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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
SEPTEMBER 1994:  TIPS FOR TRAVELERS TO SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
BUREAU OF CONSULAR AFFAIRS



Tips for Travelers to Sub-Saharan Africa

DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION
Bureau of Consular Affairs
Revised September 1994

General Information

Your trip to Africa will be an adventure off the beaten
path.  The estimated 325,000 U.S citizens who travel to sub-
Saharan Africa each year are only a fraction of the more
than 44 million Americans who go overseas annually.

The Department of State seeks to encourage international
travel.  Conditions and customs in sub-Saharan Africa,
however, can contrast sharply with what you are used to.
These pages contain advice to help you avoid inconvenience
and difficulties as you go.  Take our advice seriously but
do not let it keep you at home.  Africans are happy to share
not just their scenery, but their culture and traditions as
well.

Before you go, learn as much as you can about your
destination.  Your travel agent, local bookstore, public
library and the embassies of the countries you plan to visit
are all useful sources of information.  Another source is
the Department of State's Background Notes series which
include a pamphlet for each country in Africa.  To obtain
specific pamphlet prices and information, contact the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402; tel:  202-738-3238.  You may
also obtain select issues by fax by calling 202-736-7720
from your fax machine.

This brochure covers all of Africa except the five nations
bordering the Mediterranean.  Sub-Saharan Africa includes 48
nations.  Forty two of these nations  are on the mainland.
In addition, four island nations in the southwest Indian
Ocean (Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles) and
two island nations in the Atlantic Ocean (Cape Verde and Sao
Tome and Principe) are considered part of Africa.  For
convenience, we will often use the word ''Africa'' to refer
to the sub-Saharan region.  For travel tips for the five
northern African nations of Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco,
Libya, and Egypt see ''Tips for Travelers to the Middle East
and North Africa.''


Consular Information Program

Before traveling obtain the Consular Information Sheet for
the country or countries you plan to visit.  You should also
check to see if the Department of State has issued a Travel
Warning for the country or countries you will be visiting.
Warnings are issued when the State Department decides, based
on all relevant information, to recommend that Americans
avoid travel to a certain country.  Consular Information
Sheets are available for every country of the world.  They
include such information as the location of the U.S. embassy
or consulate in the subject country, unusual immigration
practices, health conditions, minor political disturbances,
unusual currency and entry regulations, crime and security
information, and drug penalties.  If an unstable conditions
exists in a country that is not severe enough to warrant a
Warning, a description of the condition(s) may be included
under an optional section entitled ''Areas of Instability.''
On limited occasions, we also restate in this section any
U.S. embassy advice given to official employees.  Consular
Information Sheets generally do not include advice, but
present information on factual matters so travelers can make
knowledgeable decisions concerning travel to a particular
country.  Countries where avoidance of travel is recommended
will have Travel Warnings as well as Consular Information
Sheets.


How to Access Consular Information Sheets and Travel
Warnings

Consular Information Sheets and Travel Warnings may be heard
any time by dialing the Citizens Emergency Center at (202)
647-5225 from a touchtone phone.  The recording is updated
as new information becomes available.  They are also
available at any of the 13 regional passport agencies, field
offices of the U.S. Department of Commerce, and U.S.
embassies and consulates abroad, or, by writing or sending a
self-addressed, stamped envelope to the Office of Overseas
Citizens Services, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Room 4811,
N.W., U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818.

By fax

From your fax machine, dial 202-647-3000, using the handset
as you would a regular telephone.  The system will instruct
you on how to proceed.

Consular Affairs Bulletin Board - CABB

If you have a personal computer, modem and communication
software, you can access the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board
or CABB.  This service is free of charge.

To view or download the documents from a computer and modem,
dial the CABB on 202-647-9225, setting your software to N-8-
1.

As you travel, keep abreast of local news coverage.  If you
plan a long stay in one place or if you are in an area where
communications are poor or that is experiencing civil unrest
or some natural disaster, you are encouraged to register
with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.  Registration
takes only a few moments, and it may be invaluable in case
of an emergency.  Remember to leave a detailed itinerary and
the numbers of your passport or other citizenship documents
with a friend or relative in the United States.

Health

Health problems affect more visitors to Africa than any
other difficulty.  Information on health precautions can be
obtained from local health departments, private doctors, or
travel clinics.  General guidance can also be found in the
U.S. Public Health Service book, ''Health Information for
International Travel,'' available for $6.00 from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, or the Centers for Disease
Control's international travelers hotline at 404-332-4559.
Depending on your destination, immunization may be
recommended against cholera, diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis,
meningitis, polio, typhoid, and yellow fever.  These
diseases are transmitted by insects, contaminated food and
water, or close contact with infected people.  Travelers
should take the proper precautions before leaving for sub-
Saharan Africa to reduce the risk of infection.

Diseases transmitted by insects

Many diseases are transmitted through the bite of infected
insects such as mosquitoes, flies, fleas, ticks, and lice.
Travelers must protect themselves from insect bites by
wearing proper clothing, using bed nets, and applying the
proper insect repellent.   Mosquito activity is most
prominent during the hours between dusk and dawn.  Malaria
is a serious parasitic infection transmitted to humans by
the mosquito.  Symptoms range from fever and flu-like
symptoms, to chills, general achiness, and tiredness.
Travelers at risk for malaria should take Mefloquine to
prevent malaria.  This drug should be taken one week before
leaving, while in the malarious area, and for a period of 4
weeks after leaving the area. Yellow Fever  is a viral
disease transmitted to human by a mosquito bite.  Symptoms
range from fever, chills, headache, and vomiting to
jaundice, internal bleeding, and kidney failure.  Some sub-
Saharan countries require yellow fever vaccination for
entry.  Dengue Fever  is primarily an urban viral infection
transmitted by mosquito bites.  The illness is flu-like and
characterized by the sudden onset of a high fever, severe
headaches, joint and muscle pain, and rash.  Prevention is
important since no vaccine or specific treatment exists.

Diseases transmitted through food and water

Food and waterborne diseases are one of the major cause of
illness to travelers, most frequent being diarrhea.  It can
be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites which are found
universally throughout the region.  Typhoid Fever  is a
bacterial infection transmitted throughout contaminated food
and/or water, or directly between people.  Symptoms of
typhoid include fever, headaches, tiredness, loss of
appetite, and constipation more often then diarrhea.
Typhoid fever can be treated effectively with antibiotics.
Drinking only bottled or boiled water and eating only
thoroughly cooked food reduces the risk of infection.
Cholera  is an acute intestinal infection caused by a
bacterium.  Infection is acquired by ingesting contaminated
water or food.  Symptoms include an abrupt onset of
voluminous watery diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting, and
muscle cramps.  The best method of prevention is to follow
the standard food and water precautions.  Individuals with
severe cases should receive medical attention immediately.
Hepatitis A  is a viral infection of the liver transmitted
by the fecal oral; through direct person to person contact;
from contaminated water, ice or shellfish; or from fruits or
uncooked vegetables contaminated through handling.  Symptoms
include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, dark
urine, jaundice, vomiting, aches and pains, and light
stools.  No specific therapy is available.  The virus is
inactivated by boiling or cooking to 85 degrees centigrade
for one minute.  Travelers should eat thoroughly cooked
foods and drinking only treated water as a precautions.

Diseases transmitted through intimate contact with people

Human immunodeficiency virus  (HIV) which causes acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS is found primarily in
blood, semen, and vaginal secretions of an infected person.
HIV is spread by contact with an infected person, by needle
sharing among injecting drug users, and through transfusions
of infected blood and blood clotting factors.  Treatment has
prolonged the survival of some HIV infected persons, but
there is no known cure or vaccine available.  International
travelers should be aware that some countries serologically
screen incoming travelers (primarily those with extended
visits, such as for work or study) and deny entry to persons
with AIDS and those whose test results indicate infection
with HIV.  Persons who are intending to visit a country for
substantial period or to work or study abroad may wish to
consult the embassy of that country concerning the policies
and requirements on HIV testing.  Hepatitis B  is a viral
infection of the liver.  Primarily, Hepatitis B is
transmitted through activities which result in the exchange
of blood or blood derived fluids and/or through sexual
activity with an infected person.  The primary prevention
consists of either vaccination and/or reducing intimate
contact with those suspected of being infected.
Meningococcal Disease  (bacterial meningitis) is a bacterial
infection in the lining of the brain or spinal cord.  Early
symptoms are headache, stiff neck, a rash, and fever.  This
is spread by repository droplets when an infected person
sneezes or coughs on you.  A one dose vaccine called
Menomune% is available.

Other diseases

Schistosomiasis is an infection that develops after the
larvae of a flatworm have penetrated the skin.  Water
treated with chlorine or iodine is virtually safe, and salt
water poses no risk.  The risk is a function of the
frequency and degree of contact with contaminated fresh
water for bathing, wading, or swimming.  It is often
difficult to distinguish between infested and non-infested
water therefore, swimming in fresh water in rural areas
should be avoided.  Rabies  is a viral infection that
affects the central nervous system.  It is transmitted by
animal bites which introduces the virus into the wound.  The
best prevention is not to handle animals.  Any animal bite
should receive prompt attention.

Some countries have shortages of medicines; bring an
adequate supply of any prescription and over-the-counter
medicines that you are accustomed to taking.  Keep all
prescriptions in their original, labeled containers.

Medical facilities may be limited, particularly in rural
areas.  Should you become seriously ill or injured abroad,
contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.  A U.S.
consular officer can  furnish you with a list of recommended
local hospitals and English-speaking doctors.  Consular
officers can also inform your family or friends in the
United States of your condition.  Because medical coverage
overseas can be quite expensive, prospective travelers
should review their health insurance policies.  Doctors and
hospital expect immediate payment in full for health
services in many sub-Saharan countries.  If your policy does
not provide medical coverage overseas, consider buying
supplemental insurance.  It is also advisable to obtain
insurance to cover the exorbitant cost of medical evacuation
in the event of a medical emergency.

Except in first-class hotels, drink only boiled water or
bottled beverages.  Avoid ice cubes.  Unless you are certain
they are pasteurized, avoid dairy products.  Vegetables and
fruits should be peeled or washed in a purifying solution.
A good rule of thumb is, if you can't peel it or cook it,
don't eat it.


Crime

Crime is a worldwide problem, particularly in urban
populated areas.  In places where crime is especially acute,
we have noted this problem under the specific geographic
country section.  Travelers should, however, be alert to the
increasing crime problem throughout sub-Saharan Africa.


Weather

Sub-Saharan Africa is tropical, except for the high inland
plateaus and the southern part of South Africa.  Within 10
degrees of the Equator, the climate seldom varies and is
generally hot and rainy.  Further from the Equator, the
seasons become more apparent, and if possible, you should
plan your trip in the cooler months.  If traveling to rural
areas, avoid the rainy months which generally run from May
through October, since roads may be washed out.


Visa and Other Entry Requirements

A U.S. passport is required for travel to all countries in
Africa.  In addition, most countries in sub-Saharan Africa
require U.S. citizens to have a visa.  If visas are
required, obtain them before you leave home.  If you decide
to visit additional countries en route, it may be difficult
or impossible to obtain visas.  In most African countries,
you will not be admitted into the country and will have to
depart on the next plane, if you arrive without a visa.
This can be inconvenient if the next plane does not arrive
in several days, the airport hotel is full, and the airport
has no other sleeping accommodations.

The best authority on a country's visa and other entry
requirements is its embassy or consulate.  The Department of
State publication, ''Foreign Entry Requirements,'' gives
basic information on entry requirements and tells where and
how to apply for visas.  You can order a copy for $.50 from
the Consumer Information Center,  Pueblo, Colorado 81009.

Allow plenty of time to apply for visas.  An average of two
weeks for each visa is recommended.  When you inquire, check
the following:

-  visa price, length of validity, and number of entries;

-  financial data required - proof of sufficient funds,
proof of onward/return ticket;

-  immunizations required;

-  currency regulations;

-  import/export restrictions; and

-  departure tax.  If required, be sure to keep sufficient
hard currency so that you may leave the country on schedule.

-  AIDS clearance certification.  Some countries require
travelers to submit certification or be tested upon arrival
for AIDS.

In the past, some African countries refused to admit
travelers who had South African visas or entry and exit
stamps in their passports.  The situation has been
improving; however, if you have such notations in your
passport or plan to visit South Africa in conjunction with a
trip to other countries, contact a U.S. passport agency for
guidance.  If you are overseas, contact the nearest U.S.
embassy or consulate.


Restricted Areas

A visa is good only for those parts of a country that are
open to foreigners.  Several countries in Africa have areas
of civil unrest or war zones that are off-limits to visitors
without special permits.  Others have similar areas that are
open but surrounded by security checkpoints where travelers
must show their passport, complete with valid visa.  When
traveling in such a country, keep your passport with you at
all times.  No matter where you travel in Africa, do not
overstay the validity of your visa; renew it if necessary.

If stopped at a roadblock, be courteous and responsive to
questions asked by persons in authority.  At night, turn on
the interior light of the car.  In areas of instability,
however, try to avoid travel at night.  For information on
restricted or risky areas,  consult Department of State
Consular Information Sheets or, if you are already in
Africa, the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.

In some areas, when U.S. citizens are arrested or detained,
police or prison officials have failed to inform the U.S.
embassy or consulate.  If you are ever detained for any
reason, ask to talk with a U.S. consular officer
immediately.


U.S. Citizens Married to Foreign Nationals

Women who travel to Africa should be aware that in some
countries, either by law or by custom, a woman and her
children need the permission of her husband to leave the
country.  If you or your children travel, be aware of the
laws and customs of the places you visit.  Do not visit or
allow your children to visit unless you are confident that
you will be permitted to leave.  Once overseas, you are
subject to the laws of the country you are in; U.S. law
cannot protect you.


Currency Regulations

The amount of money, including traveler's checks, which may
be taken into or out of African countries varies.  In
general, visitors must declare all currency and travelers
checks upon arrival.  Do not exchange money on the black
market.  Use only banks and other authorized foreign
exchange offices and retain receipts.  You may need to
present the receipts as well as your original currency
declaration when you depart.  Currency not accounted for may
be confiscated, and you may be fined or detained.

Many countries require that hotel bills be paid in hard
currency.  Some require that a minimum amount of hard
currency be changed into the local currency upon arrival.
Some countries prohibit the import or export of local
currency.


U.S. Wildlife Regulations

The United States prohibits the import of products from
endangered species, including the furs of any spotted cats.
Most African countries have enacted laws protecting
wildlife, but poaching and illegal trafficking in wildlife
are still commonplace.  Importing products made from
endangered species, may result in the seizure of the product
and a possible fine.  African ivory can not generally be
imported legally into the United States.

The import of most types of parrots and other wild birds
from Africa is now restricted and subject to licensing and
other controls.  There are also restrictions which require
the birds to be placed in quarantine upon arrival to ensure
they are free from disease.  For further information on the
import of wildlife and related products, consult the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service or TRAFFIC U.S.A., World Wildlife
Fund┌U.S., 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.  20037.


Air Travel

If you are flying to places in Africa other than the major
tourist destinations, you may have difficulty securing and
retaining reservations and experience long waits at airports
for customs and immigration processing.  If stranded, you
may need proof of a confirmed reservation in order to obtain
food and lodging vouchers from some airlines.  Flights are
often overbooked, delayed, or cancelled and when competing
for space on a plane, you may be dealing with a surging
crowd rather than a line.  Traveling with a packaged tour
may insulate you from some of these difficulties.  All
problems cannot be avoided, but you can:

  - Learn the reputation of the airline and the airports you
will use to forestall problems and avoid any unpleasant
surprises.

  - When possible, reserve your return passage before you
go; reconfirm immediately upon arrival.

  - Ask for confirmation in writing, complete with file
number or locator code, when you make or confirm a
reservation.

  - Arrive at the airport earlier than required in order to
put yourself at the front of the line ┌ or the crowd, as the
case may be.

  - Travel with funds sufficient for an extra week's
subsistence in case you are stranded.

Photography

Africa is filled with photogenic scenery, and photography is
generally encouraged.  However, most governments prohibit
photography of military installations or locations having
military significance, including airports, bridges, tunnels,
port facilities, and public buildings.  Visitors can seek
guidance on restrictions from local tourist offices or from
the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.  Taking photographs
without prior permission can result in your arrest or the
confiscation of your film.

Shortages, High Prices, and Other Problems

Consumer goods, gas, and food are in short supply in some
African countries and prices for these commodities may be
high by U.S. standards.  Shortages of hotel accommodations
also exist so confirm reservations well in advance.  Some
countries experience disruptions in electricity and water
supply or in services such as mail and telecommunications.

Local Transportation

Rental cars, where available, may be expensive.  Hiring a
taxi is often the easiest way to go sight-seeing.  Taxi
fares should be negotiated in advance.  Travel on rural
roads can be slow and difficult in the dry season and
disrupted by floods in the rainy season.   Roads may also be
dangerous due to the presence of armed bandits.


Country Information

Angola

Angola is a developing country which has experienced war and
civil strife since independence from Portugal in 1975.  On
May 19, 1993, the U.S. recognized the Government of the
Republic of Angola, and a U.S. Embassy was established in
Luanda on June 22, 1993.  Facilities for tourism are
virtually nonexistent.  Visas are required.  Persons
arriving without visas are subjected to possible arrest or
deportation.   Travel in many parts of the city is
considered unsafe at night because of the increased
incidence of armed robberies and carjackings.  Violent crime
exists throughout the country.  Adequate medical facilities
are scarce in Angola, and most medicine is not available.
Travelers are advised to purchase medical evacuation
insurance.

Benin

Benin is a developing West African country.  Its capital is
Porto Novo; however the adjoining city of Cotonou is the
main port and site of most government and tourist activity.
Tourist facilities in Cotonou are available, but are not
fully developed elsewhere in Benin.  U.S. citizens are
required to have a passport and visa to enter the country.
Because of security concerns in remote areas, especially in
the northern region of Atacora, travel can be dangerous.
Medical facilities in Benin are limited.  Crime rates are
rising, particularly in the city of Cotonou.

Botswana

Botswana is a developing southern African nation.
Facilities for tourism are available.  A passport is
required.  No visa is necessary for stays of less than 90
days.  Medical facilities in Botswana are limited.  Some
petty crime, such as pickpocketing and purse snatching is
common in the capital city of Gaborone.  Travel by
automobile outside of large towns may be dangerous.
Although major roads are generally in good condition, the
combination of long, tedious stretches of two-lane highway,
high speed limits, and the occasional presence of large
animals on the roads makes accidents a frequent occurrence.

Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso , previously known as Upper Volta, is a
developing West African country which borders the Sahara
Desert.  The official language is French.  Facilities for
tourism are not widely available.  A passport and a visa are
required.  Cholera immunization is recommended.  Medical
facilities in Burkina Faso are limited.  Medicine may be in
short supply.  Some petty crime occurs.  There are
restrictions on photography and a valid photo permit must be
obtained from the Ministry of Tourism.  The Ministry
maintains a list of photo restrictions that are expected to
be observed by visitors.  The U.S. Embassy in Ouagadougou
can provide information on specific photography regulations.
Credit cards are rarely accepted.  Travelers checks can be
cashed at local banks.  Local telephone service is excellent
but expensive.

Burundi

Burundi is a small, inland African nation passing through a
period of instability following a coup attempt in October
1993.  Facilities for tourism, particularly in the interior,
are limited.  A passport and visa are required.  Medical
facilities are limited in Burundi.  Street crime poses a
high risk for visitors.  Burundi has a good network of roads
between the major towns and border posts.  Travel on other
roads is difficult, particularly in the rainy season.
Public transportation to border points is often difficult
and frequently unavailable.  At the time of publication, the
Department of State warned U.S. citizens to avoid travel due
to continuing unstable conditions throughout the country.

Cameroon

Cameroon is a developing African country.  Facilities for
tourism are limited.  A passport and a visa are required.
Airport security is stringent and visitors may be subject to
baggage searches.  Medical facilities are limited.  Armed
banditry is an increasing problem throughout the country,
including tourist areas in Cameroon's far north province and
all major cities.  Persons traveling at night on rural
highways are at extreme risk.  While photography is not
officially forbidden, security officials are sensitive about
the photographing of government buildings and military
installations, many of which are unmarked.  Photography of
these subjects may result in seizure of photographic
equipment by Cameroon authorities.

Cape Verde

The Republic of Cape Verde consists of several rugged
volcanic islands off the west coast of Africa.  The climate
is warm and dry.  Tourist facilities are limited.  A
passport and a visa are required.  Evidence of immunization
against yellow fever (if arriving from and infected area),
is required.  Medical facilities in Cape Verde are extremely
limited.  Some petty theft  is common.

Central African Republic

The Central African Republic is a developing African
country.  Facilities for tourism are limited.  A passport
and visa are required.  Medical facilities in the Central
African Republic are limited.  Petty crime such as
pickpocketing is common.  There have been attacks by armed
highway bandits on motorists in the central and northern
part of the country, which have resulted in the wounding or
death of both foreigners and Africans.  Taking photographs
of police or military installations, as well as government
buildings, is prohibited.

Chad

Chad is a developing country in north central Africa which
has experienced sporadic armed disturbances over the past
several years.  Facilities for tourism are limited.
Visitors to Chad must have a passport and a visa before
arrival.  Evidence of a yellow fever vaccination must be
presented.  Medical facilities are extremely limited.
Medicines are in short supply.  Pickpocketing and purse
snatching are endemic in market and commercial areas.  A
permit is required for all photography.  Even with a permit,
there are prohibitions against taking pictures of military
establishments and official buildings.   At the time of
publication, the U.S. Embassy advised U.S. citizens that
travel across the southwestern border into Cameroon was
hazardous because of a continuing series of security
incidents.

Comoros

Comoros is a developing island nation located in the Indian
Ocean, off the east coast of Africa.  Facilities for tourism
are limited.  A passport and a visa are required.  Visas for
stays of three weeks or less can be issued at the airport
upon arrival, provided an onward/return ticket is presented.
Medical facilities in Comoros are limited.  Petty thievery
is not uncommon.

Congo

The Congo is a developing nation in central Africa.
Facilities for tourism are limited.  A passport and a visa
are required.  Medical facilities in the Congo are limited.
Some medical supplies is in short supply.  Street crime,
including mugging and purse snatching, is common in
Brazzaville, as well as in some parts of the countryside.
Driving may be hazardous, particularly at night, and
travelers should be alert to possible roadblocks.

Cote d'Ivoire

Cote d'Ivoire is also known as the Ivory Coast.  It is a
developing West African nation.  Tourism facilities in the
capital city of Abidjan include some luxury hotels.  Other
accommodations, especially outside the capital, may be
limited in quality and availability.  U.S. citizens are
required to have passports.  A visa is not required for a
stay of up to 90 days.  Medical facilities in Cote d'Ivoire
are adequate in Abidjan but may be limited elsewhere.  Not
all medicines are available.  Street crime of the ''grab and
run'' variety, as well as pickpocketing in crowded areas,
has increased.  Automobile accidents are one of the greatest
threats to the well-being of Americans in Cote d'Ivoire.
Night driving is particularly hazardous due to poorly lit
roads and vehicles.  Airline travel in Cote d'Ivoire and
many other parts of West Africa is routinely overbooked;
schedules are limited, and airline assistance is of varying
quality.

Djibouti

Djibouti is a developing African country.  Facilities for
tourism are limited.  Visitors to Djibouti must have
passports and obtain a visa before arrival.  Evidence of
yellow fever immunization must be presented.  Medical
facilities are limited.  Medicine is often unavailable.
Petty crime occurs in Djibouti City and elsewhere in the
country.

Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea is a developing country in West Africa.
Tourism facilities are minimal.  A passport and a visa,
obtained in advance, are required.  Medical facilities are
extremely limited.  Many medicines are unavailable.  Petty
crime is common.  The government of Equatorial Guinea has
established stringent currency restrictions, applied both on
arrival and departure from the country.  Special permits may
be needed for some types of photography.  Permits are also
required to visit certain areas of the country.

Eritrea

Eritrea is a poor but developing East African country.
Formerly a province of Ethiopia, Eritrea became an
independent country on May 24, 1993, following a 30-year
long struggle for independence.  Tourism facilities in
Eritrea are very limited.  A valid passport and a visa are
required as well as evidence of yellow fever immunization.
Airport visas are unavailable.  Flights between Asmara and
Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, are heavily booked and
advance reservations are recommended by the airlines.
Medical facilities in Eritrea are extremely limited.
Travelers must bring their own supplies of prescription
drugs and preventative medicines.  Street crime such as
theft and robbery is on the increase, particularly in the
city of Asmara.  While travel throughout Eritrea is
relatively safe, visitors may wish to exercise normal safety
precautions with regard to what valuables are carried and
what environs are visited.  The government of Eritrea
continues to use the Ethiopian birr as a currency.  Credit
cards are not accepted in Eritrea.  Foreigners must pay
bills in U.S. dollars or U.S. dollar denomination travelers
checks.

Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a developing East African country.  Tourism
facilities in Ethiopia are minimal.  A passport and a visa
are required, as well as evidence of yellow fever
immunization.  Travelers must enter Ethiopia by air, either
at Addis Ababa or Dire Dawa.  Individuals entering overland
risk being detained by immigration authorities and/or fined.
Airport visas may be obtained if 72 hours advance notice has
been provided by the traveler's sponsoring organization to
proper authorities within Ethiopia.  There is a lively black
market for hard currency in Ethiopia, despite a recent
devaluation of the Ethiopian birr.  Visitors must declare
hard currency upon arrival and may be required to present
this declaration when applying for an exit visa.  Domestic
and international air services generally operate on
schedule, although flights between Addis Ababa and Asmara
are heavily booked and may be canceled without prior
warning.  Land mines and other anti-personnel devices litter
the Ethiopian countryside, particularly along major roads.
Many persons, including foreigners, have been injured by
these devices.  If possible, travel on paved roads since
they are generally safer than unpaved roads.  Medical
facilities in Ethiopia are extremely limited.  Hospitals in
Addis Ababa suffer from inadequate facilities, antiquated
equipment and shortages of supplies, particularly
medications, although physicians are generally well-trained.
Pickpocketing is rampant, and there have been numerous
reports of thieves snatching jewelry.  Banditry occurs on
roads outside major towns or cities, and may result in
violent attacks; several persons have been killed.  Certain
buildings and public places may not be photographed.

Gabon

Gabon is a developing West African nation formerly a part of
French West Africa.  French is the official language.
Facilities for tourism are limited, especially outside the
capital city.  A passport and a visa are required.  Evidence
of a yellow fever vaccination must be submitted.  Medical
facilities in Gabon are limited.  Some medicines are not
available.  Petty crime, such as robbery and mugging, is
common, especially in urban areas.

Gambia

The Gambia is a developing West African nation.  Facilities
for tourists, including one five star hotel, are adequate,
but those outside the vicinity of the capital city, Banjul,
may be limited in availability.  A passport and visa are
required.  Evidence of yellow fever immunization must be
submitted with one's visa application.  Medical facilities
are limited.  Some medicines are unavailable.  Street crime
is common, including pickpocketing and mugging.

Ghana

Ghana is a developing country on the west coast of Africa.
A passport and a visa are required.  Evidence of
immunization for yellow fever and cholera is also required.
Medical facilities in Ghana are limited, particularly
outside the capital city of Accra.  Malaria is common, as
are other tropical diseases.  Petty crime, such as
pickpocketing, is common.  Robberies often occur in public
places and at the beach.  Currency transactions with private
citizens is illegal.  Visitors arriving in Ghana with
electronic equipment, particularly video cameras and laptop
computers, may be required to pay a refundable deposit of
17.5 per cent of the value of the item prior to entry into
the country.  In some areas, possession of a camera is
considered to be suspicious.  Individuals have been arrested
for taking pictures near sensitive installations.  The
government of Ghana does not recognize dual nationality
except for minors under 21 years of age.  The wearing of any
military apparel, such as camouflage jackets or pants, or
any clothing or items which may appear military in nature is
strictly prohibited.

Guinea

Guinea is a developing coastal West African country.
Facilities for tourism are minimal.  A passport and a visa
are required.  Evidence of yellow fever immunization is
required, and the Guinean government recommends taking of
malarial suppressants.  Medical facilities are limited.
Diseases such as malaria, including cerebral malaria,
hepatitis and intestinal hepatitis disorders are endemic.
Street crime is very common.  Criminals particularly target
visitors at the airport in Conakry.  Pickpockets or persons
posing as officials sometimes offer assistance and then
steal bags, purses or wallets.  Travelers may wish to be met
at the airport by travel agents, business contacts, family
members or friends to avoid this possibility.  Permission
from the Guinean government's security personnel is required
for photographing government buildings, airports, bridges or
official looking buildings.  Credit cards are rarely
accepted in Guinea.  Inter-bank fund transfers are
frequently difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish.  The
communication system is poor.  The limited telephone and fax
lines are usually available only between 6:00 pm and 6:00 am
local time.

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bassau is a developing nation on the west coast of
Africa.  Portuguese is the official language; French is also
widely spoken.  Facilities for tourism are minimal,
particularly outside the capital city of Bissau.  A passport
and a visa are required.  Visas must be obtained in advance;
recent visitors arriving without visas via land or air have
been turned back.  Visa applications must be accompanied by
two photos and evidence of yellow fever immunization.
Medical facilities in Guinea-Bissau are extremely limited.
Medicines often are not available.  Malaria is common, as
are other tropical diseases.  Petty thievery and
pickpocketing are increasingly common, particularly at the
airport, in markets and at public gatherings.  Thieves have
occasionally posed as officials and stolen bags and other
personal items.  Visitors should request permission from
security personnel before photographing military or police
installations.  Small U.S. currency denominations are most
useful for exchange into Guinea-Bissau pesos.  Credit cards
and travelers checks are rarely accepted in Guinea-Bissau.
Inter-bank fund transfers are frequently difficult and time-
consuming to accomplish.  Taking pesos out of the country is
prohibited.  Travelers may have difficulty finding public
phones and receiving international calls.  Telephone
services are expensive.

Kenya

Kenya is a developing East African country known for the
wildlife in its national park system.  Tourist facilities
are widely available in Nairobi, on the coast, and in the
game park and reserves.  A passport and a visa are required.
Visas may be  obtained in advance at any Kenyan embassy or
consulate, or upon arrival at a Kenyan port of entry.
Evidence of yellow fever immunization may be requested.
Adequate medical services are available in Nairobi.  There
is a high rate of street crime against tourists in downtown
Nairobi, Mombasa and at the coastal beach resorts.
Pickpockets and thieves are also involved in ''snatch and
run'' crimes near crowds.  Kenyan currency may not be taken
out of the country and is sometimes difficult to exchange
for dollars upon departure.  Security in the Masai Mara game
reserve has deteriorated, with attacks by armed bandits on
several camp sites.  Visitors should use only reputable
travel firms and knowledgeable guides and avoid camping
alone.  Water in Nairobi is potable.  In other parts of the
country, water must be boiled or bottled.  Travel by
passenger train in Kenya may be unsafe, particularly during
the rainy season, because of the lack of routine maintenance
and safety checks.

Lesotho

Lesotho is a developing country in southern Africa.
Facilities for tourists are limited.  Visas are required and
may be obtained at a Lesotho diplomatic mission prior to
arrival in Lesotho.  Americans arriving without visas have
not been inconvenienced but must obtain a visa at the
immigration and passport office in Maseru after entering the
country.  Medical facilities are minimal.  Many medicines
are unavailable.  Deteriorating economic conditions in the
country, aggravated by the return of large numbers of
unemployed miners from South Africa, have caused an increase
in armed robberies, break ins, and auto thefts.  This occurs
primarily in the capital city of Maseru but can occur
elsewhere as well.  Traveling alone or at night is
particularly dangerous.

Liberia

Liberia is a developing West African country which has
suffered internal strife for the past several years.
Tourism facilities are poor, and in some cases, non-
existent.  At the time of publication, U.S. citizens were
warned to avoid travel due to unsettled security conditions.
Travelers are required to have a passport and a visa prior
to arrival.  Evidence of yellow fever vaccinations are
required.  An exit permit must be obtained from Liberian
immigration authorities upon arrival.  Medical facilities
have been disrupted.  Medicines are scarce.  Monrovia's
crime rate is high,  Foreigners, including U.S. citizens,
have been targets of street crime.  Lodging, water,
electricity, fuel, transportation, telephone and postal
services continue to be uneven in Monrovia.

Madagascar

Madagascar is a developing island nation off the east coast
of Africa.  Facilities for tourism are available, but vary
in quality.  Passports and visas are required.  Evidence of
yellow fever immunizations must be submitted.  Medical
facilities are minimal.  Many medicines are unavailable.
Street crimes poses a risk for visitors, especially in the
city of Antananarivo.  Reported incidents include muggings
and purse snatching.  These crimes generally occur in or
near public mass transit systems, and against individuals
walking at night in the Antananarivo city center.
Foreigners who remain near or photograph political
gatherings or demonstrations, especially in towns outside
Antananarivo, may be at risk.

Malawi

Malawi is a developing African nation.  Facilities for
tourists exist, but are limited.  A passport is required.
Visas are not required for a stay of up to one year.  Strict
dress codes apply to anyone visiting Malawi.  Women must
wear dresses that cover the shoulders, arms and knees and
may not wear slacks except in specifically designated areas.
Men with long hair cannot enter the country.  Medical
facilities are limited.  Some medicines are in short supply.
Petty crime, including purse snatching, occurs in urban
areas.

Mali

Mali is a developing West African nation with a new
democratically elected system of government.  Facilities for
tourism are limited.  A passport and a visa are required.
Medical facilities are limited.  Many medicines are
unavailable.  Petty crime, including pickpocketing and purse
snatching, is not uncommon.  Incidents of banditry and
vehicle theft have been reported along major travel routes,
near the principal cities and in smaller towns.  Victims
have included foreigners.  The roads from Bamako to Mopti,
Douentza, Koutiala, Sikasso, and Bougouni, and a few other
roads are paved.  Road conditions on other routes are poor,
particularly in the rainy season from mid-June to mid-
September.  Driving is hazardous after dark, and nighttime
travel may be dangerous.  Photography is no longer
restricted, except for military subjects.  However,
interpretation of what may be considered off limits varies.
Other subjects may be considered sensitive from a cultural
or religious viewpoint, and it is helpful to obtain
permission before taking pictures.  The Malian currency is
the CFA franc which is exchangeable for French francs at a
fixed rate.  Exchange of dollars in cash or travelers checks
is slow and often involves out-of-date rates.  Use of credit
cards is limited to payments for services at only two hotels
in Bamako.  Cash advances on credit cards are performed by
one bank in Mali, the BMCD Bank in Bamako, and only with a
''VISA'' credit card.  International calls are expensive and
difficult to make outside of Bamako.   Collect calls cannot
be made from Mali.  Calls to the United States cost
approximately ten dollars a minute.

Mauritania

Mauritania is a developing country in northwestern Africa.
Evidence of yellow fever immunization and proof of
sufficient funds are required.  Medical facilities in
Mauritania are limited.  Medicines are difficult to obtain.
Petty crime exists.  Local currency may not be imported or
exported.  Credit cards, other than American Express, are
not acceptable in Mauritania.  American Express cards can
only be used at a few hotels in Nouakchott and Nouadhibou.

Mauritius

The Republic of Mauritius is a developing nation with a
stable government and growing economy.  Facilities for
tourism are largely available.  Although the spoken
languages are French and Creole, English is the official
language.  A passport, an onward/return ticket and evidence
of sufficient funds are required for entrance to Mauritius.
U.S. citizens do not need visas for a stay of three months
or less for business or tourism.  Petty crime is common in
Mauritius.

Mozambique

Mozambique, a less developed country in southern Africa,
ended a 17-year civil war in October 1992 with the signing
of a peace agreement between the government and the rival
rebel group.  Facilities for tourism are severely limited
outside of Maputo.  Travel by road outside of the major
urban areas is possible; however, road conditions vary
greatly.  A passport and a visa are required.  Visas must be
obtained in advance from a Mozambican embassy or consulate.
Medical facilities are minimal.  Many medicines are
unavailable.  Maputo's special clinic, which requires
payment in hard currency, can provide general non-emergency
services.  Economic conditions in the country, spotty police
protection, and years of war have caused an increase in
violent and armed robberies, break-ins, and auto thefts.
Victims, including members of the foreign community, have
been killed.  Traveling alone or at night is particularly
risky.  Currency can be converted at locations authorized by
the Mozambican government.  Currency conversions on the
black market are illegal and very risky.  Credit cards are
not widely accepted in Mozambique.  Some merchants prefer to
be paid in U.S. dollars.

Namibia

Namibia is a southern African country with a moderately
developed economy.  Facilities for tourism are available.  A
passport, an onward/return ticket and proof of sufficient
funds are required for entrance into Namibia.  A visa is not
required for tourist or business visits.  Medical facilities
are relatively modern, especially in the city of Windhoek.
Some petty crime occurs.

Niger

Niger is a developing, inland African nation whose northern
area includes a part of the Sahara Desert.  Tourism
facilities are minimal, particularly outside of Niamey.  A
passport and a visa are required to enter Niger.  Visas are
valid for a period of one week to three months from the date
of issuance, depending on the type of visa and category of
traveler.  Although yellow fever and cholera vaccinations
are not required for visa issuance, they are required for
entry into Niger.  Medical facilities are minimal in Niger,
particularly outside the city of Niamey.  Some medicines are
in short supply.  Armed bandits operate in northern Niger,
and a number of people have been killed.  Thieves and
pickpockets are especially active in tourist areas.  Care
must be taken in walking city streets anywhere in the
country at any time, but especially at night.  There have
been incidents of groups of men assaulting women who are, or
appear to be, African, and who are wearing garments other
than the traditional ankle-length wrap known as ''pagnes.''
U.S. citizens are generally not specific targets of these
assaults.  Tourists are free to take pictures anywhere in
Niger, except near military installations, radio and
television stations, the Presidency Building, and the
airport.  There are no laws restricting currency
transactions in Niger.  Local currency (the CFA Franc) or
foreign currency, up to the equivalent of four thousand U.S.
dollars, can be taken into or out of Niger without violating
the law.  International telephones service to and from Niger
is expensive and  callers experience delays getting a line.
Telefaxes are often garbled due to poor quality.

Nigeria

At the time of publication, Nigeria, with limited facilities
for tourism, poses  risks for travelers.  A passport and a
visa are required of U.S. citizens and all other foreigners.
Evidence of yellow fever and cholera vaccinations are also
required.  Airport visas are not available.  Violent crime
affecting foreigners is an extremely serious problem,
especially in Lagos and the southern half of the country.
Visitors, as well as resident Americans, report widespread
armed muggings, assault, burglary, carjackings and
extortion, often involving violence.  A variety of diseases
poses a serious health threat.  The public is not always
informed in a timely manner about outbreaks of typhoid,
cholera and yellow fever.  Malaria, including potentially
fatal cerebral malaria, and hepatitis are endemic.  Medical
facilities are limited; not all medicines are available.
Permission is required to take photographs of government
buildings, airports, bridges or official looking buildings.
Permission may be obtained from Nigerian security personnel.
Credit cards are rarely accepted and, because of the
prevalence of credit card fraud in Nigeria and perpetrated
by Nigerians in the United States, their use is generally
ill advised.  It is often necessary to bring travelers
checks or currency in sufficient amounts to cover the trip.
Interbank transfers are frequently difficult, if not
impossible, to accomplish.  The government of Nigeria has
fixed an artificially high official rate for the local
currency, the naira (in terms of its value in exchange for
foreign currencies).  Persons seeking to trade at lower
rates on the ''black market'' could be arrested or shaken
down.  To avoid problems,  exchange dollars for local
currency only at the official rate and at approved exchange
facilities, usually including major hotels.  Visitors may
also wish to obtain a copy of ''Tips for Business Travelers
to Nigeria.''  This publication is available free of charge
by sending a self addressed, stamped envelope to the Office
of Overseas Citizens Services, Department of State,
Washington, D.C. 20520-4818.

Rwanda

Rwanda is a central East African country torn by ethnic and
political strife.  A three month civil war ended in mid-
July.  Much of the country's basic infastructure┌telephones,
water distribution, electricity, etc.┌was destroyed in the
war.  Medical facilities are severely limited and extremely
overburdened.  Almost all medical facilities in the capital,
Kigali, were destroyed during the civil war.  Looting and
street crime are common.  There are no civilian law
enforcement authorities functioning in Rwanda at this time.
Clean water and food are unavailable on a regular basis, and
only rudimentary lodging can be found.  At the time of
publication, the Department of State warned U.S. citizens to
avoid travel due to the unsettled conditions following the
aftermath of the civil war.

Sao Tome and Principe

Sao Tome and Principe is a developing island nation off the
west coast of Africa.  Facilities for tourism are not widely
available.  A passport and a visa are required.  There is no
charge for tourist or business visas for visits of up to two
weeks.  Evidence of yellow fever immunization must be
submitted.  Medical facilities in Sao Tome and Principe are
limited.  Some crime occurs.

Senegal

Senegal is a developing West African country.  Facilities
for tourists are widely available although of varying
quality.  A passport is required.  Visas are not required
for stays of less than 90 days.  However, a visa is required
if traveling to Senegal from Mauritania, regardless of
length of stay.  U.S. citizens need onward/return tickets
Medical facilities are limited, particularly in areas
outside the capital, Dakar.  Street crime in Senegal poses
moderate risks for visitors.  Most reported incidents
involve pickpockets, purse snatchers and street scam
artists.

Seychelles

Seychelles is an island nation in the Indian Ocean off the
east coast of Africa.  The principle island of Mahe has a
population of about 50,000.  The two other islands, with
significant permanent populations, are Praslin and La Digue.
Facilities for tourism are generally well developed.  A visa
is required and may be issued on arrival for a stay up to
one month.  There is no charge.  The visa may be extended
for a period of up to one year.  Medical facilities in
Seychelles are limited, especially in the isolated outer
islands, where doctors are often unavailable.  Petty crime
occurs, although violent crime against tourists is
considered to be rare.   Keep valuables in hotel safes and
close and lock hotel windows at night, even while the room
is occupied to minimize the risk of crime.

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone is a developing country which has few
facilities for tourism and poses considerable risks for
travelers.  Military activity and banditry affect large
parts of the country outside Freetown.  Telephone service is
unreliable.  A passport and a visa are required.  Airport
visas are not available upon arrival in Sierra Leone for
U.S. citizens; visas must, therefore, be obtained in advance
from a Sierra Leonean embassy or consulate.  Yellow fever
immunizations are required.  Malaria suppressants are
recommended.  Travelers must declare foreign currency being
brought into Sierra Leone.  Declaration is made on an
exchange control form which must be certified and stamped at
the port of entry.  Medical facilities are limited and
medicines are in short supply.  Sterility of equipment is
questionable, and treatment is often unreliable.  Petty
crime and theft of wallets and passports are common.
Requests for payments at military roadblocks are common.
Permission is required to photograph government buildings,
airports, bridges or official-looking buildings.  Areas
forbidding photography are not marked or defined.

Somalia

At the time of publication, U.S. citizens were warned not to
travel to Somalia.  The Liaison office in Mogodishu ceased
operations in September 1994.  No visas are required for
entry into Somalia.  Anyone entering Somalia must receive
immunization against cholera, typhoid, and yellow fever, and
obtain a doctor's advice regarding any other immunizations
that might be necessary.  There are virtually no health
facilities or medicines available in Somalia.  Looting,
banditry, and all forms of violent crime are common in
Somalia, particularly in the capital city of Mogodishu.
Electricity, water, food, and lodging are unobtainable on a
regular basis.

South Africa

Although South Africa is in many respects a developed
country, much of its population, particularly in rural
areas, lives in poverty.  There are adequate facilities in
all urban centers, game parks and areas most commonly
visited by tourists.  Food and water are generally safe, and
a wide variety of consumer goods and pharmaceuticals are
readily available.  Road conditions are generally good, but
there is a very high incidence of highway casualties,
especially over holiday weekends.  A passport valid for at
least six months is required, but a visa is not required for
visits for holiday, business or transit purposes.  Visas are
required, however, for extended stays, employment, study and
for diplomatic and official passport holders.  Evidence of a
yellow fever vaccination is necessary if arriving from an
infected area.  Medical facilities are good in urban areas
and in the vicinity of game parks and beaches, but may be
limited elsewhere.  There is continuing and significant
street crime such as muggings, pickpocketing, and random
street violence, which affects foreigners as well as local
residents, especially in the center of major cities such as
Johannesburg.

Sudan

Sudan is a large under-developed country in northeastern
Africa.  Tourism facilities are minimal.  A passport and a
visa are required to enter Sudan.  The Sudanese government
recommends that malarial suppressants be taken, and that
yellow fever, cholera and meningitis vaccinations be in
order.  Visas are not granted in passports  showing Israeli
visas.  Travelers are required to register with police
headquarters within three days of arrival.  Travelers must
obtain police permission before moving to another location
in Sudan and must register with police within 24 hours of
arrival at the new location.  The exchange of money at other
than an authorized banking institution may result in arrest
and loss of funds though unscrupulous black marketeers.  A
permit must be obtained before taking photographs anywhere
in Khartoum, as well as in the interior of the country.
Photographing military areas, bridges, drainage stations,
broadcast stations, public utilities, and slum areas or
beggars is prohibited.  Disruption of water and electricity
are frequent.  Telecommunications are slow and often not
possible.  Unforeseen circumstances such as sandstorms and
electrical outages may cause flight delays.

Swaziland

Swaziland is a small developing nation in southern Africa.
Facilities for tourism are available.  A passport is
required.  Visas are not required of tourists planning to
stay less than 60 days.  Temporary residence permits are
issued in Mbabane.  For longer stays, visitors must report
to immigration authorities or to a police station within 48
hours of arrival, if they are not lodged in a hotel.  Yellow
fever and cholera immunizations are required for visitors
arriving from an infected area.  Anti-malarial treatment is
recommended.  Medical facilities are limited.  Petty street
crime, primarily theft of money and personal property occurs
with some frequency.

Tanzania

Tanzania is a developing East African nation.  Tourist
facilities are adequate in major cities, but limited in
remote areas.  A passport and a visa are required for
entrance into the country.  Visas for mainland Tanzania are
also valid for Zanzibar.  Airport visas may be obtained only
in Zanzibar; they are not available at mainland airports.
Yellow fever and cholera immunizations are required if
arriving from an affected area.  Airport officials often
require current immunizations records from travelers
arriving from non-infected areas as well.  Medical
facilities are limited.  Some medicines are in short supply
or unavailable.  Malaria is endemic in Tanzania and anti-
malarial prophylaxis are advisable.  Numerous cases of
meningococcal meningitis and cholera have been reported
throughout the country.  Crime is a concern in both urban
and rural areas of Tanzania.  Incidents include muggings,
vehicle thefts and residential break-ins.  Valuables such as
passports, travelers checks, cameras and jewelry are
particular targets for thieves, and are easily stolen if
left in luggage at airline check-ins or hotel lobbies.
Photography of military installations is forbidden.
Individuals have been detained and/or had their cameras and
film confiscated for taking pictures of hospitals, schools,
bridges, industrial sites and airports.


Togo

Togo is a small West African nation with a developing
economy.  Tourism facilities are limited, especially outside
the capital city.  A passport is required.  No visa is
required for a stay of less than three months.  Yellow fever
immunizations are required.  Medical facilities in Togo are
limited under normal conditions and have degraded because of
a long general strike, the departure of medical personnel
and the closure or reduction of service in clinics and
hospitals.  Some medicines are available through local
pharmacies.  Petty crime, including pickpocketing, has
increased.

Uganda

Uganda is a developing East African nation.  Tourism
facilities are adequate in Kampala, but are limited in other
areas.  A passport is required; a visa is not required for
U.S. citizens.  Evidence of immunization for yellow fever,
cholera and typhoid is often requested.  Medical facilities
in Uganda are limited.  Medical supplies, equipment and
medication are often in short supply or not available.
Incidents of armed vehicle hijacking  and armed highway
robbery are frequent throughout the country.  Many roads in
Uganda are poor, and bandit activity in some areas is both
frequent and unpredictable.  Highway travel at night is
particularly dangerous.  Photographing security forces or
government installations is prohibited.

Zaire

Zaire is the largest sub-Saharan African country.  Although
Zaire has substantial human and natural resources, in recent
years, the country has suffered a profound political and
economic crisis.  This has resulted in the dramatic
deterioration of the physical infrastructure of the country,
insecurity and an increase in crime in urban areas
(including occasional episodes of looting and murder in
Kinshasa's streets).  There have also been occasional
official hostility to U.S. citizens and nationals of
European countries, periodic shortages of basic needs such
as gasoline, chronic shortages of medicine and supplies for
some basic medical care, hyperinflation, and corruption.
In some urban areas, malnutrition and starvation are acute
Tourism facilities are minimal.  A passport, visa and
vaccination certificate showing valid yellow fever and
cholera immunizations are required for entry.  Medical
facilities are extremely limited.  Medicine is in short
supply.  Most intercity roads are difficult or impassable in
the rainy season.  While the U.S. dollar and travelers
checks can, in theory, be exchanged for local currency
(zaires) at banks in Kinshasa, banks often do not have
sufficient new Zaire cash on hand to make transactions.
Credit cards are generally not accepted, except by a few
major hotels and restaurants.  Photography of public
buildings and/or military installations is forbidden,
including photography of the banks of the Congo River.
Offenders may to be arrested, held for a minimum of several
hours, fined and the film and camera may also be
confiscated.

Zambia

Zambia is a developing African country.  Tourist facilities
outside of well-known game parks are not fully developed.
U.S. citizens must have passports and obtain a Zambian visa
prior to entering the country.  Medical facilities are
limited.  Cholera and yellow fever are endemic.  Crime is
prevalent in Zambia.  Muggings and petty theft are
commonplace, especially in Lusaka in the vicinity of Cairo
Road and in other commercial areas.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe is a landlocked southern African nation with
extensive tourist facilities.  A passport is required.
Although no visa is required to enter Zimbabwe, immigration
authorities require a firm itinerary, sufficient funds for
the visit, and a return ticket to the United States.  Onward
tickets to non-U.S. destinations may not suffice.  If these
requirements are not met, immigration authorities may order
departure by the next available flight.  Medical facilities
in Zimbabwe are limited.  Some medicine is in short supply.
Muggings, purse snatching and break-ins are an increasing
problem in Harare and Bulawayo.  Thieves often operate in
downtown Harare, especially in crowded areas, and on public
transportation.  Nationwide electrical blackouts can last
hours at a time.  Intercity bus travel can be dangerous due
to overloaded buses, inadequate maintenance, unskilled
drivers and occasional cases of drivers operating buses
while intoxicated.  Currency transactions are strictly
regulated.  Tourists must declare to Zimbabwe customs all
currency and travelers checks before entering the country.
Failure to declare all currency and travelers checks may
result in confiscation of the currency or checks, as well as
a fine.  Zimbabwean authorities are extremely sensitive
about photographing certain locations and buildings,
including government offices, airports, military
installations, official residences and embassies.
U.S Embassies and Consulates Abroad

Note:  The workweek is Monday-Friday except where noted.
Mail to APO and FPO addresses must originate in the United
States; the street address must not appear in an APO or FPO
address.

ANGOLA
American Embassy
Rua Houari Boumedienne
P.O. Box 6468
Luanda
Tel: (244-2) 34-54-81

BENIN
American Embassy
Rue Caporal Anani Bernard
B.P. 2012
Cotonou
Tel:  (229) 30-06-50

BOTSWANA
American Embassy
P.O. Box 90
Gaborone
Tel:  (267) 353-982

BURKINO FASO
American Embassy
B.P. 35
Ouagadougou
Tel:  (226) 306-723

BURUNDI
American Embassy
B.P. 34
1720 Bujumbura
Tel:  (257)(2) 23454

CAMEROON
American Embassy
Rue Nachtigal, B.P. 817
Yaounde
Tel:  (237) 230-753

CAPE VERDE
American Embassy
Rua Hojl Ya Yenna 81
C.P. 201
Praia
Tel:  (238) 61-56-16

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
American Embassy
Avenue David Dacko
B.P. 924
Bangui
Tel:  (236) 61-02-00

CHAD
American Embassy
Avenue. Felix Eboue
B.P. 413
N'Djamena
Tel:  (235) 516-218

COMOROS
Services provided by the
American Embassy in
Port Louis, Mauritius.

CONGO
American Embassy
Avenue Amilcar Cabral
B.P. 1015, Box C
Brazzaville
Tel:  (242) 83-20-70
COTE D'IVOIRE
American Embassy
5 Rue Jesse Owens
01 B.P. 1712
Abidjan
Tel:  (225) 21-09-79

DJIBOUTI
American Embassy
Plateau du Serpent, Blvd.
Marechal Joffre
B.P. 185
Djibouti
Tel:  (253) 353-995

EQUATORIAL GUINEA
American Embassy
Calle de Los Ministros
P.O. Box 597
Malabo
Tel:  (240-9) 2406

ERITREA
American Embassy
34 Zera Yacob St.]
P.O. Box 211
Asmara
Tel: (291-1) 12-00-04

ETHIOPIA
American Embassy
Entoto St., P.O. Box 1014
Addis Ababa
Tel:  (251-1) 550-666, ext. 316/336

GABON
American Embassy
Blvd. de la Mer
B.P. 4000
Libreville
Tel:  (241) 762-003, 743-492

GAMBIA
American Embassy
Kairaba Ave;
P.M.B. No. 19,
Banjul
Tel:  (220) 92856, 92858, 91970

GHANA
American Embassy
Ring Road East
P.O. Box 194
Accra
Tel:  (223-21)775-347

GUINEA
American Embassy
2d Blvd. and 9th Ave, B.P. 603
Conakry
Tel:  (224) 441-520

GUINEA-BISSAU
American Embassy
C.P. 297
1067 Codex
Bissau
Tel:  (245) 25-2273

KENYA
American Embassy
Moi/Haile Selassie Ave.
P.O. Box 30137
Nairobi
Tel:  (254)(2) 334-141

LESOTHO
American Embassy
254 Kingsway
P.O. Box 333, Maseru 100
Maseru
Tel:  (266) 312-666

LIBERIA
American Embassy
111 United Nations Dr.
P.O. Box 10-0098,
Mamba Point
Monrovia
Tel:  (231) 222-991

MADAGASCAR
American Embassy
14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo,
Antsahavola
B.P. 620
Antananarivo
Tel:  (261)(2) 21257, 20089

MALAWI
American Embassy
P.O. Box 30016
Lilongwe
Tel:  (265) 783-166

MALI
American Embassy
Rue Testard and
Rue Mohamed V
B.P. 34
Bamako
Tel:  (223)(22) 54-70

MAURITANIA
American Embassy
B.P. 222
Nouakchott
Tel:  (222)(2) 52660

MAURITIUS
American Embassy
Rogers Bldg. (4th Fl.)
John F.  Kennedy Street
Port Louis
Tel:  (230) 208-9764

MOZAMBIQUE
American Embassy
Avenida Kaunda 193
Maputo
Tel:  (258)(1) 49-27-97

NAMIBIA
American Embassy
Private Bag 12029
Windhoek 9000
Tel:  (264-61) 22-1601

NIGER
American Embassy
B.P. 11201
Niamey
Tel:  (227) 722-661

NIGERIA
American Embassy
2 Eleke Crescent
Victoria Island, Lagos
Tel:  (234)(1) 261-0050

RWANDA
American Embassy
Blvd. de la Revolution, B.P. 28
Kigali
Tel:  (205) 75601

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
Falls under the jurisdiction of
 American Embassy in Libreville, Gabon

SENEGAL
American Embassy
Avenue Jean XXIII, B.P. 49
Dakar
Tel:  (221) 23-42-96

SEYCHELLES
American Embassy
Box 148, Unit 62501
Victoria
Tel:  (248) 225-256

SIERRA LEONE
American Embassy
Corner Walpole and
Siaka Stevens St.
Freetown
Tel: (232-22) 226-481

SOMALIA
U.S. Liaison Office ceased
operationSeptember 1994

SOUTH AFRICA
American Embassy
887 Pretorius St.
Pretoria
Tel:  (27)(12) 342-1048

American Consulate General
Broadway Industries Center
Heerengracht, Foreshore
Cape Town
Tel:  (27)(21) 214-280

American Consulate General
Durban House, 29th Fl.
333 Smith St.
Durban  4001
Tel:  (27)(31) 304-4737

American Consulate General
Kine Center, 11th Fl.
141 Commissioner St.
Johannesburg
Tel:  (27)(11) 331-1681

SUDAN
American Embassy
Sharia Ali Abdul Latif
P.O. Box 699
Khartoum
Tel:  74700, 74611
Workweek:  Sunday-Thursday

SWAZILAND
American Embassy
Central Bank Bldg.
Warner Street
P.O. Box 199
Mbabane
Tel:  (268) 464-41/5

TANZANIA
American Embassy
30 Laibon Rd. (off Bagamoyo Rd.)
P.O. Box 9123
Das Es Salaam
Tel:  (255)(51) 66010

TOGO
American Embassy
Rue Pelletier Caventou &
Rue Vauban, B.P. 852
Lome
Tel:  (228)(21) 29-91

UGANDA
American Embassy
Parliament Ave., P.O. Box 7007
Kampala
Tel:  (256)(41) 259-792, 259-795

ZAIRE
American Embassy
310 Avenue des Aviateurs
Unit 31550
Kinshasa
Tel:  (243)(12) 21523

ZAMBIA
American Embassy
Independence and United Nations Aves.
P.O. Box 31617
Lusaka
Tel:  (260)(1) 250-955

ZIMBABWE
American Embassy
172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue.
P.O. Box 3340
Harare
Tel:  (263)(4) 794-521

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