The IVI Bureau develops and coordinates with other United States Government national security agencies verification policy and technologies for new and existing arms control agreements and provides intelligence analysis and compliance assessments regarding their implementation. Also, it maintains ACDA's information systems and archives data important to arms control treaty negotiation and implementation. IVI:
The Verification and Compliance Division provides policy, technical, and analytical expertise in seven key areas:
The Verification and Compliance Division is responsible for policy development, formulation, and execution with respect to verifying compliance with arms control obligations by all of our treaty partners. The Division analyzes, formulates, and implements compliance policy with respect to: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) and related agreements, Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE), Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs), Strategic Arms Reductions Treaties (START I and START II), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), Geneva Protocol, Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and related agreements, Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), Open Skies, and the Antarctic Treaty. Most of these agreements are of unlimited duration, and require verification of compliance indefinitely.
The division also is responsible for the development and promotion of effective verification provisions and regimes for arms control and nonproliferation agreements currently being negotiated and that may be negotiated in the future. At present, the division's focus centers on the development of verification provisions and regimes for the envisioned Fissile Material Production Cutoff Treaty (FMCT), START III, Anti-Personnel Landmine limitations (APL), and the BWC Compliance Measures Protocol, as well as the further elaboration of the CTBT verification regime. The verification position crafted in the Verification and Compliance Division is expected to form the U.S. negotiating position on any particular issue.
The Verification and Compliance Division is responsible for the preparation of the President's Annual Report to Congress on Adherence to and Compliance With Arms Control Agreements. Additionally, the division prepares and coordinates more specialized compliance reports for the Congress, such as those on Russian and other former Soviet states' compliance with the CWC and CFE required by the U.S. Senate resolutions of ratification to the CWC and the CFE Flanks Agreement. The division also is responsible for tracking and reporting on U.S. compliance with arms control and nonproliferation commitments. Division staff analyze other parties' allegations of U.S. non-compliance; independently monitor U.S. implementation activities; and work directly with the Department of Defense to ensure U.S. compliance.
The Verification and Compliance Division prepares and coordinates verifiability policy assessments for all arms control and non-proliferation agreements. These assessments normally are prepared as part of the U.S. ratification effort. However, such assessments are also prepared whenever there is a significant alteration in the U.S. ability to verify compliance with an arms control or non-proliferation agreement, and whenever they are requested by the Congress.
Division staff lead the interagency in the implementation of verification policy, chairing a host of interagency working groups and committees including the Verification and Compliance Analysis Working Group for INF, START, and CWC, the BWC Compliance Measures Task Force, and the CTBT Verification and Monitoring Task Force. The division develops guidance for U.S. on-site inspection teams, provides experts to participate in trial inspection exercises and actual arms control inspections, and offers "lessons learned" from U.S. experience in implementing previous agreements. The division also provides verification experts to serve on U.S. delegations to various bilateral and multilateral compliance fora and to ongoing arms control negotiations. At present, the Verification and Compliance Division provides the Verification and Compliance Advisor to the U.S. JCIC and SVC Delegations; the U.S. Representative to the CTBT PrepCom Working Group B on Verification; the Deputy Head of the U.S. Delegation to the BWC Ad Hoc Group; the U.S. Representative to the Open Skies Flight Procedures Working Group; and the Verification Advisor to the bilateral and trilateral FMCT talks.
The Intelligence, Technology, and Analysis Division (ITA) provides essential support to the broad range of Agency endeavors. ITA's intelligence experts provide daily intelligence to senior policy makers in ACDA; research, compile, and analyze all-source intelligence information relevant to ACDA's arms control and nonproliferation missions; develop and communicate ACDA's collection and analysis requirements to the Intelligence Community (IC); and commission intelligence officers from the IC to brief ACDA staff on important issues. While ACDA is not itself an intelligence community member, ITA represents ACDA's interests in every relevant collection and production forum -- either as a member or as an observer.
ITA's technology experts implement ACDA's mandate to coordinate government-wide research and development of technology for arms control and nonproliferation purposes. The primary vehicle through which this is done is the interagency Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Working Group (NPAC TWG), which ITA's Division Chief co-chairs and for which ITA experts serve as Executive Secretary and chair of two of the 14 technology focus groups. (See Chapter VIII ACDA's External Research, "Coordination of Federal NPAC R&D", for additional information.) ITA's technology experts also represent ACDA on interagency bodies that control collection systems needed for treaty monitoring and execute ACDA's mandate to report annually to Congress on the conduct of arms control and nonproliferation research.
The analysis program has a broad vision, encompassing experts with command over methodologies spanning the analytical spectrum from computer-intensive operations analysis to politico-military, regional, and economic analysis. Since much of this analysis requires intelligence support, the analysis and intelligence functions work together closely. ITA staff economists produce the critically acclaimed annual report on World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (WMEAT), as well as occasional papers derived from WMEAT data.
Synergy among the programs of ITA and between ITA and the programs it supports throughout ACDA is a critical goal of this organization. Intelligence collection systems, for example, yield the information needed for the compliance judgments made by IVI/VC. Economic and politico-military analysis help nonproliferation experts understand the regional stability issues that contribute to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Verification needs dictate treaty monitoring requirements, which, in turn, dictate technology demands. Operations analysis helps guide the development of ACDA's treaty negotiating strategies of the future.
The Office of Information Management and Computer Operations is responsible for developing and maintaining the Agency's office automation systems. Additionally, and more importantly, IVI/IC works closely with the interagency components of the U.S. Government's arms control community in development and maintenance of databases and information management systems related to treaty negotiations both past and in progress, as well as treaty implementation, verification, and compliance activities. IVI/IC's mission has expanded to encompass tools which enhanced daily data transmission, monitoring, and analysis capabilities. IVI/IC provides these major services in the following ways: