ACDA has reorganized, revitalized, and streamlined to best meet the increasing arms control,
nonproliferation, and disarmament challenges in the context of the tight budget environment of
the mid-1990s. Additionally, in 1997, ACDA began the process of planning for integration with
the State Department. This chapter describes ACDA's organization as of January 1998.
Under the Arms Control and Disarmament Act, the Director is the principal advisor to the President, the National Security Council, the Secretary of State, and other senior government officials on arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament matters, and on their relationship to other aspects of overall national security policy. The Director is responsible for all ACDA operations, activities, and positions.
The Executive Secretary, on behalf of the Director, initiates and provides Agency liaison to other national security agencies, and coordinates within ACDA and with other agencies to ensure appropriate ACDA representation at senior-level interagency deliberations and international summits and the timely exchange of information at the sub-cabinet level and above. The Executive Secretary advises the Director and other Agency principals on arms control and management policy options, the status of policy deliberation within the Agency, and the optimum methods and procedures to implement policy decisions. The Executive Secretary also advises on the status of internal operations and activities, and implements improved approaches to streamline the Agency's productivity and to increase its effectiveness. The Executive Secretary manages the Director's formal record of communications regarding arms control policy deliberations and decisions, and ensures the accuracy of and accountability for official communications by employing state-of-the-art computer technology (ESPRIT computer system) to image, catalog, retrieve, and permanently preserve ACDA and interagency documents on arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament. The Executive Secretary's office is involved extensively in planning for the integration of ACDA into the State Department, in accordance with the President's decision of April 18, 1997, to reorganize the foreign affairs agencies. The Executive Secretary serves as the Agency representative to the Core Team which oversees the integration "blueprint" planning process for the Secretary of State and the Directors of ACDA and the U.S. Information Agency and the Administrator for the U.S. Agency for International Development.
The Dir/AC, established in 1997, consists of up to 16 members, appointed by the ACDA Director. It provides advice to the Director on scientific, technical, legal, and policy aspects of arms control and nonproliferation.
Consistent with ACDA's organizational streamlining, the Executive Director of the Dir/AC also serves as the Director of the Advanced Projects Office.
The Dir/AC is ACDA's only advisory committee.
The Advanced Projects Office is ACDA's center for innovative concepts of arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament. It conceives and develops new avenues to all aspects of arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament. Its projects build both on internally-generated concepts and on ideas collected from government, academic, and nongovernmental sources.
The Advanced Projects Office is ACDA's center for negotiations on landmines and the Convention on Conventional Weapons.
This office also carries out major internal projects for the Director.
The Chief Science Advisor, with the rank of Ambassador, serves as the special representative to the Director for matters of science and technology. The office administers funding for the Agency's research programs which promotes the development of technologies for arms control, verification, and nonproliferation. The Chief Science Advisor is the senior ACDA representative on issues of technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in compliance with U.S. obligations under Article IV of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The Chief Science Advisor is also the ACDA representative in the process of developing, coordinating, and implementing national security and science and technology policy through the National Science and Technology Council and the Committee on National Security.
The Special Assistant to the Director for Military Affairs serves as the Director's principal advisor on military matters and the professional management of ACDA's military detailees. This office represents the ACDA Director to the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff and serves as ACDA's focal point for military-to-military contacts. ACDA's Senior Military Officer commands the assigned military detailees and works with the Special Assistant regarding the service member's unique administrative, personnel, and career development requirements. As required, the Senior Military Officer and/or the Special Assistant for Military Affairs participates in senior policymaking groups to provide a military perspective on worldwide arms control and nonproliferation matters, and to assess their potential contributions to the national security of the United States.
The Counselor advises the Director and other ACDA principals on major issues confronting U.S. arms control policy that cut across organizational lines, involve long-range planning, or require the development of alternatives from wide and independent perspectives. He proposes and develops strategies for implementing specific arms control proposals. He maintains liaison with the National Security Council and other national security agencies in the development and execution of arms control policy. He presents ACDA views on arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament at public and intergovernmental fora, conferences and symposia.
The Deputy Director functions as Acting Director during periods of the Director's absence. The Deputy Director, by law, is specifically responsible for the administrative management of ACDA and for intelligence-related activities.
The Office of Equal Employment Opportunity serves as the primary resource in ACDA for compliance with various laws, management directives, and guidelines applicable to Equal Opportunity. It provides leadership to the Agency's top management, bureau and office heads to carry out the continuing policy and program of nondiscrimination and affirmative action.
The Office directs and provides equal employment opportunity in the special program areas of upward mobility, affirmative employment for people with disabilities, multi-year affirmative action plan, special emphasis programs, and outreach recruitment. The Office is responsible for individual complaint counseling, investigations, and adjudication of complaints in accordance with applicable federal statutes. An ongoing analysis of the Agency's workforce is conducted periodically to assess affirmative measures in order to achieve a diversified workforce.
1. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND NUCLEAR POLICY DIVISION (MA/ISNP)
This division is responsible for guidance for U.S. delegations to various multilateral arms control conferences and meetings. It provides policy guidance and instructions, chairing the Washington interagency policy formulation for U.S. delegations conducting multilateral discussions or negotiations on issues including:
The division provides delegation members and support for the Conference on Disarmament, the UN Disarmament Commission, the UN General Assembly First Committee, other UN-related disarmament fora, and the NATO Disarmament Experts' Group.
It also covers any bilateral activities, international conferences or consultations which relate to nuclear testing and existing constraints on tests, including:
The European Security Policy Division assists in preparing guidance for ACDA's participation in U.S. delegations at European security negotiations in Vienna and elsewhere. It participates in formulation of U.S. policy for treaty implementation and adaptation through the Joint Consultative Group of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and the Open Skies Consultative Commission. This division participates in the interagency process that supports Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe efforts to increase/maintain stability in Europe, including implementation of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures in the Forum for Security Cooperation and the arms control elements of the peace agreement for Bosnia-Herzegovina, and by organizing and conducting the OSCE Forum for Security Cooperation's Annual Implementation Assessment Meeting. The European Security Policy Division provides delegation staffing for these negotiations, and consults and coordinates with allied and other foreign governments on multilateral arms control issues.
The Chemical and Biological Policy Division makes policy recommendations and provides scientific and technical support for chemical and biological arms control. This division directs interagency policy formulation for CBW issues, develops and coordinates guidance, and provides delegation staffing for negotiations and meetings related to these issues, including:
The U.S. Representative to the Conference on Disarmament, with the rank of Ambassador, leads the U.S. delegation to the CD in Geneva, the UN Disarmament Commission, the United Nations General Assembly First Committee, and, as requested, also represents the ACDA Director in other negotiations.
1. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR AFFAIRS DIVISION (NP/INA)
This division provides advice, assessments, and policy recommendations on the international relations aspects of nuclear nonproliferation, including:
The Weapons and Technology Control Division (WTC) carries out ACDA's statutory responsibilities under the Arms Export Control Act and the Foreign Assistance Act to review and evaluate government-to-government and commercial arms sales and security assistance proposals. WTC represents the Agency in development and implementation of U.S. policy and international negotiations on conventional arms transfers, missile and chemical/biological weapons nonproliferation, dual-use export controls, commercial space issues, and various regional arms control initiatives. This division:
The Bureau of Strategic and Eurasian Affairs is ACDA's center for nuclear arms control and disarmament with the nations of the former Soviet Union and with China. This includes:
The Strategic Negotiations and Implementation Division is the ACDA center for arms control of long-range and intermediate- and shorter-range weapons delivery systems. This division supports and chairs the following U.S. Government interagency committees:
These committees have principal responsibility within the U.S. Government for developing instructions for the JCIC, SVC, and, eventually BIC delegations, and for diplomatic communications for delivery to the governments of the START I, START II, and INF Treaty Parties.
ACDA leadership of the negotiation and implementation of future strategic offensive arms reduction agreements, e.g., START III and deactivation commitment, will also reside in this division. Additionally, the Strategic Negotiations and Implementation Division assesses potential impacts on strategic arms control of new technological developments.
The Strategic Transition Division is the focal point within ACDA for the START III warhead regime, nuclear warhead dismantlement and transparency, strategic arms control dialogue with China, NATO nuclear arms control matters, non-strategic nuclear weapons issues and Eurasian regional arms control. The focus of much of SEA/ST's attention is on ensuring the control, dismantlement, and safe storage of nuclear warheads located in Russia, and on restructuring defense industries in the region. SEA/ST engages Chinese Government and non-governmental arms control experts on strategic arms control issues. SEA/ST studies possibilities for enhanced transparency and monitoring of nuclear warhead eliminations, and participates in negotiations on conversion of Russian weapons grade plutonium production reactors.
SEA/ST provides policy input, analytical and negotiating support to:
SEA/D provides analysis and support to the ACDA Director on all issues concerning ballistic missile defenses and the ABM Treaty. It develops, for Presidential approval, options for arms control policy, strategy, tactics, and instructions for negotiations in the Standing Consultative Commission (SCC). The SCC is the implementing body of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. SEA/D chairs the interagency SCC policy formulation committee in support of the negotiations. This division also prepares policy options on ABM and theater ballistic missile defense issues for consideration in other high-level U.S.-Russian bilateral discussions.
This division provides a senior member and at least one adviser to SCC negotiations, and to the five-year review conferences of the ABM Treaty. In addition, this division participates in discussions with other countries related to ballistic missile defense issues.
In addition, SEA/D is responsible for strategic space arms control matters, including space-based missile defenses and anti-satellite weapons. SEA/D provided analytical support to formulation of the National Space Policy released September 19, 1996, and the Global Positioning System Policy released March 28, 1996.
The U.S. Representative to the Special Verification Commission, with the rank of Ambassador, heads the U.S. delegation to the Commission, which is the implementing body for the INF Treaty. To maximize cost effectiveness, Ambassador Steven Steiner currently serves as U.S. Representative to both the SVC and the JCIC (below).
The U.S. Representative to the Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission, with the rank of Ambassador, heads the U.S. delegation to the Commission, which is the implementing body for the START Treaty.
The U.S. Commissioner of the Standing Consultative Commission represents the United States in the SCC on matters related to the ABM Treaty and heads the U.S. component of the Commission.
The IVI Bureau develops and coordinates with other United States Government national security agencies verification policy and technologies for new and existing arms control agreements and provides intelligence analysis and compliance assessments regarding their implementation. Also, it maintains ACDA's information systems and archives data important to arms control treaty negotiation and implementation. IVI:
The Verification and Compliance Division provides policy, technical, and analytical expertise in seven key areas:
The Verification and Compliance Division is responsible for policy development, formulation, and execution with respect to verifying compliance with arms control obligations by all of our treaty partners. The Division analyzes, formulates, and implements compliance policy with respect to: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) and related agreements, Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE), Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs), Strategic Arms Reductions Treaties (START I and START II), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Geneva Protocol, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and related agreements, Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), Open Skies, and the Antarctic Treaty. Most of these agreements are of unlimited duration, and require verification of compliance indefinitely.
The division also is responsible for the development and promotion of effective verification provisions and regimes for arms control and nonproliferation agreements currently being negotiated and that may be negotiated in the future. At present, the division's focus centers on the development of verification provisions and regimes for the envisioned Fissile Material Production Cutoff Treaty (FMCT), START III, Anti-Personnel Landmine limitations (APL), and the BWC Compliance Measures Protocol, as well as the further elaboration of the CTBT verification regime. The verification position crafted in the Verification and Compliance Division is expected to form the U.S. negotiating position on any particular issue.
The Verification and Compliance Division is responsible for the preparation of the President's Annual Report to Congress on Adherence to and Compliance With Arms Control Agreements. Additionally, the division prepares and coordinates more specialized compliance reports for the Congress, such as those on Russian and other former Soviet states' compliance with the CWC and CFE required by the U.S. Senate resolutions of ratification to the CWC and the CFE Flanks Agreement. The division also is responsible for tracking and reporting on U.S. compliance with arms control and nonproliferation commitments. Division staff analyze other parties' allegations of U.S. non-compliance; independently monitor U.S. implementation activities; and work directly with the Department of Defense to ensure U.S. compliance.
The Verification and Compliance Division prepares and coordinates verifiability policy assessments for all arms control and non-proliferation agreements. These assessments normally are prepared as part of the U.S. ratification effort. However, such assessments are also prepared whenever there is a significant alteration in the U.S. ability to verify compliance with an arms control or non-proliferation agreement, and whenever they are requested by the Congress.
Division staff lead the interagency in the implementation of verification policy, chairing a host of interagency working groups and committees including the Verification and Compliance Analysis Working Group for INF, START, and CWC, the BWC Compliance Measures Task Force, and the CTBT Verification and Monitoring Task Force. The division develops guidance for U.S. on-site inspection teams, provides experts to participate in trial inspection exercises and actual arms control inspections, and offers "lessons learned" from U.S. experience in implementing previous agreements. The division also provides verification experts to serve on U.S. delegations to various bilateral and multilateral compliance fora and to ongoing arms control negotiations. At present, the Verification and Compliance Division provides the Verification and Compliance Advisor to the U.S. JCIC and SVC Delegations; the U.S. Representative to the CTBT PrepCom Working Group B on Verification; the Deputy Head of the U.S. Delegation to the BWC Ad Hoc Group; the U.S. Representative to the Open Skies Flight Procedures Working Group; and the Verification Advisor to the bilateral and trilateral FMCT talks.
The Intelligence, Technology, and Analysis Division (ITA) provides essential support to the broad range of Agency endeavors. ITA's intelligence experts provide daily intelligence to senior policy makers in ACDA; research, compile, and analyze all-source intelligence information relevant to ACDA's arms control and nonproliferation missions; develop and communicate ACDA's collection and analysis requirements to the Intelligence Community (IC); and commission intelligence officers from the IC to brief ACDA staff on important issues. While ACDA is not itself an intelligence community member, ITA represents ACDA's interests in every relevant collection and production forum -- either as a member or as an observer.
ITA's technology experts implement ACDA's mandate to coordinate government-wide research and development of technology for arms control and nonproliferation purposes. The primary vehicle through which this is done is the interagency Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Working Group (NPAC TWG), which ITA's Division Chief co-chairs and for which ITA experts serve as Executive Secretary and chair of two of the 14 technology focus groups. (See Chapter VIII ACDA's External Research, "Coordination of Federal NPAC R&D", for additional information.) ITA's technology experts also represent ACDA on interagency bodies that control collection systems needed for treaty monitoring and execute ACDA's mandate to report annually to Congress on the conduct of arms control and nonproliferation research.
The analysis program has a broad vision, encompassing experts with command over methodologies spanning the analytical spectrum from computer-intensive operations analysis to politico-military, regional, and economic analysis. Since much of this analysis requires intelligence support, the analysis and intelligence functions work together closely. ITA staff economists produce the critically acclaimed annual report on World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (WMEAT), as well as occasional papers derived from WMEAT data.
Synergy among the programs of ITA and between ITA and the programs it supports throughout ACDA is a critical goal of this organization. Intelligence collection systems, for example, yield the information needed for the compliance judgments made by IVI/VC. Economic and politico-military analysis help nonproliferation experts understand the regional stability issues that contribute to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Verification needs dictate treaty monitoring requirements, which, in turn, dictate technology demands. Operations analysis helps guide the development of ACDA's treaty negotiating strategies of the future.
The Office of Information Management and Computer Operations is responsible for developing and maintaining the Agency's office automation systems. Additionally, and more importantly, IVI/IC works closely with the interagency components of the U.S. Government's arms control community in development and maintenance of databases and information management systems related to treaty negotiations both past and in progress, as well as treaty implementation, verification, and compliance activities. IVI/IC's mission has expanded to encompass tools which enhanced daily data transmission, monitoring, and analysis capabilities. IVI/IC provides these major services in the following ways:
An ACDA Representative serves as the Principal Deputy Director of the On-Site Inspection Agency, which is the agency charged with operational responsibility for the conduct of arms control on-site inspections.
The Office of Public Affairs (PA) is organized to execute its legislative mandate for "the dissemination and coordination of public information concerning arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament." This includes responsibility for all media contacts, press guidance on questions relating to ACDA, planning and coordinating speaking engagements by ACDA officials, and preparation of materials for distribution to the public.
The Office of Public Affairs, through a comprehensive Speakers Program, makes the Director and other senior ACDA officials available to the media, Non-Governmental Organizations, business, academic and civic groups, as well as the general public, for interviews, speeches, and other public speaking events.
The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for ACDA's active Publications Program. PA produces a range of materials, including brochures, fact sheets, press releases, reports, and compendia of treaties and agreements. They are available from the ACDA website, http://www.acda.gov and by calling toll-free 1-800-581-ACDA. For a listing of current publications, contact the Fax-on-Demand at (202) 647-1322.
The Office of the General Counsel (GC) is responsible for all matters involving domestic and international law that arise from arms control and disarmament activities of the U.S. Government and the work of the Agency. It provides legal advice and assistance throughout the negotiation, conclusion, ratification, and implementation of arms control treaties and agreements. GC lawyers regularly provide the following specific services:
During 1997, attorneys from GC played a central role in the signature of the Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START II), signature of documents related to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABM), negotiation of a Protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), ratification and implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), implementation of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START I), implementation of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles (INF), negotiation of measures to strengthen nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), negotiation in the Joint Consultative Group (JCG) on adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), preparatory work toward the negotiation of START III, representation of the United States at the Oslo Conference on Banning Anti-Personnel Mines, participation in the meeting of the Preparatory Committee of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and interagency efforts to gain Senate advice and consent of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
The ACDA Office of Congressional Affairs plays a central role in the executive branch's efforts to secure ratification of arms control treaties and agreements. It responds to Congressional interest in arms control and nonproliferation matters by arranging briefings and consultations between ACDA officials and Members of Congress and their staff. It advises the Director of ACDA on the legislative and policy implications of all arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament issues and proposals. The Congressional Affairs Office coordinates ACDA and executive branch responses to Congressional inquiries and it arranges appearances of ACDA officials before Congressional committees. In addition, it routinely distributes informational material on arms control to the Congress.
The Office of Administration provides administrative support to the Agency either directly or through a variety of cross-servicing agreements. In accordance with the objectives of the National Performance Review, this office continues to seek the most economical and efficient way to deliver support services to its components both domestically and overseas. ACDA's administrative office in Geneva is the Agency's liaison with the U.S. Mission and provides administrative support to the various arms control delegations overseas.
This division manages the ACDA human resources program and serves as the Agency's liaison with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, the General Services Administration, the Department of Labor, and other agencies concerned with personnel and employment-related issues. The division also provides Agency support services including the receipt and distribution of mail and other communications, requisitioning of administrative supplies, goods and services, space and property management, and physical safety and emergency planning.
The Office of Security is responsible for ACDA's security programs in Washington, DC and overseas. These programs cover the full range of security services, e.g. physical, procedural, personnel, technical, computer security, and intelligence functions; liaison with other Federal investigative agencies and offices of security. The office manages the security and accountability of all special compartmented information materials held in ACDA.
This division manages ACDA's procurement program and is responsible for all matters concerning the acquisition of ACDA's contracted goods and services. The division provides technical advice and guidance in acquisition planning and the development of procurement requests. It solicits bids and offers, negotiates terms and conditions, and awards contracts, grants and reimbursable agreements. It also performs contract administration, close-out or termination, and settlement functions. The division is ACDA's point of contact for receipt of unsolicited proposals and contractor invoices.
This division is responsible for the overall financial management of the Agency and serves as the Agency's liaison with congressional committees, the Office of Management and Budget, and with other agencies concerned with financial management. This includes the preparation, formulation, presentation, and execution of ACDA's budget, accounting, and travel management, and all fiscal support and payroll responsibilities.