inspection airplane of the inspecting Party, and who is included on the inspecting Party's list of aircrew members. The number of individuals on the list of aircrew members is not limited, pursuant to paragraph 2 of Section II of the Inspection Protocol. Aircrew members are accorded privileges and immunities while in the territory of the inspected Party, as provided for in the Inspection Protocol. Flight crews of scheduled commercial flights are not "aircrew members" under the Treaty.

4. The term "air-launched cruise missile (ALCM)" means an air-to-surface cruise missile of a type, at least one missile of which has been flight-tested from an aircraft or deployed on a bomber after December 31, 1986. The date was chosen by the U.S. side so as not to capture, as an ALCM, the TOMAHAWK sea-launched cruise missile (SLCM) that was flight-tested from an aircraft before December 31, 1986. This term does not specify the range of an ALCM; rather, the term long-range ALCM" specifies the range of 600 kilometers, and only such ALCMs are subject to the limitations of the Treaty. This term also does not identify whether the ALCM is nuclear or non-nuclear; there are two separate defined terms, "long-range non-nuclear ALCM" and "long-range nuclear ALCM," that provide that distinction.

5. The term "airplane" means a power-driven, heavier-than-air aircraft that derives its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that remain fixed under given conditions of flight. The National Aerospace Plane would be considered to be an airplane under this definition. This term is used in paragraph 19 of Article V of the Treaty in terms of prohibiting flight-testing, equipping, and deploying nuclear armaments and long-range nuclear ALCMs on aircraft other than airplanes, and flight-testing, equipping, and deploying nuclear armaments on an airplane that was not initially constructed as a bomber but has a range of 8000 km or more or an integrated planform area over 310 square meters. It is also a central element of the definition of bomber" and, by extension, heavy bomber."

6. The term "air-to-surface ballistic missile (ASBM)" means a ballistic missile with a range in excess of 600 kilometers that is installed in an aircraft or on its external mountings for the purpose of being launched from this aircraft. This term is used with respect to the prohibition in subparagraph 18(d) of Article V of the Treaty on production, testing, or deployment of ASBMs. The Fourth Agreed Statement clarifies that such term is not intended to describe any missile that sustains flight, or any missile the payload of which sustains flight, through the use of aerodynamic lift over any portion of its flight path, (e.g., so-called boost-glide vehicles"). In a formal written statement on January 7, 1991, the United States advised Soviet negotiators that the Pegasus space launch system, which uses newly designed and manufactured three-stage missiles to boost payloads into Earth orbit, did not meet the definition of either a weapons-delivery vehicle" or a ballistic missile" and thus that Pegasus was not relevant to the START Treaty. The Soviet side accepted this statement.

7. The term "ballistic missile" means a missile that is a weapon-delivery vehicle that has a ballistic trajectory over most of its flight path. This term includes, within its definition, a defined term, weapon-delivery vehicle," which is also covered in subparagraph 9(b) of Article III of the Treaty, as follows: if a ballistic missile has been flight-tested or deployed for weapon delivery, all ballistic missiles of that type shall be considered to be weapon-delivery vehicles. Not all ballistic missiles are covered by the Treaty. For example, ballistic missiles that are of a type developed and tested solely to intercept and counter objects not located on the surface of the Earth are not considered to be ballistic missiles subject to Treaty limitations, pursuant to subparagraph 9(a) of Article III of the Treaty.

8. The term "bomber" means an airplane of a type, at least one of which was initially constructed or later converted to be equipped for bombs or air-to-surface missiles. The term bomber" is used in the prohibitions contained in paragraph 19 of Article V of the Treaty on the flight-testing, with nuclear armaments and with long-range nuclear ALCMs, of an airplane that was not initially constructed as a bomber. The term is also used in the definition of the term heavy bomber" as the primary characteristic of an airplane that is considered to be a heavy bomber.

9. The term "category" is one of a series of classifications for heavy bombers, which are based on the kind of armament for which the heavy bombers are equipped or on the purpose of such heavy bombers. Such classifications consist of: heavy bomber equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs, heavy bomber equipped for nuclear armaments other than long-range nuclear ALCMs, heavy bomber equipped for non-nuclear armaments, test heavy bomber, and training heavy bomber. "Former heavy bomber" is not a category of heavy bomber," by this definition.

10. The term "continuous monitoring" means carrying out procedures in accordance with the Inspection Protocol that involve inspection of containers, launch canisters, and vehicles leaving a monitored facility. Such procedures may include the use of a perimeter and portal continuous monitoring system. In accordance with paragraph 11 of Section III of the Inspection Protocol, notification of the date of commencement of continuous monitoring at a facility and the initial arrival of monitors to carry out continuous monitoring at that facility shall be provided no less than 30 days prior to the estimated date of arrival of the monitors at the point of entry.

11. The term "continuous monitoring activities" means activities conducted pursuant to paragraph 14 of Article XI of the Treaty, which include conducting an engineering site survey; establishing, operating, and maintaining a perimeter and portal continuous monitoring system; and conducting continuous monitoring. Pursuant to paragraph 2 of Section XVI of the Inspection Protocol, continuous monitoring activities may be conducted at production facilities for ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs.

12. The term "conversion or elimination facility" means specified facilities for ICBMs or SLBMs, launch canisters of ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs, mobile launchers of ICBMs, SLBM launchers, and heavy bombers and former heavy bombers, at which conversion, elimination, or both conversion and elimination may take place. Such facilities are used to eliminate ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs and mobile launchers of ICBMs, although ICBMs other than ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs, SLBMs, and launch canisters also may be eliminated at such facilities. There are no provisions in the Treaty for conversion of ballistic missiles. Conversion of mobile launchers of ICBMs is permitted, provided that the sides agree on the procedures in the JCIC before such conversion takes place. In contrast, heavy bombers are subject to both conversion and elimination at conversion or elimination facilities. Conversion or elimination facilities are listed in Annexes A, B, and C to the Memorandum of Understanding.

13. The term "cruise missile" means a missile that is an unmanned, self-propelled weapon-delivery vehicle that sustains flight through the use of aerodynamic lift over most of its flight path. This term is used in the definition of The term " air-launched cruise missile". Paragraph 9(c) of Article III of the Treaty states that, if a cruise missile has been flight-tested or deployed for weapon delivery, all cruise missiles of that type shall be considered to be weapon-delivery vehicles. This definition distinguishes cruise missiles from air-to-surface ballistic missiles and remotely piloted airplanes.

14. The term "deployed heavy bomber" means any heavy bomber other than a test heavy bomber, a training heavy bomber, or a heavy bomber equipped for non-nuclear armaments. This term is used with respect to the 1600 strategic offensive delivery system/6000 warhead aggregate numbers in subparagraphs 1(a) and 1(b) of Article II and the aggregates of 2100/9150 and 1900/7950 in subparagraphs 2(a) and 2(b), respectively, of Article II. In accordance with paragraph 1(b) of Article III of the Treaty, each deployed heavy bomber shall be counted as one unit toward the 1600 maximum aggregate limit on strategic offensive delivery systems.

15. The term "deployed ICBM" means an ICBM that is contained, or is considered to be contained, in a deployed launcher of ICBMs. This term is used in the context of warhead attribution and aggregate throw-weight in Article II of the Treaty. In accordance with paragraph 2(a) of Article III of the Treaty, each deployed launcher of ICBMs shall be considered to contain one deployed ICBM. Newly constructed ICBM launchers are considered to contain deployed ICBMs as provided for in paragraph 6(d) of Article III of the Treaty.

16. The term "deployed ICBM and its associated launcher" means a deployed ICBM and the deployed launcher of ICBMs that contains, or is considered to contain, the deployed ICBM. This term is used as the "unit of account" toward the 1600 aggregate ceiling in subparagraph 1(a) of Article II, as well as the first-phase 2100 aggregate ceiling in subparagraph 2(a) of Article II and the second-phase 1900 aggregate ceiling in subparagraph 2(b) of Article II. In accordance with paragraph 1(a) of Article III of the Treaty, each deployed ICBM and its associated launcher shall be counted as one unit for the purpose of counting toward the maximum aggregate limits on strategic offensive delivery systems. In accordance with subparagraphs 2(a) and 2(b) of Article II of the Treaty, each deployed launcher of ICBMs shall be considered to contain one deployed ICBM, and a deployed ICBM removed from its launcher and not replaced on that launcher by another missile or taken from that ICBM base shall continue to be considered to be contained in that launcher.

17. The term "deployed launcher of ICBMs" means any silo launcher of ICBMs other than a silo test launcher, silo training launcher, or silo launcher located at a space launch facility, and any deployed mobile launcher of ICBMs. This term is used in paragraph paragraph 2(a) of Article III of the Treaty, which states that each deployed launcher of ICBMs shall be considered to contain one deployed ICBM.

18. The term "deployed launcher of SLBMs" means any SLBM launcher installed on a submarine that has been launched, unless otherwise provided for in the Treaty. The final phrase refers to launchers in submarines for which elimination procedures have begun, but have not been completed. Launchers on special purpose submarines, in accordance with the Thirty-third Agreed Statement, continue to count as deployed launchers of SLBMs until they are eliminated. Such launchers may not contain SLBMs. This term is used in paragraph 2(a) of Article III of the Treaty, which states that each deployed launcher of SLBMs shall be considered to contain one deployed SLBM.

19. The term "deployed mobile launcher of ICBMs" means any mobile launcher of ICBMs that contains, or is considered to contain, an ICBM, but it does not include a mobile test launcher or a mobile launcher of ICBMs at a space launch facility.

20. The term "deployed SLBM" means an SLBM that is contained, or is considered to be contained, in a deployed launcher of SLBMs. This term is used in the context of warhead attribution and aggregate throw-weight in Article II of the Treaty. In accordance with paragraph 2(a) of Article III of the Treaty, each deployed launcher of SLBMs shall be considered to contain one deployed SLBM. Newly constructed SLBM launchers are considered to contain deployed SLBMs as provided for in paragraph 6(g) of Article III of the Treaty.

21. The term "deployed SLBM and its associated launcher" means a deployed SLBM and the deployed launcher of SLBMs that contains, or is considered to contain, the deployed SLBM. This term is used as the unit of account" towards the 1600 aggregate ceiling in subparagraph 1(a) of Article II, as well as the first-phase 2100 aggregate ceiling in subparagraph 2(a) of Article II and the second-phase 1900 aggregate ceiling in subparagraph 2(b) of Article II. In accordance with paragraph 1(a) of Article III of the Treaty, each deployed SLBM and its associated launcher shall be counted as one unit for the purposes of counting towards the maximum aggregate limits on strategic offensive delivery systems. In accordance with subparagraphs 2(a) and 2(c) of Article III, each deployed launcher of SLBMs shall be considered to contain one deployed SLBM, and a deployed SLBM removed from its launcher and not replaced on that launcher by another missile shall continue to be considered to be contained in that launcher.

22. The term "deployment area" means an area, limited in size, within which routine movements and exercise dispersals of deployed road-mobile launchers of ICBMs and their associated missiles are conducted. In accordance with paragraph 3 of Article VI, each restricted area shall be located within a deployment area, each deployment area shall not exceed 125,000 square kilometers in size and shall not overlap another deployment area, and each deployment area shall contain no more than one ICBM base for road-mobile launchers of ICBMs.

23. The term "distinguishable" means different on the basis of the totality of functional differences and external differences that are observable by national technical means of verification, or, when such observations may be inconclusive in the opinion of the inspecting Party, that are visible during inspection. The term "is used in the Treaty only with respect to heavy bombers and former heavy bombers, long-range ALCMs, launch canisters, and mobile ICBM launchers. A Party is required to make certain that the items required to be distinguishable have sufficient differences so that the "totality" of their differences allows the other Party to "distinguish" between them. In all cases, there must be functional" differences that are observable by national technical means of verification or visible during inspections, since these are the differences that make one item truly different from another and that allow the other Party to conclusively distinguish between the items. In practice, such functional differences may not, in all cases, be external to the item. In such cases, the Party possessing the item must also provide an external" difference.

Although external differences may be observable by national technical means of verification, there is no requirement that the side owning the item ensure that such features are detectable by the other Party's national technical means. Further, there is no obligation inherent in this definition for the distinguishable item to be displayed to the national technical means of verification of the other Party. Such external differences must, however, in all cases be observable during inspections. More importantly, in all these cases in which the observing Party is unable to determine distinguishability by national technical means of verification, it would have the opportunity during inspections to verify the totality of functional differences and external differences that make the items distinguishable." For heavy bombers and former heavy bombers, the Seventeenth Agreed Statement provides that the selection of distinguishing features is at the discretion of the Party owning the item. While the Treaty is silent on how distinguishing features for launch canisters and for mobile ICBM launchers will be determined, the Parties understand that such determination is also at the discretion of the owning Party. There is, however, an implicit obligation that, with respect to all items that must be distinguishable, these distinguishing features must be meaningful. Distinguishing features are demonstrated during exhibitions. If a Party is not satisfied with the distinguishing features provided, it may raise the issue within the framework of the Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission.

24. The term "each year" means during a period of 12 months commencing on the date of entry into force of the Treaty or on an anniversary of that date. The term "is used primarily in relation to quotas on inspections and cooperative measures, and is designed to facilitate initial implementation of treaty rights and obligations. This is the approach that was adopted for implementing the INF Treaty. Where the sides intend to use calendar year," the word calendar" is inserted.

25. The term "encapsulation" means, for telemetric information, recording and not broadcasting such information during the flight test of a missile, and recovering the information subsequently. This term is used in paragraph 2(d) of Article X of the Treaty, in the context of prohibiting the encapsulation of telemetric information, including the use of ejectable capsules or recoverable reentry vehicles, during each flight test of an ICBM or SLBM. The term "is also used in paragraph 6 of that Article, in terms of the right to encapsulate on-board technical measurements for a limited number of flight tests each year. Encapsulation of telemetric information is also addressed in Section I and Section III of the Telemetry Protocol.

26. The term "encryption" means, for telemetric information, the reversible transformation of such information that gives it a random character to prevent unauthorized access to such information. This term is used in subparagraph 2(a) of Article X of the Treaty, in the context of prohibiting the encryption of telemetric information. paragraph 6 of Article X and paragraph 2 of Section III of the Telemetry Protocol provide for limited exemptions to the ban on encryption.

27. The term "facility" means an ICBM base, submarine base, air base, rail garrison, maintenance facility, restricted area, parking site, silo launcher group, ICBM loading facility, SLBM loading facility, production facility, repair facility, storage facility, training facility, conversion or elimination facility, test range, heavy bomber flight test center, space launch facility, or static display site. Use of the word "specified" in the definition of a particular facility indicates that a facility is captured by the definition only if the Party declares it to be such a facility in the MOU. The rest of the definition serves merely as a guideline. If the word specified" is not used in the definition, then any facility that meets the definition is captured. For example, a facility that meets the definition of a production facility, submarine base, or ICBM base must be declared as such in the MOU. At one of these facilities, the functions described in the definition of a repair facility or a storage facility might also be performed, but it need not be declared as a storage or repair facility. At another facility -- one that does not meet the definition of production facility, submarine base, or ICBM base -- if the functions described in the definitions of repair facility and storage facility are both capable of being performed, the Party can choose to declare the facility as either a storage or repair facility. The Party could also choose not to declare it at all, in which case Treaty-limited items are not permitted to be located at such a facility. This approach was taken to avoid inadvertently capturing many facilities capable of performing storage or repair functions, but that are not used for purposes related to the START Treaty.

28. The term "facility subject to continuous monitoring" means a facility at which continuous monitoring activities are permitted but continuous monitoring has not yet commenced. Once monitoring has commenced, such facilities are known as monitored facilities.

29. The term "fixed structure for mobile launchers of ICBMs" is the generic term for a fixed structure for road-mobile launchers of ICBMs or a fixed structure for rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs, both of which are defined separately.

30. The term "fixed structure for rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs" means a unique structure at a parking site for rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs that can contain a train of standard configuration with rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs. In accordance with paragraph 7 of Article VI, the number of fixed structures for rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs in each rail garrison shall be limited to no more than the number of trains of standard configuration specified for that rail garrison, and each such structure shall contain no more than one train of standard configuration. Unlike fixed structures for road-mobile launchers of ICBMs, fixed structures for rail-mobile launchers are not limited in capacity. They are permitted to contain only one train of standard configuration, but they may be capable of containing more than one. The term " train of standard configuration" is defined in paragraph 114.

31. The term "fixed structure for road-mobile launchers of ICBMs" means a unique structure, within a restricted area, that can contain road-mobile launchers of ICBMs. In accordance with paragraph 2 of Article VI, the number of such structures within each restricted area shall be limited so that those structures are not capable of containing more road-mobile launchers of ICBMs than the number of such launchers specified for that restricted area.

32. The term "flight test" means, for a missile, the launch and subsequent flight of a missile. The terms launch" and flight" are not defined and generally not used in the Treaty; flight test" is used instead. The term "flight test" includes any event that occurs during and after launch, including destruction, and does not require flight for a minimum distance or period of time. Nor does The term imply launch from a specific area, such as a test range. The reason for having this term was in part linguistic, to find a single term that could be used for either or both the launch/take-off and the flight of a missile. Cruise missiles can be tested in flight aboard aircraft in ways that do not involve launch or subsequent missile flight. Such flights, called captive carry tests," are not covered by The term " flight test from...."

33. The term "former heavy bomber" means a reconnaissance airplane, tanker airplane, or jamming airplane that is not equipped for nuclear armaments or non-nuclear air-to-surface armaments and that was initially constructed on the basis of the airframe of an existing type of heavy bomber and satisfies the requirements for conversion in accordance with the Conversion or Elimination Protocol; or that has been converted from a heavy bomber in accordance with procedures provided for in the Conversion or Elimination Protocol after entry into force, or in such a way that it satisfies the requirements for conversion in accordance with the Conversion or Elimination Protocol prior to entry into force. In accordance with the Sixth Agreed Statement, three airplanes of the Bison type have been converted to transport oversized cargo (the Soviet space shuttle) and thus are not considered to meet this definition; however, all other Bison airplanes are former heavy bombers. In accordance with the Twelfth Agreed Statement, the 37 Bear D airplanes that the Soviet Union stated it possessed at Treaty signature and all Bear F and Bear J airplanes are not considered to be former heavy bombers. If more Bear Ds are produced, they will be former heavy bombers. As of Treaty signature, only the Soviet Union has former heavy bombers.

34. The term "former type" means, for ICBMs or SLBMs, a type of ICBM or SLBM, any one of which had been deployed prior to entry into force of the Treaty, but none of which was deployed when the Treaty entered into force and none of which are currently deployed. The category of former type" was created to allow for the use of such designated types of ballistic missiles with reentry vehicles for purposes of research and development, without their being considered to be new types or variants of existing types. The list of former types of ICBMs and SLBMs is contained in subparagraph 10(c) of Article III of the Treaty, and consists of only the U.S. Minuteman I and Polaris A-3. The Thirty-seventh Agreed Statement provides exemptions for ICBMs and SLBMs of former types with respect to specified Treaty provisions. Certain systems, such as the Soviet SS-9 and U.S. TITAN II, meet the definition of former type" but have not been included in the list of such types, since the Parties plan to use these systems for space launch only. If systems not designated as former types were ever tested with reentry vehicles, they would be considered new types of ICBMs or SLBMs.

35. The term "front section" means that portion of the payload of the final stage that contains the reentry vehicle or reentry vehicles and may, depending on design, include a reentry vehicle platform, penetration aids, and a shroud. This term is used in the Conversion or Elimination Protocol to describe the structural elements, in addition to the self-contained dispensing mechanism, that must be destroyed during elimination of ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs. It is used in subparagraph 4(b) of Article III of the Treaty to identify whether the front section is of an existing design or a fundamentally new design, for the purpose of counting warheads. This term is also used in the Telemetry Protocol to limit encryption on exempted flight tests to telemetric information that pertains to the front section or its elements. Except as used in subparagraph 4(b) of Article III and in the Twenty-fourth Agreed Statement, where The term " front section of a fundamentally new design" has a somewhat different meaning, the front section does not include any self- contained dispensing mechanism that may be on the missile.

36. The term "heavy bomber" is used to define which bombers of a new type will be subject to regulation under the terms of the Treaty (existing types of heavy bombers are listed in subparagraph 10(d) of Article III of the Treaty). The definition has several elements. The basic definition provides that a heavy bomber is a bomber that satisfies either of the following criteria: (a) its range is greater than 8000 kilometers; or (b) it is equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs. Should one of any of the bombers of each specific type satisfy either criterion, all of the bombers of that type would be considered to be heavy bombers. Bomber" is a defined term meaning an airplane equipped for bombs or air-to-surface missiles. Aircraft other than airplanes (for example, airships or helicopters) do not meet the definition of a bomber and thus cannot be heavy bombers. Range" is also a defined term that means unrefueled range with a 7500 kilogram ordnance load and a specific flight profile. However, the sides are allowed to agree that a specific type of bomber is not a heavy bomber even if it meets the criteria specified. Presumably, such discussions would occur within the framework of the JCIC, but the Treaty does not require that the discussion be held in the JCIC.

The third and fourth sentences of the definition are sometimes referred to as the "maritime exclusion." They provide that bombers configured exclusively for maritime operations shall not be considered heavy bombers provided that (a) they are not equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs, and (b) they are not models or modifications of an accountable heavy bomber. This provision allows the U.S. to deploy, for example, a follow-on to the P-3 Orion Maritime Patrol Aircraft without inadvertently capturing such an airplane under the terms of the START Treaty. The phrase modification of an accountable heavy bomber" includes derivative designs, so that, even if built from the ground up for maritime purposes, such bombers would not be subject to the maritime exclusion.

Since there could be ambiguity over whether a specific bomber did or did not meet the criteria to be considered a heavy bomber, the second paragraph of the definition provides an additional screening criterion. Any bomber with an integrated planform area of greater than 310 square meters is automatically considered a heavy bomber unless the owning side satisfies the other side that it neither is equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs nor is capable of a range (as defined in the Definitions Annex) in excess of 8000 kilometers. The 310 figure was selected in order to capture new bomber types that are approximately the same size as the Backfire bomber. It is significant to note that the burden of proof is on the owning side. Integrated planform area" is not defined in the Treaty but is understood to mean the total area of an airplane projected onto a two-dimensional surface from directly overhead.

37. The term "heavy bomber equipped for non-nuclear armaments" means a non-modern heavy bomber that is equipped only for non-nuclear armaments, and that satisfies the requirements for conversion in accordance with the Conversion or Elimination Protocol. At Treaty signature, no such bombers existed for either side. The term " non-modern heavy bomber" is defined in paragraph 73.

38. The term "heavy bomber flight test center" means a facility, other than a production facility for heavy bombers, at which test heavy bombers are based and their operation is supported. Such facilities are not air bases" and are not subject to inspection.

39. The term "heavy ICBM" means an ICBM of a type, any one of which has a launch weight greater than 106,000 kilograms or a throw-weight greater than 4350 kilograms. Both numbers are based on MOU values for the Soviet SS-19 ICBM.

40. The term "heavy SLBM" means an SLBM of a type, any one of which has a launch weight greater than 106,000 kilograms or a throw-weight greater than 4350 kilograms. These values were selected for consistency with the definition of "heavy ICBM."

41. The term "ICBM base" means: for rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs, an area in which a rail garrison and one associated maintenance facility are located (the maintenance facility may be located either within or outside the rail garrison); for road-mobile launchers of ICBMs, an area in which one or more restricted areas and one associated maintenance facility are located; or, for silo launchers of ICBMs, an area in which one or more groups of silo launchers of ICBMs and one associated maintenance facility are located.

42. The term "ICBM emplacement equipment" means equipment used to install an ICBM into a silo launcher of ICBMs. In accordance with subparagraph 1(c) of Article IV, the number of sets of ICBM emplacement equipment is limited at each ICBM base for silo launchers of ICBMs. ICBM emplacement equipment is considered to be support equipment" under the Treaty and, as such, is listed in Annex A to the Memorandum of Understanding.

43. The term "ICBM for mobile launchers of ICBMs" means an ICBM of a type, any one of which has been contained on, or flight-tested from, a mobile launcher of ICBMs, or has been declared an ICBM for mobile launchers of ICBMs. All SS-25s and SS-24s of the USSR, including those SS-24s deployed in silos, and all Peacekeeper ICBMs of the U.S., which are all currently deployed in silos, are considered to be ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs. Thus, all non-deployed SS-25s, SS-24s, and Peacekeepers count against the 250 non-deployed mobile missile limit. However, SS-24s and Peacekeeper ICBMs deployed in silos do not count against the 1100 limit on mobile ICBM warheads.

44. The term "ICBM launcher" means a device intended or used to contain, prepare for launch, and launch an ICBM.

45. The term "ICBM loading facility" means a facility, outside an ICBM base and outside a test range, where ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs are loaded onto or unloaded from mobile launchers of ICBMs.

46. The term "ICBM or SLBM, the final stage of which executes a procedure for dispensing reentry vehicles," describes a special classification of ICBM or SLBM established in the Throw-weight Protocol for the purposes of determining a ballistic missile's demonstrated throw-weight. Most ballistic missiles with more than one reentry vehicle use a self-contained dispensing mechanism (more commonly referred to in the United States as a post-boost vehicle) to dispense reentry vehicles. Such a self-contained dispensing mechanism conducts a series of maneuvers after separation from the final stage, and may release a reentry vehicle after each maneuver. In contrast, for ICBMs or SLBMs referred to in this definition, the maneuvering and the releasing of the reentry vehicles are done directly by the final stage.

During the negotiations, the U.S. understood that the Soviet SS-N-23 would be considered to be an SLBM the final stage of which executes a procedure for dispensing reentry vehicles. Late in the negotiations, however, the Soviet side insisted that the SS-N-23 was not a missile of that type and that its throw-weight should not be calculated on such basis, but should instead be computed in the manner specified by the Throw-weight Protocol for ballistic missiles that dispense multiple reentry vehicles from a self-contained dispensing mechanism. To resolve this issue, the United States made a formal statement during the final plenary session on July 29, 1991. This statement reiterated the U.S. belief that the SS-N-23 is an SLBM the final stage of which executes a procedure for dispensing reentry vehicles, but accepted the calculation of the throw-weight of the SS-N-23 on the basis declared by the Soviet Union. The U.S. side, however, reserved the right to contest the throw-weight value of any new type of ICBM or SLBM, or modification of an existing type of ICBM or SLBM, that incorporates a design similar to that of the SS-N-23, if its throw-weight value is calculated on the basis of an ICBM or SLBM that dispenses multiple reentry vehicles from a self-contained dispensing mechanism.

47. The term "in-country escort" means a group of individuals designated by the inspected Party to accompany and assist inspectors, monitors, and aircrew members throughout the in-country period, as provided for in the Inspection Protocol. In accordance with paragraph 1 of Section V of the Inspection Protocol, the in-country escort meets the inspection team, monitors and aircrew members at the point of entry, and expedites their entry and the entry of their baggage, equipment and supplies into the territory of the inspected Party. The in-country escort accompanies the inspection team and assists it in exercising its functions throughout the in-country period. The in-country escort has the right to accompany monitors and assists them in exercising their functions throughout the in-country period. The in-country escort examines equipment and supplies brought into the territory of the inspected Party, pursuant to paragraph 8 of Section V of the Inspection Protocol, to ascertain that the equipment and supplies cannot perform functions unconnected with the requirements of inspections or continuous monitoring activities. In accordance with paragraph 5 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol, inspectors and monitors, in discharging their functions, shall communicate with personnel of the inspected Party only through the in-country escort. In accordance with paragraph 12 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol, representatives of the inspected facility shall be included among the in-country escort at the inspection site.

48. The term "in-country period" means the period of time from the arrival of the inspection team, monitors, or aircrew members at the point of entry until their departure from the country through the point of entry.

49. The term "inspected Party" means the Party to the Treaty whose facilities and locations are subject to inspection or continuous monitoring pursuant to Article XI of the Treaty.

50. The term "inspecting Party" means the Party to the Treaty that conducts inspections or continuous monitoring activities.

51. The term "inspection site" means a facility or location at which inspections may be conducted in accordance with the Inspection Protocol. For inspections pursuant to paragraphs 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, and 10 of Article XI of the Treaty, the inspection site is designated after the arrival of the inspection team at the point of entry, in accordance with paragraph 4 of Section III of the Inspection Protocol. For inspections pursuant to paragraphs 8, 9, 11, 12, or 13 of Article XI of the Treaty, the inspection site is specified no less than 72 hours in advance of the arrival of the inspection team at the point of entry, in accordance with paragraph 5 of Section III of the Inspection Protocol. The points of entry and their associated inspection sites are listed in Annex I to the Memorandum of Understanding. The boundaries of the inspection site are the boundaries of the facility specified on the site diagram.

52. The term "inspection team" means the group of inspectors assigned by the inspecting Party to conduct a particular inspection. The number of inspectors on an inspection team is limited pursuant to paragraph 28 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol.

53. The term "inspector" means an individual specified by one of the Parties to conduct inspections and included on that Party's list of inspectors. In accordance with paragraph 2 of Section II of the Inspection Protocol, the number of individuals on the list of inspectors may not exceed 400 at any one time, and all inspectors shall be citizens of the inspecting Party. Procedures for proposing and rejecting inspectors, as well as provisions outlining their privileges and immunities, are contained in Section II of the Inspection Protocol.

54. The term "intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)" means a land-based ballistic missile with a range in excess of 5500 kilometers. The range of 5500 kilometers was chosen to dovetail with the INF Treaty (which bans land-based ballistic missiles of the US and the USSR with a range between 500 and 5500 kilometers) and is based on the shortest distance between the northeastern border of the continental United States and the northwestern border of the continental Soviet Union.

55. The term "jamming" means, for telemetric information broadcast from a missile, creating interference on frequencies used for broadcasting such information. Jamming during ICBM and SLBM flight tests is prohibited by paragraph 2(b) of Article X.

56. The term "launch-associated railcar" means a railcar that is directly associated with a rail-mobile launcher of ICBMs, such as a launch control car or a generator car, and that together with it provides for the preparation for launch and launch of a missile. Launchers and launch-associated rail cars are combined in a train of standard configuration. The numbers of launchers and launch-associated railcars that make up a train of standard configuration are found in Annex F to the Memorandum of Understanding.

57. The term "launch canister" means a container, directly associated with an ICBM, that can be or has been used for transporting and storing an assembled ICBM, with or without its front section, and from which an ICBM can be or has been launched. In accordance with paragraph 3(d) of Article III of the Treaty, each launch canister shall be considered to contain an ICBM from the time it first leaves a facility at which an ICBM is installed in it until an ICBM has been launched from it or until an ICBM has been removed from it for elimination. The Peacekeeper missile is not considered to be a canisterized" missile because the liner," in which it is installed in the silo launcher, is associated with the launcher, that is, the missile is not maintained in the liner" outside the launcher.

58. The term "launch weight" means the maximum weight of a fully loaded ICBM or SLBM at the time of first stage ignition, demonstrated during flight tests of ICBMs or SLBMs of that type.

59. The term "long-range ALCM" means an ALCM with a range in excess of 600 kilometers.

60. The term "long-range non-nuclear ALCM" means a long-range ALCM that is not nuclear-armed.

61. The term "long-range nuclear ALCM" means a long-range ALCM that is nuclear-armed.

62. The term "maintenance facility" means a facility that is part of an ICBM base and at which ICBMs and ICBM launchers are maintained and their operation is supported. In accordance with paragraph 6(d) of Article III of the Treaty, a mobile launcher of ICBMs is considered to contain a deployed ICBM when it arrives at a maintenance facility. In accordance with subparagraphs 1(b) and 2(b) of Article IV of the Treaty, the number of non-deployed ICBMs and the number of non-deployed mobile launchers of ICBMs at the maintenance facility are limited to no more than two for each type of ICBM specified for that ICBM base.

63. The term "missile tender" means a naval ship that is used for storing, transporting, and loading SLBMs into SLBM launchers. In accordance with subparagraph 9(a) of Article IV, non-deployed SLBMs that are located on missile tenders are considered to be located at the submarine base at which such missile tenders are specified as based, regardless of the tender's actual location. In accordance with paragraph 27 of Article V, missile tenders may be located at eliminated facilities only for purposes not associated with strategic offensive arms. In accordance with paragraph 29 of Article V, naval vessels that were formerly declared to be missile tenders may not be used to transport, store, or load SLBMs, nor may such vessels be tied to a ballistic missile submarine for the purpose of supporting such a submarine if such a submarine is located within five kilometers of a submarine base.

64. The term "mobile launcher of ICBMs" means a road-mobile launcher of ICBMs or a rail-mobile launcher of ICBMs.

65. The term "mobile training launcher" means a full-scale model of a mobile launcher of ICBMs that is not capable of launching ICBMs. Such training launchers are listed in Annex A to the MOU. In accordance with subparagraph 2(e) of Article IV of the Treaty, mobile training launchers are limited to an aggregate number, together with silo training launchers, of 60 and may contain only a training model of a missile and not a real missile. In addition, such launchers shall differ from mobile launchers of ICBMs and other road vehicles or railcars on the basis of differences that are observable by national technical means of verification. This term does not encompass mobile launchers of ICBMs that are used for training, which may be located at training facilities so long as they do not contain real missiles, and that are counted under the limits in both subparagraphs 2(a) and 2(c) of Article IV.

66. The term "monitor" means an individual specified by one of the Parties to conduct continuous monitoring activities and included on that Party's list of monitors. In accordance with paragraph 2 of Section II of the Inspection Protocol, the number of individuals on the list of monitors may not exceed 300 at any one time, and all monitors shall be citizens of the inspecting Party. Procedures for proposing and rejecting monitors, as well as provisions outlining their privileges and immunities, are contained in Section II of the Inspection Protocol.

67. The term "monitored facility" means a facility at which continuous monitoring has commenced.

68. The term "monitoring team" means the group of monitors specified by the inspecting Party to conduct continuous monitoring activities. The number of monitors on a monitoring team is limited pursuant to paragraph 28 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol.

69. The term "new type," when referring to ICBMs and SLBMs, means a type of ICBM or SLBM that is different from all other previously declared types of ICBMs or SLBMs in at least one of the following respects: a different number of stages; type of propellant of any stage (i.e., liquid or solid); a launch weight difference of at least ten percent; a length difference of the assembled missile without front section of at least ten percent; a length difference of the first stage of at least ten percent; a first stage diameter difference of at least five percent; or a throw-weight increase of at least 21 percent in conjunction with a change of at least five percent in the length of the first stage. Note that in the case of the throw-weight criterion, only an increase can be used to qualify an ICBM or SLBM as a new type; in the other cases, either an increase or a decrease in the parameters can be used to qualify a new type.

The new type definition is designed to ensure that any ICBM or SLBM that will have the status of a "new type" under the Treaty will be significantly different from any previously declared type of ICBM or SLBM, respectively. The intent is to require the Party declaring the new type to undertake significant effort, including engineering development and flight-testing, before a ballistic missile can have "new type" status. In addition, effective Treaty verification and counting depend upon ensuring that new types" will be distinct from those types of ICBMs or SLBMs that have been previously declared. ("Previously declared" is used in this analysis to refer collectively to types declared as of Treaty signature, which are referred to in the Treaty as "existing," "former," or "retired" types, and to types that have earlier been declared to be new types.")

While a new type of ICBM or SLBM must differ from all previously declared types of ICBMs or SLBMs, respectively, by at least one criterion, that criterion need not be the same for each previously declared type. Thus, for example, an ICBM could be considered a new type if it differed from previously declared ICBM Type A in the number of stages, from ICBM Type B in the type of propellant, from ICBM Type C in the diameter of the first stage, and so forth. If an ICBM or SLBM is declared to be a new type on the basis of a 21 percent increase in throw-weight accompanied by a five percent change in the length of the first stage, the Thirty-fourth Agreed Statement requires that both parameters be measured with respect to the same previously declared type. The meaning of differ" is not further amplified within the Treaty with respect to number of stages or type of propellant. The meaning of a change in missile length is given in paragraph 13 of Annex J of the Memorandum of Understanding. The meaning of a change in first stage length (with or without an increase in throw-weight) is amplified in paragraph 15 of Annex J to the Memorandum of Understanding; these provisions essentially define first stage length for purposes of the new types definition as the length of the solid rocket motor or the combined length of the liquid propellant tanks. Increases in throw-weight are determined in accordance with the Thirty-fourth Agreed Statement, which requires that the throw-weight of the new type of ICBM or SLBM be demonstrated to a specified range. The meaning of a change in first stage diameter is amplified in paragraph 16 of Annex J to the Memorandum of Understanding. Paragraph 10 of Section XIV of the Inspection Protocol provides that if an ICBM or SLBM is declared to be a new type on the basis of a change in launch weight, the other Party will have the opportunity to weigh or determine by some other agreed means the weight of the previously declared and new missiles; procedures for weighing or determining the weight by some other means would be worked out in the Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission before the beginning of deployment of the new type.

The definition is applied separately to ICBMs and SLBMs. A new type" of ICBM could be declared if it meets the above criteria with respect to all previously declared types of ICBMs but not with respect to all previously declared types of SLBMs. Similarly a new type" of SLBM could be declared if it meets the above criteria with respect to all previously declared types of SLBMs, but not with respect to all previously declared types of ICBMs. A missile would not be of a new type", however, were a Party merely to re-base an ICBM of a previously declared type as an SLBM, or to re-base an SLBM of a previously declared type as a silo-based ICBM. (Re-basing an SLBM on a mobile launcher of ICBMs is banned by paragraph 6 of Article V of the Treaty.) This is because the Treaty's definitions indicate that once an ICBM of a type is re-based as an SLBM, or once an SLBM of a type is re-based as an ICBM, all missiles of that type would be considered to be both ICBMs and SLBMs for purposes of the Treaty limits. The Treaty defines an ICBM as a land-based ballistic missile with a range in excess of 5500 kilometers." Once a missile of a type has been based in an ICBM silo launcher, all missiles of that type would be considered to be land-based. The Treaty defines an SLBM as a ballistic missile with a range in excess of 600 kilometers of a type, any one of which has been contained in or launched from a submarine."

Therefore, if a Party were to re-base an ICBM of a previously declared type in a submarine, or re-base an SLBM of a previously declared type in a silo, such an ICBM or SLBM would simultaneously meet the definitions of both an ICBM and an SLBM. Because such re-based missiles would retain the status of being previously declared types, they would not be entitled to "new type" status. Thus, not only would Treaty provisions relating to the missile in its re-based mode apply, but Treaty provisions applying to that previously declared type of ICBM or SLBM would continue to apply, including, for example, provisions on warhead and throw-weight attribution and the prohibition on flight-testing a missile type with more reentry vehicles than the number of warheads with which it had been attributed.

70. The term "non-deployed ICBM" means an ICBM not contained, and not considered to be contained, in a deployed launcher of ICBMs. Non-deployed ICBM is a general term used to describe ICBMs in storage, ICBMs undergoing repair, ICBMs maintained as spares, ICBMs awaiting elimination at conversion or elimination facilities, ICBMs used for space launch purposes at space launch facilities, ICBMs used for testing at test ranges (with certain exceptions for mobile ICBMs), and ICBMs in transit. In accordance with subparagraph 1(a) of Article IV of the Treaty, the aggregate number of non-deployed ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs shall be limited to no more than 250, of which no more than 125 can be for rail-mobile launchers. Other limits on non-deployed ICBMs are contained insubparagraphs 1(b), 1(c), and 9(a) of Article IV.

Retired and former types of ICBMs meet the definition of non-deployed ICBMs, but retired and former types of silo-based ICBMs are exempted from most restrictions on non-deployed ICBMs by the Thirty-seventh Agreed Statement. ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs of retired types remain subject to most restrictions that are applicable to non-deployed missiles, but retired mobile ICBMs that were attributed with only one warhead do not count against the 250 limit, and are exempt from the procedures of Section I of the Conversion or Elimination Protocol and the associated notifications.

71. The term "non-deployed mobile launcher of ICBMs" means a mobile test launcher, or a mobile launcher of ICBMs at a space launch facility, or a mobile launcher of ICBMs that does not contain, and that is not considered to contain, an ICBM. In accordance with subparagraph 2(a) of Article IV of the Treaty, the aggregate number of non-deployed mobile launchers of ICBMs shall be limited to no more than 110, of which no more than 18 can be rail-mobile launchers. Other limits on non-deployed mobile launchers of ICBMs are contained in subparagraphs 2(b), 2(c), and 9(b) of Article IV.

72. The term "non-deployed SLBM" means an SLBM not contained, and not considered to be contained, in a deployed launcher of SLBMs. Geographical constraints on non-deployed SLBMs are contained in paragraph 9(a) of Article IV of the Treaty. In accordance with that paragraph, non-deployed SLBMs that are located on missile tenders and storage cranes shall be considered to be located at the submarine base at which such missile tenders and storage cranes are specified as based.

73. The term "non-modern heavy bomber" means a heavy bomber of a type, any one of which was initially based at an air base more than ten years prior to the time at which the determination of "modern" versus "non-modern" status is being made. Only non-modern heavy bombers can be converted to heavy bombers equipped for non-nuclear armaments. Former heavy bombers need not be non-modern. The term "non-modern heavy bomber" was created in response to stated Soviet fears that the United States might designate high technology heavy bombers (e.g., the B-2) as heavy bombers equipped for non-nuclear armaments, thus exempting them from the central limits of the Treaty. There is no comparable term modern heavy bomber" because there is no need for such a term. In a formal statement on September 28, 1990, U.S. negotiators stated that, in the hypothetical case that a Party chose to deploy a modern" heavy bomber equipped for non-nuclear armaments, such heavy bombers would be treated as heavy bombers equipped for nuclear armaments other than long-range nuclear ALCMs under the Treaty.

74. The term "nuclear armaments other than long-range nuclear ALCMs" means, for heavy bombers, nuclear air-to-surface missiles with a range of less than 600 kilometers and nuclear bombs. This term establishes one of the two categories of deployed heavy bombers equipped for nuclear armaments. The other category of nuclear-armed heavy bombers is heavy bombers equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs.

75. The term "parking site" means a location, within a rail garrison, at which deployed rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs are based and fixed structures for rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs may be located. In accordance with paragraph 6 of Article VI, the number of parking sites in each rail garrison shall be limited to no more than the number of trains of standard configuration specified for that rail garrison, and each rail garrison shall have no more than five parking sites.

76. The term "payload" means, for a stage, all that separates from that stage, excluding the front section shroud and the propellant burned by that stage, beginning at the time when the velocity of the final stage is equal to 1000 meters per second less than its velocity at the earlier of two events: the termination of main engine thrust of the final stage, or the first release of a reentry vehicle or penetration aid. The term "payload" was tailored for use in the determination of the throw-weight of an ICBM or SLBM. It is to be distinguished from the use of the word payload" in the Fourth Agreed Statement, where the word is used in its more generic, commonly understood meaning.

77. The term "perimeter and portal continuous monitoring system" means the physical barriers, buildings, and equipment along the perimeter, at the portal, and at the other exits of a monitored facility, that may be established, operated, and maintained by the monitors for purposes of continuous monitoring of such a facility. Notification of the intention to establish such a system, to enter the territory of the other Party to establish such a system, and to maintain such a system must be provided in accordance with paragraphs 10, 13 and 15, respectively, of Section III of the Inspection Protocol.

78. The term "perimeter continuous monitoring area" means the space within which the inspecting Party has the right to establish, operate, and maintain a perimeter and portal continuous monitoring system and to carry out continuous monitoring. Pursuant to paragraph 6 of Section XVI of the Inspection Protocol, a perimeter continuous monitoring area shall be designated by the inspected Party along the periphery of a facility, and the boundaries of such facility shall be agreed upon by the Parties, so that such boundaries are sufficient to establish a perimeter and portal continuous monitoring system.

79. The term "period of inspection" means the period of time from completion of the pre-inspection procedures until the commencement of post-inspection procedures. The period of inspection is determined in accordance with paragraph 31 of Section VI of the Inspection Protocol.

80. The term "procedure for dispensing reentry vehicles" means a maneuver of the self-contained dispensing mechanism or of the final stage of a missile, associated with targeting to an aim point and releasing one or more reentry vehicles, whether or not a reentry vehicle is actually released. This term is used in subparagraph 4(c) of Article III of the Treaty to determine the maximum number of reentry vehicles with which an ICBM or SLBM has been flight-tested, based on actual and simulated releases. A procedure for dispensing penetration aids will not be considered to be a procedure for dispensing reentry vehicles, provided that the procedure for dispensing penetration aids differs from a procedure for dispensing reentry vehicles.

81. The term "produce" means build, construct, or manufacture in any quantity, and includes serial production as well as one-of-a-kind manufacturing. This term is used in prohibitions contained in Article V of the Treaty as part of the expression, each Party undertakes not to produce, flight-test, or deploy" specified items. This term was chosen over the SALT II term develop" because non-production of an item is easier to verify than non-development and because of U.S.-Soviet differences over the meaning of the term in the context of the ABM Treaty. "Produce" includes production of prototypes, since it includes one-of-a kind manufacturing.

82. The term "production facility" means: for ICBMs or SLBMs, a facility at which ICBMs that are maintained, stored, and transported as assembled missiles in their launch canisters, are assembled, including the joining of all stages and the loading of such missiles into launch canisters; at which ICBMs or SLBMs that are maintained, stored, and transported as assembled missiles without launch canisters, are assembled, including the joining of two or more stages; or at which first stages of ICBMs or SLBMs that are maintained, stored, and transported in stages are assembled; for ballistic missile submarines, a facility at which construction of ballistic missile submarines is performed; for mobile launchers of ICBMs, a facility at which the erector-launcher mechanism of a mobile launcher of ICBMs is mounted on the self-propelled chassis, trailer chassis, railcar, or flatcar; and for heavy bombers or former heavy bombers, a facility at which assembly of a complete heavy bomber airframe or complete former heavy bomber airframe is performed.

83. The term "prototype" means, for ICBMs or SLBMs, an ICBM or SLBM of a new type, none of which has been attributed with warheads or accountable throw-weight, no more than 20 of which have been flight-tested, and no launchers of which have been deployed. The reason for this term was the Parties' intent to prevent a new type of ICBM or SLBM from counting toward the Treaty's central limits until certain developmental milestones have been achieved. This gives the Parties the flexibility to alter or cancel such a missile before it becomes accountable under Article II of the Treaty. In accordance with paragraph 9(a) of Article IV, prototype ICBMs and SLBMs may not be located at maintenance facilities of ICBM bases or at submarine bases. In accordance with subparagraph 9(b) of Article IV, mobile launchers of prototype ICBMs may not be located at maintenance facilities of ICBMs bases for mobile launchers of ICBMs. At Treaty signature, the U.S. Small ICBM was considered to be a prototype.

84. The term "rail garrison" means an area in which one or more parking sites are located and an associated maintenance facility may be located. In accordance with paragraph 4 of Article VI, deployed rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs and their associated missiles shall be based only in rail garrisons, and that paragraph, along with paragraphs 5, 6, and 8 of that Article, set forth additional limitations relating to rail garrisons.

85. The term "rail-mobile launcher of ICBMs" means an erector-launcher mechanism for launching ICBMs and the railcar or flatcar on which it is mounted.

86. The term "range" means: for an ALCM, the maximum distance that can be covered by an ALCM of that type in its standard design mode flying until fuel exhaustion, determined by projecting its flight path onto the Earth's sphere from the point of launch to the point of impact; for a ballistic missile, the maximum distance measured by projecting the flight trajectory on the Earth's sphere between the launch point of a missile of that type, and the point of impact of a reentry vehicle; for an aircraft, the maximum distance that can be flown, without refueling, by an aircraft of that type when carrying an ordnance load of 7500 kilograms, with a full fuel load in the internal and external fuel tanks and a flight profile optimized to ensure minimum fuel consumption per kilometer.

With respect to aircraft, the fuel remaining in the fuel tanks after landing shall be no more than five percent of the maximum capacity of the fuel tanks, and the distance covered during climb and descent shall be taken into account. Range is used to determine the cutoff between systems limited by the Treaty and systems not so limited.

87. The term "rapid reload" means reloading a silo launcher of ICBMs in less than 12 hours or a mobile launcher of ICBMs in less than four hours after a missile has been launched or removed from such a launcher. In accordance with paragraph 16 of Article V, each Party undertakes not to produce, test or deploy systems for rapid reload and not to conduct rapid reload. The Parties did not attempt comparable definitions and restrictions for SLBMs or heavy bombers, since such systems are inherently incapable, in a short period of time, of reloading and repeatedly attacking.

88. The term "reentry vehicle" means that part of the front section of a ballistic missile that can survive reentry through the dense layers of the Earth's atmosphere and that is designed for delivering a weapon to a target or for testing such a delivery. The weapon need not be nuclear in order to meet this definition. The U.S. side made a conscious decision to capture non-nuclear as well as nuclear reentry vehicles in START, to close a possible loophole (i.e., to avoid the situation in which ICBMs or SLBMs are not declared to be accountable under Treaty limits because they do not carry nuclear reentry vehicles). The effect of the Treaty provisions are that deployed ICBMs and SLBMs are always accountable toward Treaty limits, regardless of their armament.

89. The term "relocation" means the one-way movement of a deployed mobile launcher of ICBMs and its associated missile from one declared facility to another declared facility, or from any location following the completion of a dispersal to a declared facility, or from any location during a routine movement to a declared facility other than to the maintenance facility associated with that restricted area or that rail garrison. In accordance with paragraph 9 of Article VI, deployed mobile launchers of ICBMs and their associated missiles may leave restricted areas or rail garrisons only for routine movements, relocations, or dispersals, and deployed road-mobile launchers of ICBMs and their associated missiles may leave deployment areas only for relocations or operational dispersals. Paragraph 10 of Article VI sets forth constraints on relocations. Paragraphs 9 and 10 of Section II of the Notification Protocol contain the notifications required prior to and following each relocation.

90. The term "repair facility" means: for ICBMs or SLBMs, a specified facility, outside an ICBM base or a submarine base, for the repair or maintenance of ICBMs or SLBMs; for mobile launchers of ICBMs, a specified facility, outside an ICBM base, for the repair or maintenance of mobile launchers of ICBMs; for heavy bombers or former heavy bombers, a specified facility, outside an air base, for the repair or maintenance of heavy bombers or former heavy bombers.

91. The term "residual propellant" means, when determining the maximum calculated throw-weight of an ICBM or an SLBM in accordance with the Throw-weight Protocol, the unusable propellant of a stage and the propellant of a stage designed to compensate for possible sub-optimal missile performance or missile flight conditions (e.g., weather conditions), expressed as a percentage of the total propellant mass of that stage.

92. The term "restricted area" means an area within a deployment area, in which deployed road-mobile launchers of ICBMs and their associated missiles are based and in which fixed structures for road-mobile launchers of ICBMs may be located. In accordance with paragraph 1 of Article VI, deployed road-mobile launchers of ICBMs and their associated missiles shall be based only in restricted areas, which are limited in size to no more than five square kilometers. That paragraph, along with paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article VI, set forth additional limitations relating to restricted areas.

93. The term "retired type" means, for ICBMs or SLBMs, a type of ICBM or SLBM, any one of which was deployed when the Treaty entered into force, but none of which is currently deployed due to the conversion or elimination of all launchers of ICBMs or SLBMs of the same type of ICBM or SLBM other than test launchers and launchers at space launch facilities, or, in accordance with the Thirty-third Agreed Statement, 32 launchers on two special purpose submarines. In accordance with paragraph 10 of Article V, ICBMs and SLBMs of retired types may not be flight-tested from other than test launchers specified for such use or launchers at space launch facilities. The Thirty-seventh Agreed Statement exempts ICBMs and SLBMs of retired types from specified Treaty limitations and provides additional limitations for retired types. Paragraph 6 of Article X of the Treaty and paragraph (2)(a) of Section III of the Telemetry Protocol allow encryption of telemetry from the front section and its elements for a limited number of flight tests of retired types, subject to specified constraints.

94. The term "road-mobile launcher of ICBMs" means an erector-launcher mechanism for launching ICBMs and the self-propelled or trailer chassis on which it is mounted.

95. The term "routine movement" means the movement of a deployed mobile launcher of ICBMs and its associated missile for the purpose of training, maintenance, or testing that begins and ends at the same restricted area or rail garrison and does not involve movement to any other declared facility except movement to the maintenance facility associated with that restricted area or that rail garrison. In accordance with paragraph 9 of Article VI, deployed mobile launchers of ICBMs and their associated missiles may leave restricted areas or rail garrisons only for routine movements, relocations, or dispersals. Paragraph 11 of Article VI sets forth constraints on routine movements. Notifications concerning the beginning and ending of routine movements by deployed rail-mobile launchers are contained in paragraphs 4 and 6 of Section II of the Notification Protocol.

96. The term "self-contained dispensing mechanism" means a device that separates from the final stage of a missile together with the front section and that independently targets and releases the reentry vehicle or reentry vehicles and penetration aids. The front section is attached to the self-contained dispensing mechanism. Although self-contained dispensing mechanisms are normally associated with ballistic missiles with more than one reentry vehicle, this is not required; the Soviet SS-25 ICBM, for example, has a self-contained dispensing mechanism, but only one reentry vehicle. Self-contained dispensing mechanisms are commonly referred to in the United States as post-boost vehicles.

97. The term " silo launcher of ICBMs" means a fixed launcher of ICBMs in a silo structure located in the ground.

98. The term "silo training launcher" means a full-scale silo launcher specified for training purposes. Subparagraphs 2(e) and 9(e) of Article IV establish numerical and locational constraints on silo training launchers. In accordance with the Thirteenth Agreed Statement, engineering models of silos located at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, are not considered to be silo training launchers, but are subject to the limitations on silo training launchers provided for in subparagraphs 2(e) of Article IV of the Treaty, and, if eliminated, shall be subject to procedures for silo training launchers in Section II of the Conversion or Elimination Protocol. Models of silos that are less than full depth, sometimes called stub" or shallow" training silos, are not considered to be silo training launchers, and are not subject to regulation under the Treaty, but such silos located in inspectable areas will be inspectable.

99. The term "silo used as a launch control center" means a silo, other than a silo launcher of ICBMs, that is located at an ICBM base and that is used to control the launch of an ICBM. In accordance with paragraph 11 of Article V, silos used as launch control centers may not be converted into silo launchers of ICBMs. Only the Soviet Union currently possesses such silos.

100. The term "SLBM launcher" means a device intended or used to contain, prepare for launch, and launch an SLBM. The word intended" allows launchers to be considered as such prior to actually containing an SLBM, i.e., on a newly constructed ballistic missile submarine.

101. The term "SLBM loading facility" means a shore-based facility, outside a submarine base, where SLBMs are loaded onto or unloaded from ballistic missile submarines. This term is needed only to reflect Soviet practices; U.S. SLBMs are loaded at submarine bases.

102. The term "soft-site launcher" means any fixed land-based launcher of ICBMs or SLBMs other than a silo launcher. In accordance with paragraph 9 of Article V, soft-site launchers may not be located outside of test ranges and space launch facilities, except that the six existing launchers at Cape Canaveral, Florida, shall be exempt from this prohibition until they contain or launch an ICBM or SLBM after the date of signature of the Treaty, pursuant to the Twenty-seventh Agreed Statement.

103. The term "solid rocket motor" means that part of a stage that consists of the case filled with solid fuel. Paragraph 10 of Article IV sets forth the locational constraints on solid rocket motors, with or without attached nozzles, for the first stages of ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs. Paragraph 30 of Article V establishes restrictions on the removal from production facilities for ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs, of solid rocket motors with attached nozzles for the first stages of ICBMs for mobile launchers of ICBMs.

104. The term "space launch facility" means a specified facility from which objects are delivered into the upper atmosphere or space using ICBMs or SLBMs. Such facilities are listed in Annex D to the Memorandum of Understanding. Provisions relating to such facilities are contained in paragraph 4 of Article IV and in the Twenty-sixth Agreed Statement.

105. The term "stage" means, for ICBMs or SLBMs, a section of a missile that is equipped with a propulsion unit and that can provide its payload with an additional velocity of more than 1000 meters per second. The velocity criterion is used to distinguish a stage from other propulsive devices, such as self-contained dispensing mechanisms.

106. The term "storage crane" means a floating crane that is used to store, transport, and load or unload SLBMs. In accordance with subparagraph 9(a) of Article IV, non-deployed SLBMs that are located on storage cranes are considered to be located at the submarine base at which such storage cranes are specified as based. The U.S. does not have such cranes; the Soviet Union does.

107. The term "storage facility" means: for ICBMs or SLBMs, a specified facility, outside an ICBM base, a submarine base, a test range, or a space launch facility, for the storage of ICBMs or SLBMs; for mobile launchers of ICBMs, a specified facility, outside an ICBM base, a test range, or a space launch facility, for the storage of mobile launchers of ICBMs; for heavy bombers or former heavy bombers, a specified facility, outside an air base, for the storage of heavy bombers or former heavy bombers.

108. The term "submarine base" means a facility at which ballistic missile submarines are based and that provides shore-based support for such submarines, which may include the assembly, loading, maintenance, and storage of SLBMs, unless otherwise provided for in the Treaty. The term "does not include support for submarines that is located in adjacent waters (as opposed to shore-based support), and therefore does not include a facility such as Holy Loch. The phrase :unless otherwise provided for in the Treaty" refers to the Thirty-third Agreed Statement, which permits homeporting of two special purpose submarines at ports not treated as submarine bases.

109. The term "submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)" means a ballistic missile with a range in excess of 600 kilometers of a type, any one of which has been contained in or launched from a submarine. The range of 600 kilometers was selected to avoid limitation of tactical naval systems.

110. The term "support equipment" means vehicles and mobile or transportable equipment used to support the operation of an ICBM or SLBM. Support equipment is listed in Annexes A and B to the Memorandum of Understanding. The Parties made a joint statement at the final plenary session of the negotiations that support equipment includes, but is not limited to, ICBM emplacement equipment, launch-associated support vehicles, transporter-loaders, training models of a missile, driver training vehicles, and storage cranes. Support equipment is subject to Treaty limitations until eliminated in accordance with the procedures provided for in the Conversion or Elimination Protocol. Paragraph 27 of Article V prohibits support equipment from being located at eliminated facilities.

111. The term "telemetric information" means all information, regardless of content, that originates on board a missile during its flight test that is broadcast or recorded for subsequent recovery. The term "is used throughout Article X of the Treaty and the Telemetry Protocol.

112. The term "test launcher" means an ICBM launcher or an SLBM launcher located within a test range, unless otherwise provided for in the Treaty. Subparagraph 2(d) of Article IV establishes limits on the aggregate numbers of such launchers. Subparagraph 9(d) of Article IV sets forth accountability rules for deployed mobile launchers of ICBMs and their associated missiles that relocate to a test range. In accordance with subparagraph 9(c) of Article IV, rail-mobile test launchers may conduct limited movements for the purpose of testing outside a test range. Mobile test launchers are non-deployed mobile launchers of ICBMs" and count against the aggregate limit of 110 provided in subparagraph 2(a) of Article IV, as well as under the limits on test launchers.

113. The term "test range" means a designated land area, other than an ICBM base, from which launches of ICBMs or SLBMs are conducted. Adjacent waters, such as the waters off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, are not considered part of the test range. Thus, launchers on ballistic missile submarines are never considered test launchers and launches from such submarines are not considered launches from test ranges.

114. The term "train of standard configuration" means a train consisting of a specified number of rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs and launch-associated railcars. The presence of other railcars and the number of such other cars in a train of standard configuration is unregulated by the Treaty.

115. The term "training facility" means: for ICBMs or SLBMs, a specified facility, outside an ICBM base or a submarine base, at which personnel are trained to use, operate, or maintain ICBMs or SLBMs and their launchers; for heavy bombers, a facility where training heavy bombers are based. Although for ICBMs and SLBMs this definition is very general, note that such facilities are specified." That is, the Parties are free to designate only the facilities they choose that meet this definition.

116. The term "training heavy bomber" means a heavy bomber used for training that is not equipped for nuclear armaments or non-nuclear air-to-surface armaments, and that satisfies the requirements for conversion in accordance with the Protocol on Conversion or Elimination. These conversion requirements specify that training heavy bombers not be capable of carrying air-to-surfac weapons or nuclear armaments. In accordance with subparagraph 4(g) of Article III of the Treaty, training heavy bombers are not attributed with a warhead for the purpose of counting warheads; moreover, training heavy bombers do not count toward the 1600 limit because they are not deployed" heavy bombers. Subparagraph 3(a) of Article IV establishes a limit of 75 on the aggregate number of heavy bombers equipped for non-nuclear armaments, former heavy bombers, and training heavy bombers. Subparagraph 9(f) of Article IV requires that training heavy bombers be based only at training facilities for heavy bombers. Provisions for training heavy bombers were added to accommodate Soviet practices; the United States has no training heavy bombers.

117. The term "training launcher" means a silo training launcher or a mobile training launcher. In accordance with subparagraph 2(e) of Article IV, the aggregate number of silo training launchers and mobile training launchers must not exceed 60. Mobile training launchers must be incapable of launching ICBMs, must differ from mobile ICBM launchers by differences observable to national technical means of verification, and may only contain training models of ICBMs. Silo training launchers may not launch ICBMs and may only contain training models of ICBMs. The Thirteenth Agreed Statement specifies that the provisions on silo training launchers in subparagraph 2(e) of Article IV also apply to the engineering models of silos at Hill Air Force Base.

118. The term "training model of a missile" means a full-scale, inert model of an ICBM or SLBM that is not capable of being launched and that differs from an ICBM or SLBM on the basis of external and functional differences that are visible during inspection. In accordance withparagraph 3(d) of Article III of the Treaty, a launch canister will not be considered to contain an ICBM if it contains a training model of a missile. In accordance with subparagraphs 2(c) and 2(e) of Article IV, non-deployed mobile launchers of ICBMs located at training facilities for ICBMs and training launchers may contain only training models of a missile.

119. The term "transit" means the one-way movement from one facility or location to another facility or another location of a non-deployed ICBM, other than an ICBM of a retired or former type; a non-deployed SLBM, other than an SLBM of a retired or former type; a launch canister that remains after the flight test of an ICBM for mobile launchers of ICBMs; or a non-deployed mobile launcher of ICBMs. In accordance with paragraph 12 of Article IV, the duration of each transit is limited to 30 days. Transits must be notified in accordance with paragraph 1 of Section II of the Notification Protocol.

120. The term "transporter-loader" means a vehicle that is capable of transporting an assembled ICBM for mobile launchers of ICBMs and from which such an ICBM can be loaded directly onto a mobile launcher of ICBMs, or onto which such an ICBM can be unloaded directly from a mobile launcher of ICBMs, outside facilities where non-deployed ICBMs may be located. Paragraph 5 of Article IV establishes numerical limitations on transporter-loaders. Paragraph 7 of Article V bans transporter-loaders for ICBMs for rail-mobile launchers of ICBMs, and for ICBMs for road-mobile launchers of ICBMs to which more than one warhead has been attributed.

121. The term "variant" means: for heavy bombers, a classification, declared by the inspected Party, of airplanes of one type and one category that are distinguishable from other airplanes of the same type and the same category; for long-range nuclear ALCMs, a classification, declared by the inspected Party, of items of the same type that are distinguishable from other items of the same type; for ICBMs and SLBMs, a classification, declared by the inspected Party, of ICBMs or SLBMs of the same type that are distinguishable from other ICBMs or SLBMs of the same type. For heavy bombers, variant" is a subclassification of a type/category combination. For example, B-52s equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs have two variants: B-52G and B-52H. B-52s equipped for nuclear armaments other than long-range nuclear ALCMs have several variants: B-52C, B-52D, B-52E, B-52F, and B-52G. There are no specified variants for B-52 test heavy bombers, even though such airplanes may be models of B-52Gs or B-52Hs. Declaration of variants is at the discretion of the owning Party; the United States elected not to declare such variants because (a) there was no need to do so, since test heavy bombers count toward a separate limit, rather than the central limits of the Treaty, and (b) declaring variants would have entailed exhibitions to display distinguishability.

In accordance with the Twenty-fifth Agreed Statement, an ICBM or SLBM of a type, a dimension of which differs from that of another ICBM or SLBM of the same type by more than three percent, but by less than the appropriate new types criteria, must be considered to be a variant. A Party may also declare an ICBM or SLBM to be a variant if its dimensions differ by less than three percent.

122. The term "version" means, for mobile launchers of ICBMs, fixed structures for mobile launchers of ICBMs, and support equipment, a classification, declared by the inspected Party, based on external differences from other such items for a particular type of ICBM or SLBM. The term "version" is used for mobile launchers of ICBMs, fixed structures, and support equipment as The term "variant" is used for heavy bombers, long-range nuclear ALCMs, and ICBMs and SLBMs. There are three reasons why the two terms could not have been combined: "variant" refers only to items the Treaty specifies as types (e.g., ICBMs and SLBMs); The term "variant" uses the defined term "distinguishable;" and "variant" has the connotation of a base model and derivatives, while "version" has the connotation of several equally authoritative models.

123. The term "warhead" means a unit of account used for counting toward the 6000 maximum aggregate limit and relevant sublimits as applied to deployed ICBMs, deployed SLBMs, and deployed heavy bombers. The term "is never used to describe a physical object; instead, The term "reentry vehicle" is used, with respect to ICBMs and SLBMs, and The term "ALCM," heavy bomber armaments" or weapons" is used with respect to heavy bombers. The term "is always used in the context of a certain number of warheads attributed" to deployed ICBMs, deployed SLBMs, and deployed heavy bombers.

124. The term "weapon-delivery vehicle" means, for ballistic missiles and cruise missiles, a missile of a type, any one of which has been flight-tested or deployed to carry or be used as a weapon, that is, as any mechanism or device that, when directed against any target, is designed to damage or destroy it. Since The term "warhead" is used in a specialized sense in the Treaty as a unit of account, not as a physical object, it does not appear in this definition. Nevertheless, in parallel statements for the record on June 28, 1990, U.S. and Soviet negotiators confirmed that the phrase any mechanism or device" in the definition of weapon-delivery vehicle includes what are commonly referred to as warheads. This term is used only in subparagraphs 9(b) and 9(c) of Article III of the Treaty, and is based on similar provisions in the INF Treaty.