ACDA has reorganized, revitalized, and streamlined to best meet the increasing arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament challenges in the context of the tight budget environment of the mid-1990s. This chapter describes ACDA's organization as of January 1997.
Under the Arms Control and Disarmament Act, the Director is the principal advisor to the President, the National Security Council, the Secretary of State, and other senior government officials on arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament matters, and on their relationship to other aspects of overall national security policy. The Director is responsible for all ACDA operations, activities, and positions.
The Executive Secretary, on behalf of the Director, initiates and provides Agency liaison to other national security agencies and coordinates within ACDA and with other agencies to ensure appropriate ACDA representation at senior-level interagency deliberations and international summits, and to ensure timely exchange of information at the sub-cabinet-level and above. The Executive Secretary advises the Director and other Agency principals on arms control and administrative policy options, the status of policy deliberation within the Agency, and the optimum methods and procedures to implement policy decisions. The Executive Secretary also advises on the status of internal operations and activities, and implements improved approaches to streamline the Agency's productivity and to increase its effectiveness. The Executive Secretary manages the Director's formal record of communications regarding arms control policy deliberations and decisions, and ensures the accuracy of and accountability for official communications by employing state-of-the-art computer technology (ESPRIT computer system) to image, catalog, store, retrieve, and permanently preserve arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament, ACDA, and interagency documents.
The Scientific and Policy Advisory Committee, established by law in 1994, was ACDA's sole advisory body. It replaced the previous General Advisory Committee, and differed from its predecessor in being more scientifically oriented and more sharply focused on devising solutions to specific challenges.
The SPAC was authorized to consist of up to 15 members appointed by the President, including a Chairman who must be confirmed by the Senate. At least eight members of the Committee were required to be scientists. The Committee was charged with reporting to the President, the Secretary of State, and the ACDA Director on its findings and recommendations. Consistent with ACDA's organizational streamlining, the SPAC operated out of the Advanced Projects Office, and the Director of the Advanced Projects Office also served as Executive Director of the SPAC.
The SPAC terminated April 30, 1996 due to expiration of Congressional authorization.
The Advanced Projects Office is ACDA's center for innovative concepts of arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament. It conceives and develops new avenues to all aspects of arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament. Its projects build both on internally generated concepts and on ideas collected from government, academic, and nongovernmental sources.
The Advanced Projects Office is ACDA's center for negotiations on landmines and the Convention on Conventional Weapons.
This office also carries out major internal projects for the Director, including preparation of this Annual Report.
The Chief Science Advisor, with the rank of Ambassador, serves as the special representative to the Director for matters of science and technology. The office administers funding for the Agency's research programs which promotes the development of technologies for arms control, verification and nonproliferation. The Chief Science Advisor is the senior ACDA representative on issues of technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in compliance with U.S. obligations under Article IV of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The Chief Science Advisor is also the ACDA representative in the process of developing, coordinating and implementing national security and science and technology policy through the National Science and Technology Council and the Committee on National Security.
The Special Assistant to the Director for Military Affairs serves as the Director's principal advisor on military matters and the professional management of ACDA's military detailees. This office represents the ACDA Director to the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff and serves as ACDA's focal point for military-to-military contacts. ACDA's Senior Military Officer commands the assigned military detailees and works with the Special Assistant regarding the service member's unique administrative, personnel, and career development requirements. As required, the Senior Military Officer and/or the Special Assistant for Military Affairs participates in senior policymaking groups to provide a military perspective on worldwide arms control and nonproliferation matters, and to assess their potential contributions to the national security of the United States.
The Counselor advises the Director and other ACDA principals on major issues confronting U.S. arms control policy that cut across organizational lines, involve long-range planning or require the development of alternatives from wide and independent perspectives. He proposes and develops strategies for implementing specific arms control proposals. He maintains liaison with the National Security Council and other national security agencies in the development and execution of arms control policy. He presents ACDA views on arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament at public and intergovernmental fora, conferences and symposia.
The Special Advisor led the Administration's effort to secure the Senate's advice and consent to ratification of the Chemical Weapons Convention. The Special Advisor was the principal representative to the Director on this treaty and devised and implemented ratification strategy by consulting with other senior Administration officials and members of Congress and their offices.
The Deputy Director functions as Acting Director during periods of the Director's absence. The Deputy Director, by law, is specifically responsible for the administrative management of ACDA and for intelligence-related activities.
The Office of Equal Employment Opportunity serves as the primary resource in ACDA for compliance with various laws, management directives, and guidelines applicable to Equal Opportunity. It provides leadership to the Agency's top management, bureau and office heads to carry out the continuing policy and program of nondiscrimination and affirmative action.
The Office directs and provides equal employment opportunity in the special program areas of upward mobility, affirmative employment for people with disabilities, multi-year affirmative action plan, special emphasis programs, and outreach recruitment. The Office is responsible for individual complaint counseling, investigations, and adjudication of complaints in accordance with applicable federal statutes. An ongoing analysis of the Agency's workforce is conducted periodically to assess affirmative measures in order to achieve a diversified workforce.
1. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND NUCLEAR POLICY DIVISION (MA/ISNP)
This division is responsible for guidance for U.S. delegations to various multilateral arms control conferences and meetings. It provides policy guidance and instructions, chairing the Washington interagency policy formulation for U.S. delegations conducting multilateral discussions or negotiations on issues including:
The division provides delegation members and support for the Conference on Disarmament, the U.N. Disarmament Commission, the U.N. General Assembly First Committee, other U.N.-related disarmament fora, and the NATO Disarmament Experts' Group.
It also covers any bilateral activities, international conferences or consultations which relate to nuclear testing and existing constraints on tests, including:
The European Security Policy Division prepares guidance for ACDA's participation in U.S. delegations at European security negotiations in Vienna and elsewhere. It participates in formulation of U.S. policy for treaty implementation and adaptation through the Joint Consultative Group of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and the Open Skies Consultative Commission. This division participates in the interagency process that supports Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe efforts to increase/maintain stability in Europe, including implementation of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures in the Forum for Security Cooperation and the arms control elements of the peace agreement for Bosnia-Herzegovina, and by organizing and conducting the OSCE Forum for Security Cooperation's Annual Implementation Assessment Meeting. The European Security Policy Division provides delegation staffing for these negotiations, and consults and coordinates with allied and other foreign governments on multilateral arms control issues.
The Chemical and Biological Policy Division makes policy recommendations and provides scientific and technical support for chemical and biological arms control. This division directs interagency policy formulation for CBW issues, develops and coordinates guidance, and provides delegation staffing for negotiations and meetings related to these issues, including:
1. INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR AFFAIRS DIVISION (NP/INA)
This division provides advice, assessments, and policy recommendations on the international relations aspects of nuclear nonproliferation, including:
The Weapons and Technology Control Division (WTC), carries out ACDA's statutory responsibilities under the Arms Export Control Act and the Foreign Assistance Act to review and evaluate government-to-government and commercial arms sales and security assistance proposals. WTC represents the Agency in development and implementation of U.S. policy and international negotiations on conventional arms transfers, missile and chemical/biological weapons nonproliferation, dual-use export controls, commercial space issues, and various regional arms control initiatives. This Division:
The U.S. Representative to the Conference on Disarmament, with the rank of Ambassador, leads the U.S. delegation to the CD in Geneva, the U.N. Disarmament Commission, the United Nations General Assembly First Committee, and, as requested, also represents the ACDA Director in other negotiations.
The Bureau of Strategic and Eurasian Affairs is ACDA's center for nuclear arms control and disarmament with the nations of the former Soviet Union and with China. This includes:
The Strategic Negotiations and Implementation Division is the ACDA center for arms control of long-range and intermediate- and shorter-range weapons delivery systems. This division supports and chairs the following U.S. Government interagency committees:
These committees have principal responsibility within the U.S. Government for developing instructions for the JCIC, SVC, and, eventually BIC delegations, and for diplomatic communications for delivery to the governments of the START I, START II, and INF Treaty Parties.
ACDA leadership of the negotiation and implementation of future strategic offensive arms reduction agreements would also reside in this Division. Additionally, the Strategic Negotiations and Implementation Division assesses potential impacts on strategic arms control of new technological developments.
The Strategic Transition Division is the focal point within ACDA for the denuclearization of non-Russian former Soviet states, nuclear warhead dismantlement and transparency, strategic arms control dialogue with China, NATO nuclear arms control matters, non-strategic nuclear weapons issues and Eurasian regional arms control. The focus of much of SEA/ST's attention is on ensuring the control, dismantlement and safe storage of nuclear warheads located in Russia, and on restructuring defense industries in the region. SEA/ST engages Chinese Government and non-governmental arms control experts on strategic arms control issues. SEA/ST studies possibilities for enhanced transparency and monitoring of nuclear warhead eliminations, and participates in negotiations on conversion of Russian weapons-grade plutonium production reactors.
SEA/ST provides policy input and analytical and negotiating support to:
SEA/D provides analysis and support to the ACDA Director on all issues concerning ballistic missile defenses and the ABM Treaty. It develops, for Presidential approval, options for arms control policy, strategy, tactics, and instructions for the on-going negotiations in the Standing Consultative Commission (SCC). The SCC is the implementing body of the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. SEA/D chairs the interagency SCC policy formulation committee in support of the negotiations. This division also prepares policy options on ABM and theater ballistic missile defense issues for consideration in other high-level U.S.-Russian bilateral discussions.
This division provides a senior member and at least one adviser to the SCC negotiations, and to the five-year review conferences of the ABM Treaty. In addition, this division participates in discussions with other countries related to ballistic missile defense issues.
In addition, SEA/D is responsible for strategic space arms control matters, including space-based missile defenses and anti-satellite weapons. SEA/D provided analytical support to formulation of the National Space Policy released September 19, 1996, and the Global Positioning System Policy released March 28, 1996.
The U.S. Representative to the Special Verification Commission, with the rank of Ambassador, heads the U.S. delegation to the Commission, which is the implementing body for the INF Treaty. To maximize cost effectiveness, Ambassador Steven Steiner currently serves as U.S. Representative to both the SVC and the JCIC (below).
The U.S. Representative to the Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission, with the rank of Ambassador, heads the U.S. delegation to the Commission, which is the implementing body for the START Treaty.
The U.S. Commissioner of the Standing Consultative Commission represents the United States in the SCC on matters related to the ABM Treaty and heads the U.S. component of the Commission. Dr. Stanley Riveles is the U.S. SCC Commissioner.
The IVI Bureau:
The Verification and Compliance Division provides analytical and technical expertise in four principal areas:
The Verification and Compliance Division's participation in the development and assessment of verification techniques and policy methods include preparing papers and guidance for the interagency community to address U.S. verification capabilities and requirements.
This division chairs interagency working groups and committees including the Verification and Compliance Analysis Working Group, the Chemical Weapons Verification and Implementation Task Force, the BWC Compliance Measures Task Force, and the CTBT Verification and Monitoring Task Force. The division provides experts to participate in trial inspection exercises and actual arms control inspections, offers lessons learned from U.S. experience in implementing previous agreements, and coordinates with the On-Site Inspection Agency on inspection logistics. The division also provides verification experts to serve on U.S. delegations to various bilateral and multilateral compliance fora and to ongoing arms control negotiations. The division drafts, with interagency coordination, the President's annual Report to Congress on Adherence to and Compliance with Arms Control Agreements, as well as the formal reports, required by Section 37 of the Arms Control and Disarmament Act, evaluating the U.S. ability to verify the provisions of specific arms control agreements.
The Office of Information Management and Computer Operations is responsible for developing and maintaining ACDA's extensive databases and for providing full computer and information support to the Agency. IC provides these major services:
An ACDA representative serves as the Principal Deputy Director of the On-Site Inspection Agency, which is the agency charged with operational responsibility for the conduct of arms control on-site inspections.
The Office of Public Affairs (PA) is organized to execute its legislative mandate for "the dissemination and coordination of public information concerning arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament." This includes responsibility for all media contacts, press guidance on questions relating to ACDA, planning and coordinating speaking engagements by ACDA officials, and preparation of publications for distribution to the public.
The Office of Public Affairs, through a comprehensive Speakers Program, makes the Director and other senior ACDA officials available to the media, Non-Governmental Organizations, business, academic and civic groups, as well as the general public, for interviews, speeches, and other public speaking events.
The Office of Public Affairs is responsible for ACDA's very active Publications Program. PA produces a range of materials, including brochures, fact sheets, press releases, reports, and compendia of treaties and agreements.
The Office of the General Counsel (GC) is responsible for all matters involving domestic and international law that arise from arms control and disarmament activities of the U.S. Government and the work of the Agency. It provides legal advice and assistance throughout the negotiation, conclusion, ratification, and implementation of arms control treaties and agreements. GC lawyers regularly provide the following specific services:
During 1996, attorneys from GC played a central role in preparations for the meeting of the State Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, negotiation of the Host Country Agreement between Austria and the Preparatory Commission of the CTBT, ratification of the Open Skies Treaty, and submission of the Chemical Weapons Convention to the Senate for its advice and consent to ratification.
The ACDA Office of Congressional Affairs is a critical part of the Executive Branch's efforts in support of ratification of arms control treaties and agreements. It responds to Congressional interest in arms control by arranging briefings, seminars, and consultations between ACDA officials and legislators or their staffs. It supports Congressional travel to negotiating fora, and accompanies legislators and staffs on travel. It advises the Director of the legislative and policy implications of all arms control issues and proposals. The office coordinates responses to Congressional inquiries and appearances of ACDA officials before Congressional committees. In addition, OCA routinely distributes informational material on arms control issues to legislators and their staffs.
The Office of Administration provides administrative support to the Agency either directly or through a variety of agreements with other Executive Branch agencies. In accordance with the objectives of the National Performance Review, this office continues to seek the most economical and efficient way to deliver support services to its components both domestically and overseas. ACDA's administrative office in Geneva is the Agency's liaison with the U.S. Mission for administrative matters and provides some basic administrative support to the various arms control delegations overseas.
This division manages the ACDA human resources program and serves as the Agency's liaison with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, the General Services Administration, the Department of Labor, and other agencies concerned with personnel and employment related issues. The division also provides Agency support services including the receipt and distribution of mail and other communications, requisitioning of administrative supplies, goods and services, space and property management, and physical safety and emergency planning.
This division is responsible for ACDA's security programs in Washington, DC and overseas. These programs cover the full range of security services and include physical, procedural, personnel, technical, and computer security, investigative and intelligence functions, as well as liaison with other Federal investigative agencies and offices of security. In addition, the office manages the security and accountability of all special compartmented information materials designated for use by ACDA.
This division manages ACDA's procurement program and is responsible for all matters concerning the acquisition of ACDA's contracted goods and services. The division provides technical advice and guidance in acquisition planning and the development of procurement requests. It solicits bids and offers, negotiates terms and conditions, and awards contracts, grants and reimbursable agreements. It also performs contract administration, close-out or termination, and settlement functions. The division is ACDA's point of contact for receipt of unsolicited proposals and contractor invoices.
This division is responsible for the overall financial management of the Agency and serves as the Agency's liaison with congressional committees, the Office of Management and Budget, and with other agencies concerned with financial management. This includes the preparation, formulation, presentation, and execution of ACDA's budget, accounting, and travel management, and all fiscal support and payroll responsibilities.