Return to: Index of "1994 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights"
Index of "Treaties and Legal Issues" || Electronic Research Collections Index || ERC Homepage


U.S. REPORT UNDER THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON 
CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS
JULY 1994


Appendix I: Abbreviations

A.C.A.: American Corrections Association

Art.: Article

B.H.R.H.A.: Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian 
Affairs

B.I.A.: Board of Immigration Appeals or Bureau of 
Indian Affairs

B.O.P.: Bureau of Prisons

C.C.C.: community corrections centers

C.F.R.: Code of Federal Regulations

ch.: chapter

Cir.: Circuit

cl.: clause

D.O.D.: Department of Defense

D.O.J.: Department of Justice

et al.: et alia, and others

F. Supp.: Federal Supplement

F.2d: Federal Reporter Second Edition

F.E.M.A.: Federal Emergency Management Agency

F.R.: Federal Register

Fed. R. Civ. P.: Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Fed. R. Crim. P.: Federal Rules of Criminal 
Procedure

G.D.P.: Gross Domestic Product

I.C.C.: Indian Claims Commission

I.L.O.: International Labor Organization

I.N.S.: Immigration and Naturalization Service

I.R.C.A: Immigrant Reform and Control Act of 1986

Id.: ibidem, in the same place

km: kilometers

N.E.2d: Northeastern Reporter second edition

N.W.2d: Northwestern Reporter second edition

P.2d: Pacific Reporter second edition

Pub. L. No.: Public Law Number

S.Ct.: Supreme Court Reporter

sec.: section

sq.: square

U.C.M.J.: Uniform Code of Military Justice

U.S.: United States Reporter

U.S.C.: United States Code 




              Appendix II: Glossary

appearance bond: type of bail bond required to 
insure presence of defendant in criminal case

arraignment: procedure whereby accused is brought 
before the court to hear  crime with which he is 
charged and to plead guilty or not guilty

bail: in a criminal case, surety provided to obtain 
release of person under arrest; surety, frequently 
money, is retained by the court if defendant fails 
to appear at designated future time in court or 
leaves the jurisdiction of the court

bail bondsman: one who is in the business of 
providing surety bail bonds for arrested persons 

boot camp: usually a training camp for military 
personnel; with regard to convicted criminals, "boot 
camp" is used to describe alternative to traditional 
incarceration in which prisoners live, work, and 
train in an environment similar to military boot 
camps

breach: the breaking or violating of a law, 
obligation, engagement, or duty, particularly 
"breach of contract" or the breaking of one's 
contractual obligations

burden of proof: the necessity or duty of one party 
to affirmatively prove a fact in dispute; the 
obligation of a party to establish by evidence the 
requisite degree of belief concerning a fact in the 
mind of the trier of fact or the court

cert. denied: refusal by the United States Supreme 
Court to grant a writ of  certiorari: e.g., to hear 
a case

citizen: one who under the Constitution and laws of 
the United States, or of a particular state, is a 
member of the political community, owing allegiance 
and being entitled to the enjoyment of full civil 
rights including all persons born or naturalized in 
the United States

Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.): the annual 
cumulation of federal executive agency regulations 
including those published in the daily Federal 
Register and regulations issued previously; contains 
the general body of regulatory or administrative law

commonwealth: the official title of certain 
political units which have a self- governing, 
autonomous, voluntary relationship with a larger 
political unit

complaint: in criminal cases, a written statement of 
the essential facts supporting a claim that a named 
(or unnamed) person committed a crime; a complaint 
must be made before a magistrate and if the 
magistrate finds that probable cause exists that the 
named person committed the alleged crime, a warrant 
for his arrest is issued 

contempt of court: any willful act disregarding or 
disobeying a court in its administration of justice, 
including acts calculated to lessen the dignity of 
the court as well as violations of lawful court 
orders

court martial: a military court; to bring an 
individual before a military court

custody: the care or control of a thing or person 
including the custody of a child which may be 
ordered by a court as part of a divorce of 
separation proceeding

de novo: anew, afresh, a second time

deposition: the testimony of a witness taken upon 
interrogatories, not in open court, that is reduced 
to a writing and duly authenticated; a discovery 
device by which one party asks oral questions of 
another party or a witness for the other party; may 
be used in a civil or criminal trial

discretionary relief: relief which is not a matter 
of right but rather of discretion

et seq.: an abbreviation meaning "and the following"

ex post facto: after the fact; an "ex post facto 
law" provides for punishment of a person for an act 
which when committed was innocent

Federal Register: daily publication making available 
to the public, often for comment, federal agency 
regulations and other executive branch documents

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure: body of procedural 
rules which govern all civil actions in U.S. 
District Courts

Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure: body of 
procedural rules which govern all criminal 
proceedings in U.S. District Courts and where 
specified before U.S. magistrates

felony: a grave or serious crime, frequently any 
offense punishable by death or imprisonment for more 
than one year

first degree: phrase used to describe the most 
serious of a type of crime as in first degree murder

grand jury: a jury of between 12 and 23 people (16 
and 23 in federal court) impaneled to receive 
complaints in criminal cases, hear the state's 
evidence, and issue indictments where probable cause 
exists to bring a case to trial

halfway house: loosely structured institution 
designed to rehabilitate persons, particularly by 
assisting former prisoners in the transition from 
prison to civilian life

immunity: exemption from performing duties the law 
usually requires including exemption from 
prosecution usually in exchange for offering 
inculpatory evidence against another individual

in absentia proceeding: proceeding conducted in the 
absence of usually a defendant in a case 

indictment: written accusation by a grand jury to 
the court charging a person with doing an act or 
being guilty of an omission which by law is a public 
offense

informed consent: a person's agreement to allow 
something to happen where the agreement is based on 
a full disclosure of facts needed to make the 
decision intelligently including facts regarding 
risks and alternatives

injunction: a prohibitive, equitable remedy, issued 
or granted by a court forbidding a party to do some 
act or restraining a party from continuing some act

jail: a building used for the confinement of persons 
held in lawful custody usually persons either 
convicted of misdemeanors or persons awaiting trial

jury of one's peers: jury composed of defendant's 
fellow citizens

magistrate: in federal court a judicial officer 
appointed by the judges of federal district courts 
having some but not all the powers of a judge; 
magistrates usually conduct many of the preliminary 
or pre-trial civil and criminal proceedings

mandamus: a writ issuing from a court of competent 
jurisdiction commanding an inferior tribunal, board, 
corporation, or person to perform a particular act 
specified and belonging to his public, official, or 
ministerial duty, or directing the restoration of 
the complainant to rights or privileges of which he 
has been illegally deprived

material witness: a person who can give testimony 
that no one or almost no one else can give, such as 
a victim or an eyewitness

misdemeanor: an offense other than a felony, usually 
one that results in a fine or short imprisonment in 
a jail

motion: an application to a court or judge in order 
to obtain a ruling or order in favor of the 
applicant

nationals: persons -- including but not limited to 
citizens -- who owe allegiance to a country

parole: release from jail, prison, or other 
confinement after having served some portion of the 
sentence, usually is conditional and may be revoked 
upon violation of any of the conditions

perfect the appeal: to complete or finish an appeal 
such that it may be submitted to the court

petit jury: the ordinary jury of usually between 6 
and 12 persons who decide questions of fact in civil 
and criminal trials; "petit" distinguishes this jury 
from "grand" jury

preliminary hearing: hearing by a judge or 
magistrate to determine whether a  person charged 
with a crime should be held for trial; held in 
felony cases prior to indictment; requires the state 
to establish probable cause that a crime was 
committed and the defendant committed it

prison: a building used for the confinement of 
persons usually convicted of more serious crimes, 
such as felonies; synonym is penitentiary

probable cause: reasonable cause for belief; more 
evidence for than against; a reasonable ground for 
belief in the existence of facts warranting the 
proceedings complained of (such as warrant, 
indictment, arrest)

probation: a sentence releasing a prisoner into the 
community under the supervision of a public officer 
(probation officer)

restitution: act of making good or giving equivalent 
for any loss, damage, or injury suffered; puts 
plaintiff in the position he would have been in if 
no action had occurred

second degree: phrase used to describe a lesser 
crime among a type of crimes as in second degree 
murder

See:  citation signal indicating that the following 
supports the proposition stated

state action: phrase used usually in due process and 
civil rights claims where a private citizen claims 
improper governmental intrusion in his life

subpoena: command to appear at a certain time and 
place to give testimony upon a certain matter

summary judgment: motion of a party in a civil 
action requesting the court to find that there is no 
genuine issue of material fact and the party is 
entitled to prevail as a matter of law

supra: above; usually directs the reader to a 
previous citation territory: the land and waters 
under the jurisdiction of a state, nation, or 
sovereign

tort: a private or civil wrong or injury other than 
a breach of contract for which the court will 
provide a damages remedy

warrant: a written order on behalf of the state 
based upon a complaint that directs a law 
enforcement officer to arrest a person and bring him 
before a magistrate

whistleblower: person, usually within an 
organization such as a business or the government, 
who reports fraud or other offense occurring within 
the organization

writ of habeas corpus: an order requiring a party to 
be brought before the court; usually used to test 
the legality of the detention or imprisonment of a 
person

writ: an order issued by a court requiring the 
performance of a certain act
To the top of this page