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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
1994 VOTING PRACTICES IN THE UNITED NATIONS
BUREAU OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANAIZATION AFFAIRS



               Voting Practices in the United Nations, 1994
                          Report to Congress
                Submitted Pursuant to Public Law, 101-167
                            March 31, 1995



V: SECURITY COUNCIL 
 
In addition to the five Permanent Members  China, France, Russia, the 
United Kingdom, and the United States  the Security Council in 1994 was 
composed of Argentina, Brazil, Czech Republic, Djibouti, New Zealand, 
Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, and Spain. The following table 
summarizes the activity of the Security Council for the year, and 
compares it with the previous seven years. 
 
----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                      Resolutions    Resolutions    U.S. 
Year     Meetings     Considered     Adopted        Vetoes 
----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
1994     160            78             77             0 
1993     171            95             93             0 
1992     129            74             74             0 
1991      53            42             42             0 
1990      69            40             37             2 
1989      69            25             20             5 
1988      55            26             20             6 
1987      49            15             13             2 
----------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
The Security Council in 1994 once again continued the activism it has 
demonstrated in the years following the end of the Cold War. While the 
number of formal meetings and the number of resolutions adopted were 
slightly lower than the record set in 1993, there were more than in any 
other previous year. The number of consensus statements issued by the 
Council President was also high again. The number of informal meetings 
and the time devoted to them increased again in 1994. Free of Cold War 
blockage, the Council has become involved ever more deeply in the world 
community's efforts to resolve conflicts both old and new, although it 
has become more selective in the actions it takes to deal with 
international crises. 
 
Of the 77 resolutions adopted by the Council, 3 were without a vote and 
62 won unanimous approval. Of the 12 resolutions adopted without 
unanimous approval, the United States voted in favor of 11 and abstained 
on the one extending the mandate of the UN Operation in Somalia by one 
month. Russia vetoed a resolution on Bosnia in December. This was 
Russia's second veto since 1990. Pakistan and Djibouti voted against the 
resolution suspending some sanctions against the Federal Republic of 
Yugoslavia, and Rwanda voted against the resolution establishing a war 
crimes tribunal for that country. No other negative votes were cast 
during 1994. The number of abstentions was again small. Rwanda did not 
participate in the voting on four resolutions adopted in July. 
 
In 1994, the Security Council authorized new operations in Haiti, 
Tajikistan, and the Aouzou Strip border region between Chad and Libya. 
It also set about drawing four other operations to a close, in 
Mozambique, South Africa, Somalia, and El Salvador. It responded to acts 
of genocide in Rwanda, and it sought peaceful solutions to disputes in 
the Persian Gulf, Georgia, Liberia, Angola, Burundi, and Cyprus. Council 
actions in peacekeeping activities are summarized in the following 
paragraphs: 
 
The former Yugoslavia: This was the most pressing of the Council's 
concerns during the year. It met 37 times, adopted 12 resolutions, and 
issued 18 presidential statements on this subject. It altered the regime 
of sanctions imposed in 1992 by adopting three resolutions under Chapter 
VII of the UN Charter. It suspended selected sanctions against the 
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), contingent upon 
its effective closure of its border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. It 
imposed wide-ranging sanctions on that part of Bosnia and Herzegovina 
under the control of the Bosnian Serbs, sanctions which were to be 
reconsidered only if the Bosnian Serbs unconditionally accepted the 
territorial settlement proposed by the Contact Group (United States, 
Russia, United Kingdom, France, and Germany). The Council also demanded 
that the Bosnian Serbs cease their campaign of "ethnic cleansing" in 
Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
 
The Council twice in 1994 extended the mandate of the UN Protection 
Force (UNPROFOR), to March 31, 1995, and it twice allowed for increases 
in the mission's troop levels. By year's end, UNPROFOR comprised over 
38,000 peacekeepers supported by more than 4,000 civilian personnel. 
NATO carried out air strikes during the year, as authorized by 
Resolution 836 (1993). This resolution authorized UN members or regional 
organizations to take all necessary measures, through the use of air 
power, to support UNPROFOR in and around the safe areas by Bosnian 
Serbs. In April the Council condemned the shelling of the safe areas. It 
demanded the conclusion of a ceasefire in Gorazde and throughout Bosnia. 
In November, the Council authorized member states to use air power to 
support UNPROFOR in Croatia. It also authorized UNPROFOR, acting in 
self-defense, to use force in retaliation for bombardments against or 
incursions into the safe areas. Also in November, the Council condemned 
violations of the border between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and 
it demanded that hostile actions in and around the safe areas cease. In 
December the Secretary General reported to the Council that UNPROFOR 
should not be asked to enforce compliance with the safe area regime. He 
thought such action would turn UNPROFOR into a combatant and would be 
incompatible with UNPROFOR's role as a peacekeeping force. Moreover, 
such a role would require a large increase in the number of UNPROFOR's 
troops. Also in December, Russia vetoed a resolution that would have 
reconfirmed the embargo on transshipment of all but humanitarian goods 
across the border between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the 
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 
 
Haiti: The situation in Haiti was another principal concern of the 
Council in 1994. The Council extended the mandate of the UN Mission in 
Haiti (UNMIH) in March, June, and July to extend up to January 31, 1995. 
On July 31, recognizing that the unique character of the situation in 
Haiti required an exceptional response, the Council authorized member 
states to form a multinational force (MNF) under unified command and 
control and to use all necessary means to facilitate the departure from 
Haiti of the military leadership, the prompt return of the legitimately 
elected president, and the restoration of the legitimate authorities in 
Haiti. The MNF was mandated to establish and maintain a secure and 
stable environment. The Council established an advance team of UNMIH to 
monitor the MNF's operations and to prepare for the deployment of UNMIH 
upon completion of the MNF's mission. This force, led by the United 
States, is to terminate its mission  and UNMIH is to assume the full 
range of its functions  when the Security Council has determined that 
UNMIH has sufficient capacity to perform its full range of functions and 
a secure and stable environment has been established. UNMIH's mandate is 
to assist the democratic government of Haiti to sustain the secure and 
stable environment established by the MNF, to professionalize the armed 
forces, to create a separate police force, and to create an environment 
conducive to the organization of free and fair elections. UNMIH's size 
was increased to a troop level of 6,000 and a civilian police level of 
567. It is to complete its mission not later than February 1996. On 
October 15, following the occupation of Haiti by the MNF and the return 
of President Aristide to Haiti, the Council welcomed his return, as well 
as the convening of the Haitian Parliament and the departure of the 
military leadership. It commended the efforts of the MNF and lifted 
sanctions against Haiti. On November 29, the Council welcomed the 
positive developments in Haiti since the deployment of the MNF, 
commended the efforts of the MNF to establish a secure and stable 
environment, paid tribute to President Aristide for his efforts to 
promote national reconciliation, and authorized the Secretary General to 
strengthen the advance team of UNMIH up to 500 persons to facilitate 
planning for the transition from the MNF to UNMIH. 
 
El Salvador: The Council acted in May to extend the mandate of ONUSAL to 
November 30, and, expressing concern that the peace accords remained 
only partially implemented, urged compliance by the parties to the 
agreed timetable, and removal of obstacles to the land transfer program. 
In November the Council extended ONUSAL's mandate for a final period to 
April 30, 1995, while again expressing concern that important elements 
of the peace accords remained only partially implemented, particularly 
those regarding demobilization of the police, transfer of lands, 
reintegration of ex-combatants, human settlements, judicial and 
electoral reform, and recommendations of the Commission on the Truth. 
The Council urged full implementation of the accords, and asked the 
Secretary General to prepare a report on fulfillment of ONUSAL's 
mandate, on modalities for its withdrawal, and on further assistance to 
El Salvador by the specialized agencies after ONUSAL terminates on April 
30. 
 
Mozambique: The UN Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) successfully 
completed its mandate in 1994. On December 9 the mission expired upon 
the investiture of a newly elected legislature and the inauguration of 
President Chissano. Since its creation by the Council in 1992, ONUMOZ 
successfully demobilized 90,000 troops, collected nearly 200,000 
weapons, and resettled 1.5 million refugees and displaced persons. The 
operation registered voters and assisted in conducting a peaceful 
election. The Council welcomed the declaration by the Secretary 
General's Special Representative that the elections were free and fair. 
 
Somalia: The Council decided in November to terminate the mandate of the 
UN Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II) on March 31, 1995. Responding to 
widespread starvation and instability following the downfall of 
President Siad Barre, the Council had created UNOSOM and its successor, 
UNOSOM II. The Council in 1992 authorized the use of force to establish 
a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia. The 
first elements of the Unified Task Force, led by the United States, were 
deployed in 1992, with UNOSOM II taking over in March 1993. In 
establishing an end date for the mission, the Council decided that every 
effort should be made to withdraw UNOSOM II forces in a secure and 
orderly manner, and it authorized them to take the necessary self-
defense actions. During 1994 the Council had twice extended the mandate 
of UNOSOM II, while urging the parties to carry out commitments and 
implement agreements and to refrain from acts of intimidation or 
violence against personnel engaged in humanitarian or peacekeeping work 
in the country. 
 
Rwanda: The Council worked to cope with horrible acts of slaughter and 
destruction. The UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), set up to 
assist in implementation of the Arusha Peace Agreement of 1993, suffered 
attacks on its personnel. As the situation deteriorated and UNAMIR's 
capacity for action became more and more limited, the Council in April 
adjusted the mission's mandate to have it act as an intermediary between 
the parties, assist in resumption of humanitarian relief, and monitor 
and report on developments concerning the safety of civilians. Its troop 
strength was sharply reduced. By May, concerned over the thousands of 
deaths of innocent civilians, large internal displacements of 
population, and the massive exodus of refugees to neighboring countries, 
along with widespread violations of international humanitarian law, the 
Council increased the strength of UNAMIR, expanded its mandate to 
include responsibility for security of civilians and of humanitarian 
operations, and imposed an arms embargo. In June the Council agreed that 
a multinational operation for humanitarian purposes could be set up in 
Rwanda until UNAMIR was brought up to the necessary strength, and it 
welcomed the offer by member states to establish a temporary operation 
under national (French) command and control aimed at contributing to the 
security and protection of displaced persons, refugees, and civilians at 
risk. In July the Council asked the Secretary General to establish a 
commission of experts to examine and analyze information on evidence of 
grave violations of international humanitarian law committed in Rwanda, 
including possible acts of genocide. In November the Council established 
an international tribunal to prosecute persons responsible for genocide 
and other serious violations of international humanitarian law committed 
in Rwanda or by Rwandan citizens in the refugee camps in neighboring 
countries. It also extended UNAMIR's mandate to June 9, 1995, and 
expanded it to enable the mission to contribute to the security of 
personnel of the international tribunal and of human rights officers. 
 
Liberia: The Council extended the mandate of the UN Observer Mission 
(UNOMIL) twice, the second time to January 13, 1995. UNOMIL is working 
in cooperation with the peacekeeping mission of the Economic Community 
of West African States to implement the Cotonou Peace Agreement of 1993, 
which provides for a ceasefire, disarmament, demobilization, and 
national elections. The Council in October agreed with the Secretary 
General's decision to reduce the strength of UNOMIL until there was real 
improvement in the security situation. 
 
Angola: Following the signing of the Lusaka Protocol in November, the 
Council extended the mandate of the UN Angola Verification Mission 
(UNAVEM II) to February 8, 1995, so it could monitor the ceasefire. The 
Council welcomed the Secretary General's decision to restore UNAVEM II 
to its previous troop levels. During the year, the Council on numerous 
occasions deplored the continuing hostilities in Angola and the 
deterioration of the humanitarian situation. It confirmed its readiness 
to impose additional measures against UNITA if that party did not accept 
the national reconciliation proposals of the Lusaka peace talks. It 
reminded states of the need to abide by the sanctions regime. 
 
Burundi: The Council met four times on the situation in Burundi. It 
welcomed the election and swearing in of the country's president. It 
condemned extremist elements that continued to threaten national 
reconciliation. And it urged all sides to reject confrontational tactics 
and violence. 
 
South Africa: The Council terminated the UN Observer Mission in South 
Africa (UNOMSA) and lifted the arms embargo against that country 
following its first multi-racial election and the establishment there of 
a united, democratic, and non-racial government. 
 
Western Sahara: The Council agreed that the Identification Commission of 
the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) should 
proceed with registration of potential voters consistent with the 
Secretary General's compromise proposal for determining eligibility for 
participation in the referendum for self-determination of the people of 
the territory. In November the Council in a presidential statement 
declared there must be no further delay in the holding of a free, fair, 
and impartial referendum. 
 
Tajikistan: The Council in December decided to establish a UN Mission of 
Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) for a period of up to six months, 
mandating the mission to assist the Tajik Joint Commission to monitor 
the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and to provide its good 
offices to the process of political reconciliation. 
 
Afghanistan: The Council issued presidential statements calling for a 
ceasefire and initiation of a process aimed at creating a broad-based 
government, for an end to obstacles to shipments of humanitarian aid, 
and for a halt to the flow of weapons into Afghanistan. The Council 
welcomed acceptance by the warring parties of a national reconciliation 
process to establish a council to negotiate a ceasefire, establish a 
national security force, and form a transitional government. 
 
Georgia: The Council extended the mandate of the UN Observer Mission in 
Georgia (UNOMIG) several times during the year for periods up to January 
13, 1995. It welcomed the efforts of the Secretary General and his 
special envoy, in cooperation with the Conference on Security and 
Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), and with the assistance of the Russian 
Federation as facilitator, to carry forward the peace process. It 
commended the efforts of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 
toward the maintenance of a ceasefire in Abkhazia, and it welcomed the 
contribution by the Russian Federation of a peacekeeping force. In 
response to an Abkhaz declaration of independence, the Council declared 
in December that the unilateral establishment of a sovereign Abkhaz 
entity would violate the commitment to search for a comprehensive 
political settlement of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. It called on all 
parties to make substantive progress in the peace negotiations under UN 
auspices. 
 
Iraq: The Council in October condemned Iraqi military deployment in the 
direction of the border with Kuwait, and it demanded that Iraq withdraw 
all these forces to their original positions and that it not again 
utilize its forces in a hostile or provocative manner to threaten either 
its neighbors or UN operations in Iraq. In November the Council welcomed 
Iraq's "irrevocable and unqualified" recognition of the sovereignty, 
territorial integrity, and political independence of Kuwait. The Council 
decided several times during its periodic reviews in 1994 not to modify 
the sanctions regime imposed in 1991. 
 
Middle East: The Council renewed the mandate of the UN Disengagement 
Observer Force (UNDOF) on the Golan Heights until May 31, 1995, warning 
that the situation there would likely remain potentially dangerous until 
a comprehensive Middle East peace settlement could be reached. It 
condemned the massacre in Hebron and called for measures to guarantee 
the safety of Palestine civilians. It also called for implementation of 
the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government signed by 
Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Council also 
extended the mandate of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) to 
January 31, 1995. 
 
Libya: In May the Council authorized deployment of the UN Aouzou Strip 
Observer Group (UNASOG) for a period of 40 days to monitor withdrawal of 
Libyan administration and forces from that area in accordance with the 
judgment of the International Court of Justice. UNASOG was terminated on 
June 13 upon the successful completion of its task. The Council also 
decided in its periodic reviews not to modify the existing sanctions 
regime. 
 
Cyprus: The Secretary General reported that, in the absence of progress 
towards a settlement between the two sides, the situation remained 
subject to sudden tensions. The Secretary General suggested that, given 
the lack of agreement, the Council could conclude that, after 30 years 
of effort, there was no political will for a negotiated settlement and 
that the peacemaking and peacekeeping resources in Cyprus should be 
redirected to other disputes where they might have a greater chance of 
success. At the Council's request, the Secretary General directed his 
special representative to begin consultations with members of the 
Council, the guarantor powers, and leaders in Cyprus, with a view to 
undertaking a fundamental review of ways of approaching the Cyprus 
problem. Extensive consultations between UN representatives and Cypriot 
leaders ensued, and the Secretary General determined that he would 
submit a definitive report in light of these continuing efforts. The 
Council renewed the mandate of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus 
(UNFICYP) to June 30, 1995. 
 
Yemen: The Council sent a fact-finding mission to Yemen in June to 
assess prospects for a renewed dialogue. It asked the Secretary General 
to discuss a ceasefire and possible establishment of a mechanism to 
monitor a cessation of hostilities. It welcomed the ceasefire reached at 
talks in Moscow, and which had been achieved through mediation of the 
Russian Foreign Minister. 
 
Korea: The Council in November noted the agreement reached between the 
United States and North Korea as a positive step toward denuclearizing 
the Korean peninsula. In March the Council had called on North Korea to 
allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to complete the inspection 
activities agreed upon as a step towards fulfilling that country's 
obligations under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear 
Weapons. 
 
The Council announced in December that it would in future meet more 
often in open sessions in an effort to improve the flow of information 
and ideas between members of the Council and other UN member states. In 
November the Council decided to hold meetings as a matter of course 
between Council members, the Secretariat, and countries contributing 
troops to peacekeeping operations. The Council also agreed that the 
monthly tentative forecast of its work should be made available to 
member states. 
 
In addition to the large number of resolutions adopted by the Security 
Council in 1994, the Council President issued 82 consensus statements 
during the year. This nearly matches the 88 statements in 1993 and 94 in 
1992, and it far exceeds the 21 issued in 1991. Of the 82 statements, 
the former Yugoslavia was the topic of 18 and Rwanda 9. Others were on 
Angola, 5; Haiti, Mozambique, Afghanistan, Liberia, and Burundi, 4 each; 
and one to three statements on Georgia, Somalia, Iraq, El Salvador, 
South Africa, the Secretary General's Agenda for Peace report, Korea, 
Libya, and other subjects. All of these statements were endorsed by the 
United States. Security Council action is increasingly taking the form 
of presidential statements. 
 
 
 
RESOLUTIONS 
 
Substantive resolutions formally addressed by the Security Council in 
1994 are listed and described below. They are organized by topic. Each 
listing provides the number of the resolution, date of the vote, results 
(Yes/No/Abstain), and a summary description. The descriptions, which 
include key elements of the resolutions, are composed of excerpts from 
the resolution language; "Security Council" is the subject of the verbs. 
The U.S. statement of position is given as appropriate. 
 
ADMISSION OF NEW MEMBER 
 
S/Res/963           November 29         Adopted Without Vote 
 
Recommends to the General Assembly that the Republic of Palau be 
admitted to membership in the United Nations. (See also PALAU below.) 
 
ANGOLA 
 
S/Res/903           March 16            15(US)-0-0 
 
Urges the parties to redouble their efforts to attain a ceasefire and 
conclude a peaceful settlement; demands cessation of all offensive 
military actions; decides to extend the mandate of the UN Angola 
Verification Mission (UNAVEM II) until May 31, 1994; declares readiness 
to consider authorizing an increase in the strength of UNAVEM II to its 
previous level of 350 military observers, 126 police observers, and 14 
military medical staff, with an appropriate number of international and 
local civilian staff, following a report from the Secretary General that 
the parties have reached an agreement and that the conditions are right 
for deployment; reaffirms readiness to consider any recommendations from 
the Secretary General for an appropriate UN presence in Angola; condemns 
any actions that threaten the unimpeded delivery of humanitarian 
assistance; and decides, in view of the direct negotiations continuing 
between the parties, not to impose at present the additional measures 
against the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 
contained in paragraph 26 of resolution 864 (1993). 
 
The U.S. Representative stressed the importance of reaching a lasting 
political settlement, and she noted that the United States had worked 
closely with others to advance the peace process. This peace process, 
she said, offers the parties a chance to start a new chapter in the life 
of their country. But that chance will not last, she said, and the U.S. 
Government does not accept current efforts to delay essential decisions. 
The United States is prepared to assist in the implementation of a peace 
accord, she said, but, to reach an accord, Angolans must first 
demonstrate the political will, flexibility, and courage to make peace a 
reality. 
 
 
S/Res/922           May 31              15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of UNAVEM II until June 30, 1994; stresses 
that its future decision concerning Angola will take into account the 
extent to which the parties demonstrate their political will to achieve 
a lasting peace; welcomes the acceptance by the Government of Angola of 
the proposals on national reconciliation, urges UNITA to do likewise, 
and encourages both parties to finalize outstanding details without 
procrastination; reaffirms its readiness to consider any recommendations 
from the Secretary General for an expanded UN presence in Angola; 
declares its intention to reconsider the UN role if a peace agreement 
has not been reached before expiration of the extended mandate of UNAVEM 
II; decides, in view of the direct negotiations continuing between the 
parties, not to impose at present the additional measures against UNITA 
contained in paragraph 26 of resolution 864 (1993); strongly deplores 
the resurgence of military actions throughout Angola and reiterates its 
demand that both parties cease offensive military operations; condemns 
acts that imperil humanitarian relief efforts and all actions that 
inhibit free movement of humanitarian relief; and appeals to states and 
nongovernmental organizations to provide assistance to meet the growing 
humanitarian needs. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative noted that while the Council and others 
work for peace, there are others who would paint their native soil with 
the blood of its own people. He decried the intensification of fighting 
and the launching of new military offensives. He said we are heartened 
by reports that the Government of Angola has accepted the proposal put 
forward by the mediation, and he urged UNITA to do likewise. This 
resolution, he said, puts the leaders of Angola on notice that the 
patience of the international community is wearing thin. 
 
 
S/Res/932           June 30             15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of UNAVEM II until September 30, 1994; 
calls upon both parties to honor the commitments already made by them at 
the talks in Lusaka and urges them to redouble their efforts with the 
aim of attaining a ceasefire and concluding a peaceful settlement; 
welcomes the acceptance by the Government of Angola of the proposals on 
national reconciliation put forward by the Secretary General's special 
representative and the three observer states, and strongly urges UNITA 
to do likewise; declares its determination to impose additional measures 
against UNITA as indicated in resolution 864 (1993) if by July 31 UNITA 
has not formally accepted the proposals on national reconciliation, and 
declares further that in such case it will decide what further measures 
it will impose; welcomes the preparations and contingency planning 
undertaken by the Secretary General for a UN presence in Angola once a 
peace settlement is reached; declares its intention to review the UN 
role in Angola in the event that a peace agreement has not been reached 
in Lusaka by the time of the expiration of the extended mandate of 
UNAVEM II; reaffirms the obligation of all states to implement the 
provisions of paragraph 19 of resolution 864 (1993), and urges the two 
neighboring states who have so far failed to respond to requests from 
the committee established by resolution 864 for information regarding 
alleged sanctions violations to do so promptly; strongly deplores the 
intensification of offensive military actions throughout Angola, and 
reiterates its demand that both parties immediately cease all military 
operations; deplores the worsening of the humanitarian situation and 
strongly condemns acts that imperil humanitarian relief efforts; urges 
both parties to grant guarantees for relief deliveries to all locations 
and to refrain from any action which could jeopardize the safety of 
relief personnel; commends those states, UN agencies, and 
nongovernmental organizations which have already contributed to the 
relief efforts, and appeals to all to provide further assistance; and 
requests that the Secretary General ensure that the Council is informed 
regularly on progress of the peace talks as well as on the military and 
humanitarian situation. 
 
The U.S. Representative noted the dramatic deterioration in the 
humanitarian situation. She said this resolution poses two choices for 
Angola's leaders: first, hostilities must cease in order to allow relief 
operations to resume and to create the proper atmosphere for the 
successful conclusion of the Lusaka talks; and, second, UNITA should 
accept the mediation's proposals on national reconciliation. The Lusaka 
peace process, she said, has brought both sides close to the 
comprehensive accord that would at last bring peace to Angola. The 
United States has given complete support to the Lusaka peace process, 
she said, and we reiterate our strong commitment to help Angola 
implement a comprehensive peace accord. She said we look to Angola's 
leaders to take the final steps for peace. 
 
 
S/Res/945           September 29        15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of UNAVEM II until October 31, 1994; calls 
upon both parties to honor the commitments already made by them at the 
Lusaka Peace Talks and urges them to complete their negotiations as soon 
as possible and make every necessary effort to have the Lusaka Agreement 
formally signed before October 31; declares that, in view of the formal 
acceptance by UNITA of the complete set of proposals put forward by the 
Secretary General's Special Representative and the three observer states 
and in view of the current negotiations, it will not consider at this 
time the imposition of additional measures against UNITA; reiterates its 
intention to review the UN role in Angola in the event that a peace 
agreement has not been reached in Lusaka; strongly deplores the 
intensification of the offensive military actions and reiterates once 
again its demand that both parties cease forthwith all military 
operations; affirms its readiness to consider authorizing promptly, once 
an agreement is initialled by the parties, the rapid increase of the 
strength of UNAVEM II to its previous authorized level; condemns any 
action that threatens the unimpeded delivery of humanitarian assistance 
to all in need in Angola and puts the lives of the humanitarian relief 
workers at risk; demands the immediate release of the humanitarian 
relief workers who disappeared on August 27; and appeals for further 
assistance to meet growing humanitarian needs. 
 
 
S/Res/952           October 27          15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of UNAVEM II until December 8, 1994; calls 
upon the parties to conclude a peace agreement and establish a 
ceasefire; authorizes the restoration of the strength of UNAVEM II to 
its previous level of 350 military observers and 126 police observers 
with appropriate staff, to be deployed upon initialing of a peace 
agreement and putting into place of an effective ceasefire; reaffirms 
its readiness to consider an expanded UN presence in Angola after a 
peace agreement is signed if circumstances warrant, and welcomes the 
Secretary General's contingency planning in this regard; reiterates its 
demand that both parties immediately cease all military operations; 
deplores the deterioration in the humanitarian situation, and demands 
that both parties grant security clearances and guarantees for relief 
deliveries to all locations and refrain from any action which could 
jeopardize the safety of relief personnel or disrupt the distribution of 
humanitarian assistance; reiterates its demand for the immediate release 
of the humanitarian relief workers who disappeared on August 27, and 
calls for the complete cooperation, especially of UNITA, with the UN 
investigation into their disappearance; and appeals to all to provide 
further assistance to meet the ongoing humanitarian needs. 
 
The U.S. Representative expressed the hope that this long war in Angola 
would come to an end and cease turning one of Africa's richest countries 
into one of its poorest. She noted that UN observers, which this 
resolution provides for, can be important at the early stages of the 
peace process, when confidence-building measures and reestablishment of 
trust between the parties will be sorely needed. But the international 
community will not send personnel into a war zone, she said, so the 
parties must lay down their arms if they want the international 
community to help them in their attempts at peacemaking. Similarly, she 
said, the U.S. Government will want to see evidence that the parties are 
serious about holding to a ceasefire and implementing the peace 
agreement before deploying an enlarged force of peacekeeping troops. The 
future of Angola, she said, rests in the hands of the Angolan parties. 
 
 
S/Res/966           December 8          15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of UNAVEM II until February 8, 1995, to 
enable it to monitor the ceasefire established by the Lusaka Protocol; 
commends the Government of Angola and UNITA for signing the Lusaka 
Protocol and urges them to respect fully the ceasefire that entered into 
effect on November 22, 1994; calls upon the parties to honor the 
commitments made by them and to continue to work together to achieve 
national reconciliation on the basis of the Peace Accords and the Lusaka 
Protocol; welcomes the Secretary General's decision to proceed with the 
restoration of the strength of UNAVEM II to its previous level, the 
actual enlargement being dependent on the strict observance by the 
parties of an effective ceasefire and on the provision by them of 
satisfactory guarantees regarding the safety and security of UN 
personnel; encourages the Secretary General, in order to enhance the 
verification capabilities of the existing UNAVEM II and as an additional 
confidence-building measure, to continue to deploy personnel to the 
countryside; notes the intention of the Secretary General to submit a 
report on the possible mandate for a new UN operation in Angola, such a 
report to contain a detailed description of the results of his effort to 
identify potential troop-contributing countries, the objectives, concept 
of operations, and financial aspects of such an operation, and progress 
in discussions with the Government of Angola regarding the conclusion of 
a status-of-forces agreement, and welcomes the contingency planning 
being done by him in this regard; declares its intention to review the 
role of the United Nations in Angola by February 8, 1995, in light of 
the above report; welcomes the resumption and the increased flow of 
humanitarian relief assistance throughout Angola; emphasizes that both 
parties must respect and ensure the safety and security of international 
personnel in Angola; appeals to all states, UN agencies, and non-
governmental organizations to provide further assistance to meet the 
growing humanitarian need; and asks the Secretary General to inform the 
Council of the next steps to be taken to implement a well coordinated 
and comprehensive mine clearance program. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative noted that this resolution welcomed the 
signing of the Lusaka Protocol, which had been a long time in coming, 
and marks a significant step toward the national reconciliation actively 
promoted by the international community for several years. He said we 
are encouraged by the announcement of a ceasefire, but concerned about 
continued allegations of ceasefire violations by both parties. It is 
important, he said, that President dos Santos and Dr. Savimbi, 
personally, make every effort to arrange for a one-on-one meeting in 
order to move the peace process forward with all due speed. 
 
CYPRUS 
 
S/Res/902           March 11            15(US)-0-0 
 
Reiterates that the maintenance of the status quo in Cyprus is 
unacceptable; welcomes the acceptance in principle by both parties of 
the confidence-building measures relating, in particular, to Varosha and 
Nicosia International Airport; welcomes the fact that intensive 
discussions have made it possible for the Secretary General's 
representative to bring forward ideas that should facilitate the 
discussions aimed at reaching agreement on the key issues for 
implementing the confidence-building measures, and stresses the need to 
conclude such an agreement without delay; and requests that the 
Secretary General submit a further report by the end of March 1994 on 
the outcome of his efforts to finalize that agreement. 
 
 
 
S/Res/927           June 15             15(US)-0-0 
 
Extends the stationing of the UN Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) until 
December 31, 1994; calls upon the military authorities on both sides to 
ensure that no incidents occur along the buffer zone; requests that the 
Secretary General keep the structure and strength of the force under 
review with a view to possible restructuring of it; urges all concerned 
to commit themselves to a significant reduction in the number of foreign 
troops in Cyprus and a reduction of defense spending in Cyprus to help 
restore confidence and as a step towards the withdrawal of non-Cypriot 
forces; calls again for discussions with UNFICYP about entering into 
commitments to prohibit live ammunition or weapons other than hand-held 
along the ceasefire lines and to prohibit firing of weapons within sight 
or hearing of the buffer zone; calls for extension of the 1989 unmanning 
agreement to cover all areas of the buffer zone where the two sides are 
in close proximity to each other; urges both communities to promote 
tolerance and reconciliation; stresses the urgent need for the 
implementation of confidence-building measures; and stresses that it 
will conduct a comprehensive review of the situation, including the role 
of UNFICYP and the progress achieved towards a political settlement. 
 
 
 
S/Res/939           July 29             14(US)-0-0 
 
Reiterates that the maintenance of the status quo is unacceptable; 
reaffirms that a settlement must be based on a state with a single 
sovereignty, with its independence and territorial integrity 
safeguarded, and comprising two politically equal communities, and that 
such a settlement must exclude union in whole or in part with any other 
country or any form of partition or secession; requests that the 
Secretary General begin consultations on this basis with a view to 
undertaking a reflection on ways of approaching the problem in a manner 
that will yield results; urges the parties to cooperate with the 
Secretary General to achieve agreement on the modalities for 
implementing confidence-building measures; and requests that the 
Secretary General report by the end of October 1994 on a program for 
achieving an overall solution. (Rwanda did not participate.) 
 
 
 
S/Res/969           December 21         15(US)-0-0 
 
Extends the stationing of UNFICYP in Cyprus until June 30, 1995; calls 
upon the military authorities on both sides to ensure that no incidents 
occur along the buffer zone; requests that the Secretary General keep 
under review the structure and strength of UNFICYP with a view to 
possible restructuring of it; urges all concerned to commit themselves 
to a significant reduction in the number of foreign troops in Cyprus and 
a reduction of defense spending there to help restore confidence between 
the parties and as a first step toward withdrawal of non-Cypriot forces; 
calls upon the military authorities once again to begin discussions with 
UNFICYP with a view to entering into commitments to prohibit live 
ammunition and weapons other than those hand-held along the ceasefire 
lines and to prohibit firing of weapons within sight or hearing of the 
buffer zone; calls upon the military authorities to cooperate in 
extending the 1989 unmanning agreement to all areas of the buffer zone 
where the two sides are in close proximity to each other; urges the 
leaders of both communities to promote tolerance and reconciliation; 
welcomes the Secretary General's decision to continue contacts with the 
two leaders in an effort to find a common ground for resumption of 
direct talks; and reaffirms the importance of early progress being made 
on the substance of the Cyprus question and on implementation of 
confidence-building measures. 
 
EL SALVADOR 
 
S/Res/920           May 26              15(US)-0-0 
 
Expresses concern that important elements of the Peace Accords remain 
only partially implemented; calls upon all concerned to cooperate fully 
with the Secretary General's Special Representative and the UN Observer 
Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) in verifying implementation of 
commitments; urges the Government of El Salvador and the Frente 
Farabundo Marti para la Liberacion Nacional (FMLN) to comply with the 
agreement on a timetable; stresses the need to ensure that the police 
and public security provisions of the Peace Accords are scrupulously 
observed; urges all concerned to remove all obstacles to implementation 
of the land transfer program; stresses the need to accelerate 
reintegration programs for ex-combatants of both sides; reaffirms the 
need for full and timely implementation of the recommendations of the 
Commission on the Truth; decides to extend the mandate of ONUSAL until 
November 30, 1994; and requests that the Secretary General report by 
November 1 on ONUSAL, fulfillment of its mandate, and modalities for its 
progressive withdrawal. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative said this renewal of ONUSAL's mandate 
signified the continued success of the operation and a triumph of peace, 
democracy, and conciliation. He praised the successful completion of 
elections in El Salvador, noting that ONUSAL's role in the peace process 
had been absolutely essential. This process, he said, has transformed 
political life in El Salvador. He recognized the role played by 
President Cristiani and the FMLN, and welcomed the commitment of 
President-Elect Calderon Sol to the peace accords. But much remains to 
be done, he said; we note the need for full deployment of the new 
national civilian police for completion of the land transfer and reform 
program, for assistance to ex-combatants, and for fulfillment of the 
Truth Commission's recommendations. He welcomed the intention of the 
Secretary General to continue reducing ONUSAL as it meets its 
objectives. We must continue monitoring ONUSAL's expenses, he stressed, 
which is a key element in the sound management of any peacekeeping 
operation. 
 
 
S/Res/961           November 23         15(US)-0-0 
 
Reaffirms the importance of full and timely implementation of all 
aspects of the peace accords, including the recommendations of the 
Commission on the Truth and appropriate follow-up to the findings of the 
joint group for investigation of politically motivated illegal armed 
groups; expresses concern that important elements of the peace accords 
remain only partially implemented; urges the Government of El Salvador 
and the FMLN to redouble their efforts to comply with the agreement on a 
timetable for implementation of agreements; urges all states and 
international institutions engaged in development and finance to 
contribute promptly and generously in support of implementation of all 
aspects of the peace accords; approves the recommendations by the 
Secretary General regarding implementation by ONUSAL of its mandate; 
decides to extend the mandate of ONUSAL for one final period until April 
30, 1995; requests that the Secretary General report on ONUSAL by March 
31, 1995, including on fulfillment and completion of its mandate and on 
modalities for its withdrawal; and invites the Secretary General, in 
consultation with specialized agencies, regional organizations, and 
member states, to prepare modalities for further assistance after April 
30, 1995. 
 
The U.S. Representative said the peace process in El Salvador has shown 
the United Nations at its best: as dynamic negotiator, innovative 
organizer, and effective peacekeeper. She congratulated the United 
Nations on a job well begun and soon to be well done, noting how 
difficult and rare it has been to celebrate the fulfillment of the 
mandate of a peacekeeping mission. She said it is imperative that 
outstanding elements of the peace accords be implemented as promptly as 
possible, within the agreed timetable. The Council recognizes, she said, 
that El Salvador has moved far enough down the road to peace and 
reconciliation to continue without the presence of a UN peacekeeping 
operation. She noted that the conflict is over and that the problems 
which lay at the root of the conflict are being addressed in the proper 
political forums. But, she pointed out, the international community 
remains committed to its responsibility to ensure full implementation of 
the peace accords. We remain strongly committed to consolidation of 
peace and democracy, she said, but acknowledge that we have reached a 
new phase. This final extension of ONUSAL, she said, will be sufficient 
to complete the peacekeeping mandate, and assistance after April 30 will 
be developed through consultations among the appropriate technical 
agencies and the member states. We welcome the intent of the Secretary 
General, she said, to consider the proper mechanisms by which the United 
Nations will comply with its obligations to verify full implementation 
of the peace accords. She congratulated the people of El Salvador for 
bringing about real change in their society, and she encouraged them to 
continue to work for reform. Peace will continue, she said, as long as 
the commitment to forging a common future in a free and democratic 
system prevails. 
 
GEORGIA 
 
S/Res/896           January 31          15(US)-0-0 
 
Welcomes the continued efforts of the Secretary General and his special 
envoy, in cooperation with the Conference on Security and Cooperation in 
Europe (CSCE) and with the assistance of the Government of the Russian 
Federation as facilitator, to carry forward the peace process; urges the 
parties to resume negotiations; calls upon all concerned to respect the 
sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Georgia; 
approves the continuation of the mandate of the UN Observer Mission in 
Georgia (UNOMIG) until March 7, 1994; declares readiness to consider any 
recommendation from the Secretary General to increase the strength of 
UNOMIG; requests that the Secretary General report to the Security 
Council following the third round of negotiations between the parties, 
with special attention to circumstances which might warrant a 
peacekeeping force; recognizes the right of all refugees and displaced 
persons affected by the conflict to return to their homes; condemns any 
attempts to change the demographic composition of Abkhazia, including by 
repopulating it with persons not previously resident there; calls upon 
the parties to comply fully with the ceasefire; urges the parties to 
ensure the security of UNOMIG personnel and welcomes the readiness of 
the Russian Federation to assist them in this regard; and encourages 
donor states to assist Georgia in overcoming the consequences of the 
conflict, and to respond to the UN humanitarian appeal. 
 
The United States supported this resolution. The U.S. Representative 
said the resolution expresses the Council's desire to assist the parties 
in reaching a political settlement. At the same time, however, the 
resolution is clear, she said, on the fundamental point that the Council 
cannot get ahead of the parties themselves in efforts toward a political 
solution. For that reason, she said, the resolution rightly reminds the 
parties of the need to demonstrate a stronger willingness to work toward 
a comprehensive political settlement. She stressed, too, the right of 
refugees to return to their homes in secure conditions. 
 
 
 
S/Res/901           March 4             15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend UNOMIG's mandate for an additional interim period 
ending on March 31, 1994; and requests that the Secretary General report 
to the Council by March 21 on whatever progress has been made in the 
negotiations and on the situation on the ground, with special attention 
to circumstances which might warrant a peacekeeping force and on the 
modalities for such a force. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative said that while the Security Council 
cannot move ahead of the Georgians and Abkhaz themselves in efforts 
toward a political solution to this conflict, the regrettable truth is 
that to date the parties have not made sufficient progress toward a 
settlement. It is, therefore, critical, he said, for them to move now 
before events on the ground deteriorate. We will need to remain focused 
on the principles outlined in resolution 896, which guide this process, 
he added. 
 
 
 
S/Res/906           March 25            15(US)-0-0 
 
Calls upon all concerned to respect the sovereignty and territorial 
integrity of the Republic of Georgia; stresses the right of all refugees 
and displaced persons to return to their homes in secure conditions 
throughout Abkhazia; urges the parties to resume negotiations as soon as 
possible and to achieve substantive progress towards a political 
settlement, so that the Security Council may adequately consider the 
possible establishment of a peacekeeping force in Abkhazia; decides to 
extend the mandate of UNOMIG for an additional interim period 
terminating on June 30, 1994; urges the parties to ensure the security 
of UNOMIG personnel and its freedom of movement throughout Georgia; and 
requests that the Secretary General report on progress in the 
negotiations by June 21, with special attention to circumstances which 
might warrant a peacekeeping force. 
 
 
 
S/Res/934           June 30             15(US)-0-0 
 
Notes with satisfaction the beginning of assistance by the Commonwealth 
of Independent States (CIS) in the zone of conflict, in response to the 
request of parties, on the basis of the agreement of May 14, 1994, on a 
ceasefire and separation of forces, in coordination with UNOMIG, and on 
the basis of further coordinating arrangements with UNOMIG to be agreed 
by the time of the Council's consideration of the Secretary General's 
recommendations on the expansion of UNOMIG; decides to extend until July 
21, 1994, the existing mandate of UNOMIG at its current authorized 
strength, within which period the further expansion of UNOMIG will be 
addressed; requests that the Secretary General report to the Council on 
the outcome of discussions between UNOMIG, the parties, and the CIS 
peacekeeping force on arrangements for coordination between an expanded 
UNOMIG and the CIS peacekeeping force; and reaffirms its readiness to 
consider expansion of UNOMIG. 
 
 
 
S/Res/937           July 21             14(US)-0-0 
 
Calls upon the parties to intensify their efforts to achieve an early 
and comprehensive political settlement under the auspices of the United 
Nations and with the assistance of the Russian Federation as facilitator 
and with the participation of the CSCE, and welcomes the wish of the 
parties to see the United Nations continue to be actively involved in 
the pursuit of a political settlement; commends the efforts of the 
members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) directed towards 
the maintenance of a ceasefire in Abkhazia, and the promotion of the 
return of refugees and displaced persons; welcomes the contribution by 
the Russian Federation of a peacekeeping force, in response to the 
request of the parties, in coordination with UNOMIG, and in accordance 
with the established principles and practices of the United Nations; 
decides to authorize the Secretary General to increase the strength of 
UNOMIG as required up to 136 military observers with appropriate 
civilian staff support; decides that the mandate of an expanded UNOMIG 
shall be: (a) to monitor and verify the implementation of the agreement 
on a ceasefire and separation of forces signed in Moscow on May 14, 
1994, (b) to observe the operation of the CIS peacekeeping force, (c) to 
verify that troops of the parties do not remain in or reenter the 
security zone and that heavy military equipment does not remain or is 
not reintroduced into the security zone or the restricted weapons zone, 
(d) to monitor the storage areas for heavy military equipment withdrawn 
from the security zone and the restricted weapons zone, (e) to monitor 
the withdrawal of troops of the Republic of Georgia from the Kodori 
Valley, (f) to patrol the Kodori Valley, (g) to investigate alleged 
violations of the agreement and to attempt to resolve or contribute to 
the resolution of such incidents, (h) to report to the Secretary General 
on implementation of the agreement and any violations and investigations 
and other developments, and (i) to maintain close contacts with both 
parties to the conflict and to cooperate with the CIS peacekeeping force 
and to contribute to conditions conducive to the safe and orderly return 
of refugees and displaced persons; calls upon the parties to the 
conflict to extend full support, protection, and freedom of movement to 
UNOMIG; reaffirms its support for the return of all refugees and 
displaced persons to their homes in secure conditions; requests that the 
Secretary General establish a voluntary fund for contributions in 
support of the implementation of the agreement on a ceasefire and 
separation of forces signed in Moscow on May 14, 1994, and for 
humanitarian aspects, including demining, and encourages member states 
to contribute thereto; and decides on this basis to extend the mandate 
of UNOMIG to January 13, 1995. 
 
The U.S. Representative noted that this resolution deals with a new and 
significant set of circumstances. For the first time, she said, we have 
established a relationship between a UN observer mission and a 
peacekeeping force within a sovereign state of the former Soviet Union. 
She noted that the UN concern and the Russian efforts should be focused 
on assisting in the maintenance of the ceasefire, in the safe return of 
the refugees, and in facilitating a political settlement. This 
resolution, she said, sets out the Council's expectations for UNOMIG's 
relationship to the CIS peacekeeping force, is demanding in its 
expectations of the performance of UNOMIG as well as the peacekeeping 
forces and the parties to the conflict, and is hard-headed in its 
insistence on accurate information that can be provided only by a UNOMIG 
that is free to move and observe. The parties to the conflict, she 
noted, have consented to, and even called for, the assistance of the 
United Nations and of the CIS peacekeeping force. (Rwanda did not 
participate in the vote.) 
 
HAITI 
 
S/Res/905           March 23            15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of the UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) until 
June 30, 1994; and requests that the Secretary General report to the 
Council at such time as conditions may exist in Haiti for the deployment 
of UNMIH, and to make specific recommendations on the composition of 
UNMIH and the scope of its activities within the personnel levels 
established in resolution 867 (1993). 
 
 
 
S/Res/917           May 6              15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: calls upon the parties to 
the Governors Island Agreement to cooperate with the Special Envoy of 
the Secretaries General of the United Nations and the Organization of 
American States to implement the Agreement and end the political crisis 
in Haiti; decides that all states shall deny permission to any aircraft 
to take off from, land in, or overfly their territory if it is destined 
to land in, or has taken off from, the territory of Haiti, except for 
regularly scheduled commercial passenger flights, and except for flights 
approved for humanitarian purposes; decides that all states shall 
prevent entry into their territories of Haitian military or police 
officers, major participants in the 1991 coup and in the illegal 
governments since the coup, and employees or representatives of the 
Haitian military, except upon approval by the Committee established by 
resolution 841 (1993); urges all states to freeze funds and financial 
resources of these persons; decides that all states shall prevent 
imports of Haitian commodities and products or activities by their 
nationals to sell or supply Haitian commodities or products (except for 
medical purposes and foodstuffs and certain products approved by the 
Council's Committee established in resolution 841 or authorized in 
resolution 873); acting also under Chapter VIII of the UN Charter, calls 
upon states to use necessary measures to ensure strict implementation of 
the provisions of this resolution, and in particular to halt maritime 
shipping to inspect cargoes and destinations; decides that the Committee 
established in resolution 841 shall also monitor the sanctions outlined 
in this resolution; requests that the Secretary General report on the 
situation in Haiti, including the effectiveness of these sanctions, with 
the first report not later than June 30; expresses readiness to consider 
progressive suspension of the measures contained in this and earlier 
resolutions, based on progress in implementing the Governors Island 
Agreement and restoration of democracy in Haiti; decides that measures 
in this and earlier resolutions will not be completely lifted until (a) 
retirement of the Commander-in-Chief of the Haitian Armed Forces and the 
resignation of the Chief of Police and the Chief of Staff of the Haitian 
Armed Forces, (b) completion of the changes in police and military 
leadership called for in the Governors Island Agreement, (c) adoption of 
the legislative actions called for in the Agreement, as well as creation 
of a proper environment for free and fair legislative elections, (d) 
creation of the proper environment for deployment of UNMIH, and (e) 
return of the democratically elected President and maintenance of 
constitutional order; and condemns any attempt to remove legal authority 
from the legitimately elected President, declares it would consider 
illegitimate any purported government resulting from such an attempt, 
and decides, in such an event, to consider reimposing any measures 
suspended as provided above. 
 
The U.S. Representative said the Council demands an end to the assault 
on democracy in Haiti. By tightening the sanctions noose around the 
Haitian military, she said, the Council is joining President Clinton in 
his determination to protect the people of Haiti and to promote their 
demand for democracy. This is a step we did not want to have to take, 
she said; we are acutely conscious of the suffering of the Haitian 
people and of the potential of these sanctions to aggravate that 
suffering. That is why, she said, the United States and the 
international community are also undertaking humanitarian assistance. 
She said we are particularly conscious of the plight of Haitians who 
feel they have no future in Haiti; it is our firm objective to establish 
in Haiti the conditions under which no Haitians need fear for their 
lives or livelihoods. We recognize that the burden of enforcement of 
sanctions does not fall equally on all states, she added, and we extend 
our thanks to the Dominican Republic for the cooperation it has promised 
in enforcing these measures. 
 
 
 
S/Res/933           June 30             15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the present mandate of UNMIH until July 31, 1994; 
strongly deplores the refusal of the military authorities to implement 
the Governors Island Agreement; requests that the Secretary General 
report to the Council no later than July 15 with specific 
recommendations on the strength, composition, cost, and duration of 
UNMIH after the departure of the senior Haitian military leadership as 
called for in resolution 917, such recommendations to include means by 
which UNMIH could, in due course, assist the democratic government of 
Haiti in providing security for the international presence, senior 
Haitian Government officials, and key installations, and in assisting 
Haitian authorities to ensure public order and in the holding of 
legislative elections; authorizes the Secretary General to make prior 
arrangements to enable the Security Council to authorize rapid 
deployment of UNMIH once the proper environment for such a deployment 
has been created; and invites member states to prepare to provide 
troops, police, and other support promptly. 
 
The U.S. Representative noted that the United Nations must now prepare 
for a rapidly changing situation in Haiti. We must be ready to act, she 
said, to support a restored democratic government. The humanitarian and 
human rights environment has deteriorated, she said, and the cause is 
the refusal of the military authorities to carry out their international 
obligations. This resolution, she said, reaffirms the international 
community's determination to provide assistance to restore democracy and 
rebuild the country, and it also reaffirms the message to the military 
leaders that it is time for them to go. To reinforce this message, she 
said, the United States has taken additional steps, increasing the 
pressure on the Haitian military and their supporters. We have imposed a 
ban on all U.S. flights to and from Haiti, frozen Haitian assets, and 
revoked travel visas, she said, and we call on other member states to 
adopt similar measures. The Council's action in this resolution, she 
said, acknowledges that the composition of UNMIH must change. We welcome 
the Council's willingness to consider a strengthened UNMIH, she said, 
and we look forward to the Secretary General's reporting on specific 
means by which UNMIH can assist a restored democratic government to 
ensure public order and the protection of both the international 
component and the legitimate government of Haiti. The military 
authorities cannot assume that the international community will turn 
away from the plight of the Haitian people, she said, and their attempts 
to frustrate the deployment of a UN mission will not succeed. 
 
 
 
S/Res/940           July 31             12(US)-0-2 
 
Recognizes the unique character of the situation in Haiti, requiring an 
exceptional response; determines that the illegal de facto regime in 
Haiti has failed to comply with the Governors Island Agreement and is in 
breach of its obligations under Security Council resolutions; acting 
under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, authorizes member states to form a 
multinational force under unified command and control and to use all 
necessary means to facilitate the departure from Haiti of the military 
leadership, the prompt return of the legitimately elected president and 
the restoration of the legitimate authorities of the government of 
Haiti, and to establish and maintain a secure and stable environment, on 
the understanding that the cost of implementing this temporary operation 
will be borne by the participating member states; approves the 
establishment of an advance team of UNMIH of not more than 60 persons to 
monitor the operations of the multinational force and to prepare for the 
deployment of UNMIH upon completion of the mission of the multinational 
force; decides that the multinational force will terminate its mission 
and UNMIH will assume the full range of its functions when a secure and 
stable environment has been established and UNMIH has adequate force 
capability and structure to assume the full range of its functions; 
decides to revise and extend the mandate of UNMIH for a period of six 
months to assist the democratic government of Haiti in fulfilling its 
responsibilities in (a) sustaining the secure and stable environment 
established during the multinational phase and (b) the 
professionalization of the armed forces and the creation of a separate 
police force; requests that UNMIH assist in establishing an environment 
conducive to the organization of free and fair legislative elections; 
decides to increase the troop level of UNMIH to 6,000 and establishes 
the objective of completing UNMIH's mission not later than February 
1996; and affirms that the Council will review the sanctions measures 
imposed pursuant to resolutions 841, 873, and 917, with a view to 
lifting them in their entirety, immediately following the return to 
Haiti of President Aristide. (Brazil and China abstained; Rwanda did not 
participate.) 
 
The U.S. Representative noted that this resolution authorizes UN member 
states to use all necessary means to restore legitimate, constitutional 
authority to Haiti. This Council, she said, patiently pursued a peaceful 
and just end to the Haitian crisis, as others had also done. But 
patience is an exhaustible commodity, she said; the usurpers have 
shunned the path of reconciliation based on law, and the status quo is 
neither tenable nor acceptable. The Council's message to the military 
leaders is clear, she said: depart voluntarily and soon, or depart 
involuntarily. My government, she said, knows that free elections are 
possible in Haiti, because the current president is a product of one. 
When the military leaders have gone, she said, we and others will 
provide a large influx of economic and technical aid. Our purpose, she 
pointed out, is not to impinge upon the sovereignty of Haiti, but to 
restore the power to exercise that sovereignty to those who rightfully 
possess it. She noted that the current resolution authorizes a two-
phased approach. In phase one, she said, a multinational force is 
empowered to restore legitimate authority to Haiti (and the United 
States is prepared to organize and lead such a force, for which we are 
seeking other participants); and we will begin to professionalize the 
police and military, and will establish a stable and secure environment 
within which democratic officials and institutions can operate. She 
expressed the hope that the military leaders in Haiti would depart 
voluntarily and not oppose the multinational force. In the second phase, 
she said, the UN mission will assume the full range of its functions: 
continue professionalizing the armed forces, help build a new civilian 
police, assist the government in assuring public order, and help 
establish an environment conducive to free and fair elections. She urged 
member countries to contribute to the successful implementation of this 
resolution.  
 
 
 
S/Res/944           September 29        13(US)-0-2 
 
Requests that the Secretary General take steps to ensure the immediate 
completion of the deployment of the observers and other elements of the 
66-person UNMIH advance team; encourages the Secretary General, in 
consultation with the Organization of American States, to continue his 
efforts to facilitate the immediate return to Haiti of the International 
Civilian Mission (MICIVIH); and decides, acting under Chapter VII of the 
UN Charter, to terminate the measures regarding Haiti set out in 
Resolutions 841, 873, and 917 on the day after the return to Haiti of 
President Aristide. (Brazil and Russia abstained.) 
 
The U.S. Representative said the Council's vote on this resolution sent 
a strong political message to Haiti. With this vote, she said, the 
international community again makes common cause with the Haitian people 
in their support for President Aristide. We affirm, she said, that 
sanctions will be lifted only when President Aristide returns to Haiti 
and resumes his duties. She said that this resolution, as Secretary of 
State Christopher had earlier told the Council, reinforces Haitian 
democracy. She described this resolution as a crucial step toward 
departure of the de facto leaders from power, restoration of Haiti's 
legitimate government, and return of President Aristide. She noted that 
the United States had already committed resources to help rebuild Haiti, 
and she asked for generous contributions from others for this effort. 
 
 
 
S/Res/948           October 15          14(US)-0-1 
 
Welcomes the return to Haiti of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide on 
October 15 and expresses confidence that the people of Haiti can now 
begin to rebuild their country and consolidate democracy in a spirit of 
national reconciliation; welcomes in particular that, with the convening 
of the Haitian Parliament and the departure of the military leadership, 
the process of implementing the Governors Island Agreement, the New York 
Pact, and the objectives of the United Nations is well under way; 
expresses full support for efforts by President Aristide, democratic 
leaders in Haiti, and the legitimate organs of the restored government 
to bring Haiti out of crisis and return it to the democratic community 
of nations; commends the efforts of those who contributed to this 
outcome; recognizes in particular the efforts of the Multinational Force 
in Haiti (MNF) and those member states participating in the MNF in 
creating the conditions necessary for the return of democracy; expresses 
support for deployment of the advance team of UNMIH and the efforts of 
the Secretary General to complete the composition of UNMIH; notes that 
UNMIH will replace the MNF when the Council determines that a secure and 
stable environment has been established; urges that cooperation continue 
between the Secretaries General of the United Nations and the 
Organization of American States, especially regarding the rapid return 
of MICIVIH to Haiti; and welcomes the fact that, now that President 
Aristide has returned to Haiti, sanctions will be lifted in accordance 
with Resolution 944. (Brazil abstained.) 
 
The U.S. Representative, welcoming President Aristide's return to Haiti, 
described his return as the first essential step toward national renewal 
under democratic government. She commended those who worked so hard for 
so long to achieve this result. Today, she said, belongs to the people 
of Haiti, and we share their joy and celebrate the end of their 
oppression. But the hard work is not over, she said; we must assist the 
people of Haiti in their efforts at restoration, reconciliation, and 
reconstruction. But let us not forget, she said, that it is only the 
people of Haiti who can ensure the success of democracy and the promise 
of prosperity. She added that we look forward to the day when UNMIH will 
replace the MNF and continue the work already begun. 
 
 
 
S/Res/964           November 29         13(US)-0-2 
 
Welcomes the positive developments in Haiti since the deployment of the 
MNF in peaceful conditions; commends the efforts made by the MNF to 
establish a secure and stable environment conducive to the deployment of 
UNMIH; pays tribute to President Jean-Bertrand Aristide for his efforts 
to promote national reconciliation; welcomes the establishment by the 
UNMIH advance team and the MNF of a joint working group to prepare for 
the transition; authorizes the Secretary General to strengthen 
progressively the advance team of UNMIH up to 500 persons to facilitate 
planning of UNMIH, identification of conditions required for the 
transition from the MNF to UNMIH, and preparation for the actual 
transition; requests that the Secretary General inform the Council at 
regular intervals on prospective increases in the strength of the UNMIH 
advance team, such increases taking place in close coordination with the 
MNF commander; invites the Secretary General to expedite planning for 
full deployment of UNMIH; and encourages continuous close coordination 
between the MNF and the UNMIH advance team. (Brazil and Russia 
abstained.) 
 
The U.S. Representative expressed support for the resolution, which, she 
said, marks another step on the road to full restoration of democracy in 
Haiti. She said this expansion of the advance team will ease the 
transition from the MNF to UNMIH and help ensure the success of both 
operations. She described the MNF operation as a great success, noting 
the transformation of Haiti from a dictatorship run through fear and 
oppression to a country where there are the beginnings of democracy and 
hope. The operation in Haiti, she said, is poised to become a model for 
peacekeeping and international cooperation. She said the resolution is 
right to commend the efforts of the MNF and to pay special tribute to 
President Aristide for his efforts. Mentioning her recent visit to 
Haiti, she said democracy is taking root there, institutions are being 
rebuilt, and tough political issues are being debated in a democratic 
process, not settled through violence and intimidation. Expanding the 
size of the UNMIH advance team, she said, will provide the planning 
flexibility necessary for the transition from MNF to UNMIH. (The United 
States cosponsored the resolution.) 
 
INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE ELECTION 
 
S/Res/951           October 21          Adopted Without Vote 
 
Decides that the election to fill the vacancy on the International Court 
of Justice created by the death of Judge Nikolai K. Tarassov of the 
Russian Federation shall take place on January 26, 1995. 
 
IRAQ 
 
S/Res/899           March 4             15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, decides that the 
compensation payments to be made pursuant to the arrangements described 
in the Secretary General's letter of February 22, 1994, may be remitted 
to the private citizens concerned in Iraq, notwithstanding the 
provisions of resolution 661 (1990). 
 
 
 
S/Res/949           October 15          15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: condemns recent military 
deployments by Iraq in the direction of the border with Kuwait; demands 
that Iraq immediately complete the withdrawal of all military units 
recently deployed to southern Iraq to their original positions; demands 
that Iraq not again utilize its military or any other forces in a 
hostile or provocative manner to threaten either its neighbors or UN 
operations in Iraq; demands therefore that Iraq not redeploy to the 
south the units recently deployed there or take any other action to 
enhance its military capacity in southern Iraq; and demands that Iraq 
cooperate fully with the UN Special Commission. 
 
The U.S. Representative said that Security Council vigilance, effective 
coalition preparedness, and all-too-frequent experience with Iraq's 
unreliability have ensured that the history of Iraq's attack on Kuwait 
in 1990 would not now be repeated. She described the Iraqi deployment of 
troops to Kuwait's border as a blatant attempt to bully the Security 
Council into negotiating on its terms the lifting of oil export 
sanctions. The Council, she said, will not be intimidated by this 
tactic. Such a provocative and foolish act, she said, was not necessary; 
Iraq only needed to comply with all Council resolutions and prove its 
peaceful intentions, and sanctions would have been eased. But, by this 
action, she said, Iraq has set back its own cause. She noted that Iraqi 
troops have begun to redeploy, but ambiguously, in a manner similar to 
the duplicitous approach Iraq has taken in its diplomatic responses to 
the United Nations over the past four years. Yet again, she said, Iraq 
seeks to test the Council's resolve to deal with the threat to Kuwait. 
She said the Council's message in the resolution is clear: Iraq must 
withdraw the recently deployed forces to their original positions, must 
not enhance its military capabilities in the south, must not use its 
military forces to threaten its neighbors or UN operations, and must 
cooperate with the UN Special Commission. She added that Iraq's recent 
statement about its readiness to recognize Kuwaiti sovereignty and 
borders leaves us unconvinced; to have value, she said, this statement 
must be followed by unambiguous action: ratification by the 
Revolutionary Command Council and the Iraqi Parliament, publication in 
the National Gazette, and formal communication to the Security Council. 
She assured the Council that, pursuant to Council resolutions and 
Article 51 of the UN Charter, the U.S. Government would take all 
appropriate action if Iraq fails to comply with the demands of this 
resolution. 
 
LIBERIA 
 
S/Res/911           April 21            15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of the UN Observer Mission in Liberia 
(UNOMIL) until October 22, 1994, on the understanding that the Security 
Council will, by May 18, 1994, review the situation in Liberia, 
including the role played by UNOMIL, based on whether or not the Council 
of State of the Liberian National Transitional Government (LNTG) has 
been fully installed, and on whether or not there has been substantial 
progress in disarmament and in implementing the peace process; decides 
that the Council will again review the situation in Liberia, including 
the role played by UNOMIL, on or before June 30, 1994, on the basis of a 
report by the Secretary General on whether sufficient progress has been 
made in implementing the revised timetable of the Peace Agreement to 
warrant continued UNOMIL involvement, in particular, the effective 
operation of the LNTG, progress in carrying out disarmament and 
demobilization, and preparations for holding elections on September 7, 
1994; notes that if the Council considers, during either of the above 
reviews, that progress has been insufficient, it may request that the 
Secretary General prepare options regarding UNOMIL's mandate and 
continued operations; urges all Liberian parties to cease hostilities; 
calls on the Liberian parties to complete installation of the LNTG, 
especially the seating of the full cabinet and the National Assembly, so 
that a unified civil administration can be established and arrangements 
completed for national elections on September 7, 1994; welcomes the 
ongoing efforts of the ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) in 
furthering the peace process and its commitment to ensure the safety of 
UNOMIL observers; and encourages member states to provide support for 
the peace process by contributing to the Trust Fund or by providing 
other assistance to facilitate the sending of reinforcements by African 
states to ECOMOG countries, and assist in humanitarian and development 
activities, as well as the electoral process. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative said that the United States is pleased by 
the limited progress in Liberia but is concerned by the delays and 
obstacles to the peace process as well as the continuing threat of 
violence. The international community is trying to assist the parties in 
working toward a peaceful future for Liberia, he said, and the Security 
Council will be watching closely to see that the parties carry through 
on their commitments. He noted that the resolution provides for two 
reviews, one to check on whether the parties have resolved their 
differences over key Cabinet posts and the next to check on overall 
progress. He stressed that the attainment of certain goals  full 
installation of the Liberian National Transitional Government, 
disarmament of 30 percent of the combatants, progress in planning for 
the September 7 elections, and adherence to the ceasefire  is essential 
for continued presence of UNOMIL. He warned that the United States is 
prepared to consider terminating or curtailing UNOMIL if these goals are 
not met. 
 
 
 
S/Res/950           October 21          15(US)-0-0 
 
Welcomes the Secretary General's intention to send a high-level mission 
to consult with member states of the Economic Community of West African 
States (ECOWAS) on how the international community can best continue to 
assist the peace process in Liberia; decides to extend the mandate of 
UNOMIL to January 13, 1995; recognizes that circumstances on the ground 
warranted the Secretary General's decision to reduce the strength of 
UNOMIL, and considers that any decision to return it to the authorized 
level will depend on real improvement in the security situation; calls 
on all factions to cease hostilities immediately and agree to a 
timetable for disengagement of forces, disarmament, and demobilization; 
calls on the LNTG and all Liberians to seek political accommodation and 
national reconciliation; calls again upon all states to comply with the 
arms embargo imposed by Resolution 788 (1992) under Chapter VII of the 
UN Charter; condemns the widespread killings of civilians and other 
violations of international humanitarian law by the factions in Liberia, 
and the detention and maltreatment of UNOMIL observers, ECOMOG soldiers, 
and humanitarian relief workers; urges member states to provide support 
for the peace process through the UN Trust Fund for Liberia; and calls 
on all factions in Liberia to cooperate fully in creating the conditions 
necessary for delivery of humanitarian assistance. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative, while commending the efforts of ECOWAS 
and of ECOMOG forces, noted that the political future of Liberia depends 
on the Liberians. UNOMIL, he said, was sent to Liberia to observe a 
ceasefire, but the firing had not ceased, and UNOMIL observers were 
abused and humiliated. And humanitarian relief workers came to help, he 
said, but they were harassed and treated inhumanely. He said the 
Secretary General was right to pull out two-thirds of the UNOMIL 
observers, and they should not go back until there is a real ceasefire, 
assumption of real authority by a transitional government, and a 
commitment to disarmament by all the factions. 
 
LIBYA 
 
S/Res/910           April 14            15(US)-0-0 
 
Welcoming the agreement signed at Surt on April 14, 1994, between the 
Governments of Chad and Libya concerning implementation of the judgment 
delivered by the International Court of Justice on February 3, 1994, 
regarding the Aouzou Strip, recognizing that the Secretary General's 
reconnaissance team -- in order to conduct a survey of conditions 
regarding possible deployment of UN observers to monitor the withdrawal 
by Libya from the area in question -- will need to travel to Libya; 
acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides that paragraph 4 of 
resolution 748 of March 31, 1992, shall not apply in respect to UN 
aircraft flying to or from Libya for the purpose of conveying the 
Secretary General's reconnaissance team; and requests that the Secretary 
General inform the Committee established pursuant to resolution 748 of 
flights made to or from Libya in accordance with the present resolution. 
 
 
 
S/Res/915           May 4               15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to establish the UN Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG) and 
authorizes the deployment for a single period of up to 40 days of nine 
UN observers and six support staff to observe the implementation of the 
agreement signed on April 4 at Surt, Libya; calls upon the parties to 
cooperate with the Secretary General in verifying implementation of the 
agreement and to grant UNASOG freedom of movement; and, acting under 
Chapter VII of the UN Charter, decides that sanctions provisions in 
resolution 748 of March 31, 1992, shall not apply to aircraft flying to 
or from Libya to convey UNASOG. 
 
The United States commended the effort in this resolution to ensure 
rigorous adherence to the commitments undertaken by the parties with 
respect to Libyan withdrawal from the Aouzou Strip. The U.S. Government 
supported the Secretary General's economical plan for monitoring the 
withdrawal, and welcomed the modest cost and clearly limited duration of 
the arrangements. 
 
 
 
S/Res/926           June 13             15(US)-0-0 
 
Commends the work of UNASOG; notes with appreciation the cooperation 
extended by the Governments of Chad and Libya to UNASOG; and decides to 
terminate the mandate of UNASOG with immediate effect. 
 
MIDDLE EAST 
 
S/Res/895           January 28          15(US)-0-0 
 
Extends the mandate of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) for a 
further period of six months, to July 31, 1994. 
 
 
 
S/Res/904           March 18            Adopted Without Vote 
 
Strongly condemns the massacre in Hebron and its aftermath; calls upon 
Israel, the occupying power, to continue to take measures, including 
confiscation of arms, to prevent illegal acts of violence by Israeli 
settlers; calls for measures to be taken to guarantee the safety and 
protection of the Palestinian civilians throughout the occupied 
territory, including a temporary international or foreign presence; 
requests that the cosponsors of the peace process, the United States and 
the Russian Federation, continue their efforts to invigorate the peace 
process, and to undertake the necessary support for the implementation 
of the above-mentioned measures; and calls for the implementation of the 
Declaration of Principles, signed by Israel and the Palestine Liberation 
Organization (PLO) in Washington in September 1993, without delay. 
 
The U.S. Representative noted the condemnation of the massacre made by 
the Government of Israel and by the U.S. Government. She went on to say 
that the U.S. Government is determined not to allow extremists and 
terrorists to undermine or disrupt the peace process. The answer to the 
massacre in Hebron, she said, lies in the call in this resolution to 
Israel and the PLO to redouble their efforts to bring their negotiations 
to a prompt conclusion. The United States stands ready to do all it can 
to facilitate this objective, she added. It is precisely to serve and 
protect the peace process, she said, that the U.S. Government has--with 
great reluctance--made the difficult decision to allow this resolution 
to pass, despite the existence of some language we find objectionable. 
She noted several steps taken by the U.S. Government that will serve to 
restart the stalled Middle East peace process. And she outlined U.S. 
objections to language in the resolution which implied that Jerusalem is 
"occupied Palestinian territory." The United States would have vetoed 
the resolution if this language had been in operative paragraphs, she 
said, but, because it was in preambular paragraphs (two and six), we 
chose instead to disavow this language and express our opposition by 
abstaining on these paragraphs. The status of Jerusalem, she said, is a 
matter for the parties to decide. And it is not helpful to the 
negotiations to include such references in this resolution, she added, 
because this could prejudice the outcome of negotiations. 
 
 
 
S/Res/921           May 26              15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to renew the mandate of the UN Disengagement Observer Force 
(UNDOF) for another period of six months, until November 30, 1994. 
 
 
 
S/Res/938           July 28             14(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the present mandate of UNIFIL for a further period of 
six months, until January 31, 1995; reiterates its strong support for 
the territorial integrity, sovereignty, and independence of Lebanon 
within its internationally recognized boundaries; and requests that the 
Secretary General continue consultations with the parties. (The Council 
also agreed to have the president read out a statement  identical to 
statements from previous renewals  reaffirming the Council's commitment 
to Lebanon's full sovereignty and expressing concern about the 
continuing violence in southern Lebanon.) (Rwanda did not participate.) 
 
 
 
S/Res/962           November 29         15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to renew the mandate of UNDOF for another six months, until May 
31, 1995. 
 
MOZAMBIQUE 
 
S/Res/898           February 23         15(US)-0-0 
 
Authorizes the establishment of a UN police component of up to 1,144 
persons as an integral part of the UN Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ); 
requests that the Secretary General, as the police contingent is being 
deployed, begin preparing proposals for the drawdown of military 
personnel with the objective of ensuring there is no increase in the 
cost of ONUMOZ; requests that the Secretary General prepare a timetable 
for (a) the completion of ONUMOZ's mandate and withdrawal of its 
personnel by the target date of the end of November 1994, (b) the phased 
drawdown of military forces in the transportation corridors, which 
should be completed when the new national defense force is operational, 
and (c) withdrawal of military observers; expresses concern at the 
continuing delay in the implementation of some major aspects of the 
General Peace Agreement, including commencement of demobilization and 
formation of a national defense force; calls upon the Government of 
Mozambique and the Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana (RENAMO) to comply 
with all the provisions of the General Peace Agreement, in particular 
those concerning the ceasefire and the cantonment and demobilization of 
troops; underlines the need for the troops of both parties to hand over 
all weapons to the United Nations at the assembly areas; reiterates the 
vital importance of holding of general elections no later than October 
1994; welcomes the proposal to extend the present severance payment 
scheme to facilitate the reintegration of demobilizing soldiers into 
civil society; and requests that the Secretary General ensure maximum 
economy in the operations of ONUMOZ. 
 
 
 
S/Res/916           May 5               15(US)-0-0 
 
Welcomes the maintenance of the ceasefire and the commencement of 
demobilization; welcomes the commencement of deployment of UN police 
observers; urges all parties to respect fully their obligations under 
the General Peace Agreement, especially to allow ONUMOZ unimpeded access 
to areas under their control, and to allow unimpeded access to all 
political forces in order to ensure free political activity; welcomes 
the announcement by the President of Mozambique on April 11 that 
elections will take place on October 27-28; calls upon the Mozambican 
parties to support the electoral process; expresses concern at 
continuing delays in implementing major aspects of the General Peace 
Agreement, in particular assembly and demobilization of troops and the 
formation of the new Mozambican Defense Force; urges the parties to meet 
the targets of June 1 for completion of assembly of forces and July 15 
for completion of demobilization; underlines the need to allow ONUMOZ 
access to military bases for verification purposes; emphasizes the 
importance of progress being made in mine clearance and expresses 
appreciation to countries which have provided assistance; appeals to the 
international community to provide the necessary financial assistance to 
facilitate implementation of the General Peace Agreement and to continue 
to provide assistance for humanitarian programs; urges all Mozambican 
parties to continue to facilitate unimpeded access to the civilian 
population in need and to cooperate with UN and other agencies in 
programs to assist displaced persons and refugees to be resettled; and 
decides to renew the mandate of ONUMOZ for a final period until November 
15, 1994, at the strength described in the Secretary General's report of 
April 28, subject to the proviso that the Council will review the 
mandate of ONUMOZ by July 15 and also by September 5. 
 
The U.S. Alternate Representative welcomed the progress made in the 
peace process, particularly the setting of the October 27-28 election 
dates. Elections, he said, are essential to move forward national 
reconciliation and economic reconstruction. He noted that much remains 
to be done, however: the stalled demobilization process must be moved to 
a rapid conclusion, the new army must be formed, and barriers to voter 
registration and the electoral campaign must be overcome. Nevertheless, 
he said, the Secretary General has expressed the belief that the ONUMOZ 
mission can be completed on time. We look forward, he said, to receiving 
the revised budget estimates for ONUMOZ, which the Secretary General has 
indicated will remain within authorized commitment levels. 
 
 
 
S/Res/957           November 15         15(US)-0-0 
 
Welcomes the elections that took place in Mozambique on October 27-29 in 
accordance with the general peace agreement; reiterates its intention to 
endorse the results of the elections should the United Nations declare 
them free and fair, and calls upon all Mozambican parties to accept and 
fully abide by the results of the elections; calls upon all Mozambican 
parties to complete the process of national reconciliation based on a 
system of multi-party democracy and the observance of democratic 
principles; decides to extend the existing mandate of ONUMOZ until the 
new government of Mozambique takes office, but not later than December 
15, 1994, and authorizes ONUMOZ, in particular a limited number of 
civilian logisticians, mine clearance and training personnel, military 
specialists, staff officers, and a small detachment of infantry, to 
complete its residual operations prior to its withdrawal on or before 
January 31, 1995; and approves the withdrawal schedule in the Secretary 
General's report of August 26 and in his letter of November 9 for the 
safe and orderly withdrawal of all ONUMOZ military and civilian 
personnel before January 31, 1995. 
 
 
 
S/Res/960           November 21         15(US)-0-0 
 
Welcomes the elections that took place in Mozambique October 27-29, 
1994, in accordance with the General Peace Agreement; welcomes the 
declaration by the Special Representative of the Secretary General that 
the elections were free and fair; endorses the results of these 
elections; calls upon all Mozambican parties to accept and fully abide 
by the results of the elections; calls upon all Mozambican parties to 
continue the process of national reconciliation based on a system of 
multi-party democracy and the observance of democratic principles; and 
urges all states and relevant international organizations to contribute 
actively to the reconstruction and rehabilitation of Mozambique. 
 
PALAU 
 
S/Res/956           November 10         15(US)-0-0 
 
Determines, in light of the entry into force on October 1, 1994, of the 
new status agreement for Palau, that the objectives of the Trusteeship 
Agreement have been fully attained, and that the applicability of the 
Trusteeship Agreement has terminated with respect to Palau. 
 
The U.S. Representative congratulated Palau on its independence and its 
implementation of a compact of free association with the United States. 
The United States, she said, has for the past 47 years sought to promote 
the economic, social, and educational advancement of the people of 
Palau. During this period, she said, the United States has always 
recognized and supported the fundamental premise of the trusteeship that 
the people of Palau must be free to follow the path of their choosing in 
conducting their relations with the rest of the world. We are gratified, 
she said, that the people of Palau, through democratic processes, have 
expressed their will to continue in a special relationship with the 
United States. She added that we will consult closely with Palau on how 
the United States can assist in developing that nation's economy and in 
preserving its unique environment. Implementation of the compact of free 
association, she said, signals yet again that the United States is 
committed to remaining engaged in the Pacific to help ensure its 
security and prosperity. With termination of the Palau trusteeship, she 
said, the United Nations has concluded another chapter in its exemplary 
effort to bring self-determination to all corners of the world. 
 
RWANDA 
 
S/Res/893           January 6           15(US)-0-0 
 
Urges the parties in Rwanda to cooperate in furthering the peace 
process, to comply with the Arusha Peace Agreement, and to establish a 
broad-based transitional government; welcomes the continued efforts by 
the Secretary General and his Special Representative to promote dialogue 
among the parties; commends the efforts of member states, UN agencies, 
and others to provide humanitarian assistance; commends in particular 
the diplomatic, political, and humanitarian support of the Organization 
of African Unity; and reiterates its request to the Secretary General to 
continue to monitor the size and cost of the UN Assistance Mission for 
Rwanda (UNAMIR) to seek economies. 
 
 
 
S/Res/909           April 5             15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of UNAMIR until July 29, 1994, on the 
understanding that the Security Council will, in the next six weeks, 
review the situation in Rwanda, including the UN role, if the 
transitional institutions provided for under the Arusha Peace Agreement 
have not been established and insufficient progress has been made for 
the implementation of Phase II of the Secretary General's plan contained 
in his report of September 24, 1993; regrets the delay in the 
implementation of the Arusha Peace Agreement, and urges the parties to 
resolve their differences with a view to immediate establishment of the 
required transitional institutions; welcomes the fact that the ceasefire 
has been respected; recalls nevertheless that continued support for 
UNAMIR, including the provision of 45 civilian police, will depend upon 
full and prompt implementation by the parties of the Arusha Peace 
Agreement; commends in particular the efforts of the Organization of 
African Unity, as well as those of the Tanzanian facilitator, in 
providing diplomatic and other support; and reiterates its request to 
the Secretary General to continue to monitor the size and cost of UNAMIR 
to seek economies. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative noted that the United States has 
supported the peace process in Rwanda from the very beginning. He said 
that the United States is concerned about the continuing delays in 
installing the transitional institutions. For this reason, he said, the 
United States strongly supports the Council's decision to limit the 
extension of UNAMIR's mandate and to review within six weeks the 
progress made by the parties toward implementing the Arusha accords, and 
the role of the United Nations, including UNAMIR's future. He called on 
all sides to redouble their efforts and act in the national interest to 
put the transitional government in place as soon as possible. 
 
 
 
S/Res/912           April 21            15(US)-0-0 
 
Expresses regret at the tragic incident in which the President's of 
Rwanda and Burundi lost their lives; expresses regret also at the 
ensuing violence which has claimed the lives of the Prime Minister, 
Cabinet Ministers, Government officials, and others; condemns the 
ongoing violence in Rwanda; strongly condemns the attacks against UNAMIR 
and other UN personnel; demands an immediate cessation of hostilities 
and an end to the mindless violence and carnage engulfing Rwanda; 
commends the active role of the Secretary General's Special 
Representative and of the force commander to bring about a ceasefire and 
to mediate between the parties; decides to adjust the mandate of UNAMIR 
as follows: (a) to act as an intermediary between the parties to secure 
their agreement to a ceasefire, (b) to assist in the resumption of 
humanitarian relief operations, and (c) to monitor and report on 
developments in Rwanda; invites the Organization of African Unity to 
continue to cooperate with the United Nations in implementing the Arusha 
Peace Agreement; and reaffirms that the Arusha Peace Agreement remains 
the only viable framework for resolution of the Rwandan conflict. 
 
 
 
S/Res/918           May 17              15(US)-0-0 
 
Demands that all parties to the conflict immediately cease hostilities, 
agree to a ceasefire, and bring an end to the mindless violence and 
carnage engulfing Rwanda; decides to expand UNAMIR's mandate to include 
the following additional responsibilities within the limits of the 
resources available to it: (a) to contribute to the security of 
displaced persons, refugees, and civilians at risk, including through 
establishment of secure humanitarian areas, and (b) to provide security 
and support for the distribution of relief supplies; recognizes that 
UNAMIR may be required to take action in self-defense; authorizes an 
expansion of UNAMIR forces up to 5,500 troops; requests that the 
Secretary General redeploy to Rwanda the UNAMIR military observers now 
in Nairobi and bring the mechanized infantry battalion in Rwanda up to 
full strength; acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, decides that 
all states shall prevent the sale or supply of arms and related materiel 
by their nationals to Rwanda, except to supply UNAMIR and UNOMUR; and 
decides to establish a committee of all members of the Council to 
monitor this embargo. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative welcomed adoption of this resolution as a 
necessary action in response to the humanitarian disaster in Rwanda. The 
Council has taken the right steps, he said, but the true key to the 
problems in Rwanda is in the hands of the Rwandese people. He expressed 
the U.S. hope that the Council's action will be the impetus to convince 
the parties to end the bloodshed. He also, in speaking of the ways to 
evaluate the viability of a UN peacekeeping mission, called upon the 
Secretary General to examine the following factors in his next report on 
Rwanda: the concept of operations, availability of resources, consent of 
the parties, progress towards a ceasefire, and duration of the mandate. 
(A separate vote was taken on the section of the resolution imposing an 
arms embargo on Rwanda; the vote was 14 (US) to 1 (Rwanda), with no 
abstentions.) 
 
 
 
S/Res/925           June 8              15(US)-0-0 
 
Endorses the Secretary General's proposals for deployment of UNAMIR: two 
additional battalions in phase 2 in close synchronization with phase 1, 
urgent preparations for two battalions for phase 3, and flexible 
implementation of all three phases to ensure effective use of available 
resources; extends the mandate of UNAMIR until December 9, 1994; 
reaffirms that UNAMIR, in addition to continuing to act as an 
intermediary in an attempt to secure a ceasefire, will (1) contribute to 
the security of displaced persons, refugees, and civilians, and (2) 
provide security for distribution of relief supplies and humanitarian 
relief operations; demands that all parties cease hostilities; welcomes 
the assurances of both parties to cooperate with UNAMIR; demands that 
all parties cease incitement to violence or ethnic hatred; demands that 
all parties in Rwanda respect the persons and premises of the United 
Nations and other organizations serving in Rwanda, and refrain from acts 
of intimidation or violence against them; demands that the parties 
undertake serious efforts to bring about political reconciliation; and 
decides to keep the situation in Rwanda and the role played by UNAMIR 
under constant review. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative said we hope the actions of the 
international community will be effective in stopping the killings and 
protecting innocent civilians, bringing the parties to a ceasefire, 
urging a resumption of negotiations, and speeding delivery of 
humanitarian assistance. In the attempt to reach these objectives, he 
said, we felt it was necessary to define the mandate of UNAMIR as 
precisely as possible and stay within the limits of available resources. 
Clarity in defining the mission and its duration, he said, are 
inescapable factors which must be taken into account in all the 
Council's deliberations. Because there is not yet a ceasefire in Rwanda, 
he said, UNAMIR's activities might be considered enforcement actions, 
and troop contributors should be made fully aware of the anticipated 
environment. Further, he said, UNAMIR's military units must be provided 
with the equipment and rules of engagement to execute successfully the 
assigned mission, to defend themselves, and to provide basic protection 
for threatened persons and security for the delivery of humanitarian 
relief. He noted the equipment, cargo flights, and relief supplies the 
United States has provided. 
 
 
 
S/Res/928           June 20             15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of the UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda 
(UNOMUR) for a final period of three months until September 21, 1994, 
and agrees that during this period the number of military observers 
should be reduced by phases; expresses appreciation to the Government of 
Uganda for the cooperation it has extended to UNOMUR; and stresses the 
importance of continued cooperation between the Ugandan authorities and 
UNOMUR. 
 
 
 
S/Res/929           June 22             10(US)-0-5 
 
Agrees that a multinational operation may be set up for humanitarian 
purposes in Rwanda until UNAMIR is brought up to the necessary strength; 
welcomes the offer by member states to cooperate with the Secretary 
General through establishment of a temporary operation under national 
command and control aimed at contributing to the security and protection 
of displaced persons, refugees, and civilians at risk in Rwanda, on the 
understanding that the costs will be borne by the member states 
concerned; acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, authorizes member 
states, cooperating with the Secretary General, to conduct this 
operation using all necessary means to achieve its humanitarian 
objectives; decides that this operation will be limited to a period of 
two months, unless the Secretary General determines at an earlier date 
that the expanded UNAMIR is able to carry out its mandate; calls upon 
all member states to respond urgently to the Secretary General's request 
for resources in order to expand UNAMIR as soon as possible; and 
requests that the states concerned and the Secretary General report to 
the Council on a regular basis, the first report to be made no later 
than 15 days after adoption of this resolution. (Brazil, China, New 
Zealand, Nigeria, and Pakistan abstained.) 
 
The U.S. Representative, noting the continuing atrocities in Rwanda and 
the crisis of appalling proportions there, said that the enormity of the 
tragedy causes the United States to welcome the bold French initiative. 
The United States, she said, wishes to emphasize its strong support for 
the French initiative and the effort the cooperating force will 
undertake to guarantee the security and protection of displaced persons, 
refugees, and civilians. She underlined the cooperating force's mandate 
to play a truly impartial role. We encourage the force upon its arrival 
and through its actions, she said, to demonstrate its impartiality and 
even-handedness. We wish also to call upon the parties in Rwanda, she 
said, to recognize this humanitarian role and to assist the force in 
facilitating the provision of humanitarian assistance. The French 
decision to send troops to Rwanda, she said, reflects the continued need 
to strengthen the UN's own peacekeeping capabilities and the need for 
cooperative action by member states that are willing and able to 
supplement UN peace operations. She cited recent examples of each action 
in Kuwait, Somalia, Liberia, and Bosnia. The point here, she said, is 
that we must be flexible enough to accept imperfect solutions when no 
perfect solutions are available. 
 
 
 
S/Res/935           July 1              15(US)-0-0 
 
Requests that the Secretary General establish, as a matter of urgency, 
an impartial commission of experts to examine and analyze information 
submitted pursuant to the present resolution, together with such further 
information it may obtain through its own investigations or the efforts 
of other persons or bodies, including the information made available by 
the Special Rapporteur on Rwanda, with a view to providing the Secretary 
General with its conclusions on evidence of grave violations of 
international humanitarian law committed in Rwanda, including the 
evidence of possible acts of genocide; calls upon states and, as 
appropriate, international humanitarian organizations to collate 
substantiated information in their possession or submitted to them on 
such violations, and requests that this information be made available to 
the commission of experts within 30 days; and requests that the 
Secretary General report to the Council within four months on the 
conclusions of the commission and to take account of these conclusions 
in any recommendations for further steps. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative described the Council's action as another 
important step toward bringing to justice those responsible for the 
horrible acts of slaughter and destruction committed in Rwanda. By 
passage of this resolution, he said, the international community demands 
that those who have committed these atrocities be held accountable. We 
acknowledge in this resolution, he said, that implementation of human 
rights standards must be an integral part of every UN action taken on 
Rwanda. He called upon the Secretary General to ensure that the work of 
the Special Rapporteur be taken into account by the commission of 
experts and that the commission build on the work of the Special 
Rapporteur. The work of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, as 
coordinator of human rights activity throughout the UN system, is vital 
in this regard, he said. It is critical, he added, that all UN organs, 
all member states, and all other parties cooperate with the commission. 
He encouraged member states voluntarily to provide the necessary funds 
for the commission. He also urged the Council to respond quickly to the 
commission's report so as to avoid any unnecessary delay in bringing to 
justice those responsible for serious breaches of international 
humanitarian law. The United States cosponsored this resolution. 
 
 
 
S/Res/955           November 8          13(US)-1-1 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides to establish an 
international tribunal for the sole purpose of prosecuting persons 
responsible for genocide and other violations of international 
humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda and Rwandan 
citizens responsible for genocide and other such violations committed in 
the territory of neighboring states, between January 1, 1994, and 
December 31, 1994, and to this end to adopt the Statute of the 
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda annexed hereto; decides that 
all states shall take any measures necessary under their domestic law to 
implement the provisions of this resolution and the Statute, including 
the obligation to comply with requests for assistance or orders issued 
by a Trial Chamber under the Statute; urges states and intergovernmental 
and non-governmental organizations to contribute funds, equipment, and 
services to the Tribunal; requests that the Secretary General make 
practical arrangements for the effective functioning of the Tribunal, 
including recommendations to the Council as to possible locations for 
the seat of the Tribunal; and decides that the seat of the Tribunal 
shall be determined by the Council, having regard to considerations of 
justice and fairness as well as administrative efficiency, including 
access to witnesses, and economy, and subject to the conclusion of 
appropriate arrangements between the United Nations and the state of the 
seat, and decides that an office will be established and proceedings 
will be conducted in Rwanda where feasible and appropriate. (Rwanda 
voted against the resolution; China abstained.) 
 
The U.S. Representative urged the Government of Rwanda to cooperate 
fully with the Tribunal and to cooperate with the prosecution of those 
guilty of the unspeakable acts of genocide and other atrocities 
committed in Rwanda. The U.S. Government, she said, fully supports the 
establishment of a Tribunal office in Kigali and for a great deal of the 
Tribunal's work necessarily to proceed in Rwanda. We look forward, she 
said, to assisting Justice Goldstone to facilitate his work. The 
establishment of the Tribunal is only the beginning, she said; adequate 
funding is a major challenge. She urged all UN member states to make 
voluntary contributions and noted that the United Nations must provide 
sufficient funds for the early critical months of the Tribunal's work. 
The judicial system in Rwanda, she said, will also require much 
rebuilding in order to take on the enormous task of daily law 
enforcement as well as the prosecution of many of the suspects whom the 
Tribunal will not be able to handle. The U.S. Government, she said, is 
prepared to assist Rwanda in this important task. There is a need in 
Rwanda, she said, to forge harmony among ethnic groups by bringing to 
justice those individuals who committed such heinous crimes, regardless 
of their position in society. 
 
 
 
S/Res/965           November 30         15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of UNAMIR until June 9, 1995; decides to 
expand UNAMIR's mandate to include contributing to the security of 
personnel of the International Tribunal for Rwanda and human rights 
officers and to include assisting in the establishment and training of a 
new, integrated national police force; welcomes UNAMIR's efforts to 
increase radio broadcasting capabilities so as to reach the refugee 
camps in neighboring countries; requests that the Secretary General make 
recommendations on possible steps the United Nations could take to 
promote the establishment of an effective mine clearance program in 
Rwanda; and commends the efforts of states, UN agencies, and non-
governmental organizations to provide humanitarian aid and encourages 
them to continue and increase such assistance. 
 
The U.S. Representative noted the admirable response of UNAMIR, the 
force commander, and the Secretary General's special representative to 
the evolving situation in Rwanda. But it had become necessary, she said, 
to clarify UNAMIR's mandate, which was established before creation of 
the Tribunal and the deployment of human rights monitors by the HIgh 
Commissioner for Human Rights. The renewed mandate therefore makes it 
clear, she said, that Tribunal personnel and human rights monitors are 
entitled to protection. We do not believe, she said, that additional 
UNAMIR personnel will be required to carry out these protection 
functions, which UNAMIR has already begun to perform. The U.S. 
Government, she said, is making preparations to dispatch investigators, 
prosecutors, and support personnel to work with the Tribunal. It is 
important, she said, that UNAMIR provide security for all the Tribunal's 
personnel, as well as for their premises. 
 
SOMALIA 
 
S/Res/897           February 4          15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, approves the Secretary 
General's recommendation for the continuation of the UN Operation in 
Somalia (UNOSOM II) with a revised mandate for the following: 
 
(a) Encouraging and assisting the Somali parties in implementing the 
Addis Ababa Agreements, in particular in their efforts to achieve 
disarmament and to respect the ceasefire; 
 
(b) Protecting major ports, airports, and lines of communication vital 
to provision of humanitarian relief and reconstruction assistance; 
 
(c) Continuing to provide humanitarian relief; 
 
(d) Assisting in reorganization of the Somali police and judicial 
system; 
 
(e) Helping with repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced 
persons; 
 
(f) Assisting in the political process in Somalia, which should 
culminate in installation of a democratically elected government; and 
 
(g) Providing protection for UN personnel, installations, and equipment; 
 
authorizes the gradual reduction of UNOSOM II to a force level of up to 
22,000; underlines the importance of placing at UNOSOM II's disposal the 
means to discharge its responsibilities and to defend itself against 
attack; approves giving priority to directing reconstruction resources 
to those regions where security is being reestablished and to local 
Somali institutions which are prepared to cooperate with the 
international community in setting development priorities; requests that 
the Secretary General make arrangements to start demining operations; 
and requests that the Secretary General consider, in consultation with 
the Organization of African Unity and the League of Arab States, 
establishing contacts with the Somali parties with the view to arriving 
at an agreed timetable for implementing the Addis Ababa Agreements, 
including the objective of completing the process by March 1995. 
 
The U.S. Representative spoke in support of this resolution. It states 
clearly, she said, that the people of Somalia must bear the 
responsibility for national reconciliation and the reconstruction of 
their country. Let me stress, she said, that the patience of the 
international community is not an inexhaustible resource. If Somalis 
wish to take advantage of the interest in the international community to 
assist in Somalia's rehabilitation, she said, they should rigorously and 
genuinely pursue all opportunities to resolve their differences 
peacefully. She also said that attacks on those providing humanitarian 
relief must stop; Somalis cannot expect assistance to continue where 
relief workers are attacked and relief supplies are looted. The United 
States, she added, strongly supports the resolution's regional focus for 
assistance, giving priority to those areas of the country where there is 
security and where local institutions are prepared to cooperate, thereby 
establishing very clear examples of the benefits of reconciliation. 
 
 
 
S/Res/923           May 31              15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides to renew the mandate 
of UNOSOM II to September 30, 1994, subject to a review no later than 
July 29 based on the humanitarian mission of UNOSOM II and on the 
political and security situation in Somalia and progress made in 
achieving national reconciliation; urges all parties to cooperate with 
UNOSOM II, implement the agreements they have signed relating to 
disarmament, and pursue without further delay the negotiations aimed at 
achieving national reconciliation; demands that all parties in Somalia 
refrain from acts of intimidation or violence against personnel engaged 
in humanitarian or peacekeeping work; reaffirms the obligations of 
states to implement the arms embargo; welcomes the progress made by 
UNOSOM II in establishing the justice and police programs; and expresses 
appreciation to states which have contributed troops or provided 
logistical or other assistance to UNOSOM II or have extended 
humanitarian assistance. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative said this resolution underscores the 
growing impatience of the international community with the pace of 
progress toward national reconciliation. The adjustment in the length of 
the mandate to four months and the provision for a review of progress 
are not an empty exercise, he said, because the parties are paying close 
attention to what the Council does. This is not a time for routinely 
conducting business as usual, he added. This resolution, he said, puts 
those obstructing progress on notice: it is time to move toward 
political reconciliation. The restoration of normality in Somalia is 
primarily a job for the Somalis, themselves, he said, although the 
United States and others remain willing to help. He urged the parties to 
implement their agreement, the Nairobi communique of March 24. He noted 
the tough message in the Secretary General's report: continued delay in 
the reconciliation process or the outbreak of renewed violence would 
prompt the international community to draw the appropriate conclusions: 
he would recommend an end to the UNOSOM II mission. The U.S. Deputy 
Representative said the United States strongly supports this tough 
message; we are not prepared, he said, to continue helping a people who 
seem unwilling to help themselves. 
 
 
 
S/Res/946           September 30        14-0-1(US) 
 
Decides to extend the mandate of UNOSOM II for one month expiring 
October 31, 1994, prior to which the Council will undertake a thorough 
examination of the mandate of UNOSOM II with a view to deciding on its 
future; encourages the Secretary General to intensify preparations of 
contingency arrangements for possible Council decisions, including 
withdrawal of UNOSOM II; and declares its readiness to consider sending 
a mission to Somalia to convey directly to the Somali political parties 
the views of the Council on the situation in Somalia and on the future 
of the UN presence there. (The United States abstained.) 
 
The U.S. Representative said there had been two constants in Somalia: 
continuing deterioration of the security situation and total lack of 
progress on political reconciliation. Looking at the trail of broken 
promises left by the Somali factions, she said, the U.S. Government will 
not listen to another assurance of just one more month, just one more 
conference. The time has come, she said, to bring the UN mission to a 
conclusion; UNOSOM II is draining away scarce human and financial 
resources that would be better used elsewhere. In the face of Somali 
intransigence and unwillingness to reach political agreement, she said, 
UNOSOM II cannot continue to maintain 15,000 troops in Somalia and spend 
over $2.5 million a day. This resolution, she said, fails to come to 
grips with the realities of the situation in Somalia; it puts off any 
decision on the future of UNOSOM II for yet another month. Rather than 
countenance such a delay, she said, the Council should agree now to a 
withdrawal of UNOSOM II by the end of the year. Because this resolution 
failed to recognize the necessity of stepping up to the critical task of 
withdrawal now, she said, the U.S. Government could not vote for it. 
However, conscious of the need to continue the mandate for the 
protection of the troops during the withdrawal period, she added, the 
U.S. Government is not willing at this time to vote against an 
extension. She urged the Secretary General to complete planning for the 
withdrawal. 
 
 
 
S/Res/953           October 31          15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides (having decided to send a mission to Somalia and wanting to 
consider the report of the mission before proceeding further) to extend 
the mandate of UNOSOM II for an interim period expiring on November 4, 
1994. 
 
 
 
S/Res/954           November 4          15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides to extend the 
mandate of UNOSOM II for a final period until March 31, 1995; affirms 
that the primary purpose of UNOSOM II until its termination is to 
facilitate political reconciliation in Somalia; welcomes the intention 
of the Secretary General to continue the efforts of his special 
representative to help the Somali parties achieve national 
reconciliation, even after the period of the UNOSOM II mandate; decides 
that every effort should be made to withdraw all UNOSOM II military 
forces and assets from Somalia before the expiration of its mandate; 
emphasizes the responsibility of the Somali parties for the security and 
safety of UNOSOM II and other personnel engaged in humanitarian 
activities; invites the Organization of African Unity, the League of 
Arab States, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference to continue 
their efforts in cooperation with the United Nations in the search for 
lasting peace in Somalia; reiterates the need for the observance of the 
embargo on weapons and military equipment; and requests that the 
Secretary General report to the Security Council before March 31, 1995, 
on the situation in Somalia and submit suggestions concerning the role 
that the United Nations could play in Somalia beyond that date. 
 
The U.S. Representative, reflecting upon the accomplishments of the 
United Nations and the international community in Somalia, said hundreds 
of thousands of lives were saved from starvation, although at a tragic 
price in loss of lives of innocent Somalis and brave peacekeepers from 
many nations, including the United States. Also, she said, UNOSOM had 
provided a window of opportunity for the Somalis to put their country 
together again after the devastation it had suffered. But have the 
people of Somalia taken advantage of this opportunity, she asked. Today, 
she said, the answer is still in doubt. Suggesting that a genuine 
solution might yet emerge during UNOSOM's remaining time, she welcomed 
the decision of the Secretary General to continue political efforts 
through his Special Representative to assist the Somalis to achieve 
reconciliation. But even if next March comes without a broadly 
acceptable national government in Somalia, she said, the UN effort will 
not have been a failure. The international community offered a helping 
hand for over two years, she said, even in the face of often violent 
opposition. She said this Council has come to realize that the true 
value of peacekeeping is the chance it offers for people and nations to 
help themselves move beyond the dead-end path of violence and onto the 
path of peace. UNOSOM has done its part, she said, and the UN 
peacekeeping role is over, although the United Nations and the 
international community will remain engaged with Somalia after March 
through humanitarian efforts, and political efforts is desired. She 
cautioned all to ensure a peaceful departure of the peacekeepers and 
noted that additional casualties inflicted upon the withdrawing UNOSOM 
forces would be intolerable. 
 
SOUTH AFRICA 
 
S/Res/894           January 14          15(US)-0-0 
 
Agrees with the Secretary General's proposals regarding the number of 
international election observers needed in South Africa and regarding 
coordination of the activities of the observers provided by the 
Organization of African Unity, the Commonwealth, the European Union, and 
others; urges all parties in South Africa to respect agreements reached 
during the negotiations, to adhere to democratic principles, and to take 
part in the elections; calls upon all parties to end the violence and 
intimidation; calls upon all parties to respect the safety and security 
of the international observers; welcomes the intention of the Secretary 
General to set up a special trust fund to finance the participation of 
additional observers from Africa and other developing countries; and 
urges states to contribute to this trust fund. 
 
The United States gave strong and unequivocal support to this 
resolution. The U.S. Representative congratulated South Africans on 
their achievements to date, urged full participation in the election 
process and honoring of agreements reached, called for cooperation with 
the election observers provided by the United Nations and others, urged 
all to work together to ensure that the elections are free and fair, and 
said the United States expects the United Nations to keep costs as low 
as possible. 
 
 
 
S/Res/919           May 25              15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides, acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, to terminate 
forthwith the mandatory arms embargo and other restrictions related to 
South Africa imposed by Resolution 418 of November 4, 1977; decides to 
end forthwith all other measures against South Africa contained in 
resolutions of the Security Council; decides to dissolve the Security 
Council committee established by resolution 421 (1977); and invites all 
states to consider reflecting the provisions of this resolution as 
appropriate in their legislation. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative said this vote of the Security Council is 
timely recognition of the dramatic changes that have taken place in 
South Africa, changes that the United States helped bring about. The UN 
arms embargo and related restrictions contributed significantly to the 
demise of apartheid, he said, and, now that apartheid has been 
dismantled and nonracial democracy is taking root, these restrictions 
are no longer appropriate. The U.S. Government, he said, unequivocally 
supports this resolution, which calls for the immediate removal of these 
restrictions. This is a historic moment in the relationship of the 
United Nations with South Africa, he said, and the United States joins 
the United Nations in celebrating this great achievement. 
 
 
 
S/Res/930           June 27             15(US)-0-0 
 
Commends the vital role played by the Special Representative of the 
Secretary General and the UN Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA), 
together with the Organization of African Unity, the Commonwealth, and 
the European Union, in support of the establishment of a united, non-
racial, and democratic South Africa, and decides that, with the 
successful completion of its mandate, UNOMSA is terminated forthwith. 
 
 
 
 
 
TAJIKISTAN 
 
S/Res/968           December 16         15(US)-0-0 
 
Decides to establish a UN Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) in 
accordance with the plan outlined by the Secretary General, with the 
following mandate: (a) assist the Joint Commission in monitoring 
implementation of the ceasefire agreement reached on September 17, 1994, 
(b) investigate reports of ceasefire violations, (c) provide good 
offices under the September 17 agreement, (d) maintain close contact 
with the parties to the conflict and close liaison with the mission of 
the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and with the 
peacekeeping forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the 
border forces, (e) provide support for the efforts of the Secretary 
General's Special Envoy, and (f) provide political liaison and 
coordination services to facilitate humanitarian assistance; decides 
that UNMOT be established for a period of six months and to continue 
only if the parties have agreed to extend the ceasefire agreement and 
remain committed to national reconciliation and promotion of democracy; 
calls upon the parties to redouble their efforts to achieve a 
comprehensive political settlement; urges all states to facilitate the 
process of national reconciliation and to refrain from any actions that 
could complicate the peace process; and requests that the Secretary 
General establish and states contribute to a voluntary fund to support 
implementation of the ceasefire agreement. 
 
WESTERN SAHARA 
 
S/Res/907           March 29            15(US)-0-0 
 
Welcomes the compromise proposal of the Secretary General concerning the 
interpretation and application of criteria for voter eligibility for the 
referendum for self-determination of the people of Western Sahara; 
expresses deep concern over continuing difficulties and delays in the 
work of the Identification Commission; agrees to the course of action 
outlined in the Secretary General's report, that the Identification 
Commission should complete the analysis of all applications received and 
proceed with identification and registration of potential voters by June 
30, 1994; requests that the Secretary General report to the Council no 
later than July 15, 1994, on progress achieved by the Identification 
Commission; urges strict compliance with the timetable in the Secretary 
General's report, with a view to holding the referendum by the end of 
1994; decides, in the event that the referendum cannot be held by the 
end of 1994, to consider the future of the UN Mission for the Referendum 
in Western Sahara (MINURSO), including an examination of options 
regarding its mandate and continued operations; and urges the Secretary 
General to maintain MINURSO at the strength needed, and invites him to 
make proposals for necessary adjustments to the present role and 
strength of MINURSO. 
 
In a press release, the United States commended the efforts of those who 
had contributed to MINURSO, thanked the Secretary General for his status 
reports, welcomed the Security Council's unity on this issue, urged the 
United Nations to make every effort to conclude its work on registration 
of voters by June 30, urged both parties to cooperate with the United 
Nations toward this end, noted that the United Nations cannot substitute 
for the will of the parties, and stated that the U.S. Government would 
approach discussions of this issue against the background of daunting 
challenges to peace and daunting financial and resource challenges in 
areas of more severe conflict than in the Western Sahara. 
 
YEMEN 
 
S/Res/924           June 1              15(US)-0-0 
 
Calls for an immediate ceasefire; urges an immediate cessation of the 
supply of arms and other materiel which might contribute to the 
continuation of the conflict; reminds all concerned that their political 
differences cannot be resolved through the use of force, and urges them 
to return immediately to negotiations; and requests that the Secretary 
General send a fact-finding mission to the area to assess prospects for 
a renewed dialogue. 
 
The United States  a major supporter of the agreement in 1990 that 
brought North and South Yemen together and enhanced popular 
participation in government and economic reform  was deeply concerned 
about the crisis in Yemen. It is the U.S. view that broad-based 
government based on political pluralism, guarantees for basic civil and 
human rights, and free market economic principles are essential for the 
future well-being of all Yemenis. The fighting disrupted progress in 
this direction. It was the U.S. hope that this resolution would help 
bring an end to the fighting and encourage the parties to begin again 
the dialogue which is the only avenue to a lasting settlement and to a 
resumption of progress. 
 
 
 
S/Res/931           June 29             15(US)-0-0 
 
Reiterates its call for an immediate ceasefire; stresses the importance 
of a ceasefire covering all operations, including positioning of heavy 
weapons out of range of Aden; strongly deplores the infliction of 
civilian casualties in Aden; requests that the Secretary General and his 
special envoy continue talks with all concerned with a view to 
implementing a durable ceasefire and to the possible establishment of a 
mechanism acceptable to both sides, preferably involving countries of 
the region, to monitor the ceasefire and to report to the Secretary 
General; reiterates its call for an immediate cessation of the supply of 
arms and other materiel; reiterates that political differences cannot be 
resolved through the use of force, deeply regrets the failure of all 
concerned to resume their political dialogue, and urges them to do so, 
and requests that the Secretary General and his special envoy examine 
appropriate ways of facilitating these aims; expresses its deep concern 
at the humanitarian situation resulting from the conflict, and requests 
that the Secretary General and relevant UN agencies address urgently the 
needs of those affected; and requests that the Secretary General provide 
a progress report to the Council within 15 days. 
 
The U.S. Representative said the situation in Yemen calls for maximum 
restraint on all sides. The United States is deeply distressed, she 
said, by the failures of numerous ceasefires. Implementation of an 
enduring ceasefire, she said, is an essential first step in resolving 
the Yemen crisis and promoting reconciliation between north and south. 
We repeat our call for northern forces to cease attacks on Aden, she 
said. She called on all parties to facilitate humanitarian efforts. 
Solutions born in chaos and violence, she said, are neither durable nor 
lasting, and the Yemeni people are suffering the consequences of a 
failure of political will on the part of their leaders. She said those 
responsible for the conflict must seek a resolution through political 
dialogue and negotiation. The United States regrets deeply that progress 
towards a broad-based government distinguished by political pluralism, 
guarantees for basic civil and human rights, and free market economic 
principles has been set back substantially. She underscored the pressing 
financial situation of the United Nations at a time of greatly increased 
UN peacekeeping efforts, and she said we look to interested nations to 
offer resources on a voluntary basis to implement a mechanism to 
supervise a ceasefire in Yemen. 
 
 
 
YUGOSLAVIA 
 
This section lists resolutions concerning all areas included in the 
former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. 
 
 
 
S/Res/900           March 4             15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: calls for all parties to 
cooperate with the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in the consolidation 
of the ceasefire in and around Sarajevo; calls upon all parties, with UN 
assistance, to achieve complete freedom of movement for the civilian 
population and humanitarian goods to, from, and within Sarajevo; 
requests that the Secretary General appoint a senior civilian official 
to draw up an overall assessment and plan of action, in conjunction with 
the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina and relevant local authorities, 
for the restoration of essential public services in Sarajevo; invites 
the Secretary General to establish a voluntary trust fund for the 
restoration of essential public services in Sarajevo, and encourages 
states and other donors to contribute thereto; requests that the 
Secretary General present, within one week, a report on ways and means, 
including estimated cost, of implementation of the objectives set forth 
above; and requests that the Secretary General report within 10 days on 
the feasibility and modalities for protection of Maglaj, Mostar, and 
Vitez. 
 
 
 
S/Res/908           March 31            15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides to extend UNPROFOR's 
mandate to September 30, 1994; decides to increase UNPROFOR personnel, 
as an initial step, by 3,500 additional troops and to take action by 
April 30 on further troop requirements; approves UNPROFOR's plans for 
reopening Tuzla airport; decides that member states may extend close air 
support to Croatia in defense of UNPROFOR personnel; urges compliance 
with the ceasefire agreement of March 29 in Croatia; urges agreement on 
confidence-building measures in Croatia; endorses the proposals in the 
Secretary General's report relating to the ceasefire and freedom of 
movement in and around Sarajevo; encourages the Secretary General's 
Special Representative to use his good offices to contribute to peace in 
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; welcomes the Secretary 
General's appointment of a senior civilian official for restoration of 
essential public services in and around Sarajevo, and welcomes his 
establishment of a voluntary trust fund for this purpose; welcomes the 
presence of UNPROFOR personnel and arrival of humanitarian convoys in 
Maglaj, and its contribution to restoration of security to the area; and 
demands that the Bosnian Serb party cease military operations against 
Maglaj and remove obstacles to free access. 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative noted that the U.S. Government supports 
UNPROFOR in the exemplary way it has carried out its mandate, and 
supports the provision of the resources necessary to allow it to do so 
in the new environment. Our concern, he said, is to ensure that the 
financial resources are available to sustain this vital operation. He 
assured the Council that the United States, in the coming month, will be 
considering the question of UNPROFOR's manpower requirements. 
Peacekeeping is too important, he said, for the international community 
not to do its best to regularize the way it provides the money to 
support these operations. He commended the Council's authorization of 
close air support for UNPROFOR troops operating in Croatia, and he 
expressed confidence that the agreement of the North Atlantic Council 
for NATO implementation of this support would be forthcoming. 
 
 
 
S/Res/913           April 21            15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: demands the immediate 
conclusion of a ceasefire agreement in Gorazde and throughout Bosnia and 
Herzegovina; invites the Secretary General to take the necessary steps 
to ensure that UNPROFOR is able to monitor the situation in Gorazde and 
respect of any ceasefire and disengagement of forces; condemns the 
attacks by the Bosnian Serb forces against Gorazde and demands the 
withdrawal of forces and weapons; calls for an end to any provocative 
action in and around the safe areas; demands the release of all UN 
personnel held by the Bosnian Serb forces; demands unimpeded freedom of 
movement for UNPROFOR; confirms the decision in resolution 908 to take 
action by April 30 on the further troop requirements recommended by the 
Secretary General; underlines the urgent need to intensify efforts 
towards a political settlement in the former Yugoslavia, and in 
particular in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and calls for the intensification 
of efforts to achieve a peaceful settlement, with coordination and 
consultation with representatives of the United States, the Russian 
Federation, the United Nations, and the European Union. 
 
The U.S. Representative decried the barbaric acts of aggression against 
a UN member state and wanton attacks on civilians, which are an outrage 
to the conscience of the Council and an affront to international law. 
She outlined the U.S. Government's response to these acts: we are 
consulting with Council members on measures to provide more adequate 
protection to the safe areas, have proposed extension of the approach 
used around Sarajevo to other safe areas, will work with Council members 
to tighten enforcement of sanctions, will continue to support UNPROFOR, 
and will continue to give full support to the international war crimes 
Tribunal established by the Council. She noted that the U.S. Government 
still believes the Bosnian Government should be exempted from the arms 
embargo imposed by resolution 713 in 1991, so that the victims of 
aggression are finally permitted to defend themselves. Our objective in 
Bosnia, she said, is a negotiated settlement, and we will continue our 
diplomatic efforts to help the parties reach such a settlement. The 
reality remains, she said, that this conflict must be settled at the 
bargaining table, not on the battlefield. Renewed diplomatic efforts, 
backed by the necessary military resolve, are essential, she said, to 
discourage further aggression and regain the momentum for peace. 
 
 
 
S/Res/914           April 27            15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides to authorize an 
increase of UNPROFOR personnel by up to 6,550 additional troops, 150 
military observers, and 275 civilian police monitors. 
 
The U.S. Representative said that in this resolution the Council, with 
full U.S. support, has given force to our conviction that UNPROFOR is a 
key to the continuing search for a peaceful settlement. She noted also 
that our resolve to deter aggression is more than matched by our resolve 
to offer a hand to those willing to make peace. It is up to the parties, 
especially the Bosnian Serbs, she said, to decide whether they will 
choose continued confrontation or a negotiated settlement. 
 
 
 
S/Res/936           July 8              15(US)-0-0 
 
Appoints Richard J. Goldstone as prosecutor of the international 
tribunal for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious 
violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory 
of the former Yugoslavia since 1991. 
 
 
 
S/Res/941           September 23        15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: strongly condemns all 
violations of international humanitarian law, including in particular 
the unacceptable practice of "ethnic cleansing," and reaffirms that 
those who have committed or have ordered the commission of such acts 
will be held individually responsible; demands that the Bosnia Serb 
authorities immediately cease their campaign of "ethnic cleansing"; 
demands that the Bosnian Serb party accord immediate and unimpeded 
access for the Special Representative of the Secretary General, 
UNPROFOR, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the 
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to areas of concern; 
requests that the Secretary General arrange, when conditions permit, the 
deployment of UNPROFOR troops and UN monitors in Banja Luka, Bijeljina, 
and any other areas of concern; and determines to consider any further 
steps it may deem necessary. 
 
For the U.S. statement, see Resolution 943 below. 
 
 
 
S/Res/942           September 23        14(US)-0-1 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: expresses its approval of 
the proposed territorial settlement for Bosnia and Herzegovina which has 
been put to the Bosnian parties as part of an overall peace settlement; 
strongly condemns the Bosnian Serb party for its refusal to accept the 
proposed territorial settlement, and demands that it accept this 
settlement unconditionally and in full; calls upon states to desist from 
any political talks with the leadership of the Bosnian Serb party as 
long as that party has not accepted the proposed settlement in full; 
decides that states shall prevent (i) economic activities in those areas 
of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the control of Bosnian Serb forces or by 
any entity in areas under control of the Bosnian Serb forces, as well as 
(ii) economic activities carried on in their territories by any entity 
acting on behalf of and to the benefit of any entity in areas under the 
control of Bosnian Serb forces; decides that states in which there are 
funds or other financial assets or resources shall require that persons 
and entities holding such assets freeze them to ensure they are not made 
available to or for the benefit of any entity under the control of the 
Bosnian Serb forces; decides that services, both financial and non-
financial, to entities under the control of the Bosnian Serb forces 
shall be prohibited, except (a) telecommunication, postal, and legal 
services, (b) services for humanitarian or other exceptional purposes, 
as approved on a case-by-case basis by the committee established by 
Resolution 724 in 1991, and (c) services authorized by the Republic of 
Bosnia and Herzegovina; decides that states shall prevent the entry into 
their territories of (a) members of the authorities of the areas under 
the control of the Bosnian Serb forces and officers of the Bosnian Serb 
military, (b) persons who provide financial and other support to the 
Bosnian Serb forces, and (c) persons who have violated measures of this 
resolution and Resolution 820 (1993); decides to prohibit all commercial 
riverine traffic from ports of those areas under the control of Bosnian 
Serb forces except when authorized on a case-by-case basis by the 
committee established by Resolution 724 or by the Government of the 
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina for its territory; decides that the 
provisions of this resolution do not apply to activities of UNPROFOR, 
the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, or the European 
Community Monitoring Missions; and decides to review the measures 
imposed by this resolution whenever appropriate and in any event every 
four months, and expresses its readiness to reconsider these measures if 
the Bosnian Serb party accepts the proposed territorial settlement 
unconditionally and in full. (China abstained.) 
 
For the U.S. statement, see Resolution 943 below. 
 
 
 
S/Res/943           September 23        11(US)-2-2 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides that restrictions on 
civilian passenger flights to and from Belgrade airport, on passenger 
ferry service between Bar in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 
and Bari in Italy, and on participation in sporting events and cultural 
exchanges shall be suspended for an initial period of 100 days after 
certification that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is effectively 
implementing its decision to close its border with the Republic of 
Bosnia and Herzegovina; invites the committee established by Resolution 
724 (1991) to adopt appropriate streamlined procedures for expediting 
its consideration of applications for humanitarian assistance; requests 
that the Secretary General submit a report to the Council every 30 days 
on the implementation by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia of its 
decision to close its border with Bosnia and Herzegovina; and decides 
that the suspension of the above restrictions shall be terminated if at 
any time the Fed4eral Republic of Yugoslavia does not effectively 
implement its decision to close the border. (Djibouti and Pakistan voted 
against this resolution; Nigeria and Rwanda abstained.) 
 
The U.S. Representative (following adoption of Resolutions 941, 942, and 
943) said that the parties in the former Yugoslavia should doubt neither 
our determination to punish those who choose conflict, nor our 
willingness to rebuild constructive relations with those who choose 
peace. She said the U.S. Government continues to stand behind the 
proposed territorial settlement in Bosnia, which we view as the basis 
for a fair and just settlement of the Bosnian conflict. These three 
resolutions, she said, give a twofold message: they aim to pressure the 
recalcitrant Bosnian Serbs, and they demonstrate the Council's 
determination to use both carrots and sticks to move the parties toward 
a negotiated settlement. In tightening sanctions on the Bosnian Serbs, 
she said, we are tightening the noose around the aggressors in Bosnia. 
In preparing to ease sanctions on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 
she added, the Council acknowledges that the Federal Republic has taken 
an important step to persuade the Bosnian Serbs to accept the negotiated 
settlement that has been proposed. But the intentions of the Belgrade 
authorities, she said, are not yet clear; that is why we will insist 
that it strictly comply with its commitment to keep the border closed, 
and why we are demanding strict verification. Our willingness to extend 
the suspension of sanctions beyond 100 days, she said, will depend on 
Belgrade's conduct. The people of Serbia and Montenegro, she noted, 
should understand that further concrete steps toward peace will lead to 
additional easing of sanctions. A decision by the Belgrade government to 
choose conflict once again, she said, will stop even this limited 
sanctions relief and lead to the adoption of even tougher measures. 
Condemning the continuing acts of "ethnic cleansing" by the Bosnian 
Serbs, she said that until they accept and live by the norms of 
civilized society, they will not be welcomed as members of the 
international community. 
 
 
 
S/Res/947           September 30        15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides to extend UNPROFOR's 
mandate for an additional period terminating on March 31, 1995; requests 
that the Secretary General report no later than January 20, 1995, on 
progress toward implementation of the UN peacekeeping plan for Croatia, 
and decides to reconsider UNPROFOR's mandate in light of that report; 
calls upon Croatia, Macedonia, and Serbia/Montenegro to conclude status 
of forces agreements without delay; urges the Bosnian Serb party to 
respect the territorial integrity of Croatia and to refrain from any 
actions that are threatening to its security; and declares that 
restoration of Croatian authority in the "pink zones" must be 
accomplished under UNPROFOR supervision and in such a manner as to avoid 
any further destabilization of the region. 
 
The U.S. Representative said that the U.S. Government strongly supports 
the basic precept, reflected in this resolution, that a settlement of 
the conflict in Croatia must be in conformity with its sovereignty and 
territorial integrity within its internationally recognized borders. 
UNPROFOR has played an essential role, she said, in the international 
community's efforts toward peace. In Croatia, she said, UNPROFOR has 
been unable, in the face of obstinacy, to carry out much of its task. 
This resolution, she noted, rightly lays upon the parties -- and the 
U.S. Government interprets this to refer especially to the Serb party -- 
the responsibility to create the conditions that would allow UNPROFOR to 
fulfill its mandate. 
 
 
 
S/Res/958           November s19        15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides that the 
authorization given in Resolution 836 (1993) to member states to take 
all necessary measures, through the use of air power, in and around the 
safe areas in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina referred to in 
Resolution 824 (1993) to support UNPROFOR in the performance of its 
mandate shall apply also to such measures taken in Croatia. 
 
The United States cosponsored this resolution. The U.S. Representative, 
noting that the Government of Bosnia and the Bosnian Croats had accepted 
the peace plan, said only the Bosnian Serbs have refused to do so. It is 
this failure, she said, that has caused the fighting in Bosnia to 
continue and to escalate. Regretting all continued fighting, she said  
in regard to recent attacks by the Bosnian Government on Bosnian Serb 
forces  that we should not confuse attacks made to recover territory 
lost to aggression with aggression itself. The Bosnian Government did 
not start this war, she said, and is willing to end it, while the 
Bosnian Serbs started it and refuse to sign an agreement to end it. Now, 
she said, we face a new threshold: in support of Bosnian Serb 
aggression, the so-called Krajina Serbs are collaborating in an attack 
on the sovereign territory of Bosnia. They are presenting the Government 
of Croatia with a difficult dilemma, she said: the unification of 
territory held by the so-called Krajina Serbs with territory controlled 
by the Bosnian Serbs could cause the Government of Croatia to intervene 
and thus spawn a new spiral of war. The Krajina Serb forces, she pointed 
out, have violated an international border, and their attacks jeopardize 
civilians and UN troops in Bihac. In this resolution, she said, the 
Council has clarified that the use of air power is authorized to attack 
targets in Croatia that threaten safe areas in Bosnia or UN troops 
operating in Bosnia. The U.S. Government, she said, believes that the 
pattern of attacks by the Krajina Serb forces on Bihac justifies a 
military response by NATO. Therefore, she said, we welcome this 
resolution, which makes clearer the intention of the Council that the 
bombardment of Bosnia must be prevented. 
 
 
 
S/Res/959           November 19         15(US)-0-0 
 
Expresses grave concern over the recent hostilities in Bosnia and 
Herzegovina; condemns any violation of the international border between 
Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and demands that all 
parties, and in particular the so-called Krajina Serb forces, fully 
respect the border and refrain from hostile acts across it; expresses 
full support for the efforts of UNPROFOR forces to ensure implementation 
of Council resolutions on safe areas; calls upon all the Bosnian parties 
to respect the functions of UNPROFOR and cooperate with it in its 
efforts to ensure implementation of Council resolutions on safe areas 
and demands that all parties show maximum restraint and put an end to 
hostile actions in and around the safe areas in order to ensure that 
UNPROFOR can carry out its mandate effectively and safely; requests that 
the Secretary General update his recommendations on modalities of 
implementation of the concept of safe areas and encourage UNPROFOR, in 
cooperation with the Bosnian parties, to continue their efforts to 
achieve agreements on strengthening safe areas; and requests that the 
Secretary General and UNPROFOR intensify efforts aimed at reaching 
agreement with the Bosnian parties on the modalities of demilitarization 
of Sarajevo, bearing in mind the need for restoration of normal life to 
the city and for free access to and from the city and unimpeded movement 
of people, goods, and services in and around the city. 
 
The United States cosponsored this resolution. 
 
 
 
Not Adopted         December 2          13(US)-1-1 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: reconfirms that the 
requirements of all relevant Security Council resolutions shall be 
strictly applied in respect of all goods crossing the border between the 
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and the Republic 
of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including goods destined for the UN Protected 
Areas in Croatia; demands that the provisions of paragraph 12 of 
Resolution 820 (1993) be applied strictly and in full on the border 
between Croatia and Yugoslavia, and on the border between Croatia and 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, in regard to the import, export, and 
transshipment of all commodities with the exception of essential 
humanitarian supplies; emphasizes the importance of a continuous and 
unimpeded flow of humanitarian assistance to all areas of Bosnia and 
Herzegovina where such help is needed; and calls upon all parties to 
ensure the safety of personnel of UNPROFOR and of the UN High 
Commissioner for Refugees. (Russia vetoed this resolution, and China 
abstained.) 
 
The U.S. Deputy Representative, following the Russian veto, said this 
resolution would have reaffirmed decisions already taken by the Council 
in previous resolutions. Trade across the border between the Federal 
Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (FRY) and the Republic of 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, he said, is restricted to foodstuffs, medical 
supplies, and clothing for essential needs. The draft resolution, he 
noted, would have addressed a serious discrepancy between these 
requirements and actual practice, specifically, the transshipment of 
prohibited goods from the FRY through Bosnia to the UN Protected Areas 
in Croatia. It is essential that the international community maintain 
its efforts to isolate the Pale Serbs and secure their acceptance of the 
Contact Group proposals, he said, and that is why we voted tonight for 
this draft resolution. Its failure to pass is regrettable, he said, but 
that does not change the fact that a strict regime of economic measures 
directed at the Pale Serbs is already embodied in legal, binding 
resolutions of this Council, whose requirements are clear and 
unequivocal. We will continue our efforts, he said, to ensure the firm 
application of the Council's measures in order to persuade the Pale 
Serbs that acceptance of the Contact Group proposal is in their 
interest. 
 
 
 
S/Res/967           December 14         15(US)-0-0 
 
Acting under Chapter VII of the UN Charter: decides to permit, for a 
period of 30 days, the export of 12,000 vials of diphtheria anti-serum 
from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); and 
decides that any payments for such authorized shipments shall be made 
only into frozen accounts. 
 
 
 
VOTING SUMMARIES 
 
The table below lists the votes of Security Council members on the 78 
resolutions introduced in 1994. Resolutions on which a Security Council 
member voted No or abstained are indicated by number in parentheses. 
Four negative votes were recorded, including one Russian veto. 
Abstentions were rare; they were mostly on resolutions concerning 
Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and Haiti. 
 
 
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
COUNTRY                YES         NO        ABSTAIN 
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
United States           77          0        1 (946) 
Argentina               78          0        0 
Brazil                  73          0        5 (928, 940, 944, 948, 964) 
China                   73          0        5 (928, 940, 942, 955,  
                                                Bosnia 12/2) 
Czech Republic          78          0        0 
Djibouti                77          1 (943)  0 
France                  78          0        0 
New Zealand             77          0        1 (928) 
Nigeria                 76          0        2 (928, 943) 
Oman                    78          0        0 
Pakistan                76          1 (943)  1 (928) 
Russia                  75          1 *      2 (944, 964) 
Rwanda                  72          1 (955)  1 (943) 
                                             (4 absent:937-940) 
 
Spain                   78          0        0 
 
United Kingdom          78          0        0 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 
* Russia vetoed a resolution on Bosnia on December 2. 
 
 
 
 
In the following table, Security Council votes are tabulated on the same 
basis as overall votes in this report for the General Assembly, and 
voting coincidence percentages are calculated accordingly. Council 
members are ranked by coincidence with the United States. When the 
percentage is the same, members are ranked by the number of identical 
votes, and alphabetically when the number of votes is the same. It 
should be noted that group dynamics in the Security Council, whose 15 
members frequently consult closely on issues before resolutions are 
presented for adoption, are quite different from those in the General 
Assembly. 
 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 
               IDENTICAL   OPPOSITE   ABSTEN-    VOTING 
COUNTRY         VOTES        VOTES     TIONS     COINCIDENCE 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Argentina        77           0        0         100.0% 
Czech Rep.       77           0        0         100.0% 
France           77           0        0         100.0% 
Oman             77           0        0         100.0% 
Spain            77           0        0         100.0% 
United Kingdom   77           0        0         100.0% 
New Zealand      76           0        1         100.0% 
Nigeria          75           0        2         100.0% 
Brazil           72           0        5         100.0% 
China            72           0        5         100.0% 
Djibouti         76           1        0          98.7% 
Pakistan         75           1        1          98.7% 
Russia           74           1        2          98.7% 
Rwanda           71           1        5*         98.6% 
 
Average         75.2         0.3       1.5        99.6% 
---------------------------------------------------------------------- 
* Includes 4 absences. 
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