November 7, 1995

AUSTRALIA GROUP EXPORT CONTROLS ON MATERIALS USED IN THE
MANUFACTURE OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS, CONTROL LIST
OF DUAL-USE CHEMICALS: COMMERCIAL AND MILITARY APPLICATION

ChemicalCommercial UseChemical Weapon
1. ThiodiglycolplasticsMustard Gas
2. Phosphorus OxychlorideinsecticidesNA**
3. Dimethyl Methylphosphonate fire retardant NA
4. Methyl Phosphonyl Difluoride organic synthesis* NA
5. Methyl Phosphonyl Dichloride organic synthesis NA
6. Dimethyl Phosphite lubricant additive NA
7. Phosphorus Trichloride insecticides NA
8. Trimethyl Phosphite insecticides NA
9. Thionyl Chloride plastics/pesticide Mustard Gas
10. 3-Hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine pharmaceuticals BZ***
11. N,N-Diisopropyl-(beta)-Aminoethyl Chloride organic synthesis NA
12. N,N-Diisopropyl-(beta)-Aminoethane Thiol organic synthesis NA
13. 3-Quinuclidinol pharmaceuticals BZ
14. Potassium Fluoride cleaning agent NA
15. 2-Chloroethanol insecticides Mustard Gas
16. Dimethylamine detergents NA
17. Diethyl Ethylphosphonate gasoline additive NA
18. Diethyl N,N-Dimethylosphoramidate organic synthesis NA
19. Diethyl Phosphite paint solvent NA
20. Dimethylamine Hydrochloride pharmaceuticals NA
21. Ethyl Phosphinyl Dichloride organic synthesis NA
22. Ethyl Phosphonyl Dichloride organic synthesis NA
23. Ethyl Phosphonyl Difluoride organic synthesis NA
24. Hydrogen Fluoride fluorinating agent NA
25. Methyl Benzilate tranquilizersBZ
26. Methyl Phosphinyl Dichloride organic synthesis NA
27. N,N-Diisopropyl-(beta)-Amino-Ethanol organic synthesis NA
28. Pinacolyl Alcohol organic synthesis NA
29. O-Ethyl 2-Diisopropylaminoethyl
Methylphosphonite
no identified use NA
30. Triethyl Phosphite plasticizers NA
31. Arsenic Trichloride ceramics Lewisite
32. Benzilic Acid organic synthesis BZ
33. Diethyl Methylphosphonite organic synthesis NA
34. Dimethyl Ethylphosphonate organic synthesis NA
35. Ethyl Phosphinyl Difluoride organic synthesis NA
36. Methyl Phosphinyl Difluoride organic synthesis NA
37. 3-Quinuclidonepharmaceuticals BZ
38. Phosphorus Pentachloride plastics NA
39. Pinacolone organic synthesis NA
40. Potassium Cyanide pesticide NA
41. Potassium Bifluoride ceramics NA
42. Ammonium Bifluoride fluorine production NA
43. Sodium Bifluoride disinfectant NA
44. Sodium Fluoride antiseptic NA
45. Sodium Cyanide dyes & pigments NA
46. Tri-ethanolamine cosmetics Mustard Gas
47. Phosphorus Pentasulphide pyrotechnics NA
48. Di-isopropylamine organic synthesis NA
49. Diethylaminoethanol textile softeners NA
50. Sodium Sulphide paper manufacturing Mustard Gas
51. Sulphur Monochloride pharmaceuticals Mustard Gas
52. Sulphur Dichloride insecticides Mustard Gas
53. Triethanolamine Hydrochloride toiletries Mustard Gas
54. N,N-Diisopropyl-2-Aminoethyl Chloride
Hydrochloride
organic synthesis VX


* Organic synthesis refers to the process of making other chemical compounds.
** NA - Nerve Agent
*** BZ - Incapacitating Agency



AUSTRALIA GROUP

CONTROL LIST
OF DUAL-USE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING
FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT, AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY

I. MANUFACTURING FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

Note 1. The objective of these controls should not be defeated by the transfer of any non-controlled item containing one or more controlled components where the controlled component or components are the principal element of the item and can feasibly be removed or used for other purposes.

NB In judging whether the controlled component or components are to be considered the principal element, governments should weigh the factors of quantity, value, and technological know-how involved and other special circumstances which might establish the controlled component or components as the principal element of the item being procured.

Note 2. The objective of these controls should not be defeated by the transfer of a whole plant, on any scale, which has been designed to produce any CW agent or AG-controlled precursor chemical.

1. Reaction Vessels, Reactors or Agitators

Reaction vessels or reactors, with or without agitators, with total internal (geometric) volume greater than 0.1m3 (100 1) and less than 20m3 (20000 1), where all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

Agitators for use in the above-mentioned reaction vessels or reactors where all surfaces of the agitator that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

2. Storage Tanks, Containers or Receivers

Storage tanks, containers or receivers with a total internal (geometric) volume greater than 0.1m3(100 1) where all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

3. Heat Exchangers or Condensers

Heat exchangers or condensers with a heat transfer surface area of less than 20m2, where all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed are made from the following materials:

4. Distillation or Absorption Columns

Distillation or absorption columns or internal diameter greater than 0.1m; where all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed are made from the following materials:

5. Filling Equipment

Remotely operated filling equipment in which all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed are made from the following materials:

6. Valves

Multiple seal valves incorporating a leak detection port, bellows-seal valves, nonreturn (check) valves or diaphragm valves, in which all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

7. Multi-Walled Piping

Multi-walled piping incorporating a leak detection port, in which all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed or contained are made from the following materials:

8. Pumps

Multiple-seal, canned drive, magnetic drive, bellows or diaphragm pumps, with manufacturer's specified maximum flow-rate greater than 0.6m3/h, or vacuum pumps with the manufacturer's specified maximum flow-rate greater than 5m3/h (under standard temperature (0 oC) and pressure (101.30 kPa) conditions) in which all surfaces that come in direct contact with the chemical(s) being processed are made from the following materials:

9. Incinerators

Incinerators designed to destroy CW agents, AG-controlled precursors or chemical munitions, having specially designed waste supply systems, special handling facilities, and an average combustion chamber temperature greater than 1000 oC, in which all surfaces in the waste supply system that come into direct contact with the waste products are made from or lined with the following materials:

Statement of Understanding

These controls do not apply to equipment which is specially designed for use in civil applications (for example food processing, pulp and paper processing, or water purification, etc.) and is, by the nature of its design, inappropriate for use in storing, processing, producing or conducting and controlling the flow of chemical warfare agents or any of the AG-controlled precursor chemicals.

II. TOXIC GAS MONITORING SYSTEMS AND DETECTORS

Toxic gas monitoring systems and dedicated detectors

III. RELATED TECHNOLOGY

The transfer of 'technology', including licenses, directly associated with

to the extent permitted by national legislation.

Controls on 'technology' transfer do not apply to information 'in the public domain' or to 'basic scientific research'.

The approval for export of any AG-controlled item of dual-use equipment also authorizes the export to the same end-user of the minimum 'technology' required for the installation, operation, maintenance or repair of that item.

Definition of Terms

'Technology'

Specific information necessary for the 'development', 'production' or 'use' of a product. The information takes the form of 'technical data' or 'technical assistance'.

'Basic scientific research'

Experimental or theoretical work undertaken principally to acquire new knowledge of the fundamental principles of phenomena or observable facts, not primarily directed towards a specific practical aim or objective.

'Development'

'Development' is related to all phases before 'production' such as:

'In the public domain'

'In the public domain', as it applies herein, means technology that has been made available without restrictions upon its further dissemination. (Copyright restrictions do not remove technology from being in the public domain).

'Production'

Production means all production phases such as:

'Technical Assistance'

May take forms such as: instruction, skills, training, working knowledge, consulting services. N.B. 'Technical Assistance' may involve transfer of 'technical data'.

'Technical Data'

May take forms such as blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals and instructions written or recorded on other media or devices such as disk, tape, read-only memories.

'Use'

Operation, installation (including on-site installation), maintenance (checking), repair, overhaul or refurbishing.



AUSTRALIA GROUP

LIST OF DUAL-USE BIOLOGICAL EQUIPMENT
FOR EXPORT CONTROL

1. Complete containment facilities at P3, P4 containment level

Complete containment facilities that meet the criteria for P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment as specified in the WHO Laboratory Biosafety manual (Geneva, 1983) are subject to export control.

2. Fermenters*

Fermenters capable of cultivation of pathogenic micro-organisms, viruses or for toxin production, without the propagation of aerosols, and having all the following characteristics:

*Sub-groups of fermenters include bioreactors, chemostats and continuous-flow systems.

3. Centrifugal Separators*

Centrifugal separators capable of the contiuous separation of pathogenic micro-organisms, without the propagation of aerosols, and having all the following characteristics:

*Centrifugal separators include decanters.

4. Cross-flow Filtration Equipment

Cross-flow filtration equipment capable of continuous separation of pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, toxins and cell cultures without the propagation of aerosols, having all the following characteristics:

5. Freeze-drying Equipment

Steam sterilizable freeze-drying equipment with a condensor capacity greater than 50 kgs of ice in 24 hours and less than 1000 kgs of ice in 24 hours.

6. Equipment that incorporates or is contained in P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment housing, as follows:

7. Aerosol inhalation chambers

Chambers designed for aerosol challenge testing with microorganisms, viruses or toxins and having a capacity of 1 cubic metre or greater.

The experts propose that the following item be included in awareness raising guidelines to industry:

1. Equipment for the micro-encapsulation of live micro-organisms and toxins in the range of 1-10 um particle size, specifically:

2. Fermenters of less than 100 litre capacity with special emphasis on aggregate orders or designs for use in combined systems.

3. Conventional or turbulent air-flow clean-air rooms and self-contained fan-HEPA filter units that may be used for P3 or P4 (BL3, BL4, L3, L4) containment facilities.



AUSTRALIA GROUP

LIST OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS FOR EXPORT
CONTROL CORE LIST1

Viruses

V1. Chikungunya virus
V2. Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus
V3. Dengue fever virus
V4. Eastern equine encephalitis virus
V5. Ebola virus
V6. Hantaan virus
V7. Junin virus
V8. Lassa fever virus
V9. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
V10. Machupo virus
V11. Marburg virus
V12. Monkey pox virus
V13. Rift Valley fever virus
V14. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis virus)
V15. Variola virus
V16. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
V17. Western equine encephalitis virus
V18. White pox
V19. Yellow fever virus
V20. Japanese encephalitis virus

Rickettsiae

R1. Coxiella burnetii
R2. Bartonella Quintana (Rochalimea quintana, Rickettsia quintana)
R3. Rickettsia prowasecki
R4. Rickettsia rickettsii

Bacteria

B1. Bacillus anthracis
B2. Brucella abortus
B3. Brucella melitensis
B4. Brucella suis
B5. Chlamydia psittaci
B6. Clostridium Botulinum
B7. Francisella tularensis
B8. Burkholderia mallei (pseudomonas mallei)
B9. Burkholderia pseudomallei (pseudomonas pseudomallei)
B10. Salmonella typhi
B11. Shigella dysenteriae
B12. Vibrio cholerae
B13. Yersinia pestis

Genetically Modified Micro-organisms

G1. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the core list.

G2. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the toxins in the core list, or their subunits.

Toxins as follow and subunits thereof:2

T1. Botulinum toxins
T2. Clostridium perfringens toxins
T3. Conotoxin
T4. Ricin
T5. Saxitoxin
T6. Shiga toxin
T7. Staphylococcus aureaus toxins
T8. Tetrodotoxin
T9. Verotoxin
T10. Microcystin (Cyanginosin)
T11. Alflatoxins

__________________

1. Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine.
2. Excluding immunotoxins.



WARNING LIST1

Viruses

WV1. Kyasanur Forest virus
WV2. Louping ill virus
WV3. Murray Valley encephalitis virus
WV4. Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus
WV5. Oropouche virus
WV6. Powassan virus
WV7. Rocio virus
WV8. St. Louis encephalitis virus

Bacteria

WB1. Clostridium perfringens*
WB2. Clostridium tetani*
WB3. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, serotype 0157 and other verotoxin producing serotypes
WB4. Legionella pneumophila
WB5. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Genetically Modified Micro-organisms

WG1. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the warning list.

WG2. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the toxins in the warning list, or their subunits.

Toxins as follow and subunits thereof:2

WT1. Abrin
WT2. Cholera toxin
WT3. Tetanus toxin
WT4. Trichothecene mycotoxins
WT5. Modeccin
WT6. Volkensin
WT7. Viscum Album Lectin 1 (Viscumin)

__________________

*The Australia Group recognizes that these organisms are ubiquitous, but, as they have been acquired in the past as part of biological weapons programs, they are worthy of special caution.

1. Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine.

2. Excluding immunotoxins.



AUSTRALIA GROUP

LIST OF ANIMAL PATHOGENS FOR EXPORT CONTROL1

Viruses

AV1. African swine fever virus
AV2. Avian influenza virus2
AV3. Bluetongue virus
AV4. Foot and mouth disease virus
AV5. Goat pox virus
AV6. Herpes virus (Aujeszky's disease)
AV7. Hog cholera virus (synonym: Swine fever virus)
AV8. Lyssa virus
AV9. Newcastle disease virus
AV10. Peste des petits ruminants virus
AV11. Porcine enterovirus type 9 (synonym: swine vesicular disease virus)
AV12. Rinderpest virus
AV13. Sheep pox virus
AV14. Teschen disease virus
AV15. Vesicular stomatitis virus

_____________________

1. Except where the agent is in the form of a vaccine.

2. This includes only those Avian influenza viruses of high pathogenicity as defined in EC Directive 92/401EC:

"Type A viruses with an IVPI (intravenous pathogenicity index) in 6 week old chickens of greater than 1.2, or

Type A viruses HS or H7 subtype for which nucleotide sequencing has demonstrated multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of haemegglutinin."

Bacteria

AB3. Mycoplasma mycoides

Genetically-modified Micro-organisms

AG1. Genetically modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity and are derived from organisms in the list.



AUSTRALIA GROUP

CONTROL LIST OF PLANT PATHOGENS FOR EXPORT CONTROL

CORE LIST

Baceria

PB1. Xanthomonas albilineans
PB2. Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri

Fungi

PF1. Colletotrichum coffeanum var. virulans (Colletotrichum Kanawae)
PF2. Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzae)
PF3. Microcyclus ulei (syn. Dothidella ulei)
PF4. Puccinia graminis (syn. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici)
PF5. Puccinia striiformis (syn. Pucciniaglumarum)
PF6. Pyricularia grisea/Pyricularia oryzae

Genetically-modified Micro-organisms

PG1. Genetically-modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity derived from the plant pathogens identified on the export control list.



ITEMS FOR INCLUSION IN AWARENESS RAISING GUIDELINES

Bacteria

PWB1. Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae
PWB2. Xylella fastidiosa

Fungi

PWF1. Deuterophoma tracheiphila (syn. Phoma tracheiphila)
PWF2. Monilia rorei (syn. Moniliophthora rorei)

Viruses

PWV1 Banana bunchy top virus

Genetically-modified Micro-organisms

PWG1 Genetically-modified micro-organisms or genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity derived from the plant pathogens identified on the awareness raising list.