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                         REPORT  TO  THE  CONGRESS


                      PROPOSED  REFUGEE  ADMISSIONS

                         FOR  FISCAL  YEAR  1995




                       UNITED  STATES  SENATE  AND



                          SECTION  207 (E) (1)-(7)

                                   OF  THE


                        The  Department  of  State

                        The Department  of  Justice 


             The  Department  of  Health  and  Human  Services

                              September 1994


ALLOCATIONS  FOR  FISCAL  YEAR  (FY)  1995  is submitted in compliance 

with Section 207(e) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).  The 

Act requires that before the start of the fiscal year and, to the extent 

possible, at least two weeks prior to Consultations on refugee 

admissions, members of the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and 

the House of Representatives be provided with the following information:

     (l)  A description of the nature of the refugee situation;

     (2)  A description of the number and allocation of the refugees to 

be admitted and an analysis of conditions within the countries from 

which they came;

     (3)  A description of the proposed plans for their movement and 

resettlement and the estimated cost of their movement and resettlement;

     (4)  An analysis of the anticipated social, economic, and 

demographic impact of their admission to the United States;

     (5)  A description of the extent to which other countries will 

admit and assist in the resettlement of such refugees;

     (6)  An analysis of the impact of the participation of the United 

States in the resettlement of such refugees on the foreign policy 

interests of the United States;  and

     (7)   Such additional information as may be appropriate or 

requested by such members.


     FOREWORD                                          PAGE


     A.  OVERVIEW OF U.S. REFUGEE POLICY                      1


          1.  Africa                                          5

          2.  East Asia                                       7

          3.  Latin America and the Caribbean                 9

          4.  Near East                                      12

          5.  Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe         14

          6.  Unallocated Reserve                            15

          7.  Private Sector Initiative (PSI)                15



          1.  Eligibility Criteria                           16

          2.  Processing Posts                               16

          3.  The Worldwide Priorities System                18

          4.  INS Refugee Processing                         21


          1.  Voluntary Agency Processing                    24

          2.  Overseas Language Training and Cultural

                    Orientation                              24

          3.  Health Services                                24

          4.  Initial Reception and Placement-Data Center    25

          5.  Transportation                                 26

          6.  Ongoing Domestic Resettlement Program          26


     A.  DEMOGRAPHIC IMPACT                                  28

     B.  GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION                             29


     C.  SECONDARY MIGRATION                                 34

     D.  ECONOMIC IMPACT                                     34


     MOVEMENT RESETTLEMENT                                   35

     LIST  OF  TABLES                                  PAGE

I.    REFUGEE ADMISSIONS IN FY 1993 AND FY 1994               3


III.  REFUGEES AND AMERASIANS:                               30


      FY 1992 AND FY 1993

IV.   REFUGEES, ENTRANTS, AND AMERASIANS                     31


V.    INDOCHINESE REFUGEES                                   32


      FY 1975 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 1993

VI.   NON-INDOCHINESE REFUGEES                               33


      SEPTEMBER 30, 1993




The annual Congressional consultations on refugee admissions provide an 

opportunity for the Congress and the Administration to focus on the 

domestic and international implications of the U.S. refugee policy, and 

mark the culmination of a many-faceted consultative process for FY 1995.

Administration officials had periodic discussions with Members and staff 

of the House and Senate Judiciary Committees, the Senate Foreign 

Relations Committee, the House Foreign Affairs Committee, the House and 

Senate Appropriations Committees and other interested Congressional 

committees.  Interagency meetings which included representatives from 

the Department of State's Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration, 

the Department of Justice's Immigration and Naturalization Service, the 

Department of Health and Human Service's Office of Refugee Resettlement, 

the Office of Management and Budget, and the National Security Council 

were convened regularly.  In addition, consultations were held with 

representatives of state and local governments, public interest groups, 

private voluntary organizations, mutual assistance associations, and 

other organizations concerned with refugees.

The Administration is committed to strengthening and implementing the 

U.S. refugee admissions and assistance policy consistent with domestic 

and international concerns within a humanitarian framework.  The task of 

balancing these concerns has become increasingly difficult because of 

growing numbers of refugees, displaced persons, and victims of 

conflicts, and constrained budgets.  Nevertheless, we continue to admit 

significant numbers to our country as refugees.  At the same time, we 

contribute to life-saving assistance programs which have an impact on 

millions of refugees, displaced persons, and victims of conflict who are 

not eligible for the admissions program.

This document presents the President's admissions proposals for FY 1995.  

It is intended to initiate the Congressional consultations process set 

out in Section 207 of the Refugee Act of 1980 and to elicit responses 

from the House and Senate Judiciary Committees and others interested in 

refugee policies and programs.  After receiving the views of the 

Congress, the President will determine refugee admissions levels and 

allocations for FY 1995.



In the resolution of refugee problems, the United States gives highest 

priority to the safe, voluntary return of refugees to their homelands.  

This policy, embodied in the Refugee Act of 1980, is also the first 

priority for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).  

If safe, voluntary repatriation is not feasible, settlement in countries 

of asylum within the region is sought as the next preferred alternative. 

Often, however, political differences, lack of economic resources to 

support large numbers of additional people, or ethnic, religious or 

other deep-rooted animosities prevent this option from being exercised.  

Finally, consideration is given to resettlement in third countries, 

including the United States.

The United States considers for admission persons of special 

humanitarian concern who can establish persecution or a well-founded 

fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, 

membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. The legal 

basis of the refugee admissions program is the Refugee Act of 1980 which 

embodies the American tradition of granting refuge to diverse groups 

suffering or fearing persecution. The Act adopted, for the purpose of 

our refugee admissions program, the definition of "refugee" contained in 

the United Nations Convention and Protocol relating to the Status of 

Refugees. The definition, which may be found in Section 101 (a) (42) of 

the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended by the Refugee 

Act, is as follows:

"The term "refugee" means:  (A) any person who is outside any country of 

such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no 

nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually 

resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or 

unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country 

because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account 

of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, 

or political opinion, or  (B) in such circumstances as the President 

after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 207 (e) of this 

Act) may specify, any person who is within the country of such person's 

nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within 

the country in which such person is habitually residing, and who is 

persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of 

race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or 

political opinion.  The term "refugee" does not include any person who 

ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution 

of any person on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a 

particular social group, or political opinion."

The estimated world population of refugees and externally displaced 

persons is over 19 million; persons displaced within their own countries 

by war, famine and civil unrest may exceed that number.  The United 

States works with other governments and international and private 

organizations to protect refugees, displaced persons, and conflict 

victims and strives to ensure that survival needs for food, health care 

and shelter are met.  Under the authority contained in the Migration and 

Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, the United States 

contributes to the international activities of the UNHCR, the 

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and other international 

and private organizations which provide ongoing relief and assistance 

for refugees, displaced persons, and conflict victims.  The United 

States has been instrumental in mobilizing a community of nations to 

work through these and other organizations in alleviating the misery and 

suffering of refugees throughout the world. 

The United States, aware that more than 80 percent of the world's 

refugees are women and young children, recognizes the special needs of 

these vulnerable groups, particularly in the areas of protection and 

assistance.  The United States supports the UNHCR and other relevant 

international, governmental and non-governmental organizations in their 

efforts to involve refugee women in implementing programs on their own 

behalf, and also supports the assigning of women officers to positions 

where they can have a positive impact on the protection and well-being 

of women and children refugees.

We continue to press for the most effective use of international 

resources directed to the urgent needs of refugees and displaced 

persons.  During FY 1994, the United States has supported major relief 

programs in Africa, Central America, Southeast Asia, South Asia and the 

Near East.  Contributions for these funds were made through 

organizations including the UNHCR, the United Nations World Food Program 

(WFP), the ICRC, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the 

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the 

Near East (UNRWA).  This support averted further human tragedy and 

helped sustain life by providing food and other assistance to meet the 

basic human needs of refugees, displaced persons, and conflict victims.  

Details are provided in the World Refugee Report.

With regard to refugees resettled in the United States, the U.S. 

Government aims to promote economic self-sufficiency as quickly as 

possible, limiting the need for public assistance and encouraging 

refugees to contribute to the diversity and enrichment of our country as 

previous newcomers have done.  To this end, short-term English language 

and cultural orientation programs for certain groups of refugees have 

been established overseas to initiate the process of adapting to our 

complex society.  Particular attention is paid to the health of refugees 

to ensure that communicable diseases are controlled before entry into 

the United States.  Federally-funded programs administered by the States 

have provided cash and medical assistance, training programs, employment 

and other support services to many refugees soon after arrival in the 

United States.  A variety of institutional providers have performed 

these services, including private voluntary agencies who also perform 

initial reception and placement services under cooperative agreements 

with the Department of State.  All of these benefits are intended for 

short-term utilization during a refugee's transition to an independent, 

contributing member of the national economy and of American society.


            REFUGEE  ADMISSIONS  IN  FY 1993  AND  FY 1994

                                         FY 1994    Projected

                 FY 1993     FY 1994     Arrivals     FY 1994

Region            Actual      Ceiling    Thru 7/94     Arrivals

Africa             6,969         7,000        4,566       6,000

East Asia         49,858        45,000       33,558      42,000

Eastern Europe*    2,651

Latin America/     4,126         9,000**      4,688       8,000



Near East          7,000         6,000        3,903       6,000

Former Soviet

   Union*         48,627

Former Soviet Union/            53,000**      40,073     48,000

   Eastern Europe*

Unallocated Reserve                   **

PSI                  251         1,000         -0-          -0-

TOTALS           119,482        121,000      86,788     110,000

 *  Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe ceilings were combined in FY-


**  Reallocations:  3,000 admissions numbers initially assigned to the 

Unallocated Reserve were reallocated during the year to the Latin 

America/Caribbean ceiling.  An initial allocation of 55,000 numbers to 

the Former Soviet Union/Eastern Europe ceiling was reduced by 2,000 to 

53,000, with the 2,000 numbers reallocated to the Latin 

America/Caribbean ceiling.  The initial 4,000 numbers allocated to the 

Latin America/Caribbean ceiling were thus augmented by an additional 

5,000 to accommodate a surge in Haitian admissions during the year.


The President proposes to respond to the humanitarian needs of refugees 

by establishing for FY-1995 an admissions ceiling of 112,000 refugees 

for permanent resettlement in the United States.  Proposed allocations 

within this ceiling are shown in Table II below:




AREA OF ORIGIN                                    CEILING 

Africa                                               7,000

East Asia                                           40,000*

Former Soviet Union/Eastern Europe                  48,000

Latin America and the Caribbean                      8,000

Near East                                            5,000

Unallocated Reserve                                  2,000

   SUB-TOTAL, FUNDED ADMISSIONS                    110,000

Private Sector Initiative                            2,000

TOTAL                                              112,000

* This figure includes Amerasians and their family members who enter as 

immigrants under a special statutory provision but receive the same 

benefits as refugees.


The President also proposes to specify that special circumstances exist 

so that, for the purpose of admission under the limits established above 

and pursuant to section 101(a)(42)(B) of the INA, certain persons, if 

they otherwise qualify for admission, may be considered as refugees of 

special humanitarian concern to the United States even though they are 

still within their countries of nationality or habitual residence.  The 

proposed designations for FY 1995 are persons in Cuba, Haiti, Vietnam 

and the former Soviet Union.

In addition to the proposed admission of refugees from abroad, the 

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) will be authorized to 

adjust to the status of permanent resident alien 10,000 persons who have 

been granted asylum in the United States and have been in the United 

States for at least one year, pursuant to Section 209 (b) of the 

Immigration and Nationality Act.  In the regional descriptions which 

follow, an overview of refugee-generating conditions is provided.  In 

addition, voluntary repatriation, resettlement within the region, and 

third-country resettlement opportunities are mentioned.  There is also 

reference to refugee resettlement by countries other than the United 

States.  More detailed information and statistics on these subjects are 

found in the companion World Refugee Report.



With some six million refugees, sub-Saharan Africa hosts about a third 

of the world's refugees.  Moreover, the greatest percentage of the 

world's internally displaced population is in sub-Saharan Africa.  Only 

the island nations of the continent remain essentially untouched by 

refugee flows.  Moreover, a sort of de facto reciprocity in offering 

refuge -- Sierra Leonean refugees in Liberia and Liberian refugees in 

Sierra Leone, Ethiopian refugees in Sudan and Sudanese refugees in 

Ethiopia -- continues to confuse many observers.

The year 1993 began and ended with new refugee movements.  Communal 

tensions in Togo, exacerbated by the delays in the anticipated 

democratization there, resulted in the unexpected flight of some 200,000 

or more Togolese to Ghana and Benin in January 1993.  In Burundi and 

Rwanda, the deaths of their presidents (in an April 1994 plane crash, 

preceded the previous October by the assassination of the former 

Burundian president) precipitated ethnic massacres in Rwanda in which 

over half a million people were killed and another one to two million 

became refugees or internally displaced persons.  Warfare in 1993 in 

Angola, Sierra Leone, and Sudan continued to uproot civilians and to 

push many into neighboring countries as refugees.  Ethnic clashes in 

Chad, Kenya, and Zaire caused added displacement while communal violence 

in such disparate places as Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa gave rise to 

fears of future refugee flows.

Voluntary Repatriation

A continued respite from war in Mozambique throughout 1993 allowed for 

the repatriation of as many as 400,000 Mozambican refugees, although 

over a million Mozambicans still remain in asylum in neighboring 

countries.  Before the October 1993 coup attempt in Burundi, a number of 

refugees who had fled earlier ethnic strife there had already begun 

returning; the April 1994 ethnic massacres in Rwanda pushed almost all 

Burundians home.  Ethiopian and Eritrean refugees in Sudan began to 

return home in small numbers, presaging an end to the current refugee 

problem in the Sudan.  South African refugee return was finally 

completed.  While the imposition of a modicum of security throughout 

Somalia by the United Nations peacemaking operation (UNOSOM) during most 

of 1993 led some 50,000 Somali refugees to return home, renewed armed 

clashes near the end of the year halted most organized repatriation.  In 

1995, UNHCR is expected to continue implementation of repatriation 

programs for some of the largest and most enduring of Africa's refugee 

situations, such as Mozambicans and Eritreans.  Should peace talks prove 

fruitful, Angolans, Liberians, Sierra Leoneans, and Somalis could be 


Resettlement within the Region

The extraordinary tolerance of most African nations towards long-term 

refugees continues to be coupled with (1) an expectation that most 

refugees will eventually return home, and (2) a widespread lack of 

interest in providing durable solutions to refugee situations through 

the granting of citizenship and permanent resettlement.

Third-Country Resettlement

Continuing ethnic tension, human rights abuses, competition for 

resources, environmental degradation, political change, religious 

proselytizing, and easy availability of modern weaponry can be expected 

to generate substantial numbers of additional refugees for the 

foreseeable future.  Nonetheless, third-country resettlement is expected 

to remain a distant third in terms of appropriate durable solutions for 

refugees in Africa.  Political dissidents who are unwelcome in 

prospective asylum countries, urbanized refugees who seek to remain in 

urban areas rather than assimilate into rural settlements as most 

governments prefer or require, and refugees such as those belonging to 

clan groups associated with deposed government leaders for whom 

voluntary repatriation and local integration appear to be nearly 

impossible, are representative of those who will need third-country 

resettlement during FY 1995.  UNHCR's Assessment of Global Resettlement 

Needs for Refugees in 1994 estimates the total number of such African 

refugees to be 10,550.

U.S. Admissions

FY 1994.  In FY 1994 the U.S. will admit as refugees an estimated 6,000 

Africans, including about 3,600 Somalis, 1,300 Sudanese, 600 Liberians, 

and 500 Zairians, Ethiopians and others.  Most processing is being done 

in Kenya with the remaining admissions coming from other refugee 

processing posts in Africa and Europe.

Proposed FY 1995 Ceiling.  The proposed ceiling for Africa for FY 1995 

is 7,000, mainly for Somalis but also possibly including significant 

numbers of Sudanese and Rwandans.  As in FY 1994, most admissions will 

come via refugee processing sites in Kenya.  The U.S. Embassy in 

Nairobi, assisted by a Joint Voluntary Agency (JVA) staffed by a private 

voluntary agency under a cooperative agreement with the State 

Department, will also process the cases of UNHCR-referred and vulnerable 

cases of non-designated nationalities.  The JVA is staffed to provide 

assistance to UNHCR at non-processing posts in the region, such as for 

Somalis in the Horn of Africa who cannot repatriate, Rwandans in East 

Africa, and UNHCR-referred Liberians in West Africa.

Proposed designated nationalities and processing priorities for FY 1995 

are:  Liberians in Priority One only; Somalis, Sudanese and Zairians in 

Priorities One through Three; and Rwandans in Priorities One through 

Four.  In addition, at non-African posts only those African applicants 

who arrived in their country of asylum prior to July 1, 1988 can be 

considered without prior authorization from Washington.

In light of the volatile political and ethnic circumstances in many 

African countries, refugee processing posts in Africa are authorized to 

process, without prior authorization from Washington, applications by 

nationals of any African country referred to the U.S. program by UNHCR.  


First Asylum

There are over 80,000 Indochinese asylum-seekers in first asylum camps 

in Southeast Asia and Hong Kong, including almost 60,000 Vietnamese and 

about 20,000 Lao (mostly Hmong).  Thailand also hosts over 70,000 

Burmese ethnic minorities and students in encampments along its border 

with Burma, as well as about 2,400 Burmese student/dissidents in the 

Bangkok area who are recognized by UNHCR as "persons of concern."

Vietnamese and Lao asylum seekers are considered under the provisions of 

the Comprehensive Plan of Action (CPA) adopted by over 50 nations at the 

International Conference on Indochinese Refugees (ICIR) in Geneva in 

June 1989.  The CPA affirms both the guarantee of first asylum by 

signatory nations and international commitments to onward third-country 

resettlement for persons determined to be genuine refugees.  The CPA 

calls for the expansion of legal emigration and institutes a screening 

program to identify bona fide Vietnamese and Lao refugees.  With the 

exception of Malaysia and Singapore, the right of boat people to arrive 

on shore and seek asylum is recognized by the Southeast Asian nations 

and Hong Kong.

In Thailand, the 370,000 displaced Khmer previously encamped along the 

Thai-Cambodian border were all repatriated to the interior of Cambodia 

in a UNHCR-orchestrated operation completed in March 1993.  Only about 

forty Khmer remain in a refugee processing center in Thailand awaiting 

final processing for United States immigrant visas or parole.  In 

addition, there are 464 "boat" Khmer in a camp in Indonesia.  However, 

as Cambodia is not part of the CPA, and repatriation to Cambodia in 

safety and dignity is now possible, resettlement countries do not seek 

access to Cambodians who arrive illegally by boat in Indonesia or 


Voluntary Repatriation

Under the terms of the CPA, asylum seekers who do not have valid refugee 

claims are not considered for third-country resettlement.  Instead, they 

are encouraged to return voluntarily to Vietnam under a UNHCR program.  

As of July 31, 1994, more than 64,000 Vietnamese asylum-seekers had 

voluntarily returned to Vietnam from first asylum camps in Southeast 

Asia and Hong Kong.  Voluntary returnees are monitored by the UNHCR in 

Vietnam, and no evidence of persecution of any of these repatriates has 

ever been documented.

Since September 1980, a UNHCR voluntary repatriation program has existed 

to facilitate the return of ethnic Lao, Hmong, and other highlanders to 

Laos from Thailand.  More than 16,000 persons have returned since the 

inception of the program, with 1,700 repatriating so far in FY 1994.  

There are several reception centers for returnees in Laos, and UNHCR 

monitors the returnees to ensure their safety.

Resettlement in the Region

In East Asia, willingness to settle Indochinese refugees or even to 

grant temporary asylum is constrained by security and economic concerns, 

as well as cultural, religious, and political sensitivities.  At the 

ICIR, the ASEAN states made it clear that they expect all Vietnamese 

asylum seekers either to be resettled in third countries outside the 

region or to return to Vietnam.

Third-Country Resettlement

Under the CPA, resettlement countries agreed to resettle, over a three-

year period, all Vietnamese asylum seekers who arrived in countries of 

first asylum prior to a cutoff date (March 1989 for Southeast Asia and 

June 1988 for Hong Kong).  Over 99 percent of these roughly 50,000 pre-

cutoff date refugees already have been resettled or have been approved 

for resettlement.  The United States also agreed to resettle up to 50 

percent of the "screened-in cases" in the region and has been processing 

these cases.  Unaccompanied minors in the post-cutoff date population 

are being reviewed by special committees in each first asylum country 

which determine what is in the best interest of each child in terms of 

resettlement or repatriation.

U.S. Admissions

FY 1994.  The FY 1994 ceiling for East Asia is 45,000.  It is 

anticipated that about 9,500 refugees, including 7,000 Hmong, will be 

admitted from first asylum countries in East Asia, and about 32,500 

persons, including 3,000 Amerasians, will be admitted through the in-

country Orderly Departure Program (ODP) in Vietnam, for a total of 

42,000 admissions.  Most of the U.S. caseload of Vietnamese refugees in 

the first asylum camps of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong will have been 

admitted by the end of FY-94, leaving only a small residual caseload 

that should be completed early in FY-95.

Proposed FY 1995 Ceiling.  The proposed admissions ceiling for East Asia 

for FY 1995 is 40,000.  Under this ceiling, the first priority will be 

to complete the U.S. commitment to accept first asylum refugees under 

the CPA.  First asylum admissions needs are expected to be about 8,000, 

of which up to 7,000 would be for Hmong from camps in Thailand and the 

remaining 1,000 for Vietnamese and Burmese.  There will be sufficient 

flexibility within the East Asia ceiling to accommodate unexpected 

fluctuations in the need for resettlement among these groups.

Orderly Departure Program (ODP)

The estimated refugee admissions need for FY 1995 under ODP is 32,000, 

consisting of about 31,000 former reeducation camp detainees plus 1,000 

Amerasians, former U.S. Government employees, and former employees of 

U.S private organizations in Vietnam, as well as possibly a small number 

of U.S.-interest cases repatriated from first-asylum camps in the 


Former Reeducation Camp Detainees Program.  The United States remains 

firmly committed to seeking the release of all political prisoners from 

"reeducation centers" in Vietnam and to offering resettlement to 

qualified persons who were detained because of their association with 

the United States or the former South Vietnamese governments.  A 

bilateral U.S.-SRV agreement creating a program for the U.S. 

resettlement of released detainees was reached in July 1989 and 

implemented in October 1989.  By the end of FY 1994, almost 110,000 

former detainees and members of their families will have been admitted 

under the program.  As noted above, it is anticipated that up to 31,000 

former detainees and their family members will be admitted during FY 


Amerasian Program.  The Amerasian immigrant program is an integral part 

of the ODP, under which the U.S. admits Amerasians in Vietnam along with 

members of their immediate families or foster families.  Under 

legislation passed in December 1987 designating a special class of 

Amerasian immigrant, Amerasian applicants are considered under a 

separate bilateral program with procedures similar to that of the 

regular ODP.  To date, about 77,000 Amerasians and accompanying family 

members have been admitted.  ODP admissions in FY 1994 will include as 

many as 3,000 Amerasian immigrants and accompanying family members, who 

are admitted as immigrants but are included in the refugee admissions 

ceiling for consistency with the budgetary process.  Large-scale 

processing of the Amerasian caseload was completed in 1993, although 

direct registration and processing of limited numbers of qualified 

applicants will continue for the foreseeable future.

Designated Nationalities.  In FY 1995, Vietnamese, Lao, and Burmese will 

remain designated nationalities of concern to the United States.  Under 

the CPA, Vietnamese in first asylum countries who are screened in will 

be processed in Priorities One through Four.  Hmong highlanders from 

Laos will be considered as a Priority One group of special concern, 

while Lao lowlanders cases will be considered as Priority One cases only 

if referred to the U.S. by UNHCR.  In addition, the United States will 

consider certain qualified Burmese students/dissidents in Priority One 

who are referred by UNHCR, arrived in Thailand between March 15, 1988 

and May 1, 1992, and have a well-founded fear of persecution due to pro-

democracy activities in Burma.  Consideration of applications for 

refugee admission by members of these nationalities is authorized 

without referral of specific cases to Washington.  On a case-by-case 

basis, persons belonging to other nationalities, such as Chinese, will 

continue to be considered with prior authorization from the Department 

of State and INS headquarters in Washington.


Voluntary Repatriation

Continued democratic development and regional peace efforts have 

virtually ended the flight of persons from Central American countries 

and encouraged voluntary repatriations of refugees, particularly 

Guatemalans in Mexico.  It is expected that between 5,000 - 10,000 

Guatemalans will return from Mexico in 1994.

Resettlement in the Region

Most host governments do not encourage permanent refugee resettlement, 

largely because of their own depressed economic situations.  Ethnic and 

national rivalries also make local resettlement difficult.  However, 

various CentralAmerican governments, as well as the Mexican government, 

have demonstrated the tolerance necessary to make first asylum 

protection work.  The region has been moving away from the housing of 

refugees in camps towards efforts at local integration with greater 

self-sufficiency on the part of refugees.

U.S. Admissions

FY 1994.  For FY 1994, the admissions ceiling for Latin America and the 

Caribbean was set at 4,000.  As of August 30, 2,562 Cubans and 2,404 

Haitians had been admitted to the U.S., for a total of 4,966 persons.  

It is projected that close to 3,000 Cubans and as many as 5,000 

Haitians, for a total of 8,000 persons, conceivably could be admitted 

under this ceiling during FY 1994.  5,000 additional admissions numbers 

have been reallocated from the Unallocated Reserve (3,000) and the 

Former Soviet Union/Eastern Europe (2,000) ceilings to the Latin 

America/Caribbean ceiling, raising that ceiling from 4,000 to 9,000 

numbers, in order to accommodate increased potential Haitian admissions.

Proposed FY 1995 Ceiling.  For FY 1995 the admissions ceiling proposed 

for Latin America and the Caribbean is 8,000 persons, reflecting the 

increased numbers of Haitian refugees accepted in FY 1994 over FY 1993 

and anticipation of a continuation of this trend at least for the short-

term.  These FY 1995 admissions numbers will be available for in-country 

processing of Cubans and Haitians.  In the event additional numbers are 

needed, they can be transferred from the Unallocated Reserve for this 

purpose following consultation with the Congress.

Designated Nationalities.  In FY 1994, Cubans and Haitians were 

designated nationalities and authorized in-country processing in old 

Priority One.  In FY 1995, Cubans and Haitians will continue to be 

designated nationalities and authorized for in-country processing.

Haitian Admissions.  The in-country refugee processing program in Haiti 

was established in February 1992 and has undergone periodic revisions 

over the past two years in order to reach those persons most in need of 

resettlement in the U.S.  In May 1992, the in-country program was 

expanded to accommodate any Haitian wishing to make a refugee claim.  At 

that time, a categories system was designed to prioritize the processing 

of individual cases.  In January 1993, an inter-agency technical team 

reviewed the program to determine ways to expand access to the program 

and expedite departures of those in urgent need.  As a result, the 

processing capacity of INS was doubled, processing was streamlined, 

provincial processing sites were opened in Les Cayes and Cap Haitien 

provinces, and contact with non-governmental organizations and human 

rights groups was expanded.  Also, refugee questionnaires were placed on 

U.S. Coast Guard cutters engaged in interdiction operations so that 

repatriated boat people would be made aware of the U.S. program and 

those with strong refugee claims could be brought quickly into the 

refugee processing program.

Another technical team visited Haiti in January 1994 to review the 

program with an eye towards identifying more effectively those persons 

in the greatest need of protection.  This review resulted in an increase 

in the involvement of organizations familiar with the human rights 

situation in Haiti and an adjustment in the program's eligibility 

criteria.  Haitians in the new processing Priority One are eligible for 

processing under the program, including  (1) senior and mid-level 

Aristide government officials; (2) close Aristide associates; (3) 

journalists and educational activists who have experienced significant 

and persistent harassment by the de facto authorities, or who have a 

credible fear because of their activities; (4) high-profile members of 

political, development, or social organizations who have experienced 

significant and persistent harassment by the de facto authorities, or 

who have a credible fear because of their activities; (5) others of 

compelling concern to the U.S. and in immediate danger because of their 

actual or perceived political beliefs or activities; and, (6) others who 

appear to have a credible claim that they will face persecution as 

defined in the 1951 UN Convention on Refugees and its 1967 Protocol.

Temporary Protection for Haitian Boat People:  Beginning July 5, 1994, 

Haitians interdicted at sea have been offered the option of voluntarily 

returning to Haiti or applying for temporary protection in safehavens 

established under the auspices of the United Nations High Commissioner 

for Refugees.  Temporary protection is an accepted international means 

of protecting refugees who have had to flee their country.  One of the 

primary goals in implementing this expanded protection policy has been 

to help UNHCR orchestrate a regional response to this regional crisis.  

Several countries in the region have agreed to the establishment of 

safehaven sites in their countries.  Once conditions in Haiti have 

improved sufficiently in Haiti, those who have requested and received 

temporary protection in a safehaven can return home in safety 

Cuban Admissions.  In-country refugee processing for Cubans is carried 

out in accordance with a bilateral migration agreement between the U.S. 

and Cuba.  The Cuban admissions program was originally designed for 

former long-term political prisoners.  However, by 1991 the resettlement 

needs of this population had largely been addressed, and eligibility 

requirements were expanded.  In FY 1994, the admissions program focused 

on specific groups identified as being of compelling concern to the 

United States.  This focus will continue in FY 1995.  Cubans in new 

Priority One are eligible for processing.  They are: (1) former 

political prisoners; (2) members of persecuted religious minorities; (3) 

human rights activists; (4) forced labor conscripts during the period 

1965-1968; (5) persons deprived of their professional credentials or 

subjected to other disproportionately harsh or discriminatory treatment 

resulting from their perceived or actual political or religious beliefs; 

and, (6) others who appear to have a credible claim that they will face 

persecution as defined in the 1951 UN Convention on Refugees and its 

1967 Protocol.

In third countries, Priority One Cuban applicants may be considered for 

the U.S. refugee admissions program if they departed Cuba before 

November 20, 1987.


There are nearly 9 million refugees and displaced persons in the 

countries of North Africa, the Near East and South Asia, including over 

3 million Afghans and nearly 3 million Palestinians.  There are also 

over 200,000 Burmese in Bangladesh, about 85,000 Bhutanese in Nepal, 

80,000 Somalis in Egypt, Yemen and the United Arab Emirates, and some 

70,000 Tajiks in Afghanistan.  Ongoing conflict in Afghanistan during 

1993-94 resulted in more Afghans trying to leave that country, and 

Iranian Kurdish areas have been in turmoil for more than a decade.  

Other sizeable populations (Sahwaris in Algeria, Sri Lankan Tamils in 

India, Iraqis in Iran and Saudi Arabia, and Palestinians in the West 

Bank, Gaza Strip, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) have remained 

fairly stable.

Voluntary Repatriation

Many Iraqi refugees from the Gulf War previously in Turkey, Jordan and 

other countries bordering Iraq left countries of first asylum in 1992, 

either resettling in third countries or returning to Iraq.  Only 2,300 

Iraqi Shi'ite civilians and former Iraqi soldiers have repatriated from 

Saudi Arabia over the last two years, leaving 23,000 persons in the 

refugee camp at Rafha.  Unfortunately, the voluntary repatriation of 

about one million Afghans in 1992 was not repeated in 1993, as 

prospective repatriates were discouraged by fighting between rival 

groups in Kabul which continued throughout the year.  Under a joint 

Indo-Lankan plan, approximately 37,000 Sri Lankan Tamils have returned 

to Sri Lanka in the last two years.

Resettlement in the Region

Few countries within the region are willing to offer permanent 

resettlement to refugees from neighboring countries, but many have been 

generous with long-term asylum.  Over the years, Pakistan and Iran have 

offered asylum to over four million Afghans who are permitted to engage 

in many economic activities and are not restricted to their camps.  

Several countries in the Near East have extended work permits to 

Palestinian, Iranian and Afghan refugees and displaced persons for long 

periods of time.  Saudi Arabia has provided adequately for Iraqis 

currently residing within its territory but does not intend to offer 

permanent resettlement.

Third-Country Resettlement

While third-country resettlement is not the preferred solution in most 

cases, it is the only option for certain refugees at risk in countries 

of first asylum.  Of the 9 million refugees and displaced persons 

estimated by UNHCR to be in the region, just 29,600 are deemed to be in 

need of third-country resettlement.  This includes the 23,000 Iraqis in 

Rafha camp in Saudia Arabia, considered by UNHCR to be in particular 

need of resettlement.  Unfortunately, at the current pace of the multi-

country resettlement effort it will take another 4-5 years to complete 

the resettlement operation, which UNHCR considers far too long.  In 

addition to the Rafha camp Iraqis, UNHCR has projected the need for 

6,600 additional resettlement slots for refugees in the Middle East, 

mostly for Iranians in Iraq but also for Iranians in Pakistan and Iraqis 

in Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon and Syria.  Many of these refugees will be 

resettled by the United States, with sizeable numbers also being 

accepted by the Scandinavian countries, Canada, Australia and Western 


U.S. Admissions

FY 1994.  In FY 1994 the admissions ceiling for the Near East was set at 

6,000.  Applications by Iranian refugees have declined slightly this 

fiscal year, so that only about 600 Iranian admissions are expected from 

European posts in FY 1994.  Post-Gulf War processing continues in 

Turkey, with perhaps 400 Iranians and 200 Iraqi cases still to be 

processed in Istanbul.  We also expect the admission of 3,000 Iraqis 

from Saudi Arabia.  In addition, there have been numerous applications 

from Iraqis at processing posts in Europe, with as many as 1,800 persons 

expected to be admitted in FY 1994.  We anticipate, therefore, that 

about 5,000 Iraqis and 1,000 Iranians, for a total of as many as 6,000 

persons, will be admitted under this ceiling during FY 1994.

Proposed FY 1995 Ceiling.  The proposed FY 1995 admission ceiling for 

the Near East is 5,000, down from the 6,000 ceiling for FY 1994.

For FY 1995, we anticipate continued admissions of Iranians (primarily 

religious minorities).  The processing of Iraqi refugee cases in Turkey 

is nearly complete, with UNHCR having arranged the resettlement or 

repatriation of nearly all Iraqis in camps in Turkey during FY 1994.  

There are still 23,000 Iraqis who fled Iraq during and after the Gulf 

War in a refugee camp in Saudi Arabia who are considered unable to 

repatriate safely.  We plan to participate in a UNHCR-led multi-country 

resettlement effort by admitting up to 3,000 of them in FY 1995, 

provided this effort is matched by other resettlement countries.  

Applications by Iraqis in Europe, mostly immediate relatives of Iraqis 

already admitted to the U.S. as refugees, are expected to continue in FY 

1995, albeit at lower levels.

Proposed designated nationalities and processing priorities for FY 1995 

are Iranians and Iraqis.  On a case-by-case basis, nationals of other 

countries may be processed with prior approval from Washington.  Iraqis 

will be considered in Priorities One through Four in Saudi Arabia and in 

Priorities One and Two elsewhere.  Iranians will be considered in 

Priorities One and Two (including the religious minority category of 

special concern in Priority One).


Former Soviet Union

Over the past year, the countries of the former Soviet Union have 

continued to wrestle with the difficult process of political and 

economic reform.  Although the new republics have pledged to ensure 

freedom of emigration, and some steps have been taken in this direction, 

full freedom of emigration has not yet been achieved.

Rising nationalism and ethnic tension continue to contribute to an 

unstable situation for ethnic and religious minorities.  Violent ethnic 

conflicts have flared up in several of the republics, particularly 

Tajikistan, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.  Some ethnic groups dispersed 

throughout the former Soviet Union seek to return to their traditional 

homelands.  Other persons seek to migrate within and between republics 

in response to political instability and difficult economic conditions.

Eastern Europe

In many countries in Western Europe the proportion of asylum-seekers 

coming from Eastern Europe has decreased as democratic reforms have 

taken hold.  A notable exception to this trend were persons fleeing 

conflict in the former Yugoslavia, who constituted large parts of the 


populations in nearly every country of Western Europe.  Large numbers of 

Albanians and Romanians seeking economic opportunities also remain in 

some European countries.  Most other Eastern European asylum-seekers, 

however, are now found ineligible for refugee status since they can 

return to their homes without fear of persecution.

Third-Country Resettlement

In addition to the United States and the countries of Western Europe, 

Australia and Canada also have resettled Eastern Europeans, and Israel 

has resettled Soviet Jews and Jews from other countries.  Between FY 

1975 and FY 1993, nearly 118,000 refugees from Eastern Europe and 

370,000 refugees from the former Soviet Union were  resettled in the 

United States.  In FY 1994, the U.S. refugee program has accepted 

applications only from nationals of the former Soviet Union and from 


U.S. Admissions

FY 1994.  In FY 1994, the admissions ceiling for the former Soviet Union 

and Eastern Europe was set at 55,000, and subsequently was lowered to 

53,000.  As of July 31, 1994, 34,788 former Soviets, 5,038 persons from 

Bosnia-Herzegovina, and 247 persons from other Eastern European 

countries had been admitted to the U.S. as refugees.  FY 1994 admissions 

under the a combined Former Soviet Union/Eastern Europe ceiling are 

projected at 48,000 persons, consisting of approximately 42,000 former 

Soviets, 5,700 Bosnians, and 300 persons of other nationalities.

Proposed FY 1995 Ceiling.  The proposed ceiling for FY 1995 for the 

former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is 48,000.

Designated Nationalities.  For FY 1995, eligible persons who were 

nationals of the former Soviet Union prior to September 2, 1991, or 

certain nationals of Bosnia-Herzegovina will be designated for refugee 

admission.  The former Soviet Union will be designated for in-country 


Former Soviet Union Admissions.  The admission numbers for the former 

Soviet Union will be made available under Priority One to groups 

identified in the Lautenberg Amendment; i.e., Jews, Evangelical 

Christians, members of the Ukrainian Catholics and Orthodox churches, 

and other individuals of concern, such as "refusniks."  The vast 

majority of former Soviet refugees now being interviewed have family 

ties to the U.S.	There currently are more than 50,000 applications on 

file which meet the eligibility criteria for the Soviet program and are 

awaiting scheduling of interviews.  Approximately 3,000 persons are 

scheduled for interviews each month.  The rate of new applications 

received averages 4,000 persons per month, of which 40 to 50 percent are 

estimated to meet the program's eligibility criteria.

Eastern Europe Admissions.  Democratic changes in most of Eastern Europe 

have allowed this program to be narrowed significantly.  However, 

continued fighting in the former Yugoslavia, and in Bosnia-Herzegovina 

in particular, will continue to generate refugees in need of 

resettlement. Bosnian Muslims from Bosnia-Herzegovina in Priorities One 

through Four are eligible to submit refugee applications.  In Priority 

One they are:  vulnerable Bosnian Muslims, and on an exceptional basis 

non-Muslim Bosnians, referred for resettlement by UNHCR, such as former 

detainees, torture victims, and women victims of violence; persons in 

mixed-marriages of any ethnic background; immediate family members of 

minor U.S. citizen children who have been displaced as a result of the 

fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina; and, Bosnian Muslims, and on an 

exceptional basis non-Muslim Bosnians, selected by the International 

Organization for Migration (IOM) for medical treatment in the U.S.  In 

Priorities Two through Four, Bosnian Muslim relatives of persons 

permanently and legally residing in the U.S. are eligible for the 

program.  As developments in the former Yugoslavia unfold, adjustments 

in these processing criteria may be necessary.

The U.S. goal remains to encourage conditions in Bosnia-Herzegovina that 

will ultimately permit large-scale repatriation.  Nonetheless, even with 

substantial repatriation to Bosnia, conditions in the region may 

ultimately require additional resettlement efforts.  We also anticipate 

a small number of admissions of Eastern European Visas 93 recipients 

(i.e., spouses and children of previously admitted refugees), who will 

be primarily from Albania and Romania.


Included in the FY 1994 admissions program was an unallocated reserve of 

3,000 admissions numbers which could be used for refugees anywhere in 

the world.  All 3,000 of these numbers were reallocated to the Latin 

America/Caribbean ceiling for the use of Haitians.  Given the current 

uncertainties surrounding refugee situations and resettlement needs in 

many locations (e.g., Bosnia-Herzegovina and Haiti), as well as the 

desirability of maintaining sufficient flexibility to react to refugee 

emergencies, we propose again to maintain an unallocated reserve in FY 

1995 at 2,000 numbers.


The Private Sector Initiative is a joint private and public venture in 

which the costs of admitting and resettling refugees are paid by the 

private sector.  Since the first proposal under this program was 

approved in 1988, the great majority of refugees admitted under PSI have 

been Cuban.  In FY-92, 853 Cuban refugees were admitted under the 

program.  In FY-93, the number decreased to 251 admissions, all of which 

actually had been approved in FY-92.  There were no PSI admissions in 

FY-94.  In order for a private organization to sponsor refugee 

admissions under the PSI, it must sign a Memorandum of Understanding 

with the Department of State and the Immigration and Naturalization 

Service.  The proposed refugee admissions ceiling for FY-95 includes 

2,000 numbers for PSI.




Applicants for refugee admission into the United States must meet all of 

the following criteria:

--  The applicant must meet the definition of a refugee contained in the 

Immigration and Nationality Act;

--  The applicant must be among those refugees determined by the 

President to be of special humanitarian concern to the United States;

--  The applicant must be otherwise admissible under United States law; 


--  The applicant must not be firmly resettled in any foreign country.

Although a refugee may meet the above criteria, the existence of the 

U.S. refugee admissions program does not create any entitlement for that 

person to be admitted to the United States.  The admissions program is a 

legal mechanism for admitting a refugee who is among those classes of 

persons that are of particular interest to the United States.

With respect to persons applying overseas for admission to the United 

States as refugees, an initial review is performed to evaluate cases 

based on U.S. national interests, the refugees' situation in temporary 

asylum, the conditions from which they have fled, and other humanitarian 

considerations.  Applicants who meet the criteria specified above and 

who fall within the priorities established for the relevant nationality 

or region, are presented to the INS for determination of eligibility for 

admission under Section 101(a)(42) of the INA.


Applicants for admission to the U.S. as refugees are expected to present 

themselves at certain Foreign Service posts which have been designated 

as "refugee processing posts."  These posts provide private voluntary 

agency or consular assistance to applicants in preparing casework for 

INS interviews.  Designated refugee processing posts either have a 

resident INS officer or are regularly scheduled for INS circuit rides.  

Posts so designated for FY 1995 are:

Africa              Nairobi, Lusaka

East Asia           Bangkok, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Manila

Europe              Ankara, Athens, Belgrade, Frankfurt, Madrid,

                    Moscow (former Soviets only), Rome, Vienna, Zagreb

Latin America and   Havana (Cubans only), Port-au-Prince (Haitians

   Caribbean          only), Mexico

Near East           Cairo, Riyadh

South Asia          New Delhi


Posts not designated for refugee processing should advise persons 

seeking resettlement in the U.S. to approach the UNHCR for guidance and 

appropriate assistance, including possible movement to a processing 

post.  Non-designated posts wishing an INS circuit ride in exceptional 

cases must refer their requests to Washington.  Consular sections at 

non-designated posts handle approved Visas-92 and Visas-93 cases, in 

coordination with INS.


The worldwide processing priority system sets guidelines for the orderly 

management of refugee applications for admission within the established 

annual regional ceilings.  The priority system has been revised for FY-

95 to reflect trends over the past several years in the world-wide 

refugee resettlement caseload.

The issues of whether a person meets the definition of a refugee under 

U.S. law and the priority that person may be assigned for consideration 

of his case are separate and distinct.  Assignment of an individual to a 

particular processing priority does not reflect any judgement as to 

whether that individual ultimately will qualify for admission to the 

U.S. as a refugee, although it may reflect an assessment of the urgency 

of the need for resettlement.  Just as qualifying for refugee status 

does not confer a right to resettlement in the United States, assignment 

to a particular priority does not entitle a person to admission to the 

United States as a refugee.

The U.S. refugee priorities system sets guidelines for the orderly 

management of refugee admissions into the United States within the 

established annual regional ceilings and is subject to change during the 

fiscal year.  Over the years, it has become increasingly apparent that 

the six processing priorities originally established in the early years 

of the huge Indochinese refugee outflows are less relevant to the 

refugee populations in need of resettlement today.  For example, former 

USG employees, who were in Priority Two of the old system, are not 

inherently at risk in today's non-Indochinese refugee situations in 

which there often is no anti-American sentiment, whereas journalists 

opposing a repressive regime may be vulnerable even in a country of 

first asylum.

Accordingly, the old processing priorities have been revised to reflect 

the U.S. intent of providing resettlement to those most in need, relying 

to a greater extent on UNHCR to refer such individuals to our program.  

We also have included discrete categories of individuals of concern to 

the U.S. for selected nationalities.  Since it makes sense that refugees 

with relatives in the U.S. be resettled here rather than in other 

countries, some family-based priority groups are still included in the 

revised list.  The refugee processing procedure will remain unchanged; 

that is, refugees in Priority One are interviewed before those in 

Priority Two, etc.

Refugee Processing Priorities - FY 1995

Priority One

     UNHCR-referred or Embassy-identified persons in immediate danger of 

loss of life.

     UNHCR-referred or Embassy-identified cases of compelling concern 

such as former political prisoners or dissidents.

     UNHCR-referred vulnerable cases including women at risk, victims of 

violence, torture survivors, and individuals in urgent need of medical 

treatment not available in the first-asylum country.

     UNHCR-referred cases of individuals for whom the other durable 

solutions are not feasible and whose status in the place of asylum does 

not present a satisfactory long-term solution.

     Groups of special concern to the U.S. to be established as needed 

by nationality (see listing below for FY 1995).

Priority Two

     Spouses, unmarried sons and daughters, and parents of persons 

lawfully admitted to the U.S. as Permanent Resident Aliens, refugees, or 


     Unmarried sons and daughters, of any age, of U.S. citizens; parents 

of U.S. citizens under 21 years of age.  (Spouses and minor children of 

U.S. citizens and the parents of U.S. citizens who have attained the age 

of 21 are required by law to apply for admission on immigrant visas.)

Priority Three

     Married sons and daughters and siblings of U.S. citizens and 

persons lawfully admitted to the U.S. as Permanent Resident Aliens, 

refugees, or asylees.

Priority Four

     Grandparents, grandchildren, uncles, aunts, nieces, nephews and 

first cousins of U.S. citizens and persons lawfully admitted to the U.S. 

as Permanent Resident Aliens, refugees, or asylees.

Priority One Groups of Special Concern for FY 1995:

Burma       Students/dissidents who are referred by UNHCR, arrived in 

            Thailand between March 15, 1988 and May 1, 1992, and have a 

            well-founded fear of persecution due to pro-democracy 

            activities in Burma.

Laos        Highlanders (mostly Hmong)

Vietnam    Former reeducation camp detainees who spent more than three 

           years in detention camps;

           Certain former USG employees and other specified individuals 

           or groups of concern.

           On a case-by-case basis, other individuals who have 

           experienced persecution because of post-1975 political, 

           religious, or human rights activities.

Former Soviet Union

           Soviet Jews, Evangelical Christians, members of the Ukrainian 

           Catholic or Orthodox churches.

Bosnia     Bosnian Muslims, and on an exceptional basis non-Muslim 

           Bosnians, referred by UNHCR, such as women victims of 

           violence, torture victims, ex-detainees, and other 

           individuals identified by UNHCR as requiring resettlement in 

           the U.S.

           Vulnerable Bosnians in mixed marriages of any ethnic group 

           referred by UNHCR.

           Parents and siblings of minor U.S. citizen children who have 

           been displaced by the conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

           Bosnian Muslims, and on an exceptional basis non-Muslim 

           Bosnians, referred by the International Organization for 

           Migration (IOM) for medical treatment in the U.S.

Cuba       Former political prisoners, members of persecuted religious 

           minorities, human rights activists, forced-labor conscripts, 

           persons deprived of their professional credentials or 

           subjected to other disproportionately harsh or discirminatory 

           treatment resulting from their perceived or actual political 

           or religious beliefs or activities, dissidents, and other 

           refugees of compelling concern to the U.S.

           In third countries, Priority One Cubans may be processed if 

           they fled Cuba before November 20, 1987.

Haiti      Senior and mid-level Aristide government officials; close 

           Aristide associates; journalists and educational activists 

           and high profile members of political, development, and 

           social organizations who have experienced significant and 

           persistent harassment by the de facto authorities, or who 

           have a credible fear because of their activities; others of 

           compelling concern to the U.S. and in immediate danger 

           because of their actual or perceived political beliefs or 

           activities; and others who appear to have a credible claim 

           that they will face persecution as defined in the Refugee 

           Convention.  (The 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees 

           defines a refugee as someone who has a well-founded fear of 

           being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, 

           membership in particular social group, or political opinion.)

Iran       Refugees who have served in positions of leadership or played 

           a conspicuous role within a religious denomination whose 

           members are subjected to discrimination, including the 

           clergy, prominent laymen, those who have served in 

           denominational assemblies, governing bodies or councils; 

           refugees who because of their minority religious affiliations 

           have been deprived of employment, have been driven from their 

           homes, have had their business confiscated or looted, have 

           been denied educational opportunities available to others 

           similarly situated in the same area, or have been denied 

           pensions that would otherwise be available.


Section 207 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) grants the 

Attorney General the authority to admit, at her discretion, any refugee 

who is not firmly resettled in a third country, who is determined to be 

of special humanitarian concern, and who is admissible to the United 

States as an immigrant.  This authority has been delegated to the 

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS).

In both overseas refugee processing and domestic asylum proceedings, INS 

has the statutory role of decision maker, determining who meets the 

requirements for refugee status.

INS Overseas Operations

The INS' overseas offices have a variety of responsibilities 

administered by three District Offices located in Bangkok, Mexico City, 

and Rome.  The overseas officer corps currently consists of 19 officers 

in the Bangkok District, including suboffices in Manila, Singapore, 

Seoul, and Hong Kong; 15 officers in the Mexico City District, including 

suboffices in Monterrey, Ciudad Juarez, Tijuana, Tegucigalpa, and Port-

au-Prince; and 28 officers in the Rome District, including suboffices in 

Frankfurt, Vienna, Athens, Moscow, London, Nairobi, and New Delhi.  A 

new suboffice in Karachi, Pakistan, is scheduled to open in FY 1995.

One of the most important responsibilities of INS' overseas program is 

refugee processing.  The percentage of time each office devotes to this 

activity depends on the refugee workload, as well as the staffing 

pattern and priorities within the office.  The permanent staff are 

augmented by temporary duty personnel from stateside offices, as needed.  

Circuit rides to processing posts are arranged by the office having 

geographic jurisdiction over the post.

In September 1993, Immigration Officers from the Rome District attended 

a week-long course in advanced refugee training, which included 

instruction on U.S. and international refugee law, interviewing 

techniques, writing skills, human rights, and country conditions.  

Bangkok District officers received similar training in February 1994.

Case Presentation to INS

A refugee applicant generally proceeds through the following steps 

before his interview with an INS officer:  an applicant is referred to a 

Voluntary Agency (VOLAG) or Joint Voluntary Agency (JVA) for pre-

screening; if the applicant is of a nationality of special humanitarian 

concern and within a processing priority eligible for U.S. 

consideration, the VOLAG or JVA prepares the case for submission to INS 

by assisting the applicant in filling out a request for refugee status, 

a biographic information form, and other documents.

The Eligibility Determination

Eligibility for refugee status is decided on an individual, case-by-case 


A personal interview of the applicant is held by an INS officer.  The 

interview is non-adversarial and is designed to elicit information about 

the applicant's claim for refugee status.  Questions are asked about the 

reasons for the applicant's departure from his country, his political or 

religious beliefs or activities, and problems or fears having to do with 

his home country.

The determination of a well-founded fear of persecution requires judging 

both objective and subjective elements of an applicant's claim.  

Conditions in the country of origin are taken into consideration and the 

applicant's credibility is assessed.

Persecution is the most difficult element of the refugee definition to 

analyze and apply.  There is no universally accepted definition of the 

term "persecution," but it includes a threat to life or freedom.  

Discrimination in the treatment of various groups is not, per se, 

persecution but at times an accumulation of discriminatory measures may 

involve such significant denials of opportunities to participate in 

society that it constitutes a threat to freedom.  Economic hardship is 

not itself a basis for eligibility for refugee status but persecution 

may take the form of economic reprisals, such as denial of the 

opportunity to work.

Post-Interview Processing

After the interview, an applicant found eligible for refugee status must 

have a medical examination and receive a sponsorship assurance.  A 

refugee admission number, subtracted from the annual ceiling, is 

allocated.  Transportation arrangements are made through the 

International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the refugee signs a 

travel loan, promising repayment of the cost of airfare.

At the U.S. Port of Entry, INS admits a refugee to the United States and 

authorizes employment.  After one year, a refugee is eligible for 

adjustment of status to lawful permanent resident.  Five years after 

admission, a refugee is eligible for naturalization.

Asylum Issues

In FY 1991, the INS implemented the 1990 final rule on asylum, which 

established not only a specialized corps of Asylum Officers, but an 

entirely new organizational structure for processing asylum 


Regional Asylum Offices were opened at seven sites around the United 

States with a newly-hired corps of 82 Asylum Officers.  During FY 1992, 

the Asylum Officer Corps was expanded to 150 Officers to handle the 

increasing workload.  The regional offices are located in Arlington, VA; 

Chicago, IL; Houston, TX; Los Angeles, CA; Miami, FL; Newark, NJ; and 

San Francisco, CA.  The asylum program is administered from these seven 

locations, under the direction of INS Headquarters.

When the Asylum Offices opened on April 2, 1991, they had inherited a 

backlog of more than 114,000 applications for asylum.  During FY 1991, 

approximately 60,000 asylum applications were filed.  In FY 1992, this 

number increased to more than 103,000 applications.  In FY 1993, the 

number of applications filed increased to approximately 150,000.  This 

level of filings has continued in FY 1994.

On July 27, 1993, the President announced that the Department of Justice 

would develop regulations to significantly reform the asylum program in 

the United States.  On March 30, 1994, a proposed rule on asylum was 

published in the Federal Register.  This rule would amend existing 

regulations to streamline the adjudication of asylum applications 

submitted to Asylum Officers within the INS.  The rule would allow the 

INS to grant asylum to deserving applicants more promptly and to 

expeditiously resolve non-meritorious cases.

The Resource Information Center was mandated by the 1990 final rule.  

The Center was established with the Headquarters Asylum Division to 

provide Asylum Officers with easily accessible information on the human 

rights conditions in refugee-producing countries of origin.  The Center 

provides country profile reports as well as periodic "Alerts" on new or 

evolving situations of direct interest and impact on the work of the 

Asylum Officers.

Section 209 (b) of the INA permits the adjustment of status of persons 

granted asylum in the United States who have been in the United States 

as refugees for at least one year and who continue to qualify as 

refugees.  Up to 10,000 asylees may adjust each year to lawful permanent 

resident status.



The Department of State contracts with private voluntary agencies -- 

sometimes referred to as Joint Voluntary Agencies or "JVAs" -- to assist 

in the processing of refugees for admission to the United States.  These 

agencies pre-screen applicants to determine if they fall within the 

applicable processing priorities and otherwise appear eligible to be 

scheduled for an INS refugee interview.  In some cases, individuals who 

appear to qualify for immigration to the U.S. are also advised of those 

procedures.  In addition, prior to interview, they assist the applicant 

in completing the documentary requirements of the program.  If approved, 

voluntary agency staff guide the refugee through post-adjudication steps 

such as obtaining a medical clearance and sponsorship assurance.  In FY 

1995, voluntary agencies will be under contract to the Department of 

State at processing locations in Thailand, Haiti, Spain, Turkey, 

Austria, Germany, Italy, Greece, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, and Croatia.


The Department of State strives to ensure that refugees who are accepted 

for admission to the United States are as well prepared as possible for 

the significant changes they will experience during resettlement.  In 

support of this principle, the Bureau of Population, Refugees, and 

Migration contracts for pre-departure training and orientation programs 

for eligible refugees at selected sites around the world.

In East Asia, the Bureau funds English-as-a-Second-Language and Cultural 

Orientation (ESL/CO) programs in Thailand.  Adult Indochinese refugees 

participate in a 20-week program consisting of ESL/CO, and Work 

Orientation.  A special program for 11 to 16 year olds, Preparation for 

American Secondary Schools (PASS), includes instruction in English, 

American Studies, basic math, and school orientation.  A program for 8 

to 11 year olds also provides instruction in English, basic math, and 

school skills to children who will enter elementary schools in the U.S.  

In FY 1994 about 10,000 Indochinese refugees, including Amerasians 

departing Vietnam under the Orderly Departure Program, are expected to 

complete pre-entry training.

In Africa, the Bureau conducts a short orientation program in Kenya 

which provides services primarily to Ethiopian and Somali refugees 

enroute to the United States.  English language training was added to 

this program in 1994.  For refugee groups who cannot participate in pre-

entry training, materials dealing with resettlement are often provided 

to ease the transition to a new culture.


The Office of Refugee Health (ORH), in the Office of the Assistant 

Secretary for Health, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is 

the focal point for all activities of the U.S. Public Health Service in 

refugee health.  The ORH develops health and mental health policy and 

identifies problem areas and solutions.  Public Health Service agencies 

active in refugee matters include the Substance Abuse and Mental Health 

Services Administration, the Centers for Disease Control, and the Health 

Resources and Services Administration.

Close and regular consultative relations are maintained with the 

Department of State, Department of Justice, HHS's Office of Refugee 

Resettlement, State and local health departments, and international 

organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 

(UNHCR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM).

Routine U.S. Public Health Service refugee operations include:

--  Monitoring the quality of medical examinations provided to refugees 

in Southeast Asia and worldwide, through onsite visits and training 


--  Inspection of each refugee at the U.S. port of entry;

--  Notification to local health departments of each refugee's arrival, 

with expedited notification of cases requiring special follow-up; and

--  Administration of a domestic preventive health program which 

provides for refugee health assessments locally following resettlement.


Under Reception and Placement (R&P) program cooperative agreements 

administered by the Bureau for Population, Refugees, and Migration, 

eleven private voluntary agencies are responsible for providing initial 

resettlement services to refugees during their first 90 days in the 

United States and oversight of "free case" refugees (those without 

relatives in the United States) for six months.  Voluntary agencies 

receive per capita funding ($655 in FY 1994), which is to be used along 

with cash and in-kind contributions from private and other sources.  

Refugee reception and placement services include:

     --  Sponsorship;

     --  Pre-arrival resettlement planning;

     --  Reception;

     --  Basic needs support for 30 days;

     --  Counseling and orientation; and

     --  Health, employment, and other necessary referral services.

In FY 1994 the domestic resettlement program will have witnessed large-

scale arrivals of Soviets and reeducation ex-detainees exiting Vietnam 

through the Orderly Departure Program.  Most arriving refugees join 

family already resident in the United States.


The Department of State funds the transportation of refugees resettled 

in the United States through a program administered by the International 

Organization for Migration (IOM) which includes funding for 

international and domestic airfares, IOM processing, medical screening, 

communications, documentation, and transit accommodations where 

required.  The cost of the airfares (over 80 percent of this total) is 

provided for refugees in the form of a loan; loan beneficiaries are 

responsible for repaying these costs over time after resettlement.  

Funds provided for transportation loans and related services cover most 

refugees resettled in the United States.  Amerasian immigrants receive 

services provided to refugees.  Other immigrants enter the United States 

on prepaid tickets.


For FY 1995, the Administration's proposed budget for refugee domestic 

resettlement is $413.8 million.

The purpose of the domestic resettlement program is to provide 

assistance and services to refugees in order to assist them to obtain 

employment and achieve economic sufficiency at the earliest possible 

date.  Federal resettlement assistance to refugees is provided primarily 

through a State-administered refugee resettlement program funded by the 

Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR), a component agency of the 

Administration for Children and Families (ACF) in the Department of 

Health and Human Services.  States administer the provision of cash and 

medical assistance and social services to refugees and maintain legal 

responsibility for the care of unaccompanied refugee children in the 


Refugees may apply for and receive public assistance, such as Aid to 

Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Medicaid, the same as 

American citizens.  To assist needy refugees who do not meet the 

categorical requirements of these programs, special refugee cash 

assistance (RCA) and refugee medical assistance (RMA) are also made 

available.  Single refugees, childless couples, and some two-parent 

families are the primary beneficiaries of these two programs.  For FY 

1995, the Administration has proposed $278.1 million for transitional 

and medical assistance for needy refugees during their first few months 

after arrival in the U.S.  These funds are requested to provide cash and 

medical assistance to eligible refugees, including unaccompanied minors, 

under both the State-administered programs and voluntary agency 


For FY 1995, the Administration has proposed $80.8 million for a broad 

range of social services to refugees.  As in past years, ORR will 

allocate 85 percent of the social service funds to States on a formula 

basis according to their proportion of all refugees who arrived in the 

U.S. during the past three years.  The remaining 15 percent of social 

service funds will be awarded on a discretionary basis for initiatives 

designed to reduce welfare dependency in States with large numbers of 

refugees on welfare and to address the needs of special populations who 

experience particular difficulty adjusting to life in the U.S.

In addition, special funds for services to refugees in counties which 

are impacted by high concentrations of refugees and high welfare 

utilization rates are provided by ORR through the targeted assistance 

program.  For FY 1995, the Administration has proposed $49.4 million for 

this program, with most funds allocated for employment services which 

directly enhance refugee employment potential, have specific employment 

objectives, and are designed to enable refugees to obtain jobs within 

not more than one year.  Ten percent of the total appropriated funds are 

awarded competitively for projects aimed at reducing welfare dependency 

in highly impacted localities.



Refugee arrivals as a whole tend to be somewhat younger than the total 

U.S. population or immigrants as a whole.  The median age for refugees, 

Cuban and Haitian entrants, and Amerasians from Vietnam arriving in FY 

1993 was 26.3 years, compared with 27.8 years for all immigrants to the 

U.S. and 33.5 years for the total U.S. population.  About 22 percent of 

refugee, Amerasian, and entrant arrivals were school age (5 to 17 

years), compared with 18 percent for the U.S.  Sixty-seven percent were 

of working age (16-64), compared with 64 percent of the U.S. population.  

Another eight percent were of retirement age (65 or older), compared 

with 13 percent of the U.S. population.

The overall sex ratio of all FY 1993 arrivals was about 100.8, slightly 

higher than that for the total U.S. population.  (The sex ratio is the 

number of males per 100 females.  A ratio under 100 indicates more 

females than males, while a ratio over 100 indicates more males than 

females.)  A considerable variation can also be found in the proportion 

of males and females among the largest refugee groups.  The sex ratio 

was highest--indicating an excess of males--for arrivals from Cuba and 

Haiti (366), Sudan (247), Iraq (199), Zaire (181), and Albania (178); it 

was lowest--indicating an excess of females-- for arrivals from Romania 

(75), the former Soviet Union (89), and Liberia (94).  The sex ratio for 

Amerasian immigrants was 98.

The demographic characteristics of arrivals from the 16 largest source 

countries (which contributed 99 percent of recent arrivals) illustrated 

the considerable variation among refugee groups.  Median age varied from 

a high of 36 years for Soviets and 31 years for Cubans and Iranians to 

the strikingly low figures of 17 years for Liberians and Romanians and 

12 years for Laotians.

About 60 percent of Laotian refugees, 53 percent of Liberian refugees, 

and 52 percent of Romanian refugees were under age 18, more than twice 

the proportion for the total U.S. population of 26 percent.  The lowest 

proportion of arrivals under 18 years was that for Cuban and Haitian 

entrants (16 percent).  The proportion of refugee arrivals under age 18 

from several countries approximated the proportion of the total U.S. 

population, with Albania, Vietnam, the former Soviet Union, Ethiopia, 

and Iran ranging from 23 to 27 percent.  Overall, about eight percent of 

FY 1993 arrivals were 65 years or older.  Only the refugees from the 

former Soviet Union (15 percent) approximated the U.S. total population 

(about 13 percent).  In 12 of the 16 largest refugee groups, persons 65 

or older comprised less than three percent of the arrival population.

About 64 percent of the U.S. total population was of working age in 

1993.  The average for all refugees, Amerasians, and entrants admitted 

in FY 1993 was slightly higher (about 67 percent).  Most refugee groups 

either exceeded the U.S. average or were within a few percentage points 

of that figure.  Only the refugee groups from Laos (41 percent), Romania 

(52 percent), Haiti (55 percent), and Liberia (55 percent) were 

considerably below the U.S. average.

Because these groups differ from each other in their background 

characteristics, any change in the mix of refugee nationalities in 

future years will mean a corresponding change in the demographic impact 

of the refugee population.


During FY 1993, 74.3 percent of newly arrived refugees, Amerasians, and 

entrants resettled in ten States.  The ten leading resettlement States 

received 72.3 percent of the FY 1992 placements (Table III).  California 

and New York resettled almost one-half of all arrivals, 44.6 in FY 1993 

versus 39.5 in FY 1992.  Florida's total arrivals in FY 1993 declined 

almost by half, primarily due to a 95 percent reduction in Haitian 

entrants (571 in FY 1993 compared with 10,385 the previous year).  Table 

IV presents the number of refugee, entrant, and Amerasian arrivals for 

every State in FY 1993 and the percent of total arrivals by State.  

Generally, refugee communities in areas of current resettlement will 

continue to grow with the admission of additional family reunification 


Table V presents the cumulative State arrivals of Indochinese refugees 

and Amerasian immigrants since 1975.  Their geographic distribution is 

now well established, with nearly 32 percent living in California and 

the rest distributed widely.  Texas (eight percent) and Washington (four 

percent) were the only other States with more than four percent of the 

Southeast Asian refugee population.

The residential distribution of the almost 667,000 refugees who have 

arrived from areas outside Southeast Asia since FY 1975 is markedly 

different from that of the Indochinese.  Their wider distribution has 

tended to diffuse the impact of refugee arrivals upon local communities.  

Large numbers of these refugees have been resettled in cities in the 

Northeast and the Midwest.

Table VI shows the resettlement pattern for non-Indochinese refugees 

since 1975.  New York, resettlement State for more than 124,000 non-

Indochinese refugees, surpassed California (113,000) during the past 

year.  The proportion of non-Indochinese arrivals to total arrivals is 

also much higher, with about three-quarters of New York's arrivals from 

outside Southeast Asia compared with about one-quarter for California.  

Among States with significant resettlement numbers, the highest 

proportions for non-Inodchinese refugees were Florida (63 percent), New 

Jersey (55 percent), Maryland (50 percent), Illinois (44 percent), and 

Michigan (43 percent).  For about one-quarter of non-Indochinese 

refugees, no State of initial resettlement was recorded.  Almost all of 

these arrived before the establishment of ORR's Refugee Data System in 


Four FY 1993 nationalities were especially concentrated, with a majority 

of each group's arrivals initially resettling in a single State.  

Overall, 76 percent of Cuban arrivals and 51 percent of Haitian arrivals 

resettled in Florida, including both refugees and entrants for each 

group.  California was the major destination for the other two 

nationality groups, with 78 percent of Iranians and 53 percent of Lao 

resettling there.  California was also the major resettlement 

destination for several other established refugee arrival groups in FY 

1993:  Afghans, 43 percent; Vietnamese, 42 percent; Ethiopians, 23 

percent; and Iraqis, 22 percent.  New York, however, was the major 

resettlement destination of the largest refugee arrival group, Soviets 

(41 percent).

Refugee groups that arrived in significant numbers only in recent years 

were the most widely dispersed.  New York was the major destination for 

Bosnians (15 percent) and Liberians (24 percent), while California was 

the major destination for Somalis (20 percent) and Amerasians (23 



                 REFUGEES  AND  AMERASIANS:


                         FY  1993              FY  1992

State                    % Number              State

% Number  

California            25.5      1,425    California   23.2    33,541

New York              19.1    123,508    New York     16.3    23,508

Florida                6.6      8,112    Florida      10.9    15,737

Washington             4.7      5,731    Texas         4.2     6,006

Texas                  4.6      5,630    Washington    3.7     5,401

Illinois               3.3      4,042    Illinois      3.6     5,165

Pennsylvania           2.9      3,622    Massachusetts 3.1     4,458

Massachusetts          2.9      3,556    Pennsylvania  3.0     4,295

Georgia                2.5      3,130    New Jersey    2.3     3,286

Minnesota              2.3      2,784    Georgia       2.2     3,170

TOTAL, Ten States      74.3    91,540                 72.3   104,567

TOTAL, All States     100.0   123,215                100.0   144,549

FY 1992 arrivals:  Refugees (114,538), Amerasians (17,087), Entrants 


FY 1993 arrivals:  Refugees (107,887), Amerasians (11,176), Entrants 


Source:  Office of Refugee Resettlement





State             Number    %     State          Number    % 

Alabama           201      0.2    Nevada         307       0.2

Alaska             39      a/     New Hampshire  160       0.1

Arizona         1,111      0.9    New Jersey   2,460       2.0

Arkansas          104      0.1    New Mexico     478       0.4

California     31,425     25.5    New York    23,508      19.1

Colorado        1,151      0.9    North Carolina 1,199     1.0

Connecticut     1,022      0.8    North Dakota   381       0.3

Delaware           33      a/     Ohio         2,148       1.7

Dist. Columbia    735      0.6    Oklahoma       532       0.4

Florida         8,112      6.6    Oregon       1,845       1.5

Georgia         3,130      2.5    Pennsylvania 3,622       2.9

Hawaii            293      0.2    Rhode Island   235       0.2

Idaho             255      0.2    South Carolina 116       0.1

Illinois        4,042      3.3    South Dakota   254       0.2

Indiana           460      0.4    Tennessee    1,089       0.9

Iowa              844      0.7    Texas        5,630       4.6

Kansas            694      0.6    Utah           584       0.5

Kentucky          627      0.5    Vermont        248       0.2

Louisiana         688      0.6    Virginia     2,252       1.8

Maine             249      0.2    Washington   5,731       4.7

Maryland        2,372      1.9    West Virginia   31       a/

Massachusetts   3,556      2.9    Wisconsin    1,793       1.5

Michigan        2,255      1.8    Wyoming          0       a/

Minnesota       2,784      2.3    Other  b/       11       a/

Mississippi        53      a/

Missouri        1,734      1.4

Montana            47      a/

Nebraska          563      0.5    TOTAL       123,215    100.0

a/  Less than 0.1 percent.  Percentages do not add to total due to 

rounding of figures.

b/  Includes Territories and unknown States not shown separately.

Source:  Office of Refugee Resettlement



                          INDOCHINESE  REFUGEES


                 FY  1975  THROUGH  SEPTEMBER  30,  1993

                         % of                               % of

State of                 Nat'l     State of                 Nat'l

Residence     Arrivals   Total     Residence     Arrivals   Total

Alabama          6,343   0.6       Nevada          3,431      0.3

Alaska             554   b/        New Hampshire   1,577      0.1

Arizona         12,572   1.2       New Jersey     11,240      1.0

Arkansas         5,978   0.6       New Mexico      6,227      0.6

California     337,463  31.5       New York       41,644      3.9

Colorado        14,923   1.4       North Carolina 12,003      1.1

Connecticut     10,582   1.0       North Dakota   2,282       0.2

Delaware           461   b/        Ohio          15,309       1.4

Dist. Columbia  13,801   1.3       Oklahoma      14,073       1.3

Florida         24,251   2.3       Oregon        24,270       2.3

Georgia         21,573   2.0       Pennsylvania  38,939       3.6

Hawaii          10,451   1.0       Rhode Island   6,427       0.6

Idaho            2,625   0.2       South Carolina 3,435       0.3

Illinois        35,105   3.3       South Dakota   1,905       0.2

Indiana          6,801   0.6       Tennessee     12,210       1.1

Iowa            15,393   1.4       Texas         86,956       8.1

Kansas          13,038   1.2       Utah          13,225       1.2

Kentucky         6,634   0.6       Vermont        1,239       0.1

Louisiana       18,190   1.7       Virginia      26,628       2.5

Maine            2,702   0.3       Washington    46,879       4.4

Maryland        11,621   1.1       West Virginia    962       0.1

Massachusetts   30,696   2.9       Wisconsin     18,449       1.7

Michigan        15,683   1.5       Wyoming          398       b/

Minnesota       38,746   3.6       Other            398       b/

Mississippi      2,571   0.2

Missouri        15,380   1.4

Montana          1,556   0.1

Nebraska         6,672   0.6       TOTAL       1,072,471    100.0

a/  Includes Amerasian immigrants.  Does not include births or deaths in 

the U.S. or secondary migration between States.

b/  Less than 0.1 percent.

Source:  Office of Refugee Resettlement



                      NON-INDOCHINESE  REFUGEES


                        SEPTEMBER  30,  1993

                        Percent                               Percent

State of        Total   of State's   State of        Total    of State's

Residence      Arrivals Arrivals     Residence      Arrivals  Arrivals

Alabama           398     5.9        Nevada         1,992     36.7

Alaska            208     27.3       New Hampshire    874     35.7

Arizona         4,721     27.3       New Jersey    13,895     55.3

Arkansas          225      3.6       New Mexico      1,191    16.1

California    113,838     25.2       New York      124,329    74.9

Colorado        4,036     21.3       North Carolina  1,539    11.4

Connecticut     6,506     38.1       North Dakota    1,244    35.3

Delaware          261     36.1       Ohio            9,702    38.8

Dist. Columbia  2,669     16.2       Oklahoma          615     4.2

Florida        41,601     63.2       Oregon          8,131    25.1

Georgia         6,381     22.8       Pennsylvania   16,760    30.1

Hawaii            108      1.0       Rhode Island    1,981    23.6

Idaho           1,916     42.2       South Carolina    326     8.7

Illinois       27,165     43.6       South Dakota    1,491    43.9

Indiana         1,751     20.5       Tennessee       3,063    20.1

Iowa            1,147      6.9       Texas          13,399    13.4

Kansas          1,066      7.6       Utah            2,048    13.4

Kentucky        1,141     14.7       Vermont           929    42.9

Louisiana         497      2.7       Virginia        6,769    20.3

Maine           1,530     36.2       Washington     15,282    24.6

Maryland       11,795     50.4       West Virginia      83     7.9

Massachusetts  16,599     35.1       Wisconsin       2,157    10.5

Michigan       11,870     43.1       Wyoming            99    19.9

Minnesota       5,176     11.8       Other  b/     176,066    99.6

Mississippi        82      3.1

Missouri        6,230     28.8

Montana           357     18.7

Nebraska        1,363     17.0       TOTAL         666,570    37.0

a/  Includes refugees arriving since FY 1975.  Does not include Cuban 

and Haitian entrants.  Does not include births or deaths in the U.S. or 

secondary migration between States.

b/  Prior to the establishment of the Refugee Data System in 1983, the 

State of initial resettlement was not recorded for many non-Indochinese 

refugee arrivals.  The majority of these were from the Soviet Union.  

Source:  Office of Refugee Resettlement



Secondary migration is the term used to describe movement by refugees 

from the location where they were initially resettled upon arrival in 

this country to some other place.  A number of explanations for 

secondary migration by refugees have been suggested:  Employment 

opportunities, the pull of an established ethnic community, more 

generous welfare benefits, better training opportunities, reunification 

with relatives, or a congenial climate.

ORR has developed a system based on reports from the States for 

compiling and maintaining data on secondary migration.  These data are 

important not only for general program planning, but also for the 

accurate computation of formulas for distribution of funds to States.  

Results of the State reports are contained in ORR's annual Report to the 


Almost every State experienced both gains and losses through secondary 

migration in FY 1993.  On balance, 13 States gained net population 

through secondary migration.  The largest net gain was the State of 

Washington, with net in-migration of 3,307.  Iowa and North Carolina, 

with strong in-migration and little out-migration, recorded net gains of 

642 and 591, respectively.  California and New York recorded the largest 

net losses due to migration, 1,603 and 771, respectively.


The net economic effect of refugees in the U.S. derives ultimately from 

their contribution to the American economy and from the Federal, State, 

and local government taxes they pay.  In the short term, the primary 

question is whether or not refugees are obtaining employment which 

enables them to become self-supporting members of American society.  ORR 

conducts an annual survey of Southeast Asian refugees who have come to 

the U.S. during the five previous years.  The most recent survey from 

which findings are available was conducted in October 1992 and included 

598 refugee households that agreed to be interviewed.  Results from the 

survey indicate that the labor force participation rate (those working 

or seeking work) for refugees 16 or older was 37 percent, compared to an 

equivalent rate of 66 percent for the overall U.S. population.

As in previous years, labor force participation varied with length of 

residence in the U.S.  Refugees who had arrived in the U.S. during the 

year of the survey (1992) had a labor force participation rate of 33 

percent, while the 1991 arrivals had a labor force participation rate of 

37 percent.

The 1992 survey also provided data on unemployed refugees (those who are 

in the labor force, but not working).  Late in 1992, the overall U.S. 

unemployment rate was 7.2 percent, while the unemployment rate for 

refugees of working age was 16 percent.  Significant changes in 

unemployment occur for refugees over time.  In late 1992, the 

unemployment rate for refugees who arrived in 1991 was 19 percent.  The 

unemployment rate of refugees who arrived the year before was 14 

percent, while the rate for those who arrived in 1987 was six percent.


The Federal agencies which incur major program costs for the admission 

and resettlement of refugees in the United States are the Department of 

State, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of 

Justice's Immigration and Naturalization Service.  

The Department of State provides funding for: (a) processing of refugees 

abroad to identify those persons who may be eligible for the U.S. 

refugee admissions program;  (b) overseas refugee training services;  

(c) medical examinations and transportation assistance through the 

International Organization for Migration; (d) initial reception and 

placement services in the United States through cooperative agreements 

with voluntary agencies.

The Department of Health and Human Services has primary responsibility 

for the domestic resettlement of refugees.  Under the Refugee Act of 

l980, eligible refugees may receive support services designed to 

facilitate their successful settlement.

The Immigration and Naturalization Service has responsibility for and 

bears the costs of determining eligibility for U.S. refugee 


The estimated costs of services provided by the Department of State, the 

Department of Health and Human Services and the Immigration and 

Naturalization Service are based on the Administration's FY 1995 budget 

request for the funded admission of up to 110,000 refugees.

It is not possible to provide accurate cost data on refugee utilization 

of other Federal programs because statistics do not account for refugees 

separately from the general population.  Because of the significance of 

the AFDC, Medicaid, and Supplemental Security Income programs, however, 

an estimate based on the best available information concerning refugee 

utilization of these programs has been made.



                   MOVEMENT  AND  RESETTLEMENT

                       FY  1995  ESTIMATE*

                          ($ Millions)

AGENCY                                                 Estimated


DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE:   Bureau for Refugee Programs

Refugee Processing                                     18.6

Language/Orientation Programs Overseas                  6.1

Transportation                                         71.6

Reception & Placement                                  73.7

                                            Subtotal  170.0



Office of Refugee Resettlement

Transitional and Medical Services                     278.1

Employment Services                                    80.8

Targeted Assistance                                    49.4

Preventive Health                                       5.5

                                             Subtotal 413.8


Family Support Payments to States                      56.4

Medicaid                                               25.2

Supplemental Security Income                           24.2

                                             Subtotal 105.8

DEPARTMENT  OF  JUSTICE:  Immigration and Naturalization Service

Refugee Processing, Initial Interviewing and

        Other Considerations of Applicants             10.6

Soviet Processing                                       4.1

                                             Subtotal  14.7

                                         GRAND TOTAL  704.3

*Figures are based on the Administration's budget request for FY 1995, 

for the funded admission of up to 110,000 refugees.  At the time this 

report was prepared, Congress had not completed action on this request.


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