X. ACDA Organization

ACDA has reorganized, revitalized, and streamlined to best meet the increasing arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament challenges in the context of the tight budget environment of the mid-1990s. Additionally, in 1997, ACDA began the process of planning for integration with the State Department. This chapter describes ACDA's organization as of January 1998.

A. OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR

Under the Arms Control and Disarmament Act, the Director is the principal advisor to the President, the National Security Council, the Secretary of State, and other senior government officials on arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament matters, and on their relationship to other aspects of overall national security policy. The Director is responsible for all ACDA operations, activities, and positions.

1. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY AND ADVISOR FOR INTERNAL AFFAIRS (D/EX)

The Executive Secretary, on behalf of the Director, initiates and provides Agency liaison to other national security agencies, and coordinates within ACDA and with other agencies to ensure appropriate ACDA representation at senior-level interagency deliberations and international summits and the timely exchange of information at the sub-cabinet level and above. The Executive Secretary advises the Director and other Agency principals on arms control and management policy options, the status of policy deliberation within the Agency, and the optimum methods and procedures to implement policy decisions. The Executive Secretary also advises on the status of internal operations and activities, and implements improved approaches to streamline the Agency's productivity and to increase its effectiveness. The Executive Secretary manages the Director's formal record of communications regarding arms control policy deliberations and decisions, and ensures the accuracy of and accountability for official communications by employing state-of-the-art computer technology (ESPRIT computer system) to image, catalog, retrieve, and permanently preserve ACDA and interagency documents on arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament. The Executive Secretary's office is involved extensively in planning for the integration of ACDA into the State Department, in accordance with the President's decision of April 18, 1997, to reorganize the foreign affairs agencies. The Executive Secretary serves as the Agency representative to the Core Team which oversees the integration "blueprint" planning process for the Secretary of State and the Directors of ACDA and the U.S. Information Agency and the Administrator for the U.S. Agency for International Development.

2. DIRECTOR'S ADVISORY COMMITTEE (Dir/AC)

The Dir/AC, established in 1997, consists of up to 16 members, appointed by the ACDA Director. It provides advice to the Director on scientific, technical, legal, and policy aspects of arms control and nonproliferation.

Consistent with ACDA's organizational streamlining, the Executive Director of the Dir/AC also serves as the Director of the Advanced Projects Office.

The Dir/AC is ACDA's only advisory committee.

3. ADVANCED PROJECTS OFFICE (D/AP)

The Advanced Projects Office is ACDA's center for innovative concepts of arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament. It conceives and develops new avenues to all aspects of arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament. Its projects build both on internally-generated concepts and on ideas collected from government, academic, and nongovernmental sources.

The Advanced Projects Office is ACDA's center for negotiations on landmines and the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

This office also carries out major internal projects for the Director.

4. OFFICE OF THE CHIEF SCIENCE ADVISOR (D/CSA)

The Chief Science Advisor, with the rank of Ambassador, serves as the special representative to the Director for matters of science and technology. The office administers funding for the Agency's research programs which promotes the development of technologies for arms control, verification, and nonproliferation. The Chief Science Advisor is the senior ACDA representative on issues of technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in compliance with U.S. obligations under Article IV of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The Chief Science Advisor is also the ACDA representative in the process of developing, coordinating, and implementing national security and science and technology policy through the National Science and Technology Council and the Committee on National Security.

5. OFFICE OF MILITARY AFFAIRS (D/M)

The Special Assistant to the Director for Military Affairs serves as the Director's principal advisor on military matters and the professional management of ACDA's military detailees. This office represents the ACDA Director to the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff and serves as ACDA's focal point for military-to-military contacts. ACDA's Senior Military Officer commands the assigned military detailees and works with the Special Assistant regarding the service member's unique administrative, personnel, and career development requirements. As required, the Senior Military Officer and/or the Special Assistant for Military Affairs participates in senior policymaking groups to provide a military perspective on worldwide arms control and nonproliferation matters, and to assess their potential contributions to the national security of the United States.

6. COUNSELOR

The Counselor advises the Director and other ACDA principals on major issues confronting U.S. arms control policy that cut across organizational lines, involve long-range planning, or require the development of alternatives from wide and independent perspectives. He proposes and develops strategies for implementing specific arms control proposals. He maintains liaison with the National Security Council and other national security agencies in the development and execution of arms control policy. He presents ACDA views on arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament at public and intergovernmental fora, conferences and symposia.

B. OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY DIRECTOR

The Deputy Director functions as Acting Director during periods of the Director's absence. The Deputy Director, by law, is specifically responsible for the administrative management of ACDA and for intelligence-related activities.

1. OFFICE OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO)

The Office of Equal Employment Opportunity serves as the primary resource in ACDA for compliance with various laws, management directives, and guidelines applicable to Equal Opportunity. It provides leadership to the Agency's top management, bureau and office heads to carry out the continuing policy and program of nondiscrimination and affirmative action.

The Office directs and provides equal employment opportunity in the special program areas of upward mobility, affirmative employment for people with disabilities, multi-year affirmative action plan, special emphasis programs, and outreach recruitment. The Office is responsible for individual complaint counseling, investigations, and adjudication of complaints in accordance with applicable federal statutes. An ongoing analysis of the Agency's workforce is conducted periodically to assess affirmative measures in order to achieve a diversified workforce.

C. MULTILATERAL AFFAIRS BUREAU (MA)

1. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND NUCLEAR POLICY DIVISION (MA/ISNP)

This division is responsible for guidance for U.S. delegations to various multilateral arms control conferences and meetings. It provides policy guidance and instructions, chairing the Washington interagency policy formulation for U.S. delegations conducting multilateral discussions or negotiations on issues including:

  • outer space arms control;

  • transparency in armaments and the U.N. Register of Conventional Arms;

  • negative security assurances;

  • efforts to begin negotiations for a fissile material cutoff convention; and

  • efforts to begin negotiations at the CD on a ban on the use, production, transfer, and stockpiling of anti-personnel landmines.

The division provides delegation members and support for the Conference on Disarmament, the UN Disarmament Commission, the UN General Assembly First Committee, other UN-related disarmament fora, and the NATO Disarmament Experts' Group.

It also covers any bilateral activities, international conferences or consultations which relate to nuclear testing and existing constraints on tests, including:

  • the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty;

  • the 1974 Threshold Test Ban Treaty;

  • the 1976 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty;

  • the provisional Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), the implementing body for the CTBT.

2. EUROPEAN SECURITY POLICY DIVISION (MA/ESP)

The European Security Policy Division assists in preparing guidance for ACDA's participation in U.S. delegations at European security negotiations in Vienna and elsewhere. It participates in formulation of U.S. policy for treaty implementation and adaptation through the Joint Consultative Group of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and the Open Skies Consultative Commission. This division participates in the interagency process that supports Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe efforts to increase/maintain stability in Europe, including implementation of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures in the Forum for Security Cooperation and the arms control elements of the peace agreement for Bosnia-Herzegovina, and by organizing and conducting the OSCE Forum for Security Cooperation's Annual Implementation Assessment Meeting. The European Security Policy Division provides delegation staffing for these negotiations, and consults and coordinates with allied and other foreign governments on multilateral arms control issues.

3. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL POLICY DIVISION (MA/CBP)

The Chemical and Biological Policy Division makes policy recommendations and provides scientific and technical support for chemical and biological arms control. This division directs interagency policy formulation for CBW issues, develops and coordinates guidance, and provides delegation staffing for negotiations and meetings related to these issues, including:

  • the Chemical Weapons Convention;

  • the Biological Weapons Convention;

  • the U.S.-Russian Wyoming Memorandum of Understanding;

  • the Bilateral Destruction Agreement;

  • the Trilateral Statement on Biological Weapons and other CBW negotiations.

4. U.S. REPRESENTATIVE TO THE CONFERENCE ON DISARMAMENT (CD)

The U.S. Representative to the Conference on Disarmament, with the rank of Ambassador, leads the U.S. delegation to the CD in Geneva, the UN Disarmament Commission, the United Nations General Assembly First Committee, and, as requested, also represents the ACDA Director in other negotiations.

D. NONPROLIFERATION AND REGIONAL ARMS CONTROL BUREAU (NP)

1. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR AFFAIRS DIVISION (NP/INA)

This division provides advice, assessments, and policy recommendations on the international relations aspects of nuclear nonproliferation, including:

  • the Treaty of Tlatelolco, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone (the Treaty of Rarotonga), the African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone, and other nuclear weapon free zones;

  • the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons;

  • technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in compliance with Article IV of the NPT;

  • U.S. agreements for civil nuclear cooperation;

  • regional arms control approaches to reducing incentives for proliferation;

  • monitoring regional and country specific developments relating to nuclear matters;

  • preparing the unclassified Nuclear Proliferation Assessment Statement that is required by law for each proposed agreement for peaceful nuclear cooperation;

  • providing ACDA views on U.S. nuclear export control issues and supporting U.S. efforts to prevent exports of proliferation concern.

2. WEAPONS AND TECHNOLOGY CONTROL DIVISION (NP/WTC)

The Weapons and Technology Control Division (WTC) carries out ACDA's statutory responsibilities under the Arms Export Control Act and the Foreign Assistance Act to review and evaluate government-to-government and commercial arms sales and security assistance proposals. WTC represents the Agency in development and implementation of U.S. policy and international negotiations on conventional arms transfers, missile and chemical/biological weapons nonproliferation, dual-use export controls, commercial space issues, and various regional arms control initiatives. This division:

  • prepares ACDA advice to the President, the Secretary of State, and the National Security Council on the arms control implications of proposed U.S. transfers of conventional arms and associated military technology, as required by Sections 38 and 42 of the Arms Export Control Act and Section 511 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended;

  • develops and contributes to development of U.S. and multilateral policies on transfers of conventional arms and technology, including participation in the Wassenaar Arrangement, and on exports of advanced military systems and capabilities to particular regional settings;

  • prepares arms control evaluations of proposed arms sales for the Congress when so requested under Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act;

  • develops policy guidelines and criteria for assessing the impact of U.S. technology transfers on arms control and national security policies;

  • initiates and contributes to policy development on U.S. and multilateral dual-use export controls, to ensure conformity with arms control, nonproliferation, and national security interests;

  • coordinates arms control and nonproliferation bilaterals with other countries, and represents ACDA in political-military bilaterals;

  • participates in the development and implementation of U.S. policy governing CBW nonproliferation and the transfer of CBW-related export controls by participating in interagency preparations for and attending the 29-nation Australia Group's annual meeting, and serving on the Interagency Interdiction Group SHIELD;

  • participates in the development and implementation of U.S. policies on the transfer of missile-related technology, and in support of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR);

  • represents ACDA on the interagency National Disclosure Policy Committee, the Missile Technology Export Control Group, the Missile Trade Analysis Group, the Missile Annex Review Committee, the GPS International Working Group, the Technical Safeguards Agreements Working Group, the CBW Export Control Working Group, the CBW Interdiction Group, various sub-IWG's, the Operating Committee (for dual-use export cases), and the Supercomputer Working Group;

  • provides staff support to ACDA policy-level principals in the IWG on Nonproliferation and Export Controls, the Advisory Committee on Export Policy, the Export Administration Review Board, and the Deputies Committee;

  • fosters regional arms control policies and arrangements designed to reduce tension, promote or maintain peace, and remove incentives for arms races or development of weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them;

  • leads interagency efforts to support regional arms control initiatives in East Asia, Latin America, and Africa; and

  • develops and participates in development of commercial space and strategic arms control policy issues that intersect with nonproliferation and weapons control issues.

3. NUCLEAR SAFEGUARDS AND TECHNOLOGY DIVISION (NP/NST)

This division:

  • provides technical advice and policy recommendations on nuclear proliferation issues including the IAEA safeguards system, nuclear fuel cycle, and the technological aspects of nuclear nonproliferation, including the safe disposition of fissile material;

  • monitors and seeks to strengthen the IAEA safeguards system, and holds bilateral consultations on these matters with experts abroad;

  • develops safeguards and other technical concepts related to the U.S. Government's nuclear nonproliferation initiatives, including a global cutoff treaty;

  • participates in guiding the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance for IAEA Safeguards;

  • assesses the safeguards and nonproliferation implications of emerging technologies;

  • assists in the implementation of nonproliferation initiatives, including spent fuel storage;

  • participates in U.S. efforts to promote the implementation of effective standards of material control and accountancy and physical protection worldwide;

  • participates in U.S. efforts to promote cooperation among nuclear supplier countries on export controls, including in the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the Zangger Committee;

  • acts on U.S. nuclear export control issues, including fulfilling ACDA's statutory responsibilities under the Nuclear Non-proliferation Act for nuclear exports and providing support for multilateral export control activities such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the Zangger Committee; and,

  • provides advice and recommendations concerning implementation of the U.S.-North Korean agreed framework.

E. STRATEGIC AND EURASIAN AFFAIRS BUREAU (SEA)

The Bureau of Strategic and Eurasian Affairs is ACDA's center for nuclear arms control and disarmament with the nations of the former Soviet Union and with China. This includes:

  • implementation of existing strategic and theater nuclear arms control agreements (START I and INF Treaties);

  • implementation of the START II Treaty after it has entered into force;

  • negotiation and implementation of future nuclear arms control agreements;

  • implementation of the ABM Treaty;

  • negotiations concerning theater and strategic ballistic missile defense;

  • ensuring that nuclear weapons are being dismantled in an irreversible and transparent manner, and that the resulting fissile materials are safely and securely stored;

  • assessment of arms control aspects of the development of U.S. and NATO nuclear postures and policies;

  • exploration of arms control possibilities in the Eurasian region, including potential discussions with China on strategic stability;

  • assistance with conversion of former Soviet defense industry to civilian purpose; and

  • coordinating the U.S. Government's approach to issues that overlap the SSD and START regimes.

1. STRATEGIC NEGOTIATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION DIVISION (SEA/SN)

The Strategic Negotiations and Implementation Division is the ACDA center for arms control of long-range and intermediate- and shorter-range weapons delivery systems. This division supports and chairs the following U.S. Government interagency committees:

  • the policy formulation committee for the Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission (START I Treaty implementation);

  • the Special Verification Commission Support Group (INF Treaty implementation);

  • the policy formulation committee for the Bilateral Implementation Commission (START II Treaty implementation, upon its entry-into-force).

These committees have principal responsibility within the U.S. Government for developing instructions for the JCIC, SVC, and, eventually BIC delegations, and for diplomatic communications for delivery to the governments of the START I, START II, and INF Treaty Parties.

ACDA leadership of the negotiation and implementation of future strategic offensive arms reduction agreements, e.g., START III and deactivation commitment, will also reside in this division. Additionally, the Strategic Negotiations and Implementation Division assesses potential impacts on strategic arms control of new technological developments.

2. STRATEGIC TRANSITION DIVISION (SEA/ST)

The Strategic Transition Division is the focal point within ACDA for the START III warhead regime, nuclear warhead dismantlement and transparency, strategic arms control dialogue with China, NATO nuclear arms control matters, non-strategic nuclear weapons issues and Eurasian regional arms control. The focus of much of SEA/ST's attention is on ensuring the control, dismantlement, and safe storage of nuclear warheads located in Russia, and on restructuring defense industries in the region. SEA/ST engages Chinese Government and non-governmental arms control experts on strategic arms control issues. SEA/ST studies possibilities for enhanced transparency and monitoring of nuclear warhead eliminations, and participates in negotiations on conversion of Russian weapons grade plutonium production reactors.

SEA/ST provides policy input, analytical and negotiating support to:

  • The development of the START III warhead regime;

  • Cooperative Threat Reduction negotiations for transparency at Mayak;

  • State-chaired Russian International Science and Technology Center, the Science and Technology Center of Ukraine, and the Department of Energy's Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention program;

  • Meetings of NATO's High Level group, Senior Defense Group on Proliferation, and Senior Politico-Military Group on Proliferation on nuclear policy issues;

  • Bilateral Defense Conversion Committee with Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus;

  • U.S.-China strategic arms control dialogue.

3. THEATER AND STRATEGIC DEFENSES DIVISION (SEA/D)

SEA/D provides analysis and support to the ACDA Director on all issues concerning ballistic missile defenses and the ABM Treaty. It develops, for Presidential approval, options for arms control policy, strategy, tactics, and instructions for negotiations in the Standing Consultative Commission (SCC). The SCC is the implementing body of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. SEA/D chairs the interagency SCC policy formulation committee in support of the negotiations. This division also prepares policy options on ABM and theater ballistic missile defense issues for consideration in other high-level U.S.-Russian bilateral discussions.

This division provides a senior member and at least one adviser to SCC negotiations, and to the five-year review conferences of the ABM Treaty. In addition, this division participates in discussions with other countries related to ballistic missile defense issues.

In addition, SEA/D is responsible for strategic space arms control matters, including space-based missile defenses and anti-satellite weapons. SEA/D provided analytical support to formulation of the National Space Policy released September 19, 1996, and the Global Positioning System Policy released March 28, 1996.

4. U.S. REPRESENTATIVE TO THE SPECIAL VERIFICATION COMMISSION (SVC)

The U.S. Representative to the Special Verification Commission, with the rank of Ambassador, heads the U.S. delegation to the Commission, which is the implementing body for the INF Treaty. To maximize cost effectiveness, Ambassador Steven Steiner currently serves as U.S. Representative to both the SVC and the JCIC (below).

5. U.S. REPRESENTATIVE TO THE JOINT COMPLIANCE AND INSPECTION COMMISSION (JCIC)

The U.S. Representative to the Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission, with the rank of Ambassador, heads the U.S. delegation to the Commission, which is the implementing body for the START Treaty.

6. U.S. COMMISSIONER OF THE STANDING CONSULTATIVE COMMISSION (SCC)

The U.S. Commissioner of the Standing Consultative Commission represents the United States in the SCC on matters related to the ABM Treaty and heads the U.S. component of the Commission.

F. INTELLIGENCE, VERIFICATION AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT BUREAU (IVI)

The IVI Bureau develops and coordinates with other United States Government national security agencies verification policy and technologies for new and existing arms control agreements and provides intelligence analysis and compliance assessments regarding their implementation. Also, it maintains ACDA's information systems and archives data important to arms control treaty negotiation and implementation. IVI:

  • generates and coordinates agency perspectives on substantive compliance, verification and implementation issues;

  • provides research, intelligence, technical and political-military analysis to all ACDA bureaus;

  • monitors and assures the availability of U.S. technical systems to assist in verification of existing treaties;

  • coordinates United States Government arms control and nonproliferation R&D;

  • compiles, maintains, and analyzes all relevant arms control and nonproliferation data in support of agency requirements for compliance assessment and adjudication;

  • provides the definitive repository for all arms control negotiating records and electronic treaty texts;

  • analyzes economic aspects of arms control and national security issues;

  • implements advances in computer applications and technology supporting ACDA missions in Washington and abroad; and

  • establishes, manages, and maintains all information systems within the agency.

1. VERIFICATION AND COMPLIANCE DIVISION (IVI/VC)

The Verification and Compliance Division provides policy, technical, and analytical expertise in seven key areas:

  • Establishing arms control verification policy;

  • Developing measures and procedures for verification of arms control and non-proliferation agreements under negotiation;

  • Assessing compliance by U.S. treaty partners;

  • Implementing verification measures contained in existing agreements;

  • Fulfilling statutory requirements for Section 37 verifiability assessments and a multiplicity of compliance reports;

  • Providing guidance to and participating in critical on-site inspection activities; and

  • Presenting verification-related issues to other U.S. Government agencies, Congress, and the public.

The Verification and Compliance Division is responsible for policy development, formulation, and execution with respect to verifying compliance with arms control obligations by all of our treaty partners. The Division analyzes, formulates, and implements compliance policy with respect to: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) and related agreements, Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE), Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs), Strategic Arms Reductions Treaties (START I and START II), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Geneva Protocol, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and related agreements, Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), Open Skies, and the Antarctic Treaty. Most of these agreements are of unlimited duration, and require verification of compliance indefinitely.

The division also is responsible for the development and promotion of effective verification provisions and regimes for arms control and nonproliferation agreements currently being negotiated and that may be negotiated in the future. At present, the division's focus centers on the development of verification provisions and regimes for the envisioned Fissile Material Production Cutoff Treaty (FMCT), START III, Anti-Personnel Landmine limitations (APL), and the BWC Compliance Measures Protocol, as well as the further elaboration of the CTBT verification regime. The verification position crafted in the Verification and Compliance Division is expected to form the U.S. negotiating position on any particular issue.

The Verification and Compliance Division is responsible for the preparation of the President's Annual Report to Congress on Adherence to and Compliance With Arms Control Agreements. Additionally, the division prepares and coordinates more specialized compliance reports for the Congress, such as those on Russian and other former Soviet states' compliance with the CWC and CFE required by the U.S. Senate resolutions of ratification to the CWC and the CFE Flanks Agreement. The division also is responsible for tracking and reporting on U.S. compliance with arms control and nonproliferation commitments. Division staff analyze other parties' allegations of U.S. non-compliance; independently monitor U.S. implementation activities; and work directly with the Department of Defense to ensure U.S. compliance.

The Verification and Compliance Division prepares and coordinates verifiability policy assessments for all arms control and non-proliferation agreements. These assessments normally are prepared as part of the U.S. ratification effort. However, such assessments are also prepared whenever there is a significant alteration in the U.S. ability to verify compliance with an arms control or non-proliferation agreement, and whenever they are requested by the Congress.

Division staff lead the interagency in the implementation of verification policy, chairing a host of interagency working groups and committees including the Verification and Compliance Analysis Working Group for INF, START, and CWC, the BWC Compliance Measures Task Force, and the CTBT Verification and Monitoring Task Force. The division develops guidance for U.S. on-site inspection teams, provides experts to participate in trial inspection exercises and actual arms control inspections, and offers "lessons learned" from U.S. experience in implementing previous agreements. The division also provides verification experts to serve on U.S. delegations to various bilateral and multilateral compliance fora and to ongoing arms control negotiations. At present, the Verification and Compliance Division provides the Verification and Compliance Advisor to the U.S. JCIC and SVC Delegations; the U.S. Representative to the CTBT PrepCom Working Group B on Verification; the Deputy Head of the U.S. Delegation to the BWC Ad Hoc Group; the U.S. Representative to the Open Skies Flight Procedures Working Group; and the Verification Advisor to the bilateral and trilateral FMCT talks.

2. INTELLIGENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND ANALYSIS DIVISION (IVI/ITA)

The Intelligence, Technology, and Analysis Division (ITA) provides essential support to the broad range of Agency endeavors. ITA's intelligence experts provide daily intelligence to senior policy makers in ACDA; research, compile, and analyze all-source intelligence information relevant to ACDA's arms control and nonproliferation missions; develop and communicate ACDA's collection and analysis requirements to the Intelligence Community (IC); and commission intelligence officers from the IC to brief ACDA staff on important issues. While ACDA is not itself an intelligence community member, ITA represents ACDA's interests in every relevant collection and production forum -- either as a member or as an observer.

ITA's technology experts implement ACDA's mandate to coordinate government-wide research and development of technology for arms control and nonproliferation purposes. The primary vehicle through which this is done is the interagency Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Working Group (NPAC TWG), which ITA's Division Chief co-chairs and for which ITA experts serve as Executive Secretary and chair of two of the 14 technology focus groups. (See Chapter VIII ACDA's External Research, "Coordination of Federal NPAC R&D", for additional information.) ITA's technology experts also represent ACDA on interagency bodies that control collection systems needed for treaty monitoring and execute ACDA's mandate to report annually to Congress on the conduct of arms control and nonproliferation research.

The analysis program has a broad vision, encompassing experts with command over methodologies spanning the analytical spectrum from computer-intensive operations analysis to politico-military, regional, and economic analysis. Since much of this analysis requires intelligence support, the analysis and intelligence functions work together closely. ITA staff economists produce the critically acclaimed annual report on World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (WMEAT), as well as occasional papers derived from WMEAT data.

Synergy among the programs of ITA and between ITA and the programs it supports throughout ACDA is a critical goal of this organization. Intelligence collection systems, for example, yield the information needed for the compliance judgments made by IVI/VC. Economic and politico-military analysis help nonproliferation experts understand the regional stability issues that contribute to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Verification needs dictate treaty monitoring requirements, which, in turn, dictate technology demands. Operations analysis helps guide the development of ACDA's treaty negotiating strategies of the future.

3. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND COMPUTER OPERATIONS OFFICE (IVI/IC)

The Office of Information Management and Computer Operations is responsible for developing and maintaining the Agency's office automation systems. Additionally, and more importantly, IVI/IC works closely with the interagency components of the U.S. Government's arms control community in development and maintenance of databases and information management systems related to treaty negotiations both past and in progress, as well as treaty implementation, verification, and compliance activities. IVI/IC's mission has expanded to encompass tools which enhanced daily data transmission, monitoring, and analysis capabilities. IVI/IC provides these major services in the following ways:

  • Maintains on-line archive of treaty data and negotiating records;

  • Provides information management support for domestic backstopping efforts related to ongoing nonproliferation and disarmament efforts;

  • Provides technical assistance to international working groups regarding the direction, design, and implementation of the CTBT Global Communications infrastructure;

  • Operates the Agency's Records Management Program, including training, records retirement and retrieval, declassification, and provides assistance with FOIA requests;

  • Develops and maintains computer support for the Chemical Weapons Convention National Authority Coordinating Staff;

  • Provides communications and database support for implementing the Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty;

  • Develops and/or supports state-of-the-art software tools for the analysis of treaty compliance;

  • Maintains connectivity to the interagency via both classified and unclassified networks enhancing the timely dissemination of information to critical decision-making units within the USG;

  • Provides technical expertise related to international verification information database for the OPCW; and

  • Maintains a decision support laboratory providing access to a variety of decision support tools used by management and interagency working groups for the conduct of electronic meetings and planning sessions.

4. PRINCIPAL DEPUTY DIRECTOR, ON-SITE INSPECTION AGENCY (OSIA)

An ACDA Representative serves as the Principal Deputy Director of the On-Site Inspection Agency, which is the agency charged with operational responsibility for the conduct of arms control on-site inspections.

G. OFFICE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS (PA)

The Office of Public Affairs (PA) is organized to execute its legislative mandate for "the dissemination and coordination of public information concerning arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament." This includes responsibility for all media contacts, press guidance on questions relating to ACDA, planning and coordinating speaking engagements by ACDA officials, and preparation of materials for distribution to the public.

1. PUBLIC AND MEDIA LIAISON

The Office of Public Affairs, through a comprehensive Speakers Program, makes the Director and other senior ACDA officials available to the media, Non-Governmental Organizations, business, academic and civic groups, as well as the general public, for interviews, speeches, and other public speaking events.

2. PUBLICATIONS

The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for ACDA's active Publications Program. PA produces a range of materials, including brochures, fact sheets, press releases, reports, and compendia of treaties and agreements. They are available from the ACDA website, http://www.acda.gov and by calling toll-free 1-800-581-ACDA. For a listing of current publications, contact the Fax-on-Demand at (202) 647-1322.

H. OFFICE OF THE GENERAL COUNSEL (GC)

The Office of the General Counsel (GC) is responsible for all matters involving domestic and international law that arise from arms control and disarmament activities of the U.S. Government and the work of the Agency. It provides legal advice and assistance throughout the negotiation, conclusion, ratification, and implementation of arms control treaties and agreements. GC lawyers regularly provide the following specific services:

  • Draft and provide advice and legal counsel during the negotiation of arms reduc-tion/control treaties and international agreements. Provide counsel on questions regarding implementation, interpretation, compliance, and revision of such agreements, including participation in interagency working groups and backstopping committees. Serve as the Legal Adviser on U.S. delegations to arms control and security arrangement negotiations.

  • Interpret legislation affecting the Agency, including representing the Agency with respect to proposed and pending legislation, and reviewing all Agency reports required by law and regulation.

  • Provide legal support for the ratification of arms control treaties. This includes drafting the article-by-article analyses of treaties for transmittal by the President to the Congress, and liaison with Members of Congress and staff on matters concerning arms control Treaties and Executive Agreements.

  • Assist in the preparation and review of arms transfer impact statements, reports on the verifiability of arms control proposals and agreements, and similar documents to be submitted to executive branch decisionmakers and/or Congress, all of which require legal interpretation of treaty provisions.

  • Draft and review legislation affecting the Agency, including the Agency's legislative programs such as the annual or bi-annual authorizations for appropriations.

  • Provide legal support for the Director's membership on the Board of Directors, United States Institute of Peace.

  • Provide legal support for initiatives by the President, the Director, and the different bureaus of the Agency by reviewing proposed positions from legal perspectives. This includes participation in working groups formed by the NSC to write and review papers establishing U.S. options that are proposed to the NSC and to the President.

  • Develop and interpret legal positions on Agency policies and operations in the areas of personnel, security, patents, procurement, fiscal, equal employment opportunity, and administrative matters.

  • Operate the Agency's ethics program. This includes obtaining financial disclosure statements and making conflict of interest determinations, interpreting and drafting regulations, providing ethics training, providing counseling and written legal opinions on regulations regarding executive branch standards of conduct, providing conflict of interest and post-employment conflict of interest advice, and attending interagency meetings and conferences concerning matters relating to the standards of conduct regulations.

  • Review all proposed contracts, grants, and reimbursable agreements.

  • Determine Agency responses to Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act, discovery, or other records production requests.

  • Provide legal instruction at both domestic and international arms control courses and seminars.

During 1997, attorneys from GC played a central role in the signature of the Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START II), signature of documents related to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABM), negotiation of a Protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), ratification and implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), implementation of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START I), implementation of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles (INF), negotiation of measures to strengthen nuclear safeguards applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), negotiation in the Joint Consultative Group (JCG) on adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), preparatory work toward the negotiation of START III, representation of the United States at the Oslo Conference on Banning Anti-Personnel Mines, participation in the meeting of the Preparatory Committee of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and interagency efforts to gain Senate advice and consent of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

I. OFFICE OF CONGRESSIONAL AFFAIRS (CA)

The ACDA Office of Congressional Affairs plays a central role in the executive branch's efforts to secure ratification of arms control treaties and agreements. It responds to Congressional interest in arms control and nonproliferation matters by arranging briefings and consultations between ACDA officials and Members of Congress and their staff. It advises the Director of ACDA on the legislative and policy implications of all arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament issues and proposals. The Congressional Affairs Office coordinates ACDA and executive branch responses to Congressional inquiries and it arranges appearances of ACDA officials before Congressional committees. In addition, it routinely distributes informational material on arms control to the Congress.

J. OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION (A)

The Office of Administration provides administrative support to the Agency either directly or through a variety of cross-servicing agreements. In accordance with the objectives of the National Performance Review, this office continues to seek the most economical and efficient way to deliver support services to its components both domestically and overseas. ACDA's administrative office in Geneva is the Agency's liaison with the U.S. Mission and provides administrative support to the various arms control delegations overseas.

1. PERSONNEL AND GENERAL SERVICES DIVISION

This division manages the ACDA human resources program and serves as the Agency's liaison with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, the General Services Administration, the Department of Labor, and other agencies concerned with personnel and employment-related issues. The division also provides Agency support services including the receipt and distribution of mail and other communications, requisitioning of administrative supplies, goods and services, space and property management, and physical safety and emergency planning.

2. OFFICE OF SECURITY

The Office of Security is responsible for ACDA's security programs in Washington, DC and overseas. These programs cover the full range of security services, e.g. physical, procedural, personnel, technical, computer security, and intelligence functions; liaison with other Federal investigative agencies and offices of security. The office manages the security and accountability of all special compartmented information materials held in ACDA.

3. CONTRACTS DIVISION

This division manages ACDA's procurement program and is responsible for all matters concerning the acquisition of ACDA's contracted goods and services. The division provides technical advice and guidance in acquisition planning and the development of procurement requests. It solicits bids and offers, negotiates terms and conditions, and awards contracts, grants and reimbursable agreements. It also performs contract administration, close-out or termination, and settlement functions. The division is ACDA's point of contact for receipt of unsolicited proposals and contractor invoices.

4. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT DIVISION

This division is responsible for the overall financial management of the Agency and serves as the Agency's liaison with congressional committees, the Office of Management and Budget, and with other agencies concerned with financial management. This includes the preparation, formulation, presentation, and execution of ACDA's budget, accounting, and travel management, and all fiscal support and payroll responsibilities.