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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
1994 VOTING PRACTICES IN THE UNITED NATIONS
BUREAU OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANAIZATION AFFAIRS



               Voting Practices in the United Nations, 1994
                          Report to Congress
                Submitted Pursuant to Public Law, 101-167
                            March 31, 1995


IV: GENERAL ASSEMBLY  CONSENSUS ACTIONS
 
Of the 297 resolutions adopted by the 49th UNGA in 1994, 230 (77.4%) 
were by consensus. In addition, 71 of 74 decisions were adopted by 
consensus. Combining resolutions and decisions, the percentage of those 
adopted by consensus was 81.1%. The percentage of resolutions adopted by 
consensus thus remains at approximately last year's level, but is 
significantly higher than in the earlier years for which these reports 
have been compiled. The number of plenary votes is considerably below 
what it was just a few years ago. The number of plenary votes on 
resolutions and decisions is less than half the total seven years 
earlier at the 42nd UNGA. 
 
The following table illustrates these developments: 
Resolutions and Decisions 
------------------------------------------------------------------ 
                                                      Percentage 
UNGA        Votes     Consensus          Total        Consensus 
------------------------------------------------------------------- 
49th         70         301              371            81.1% 
48th         66         298              364            81.9% 
47th         78         265              343            77.3% 
46th         76         272              348            78.2% 
45th         90         297              387            76.7% 
44th        119         272              391            69.6% 
43rd        138         245              383            64.0% 
42nd        154         224              378            60.6% 
 
The important resolutions listed and discussed below were adopted by 
consensus at the 49th UNGA. All were selected on the same basis used in 
determining important votes discussed in Section III above, i.e., they 
were "issues which directly affected United States interests and on 
which the United States lobbied intensively."
 
This section has two parts. The first lists and describes the 24 
important consensus resolutions adopted at the 49th UNGA. The second 
statistically incorporates these important consensus resolutions with 
important votes at the 49th UNGA to provide a different perspective on 
the degree of support for U.S. positions at the United Nations. 
 
IMPORTANT CONSENSUS RESOLUTIONS 
 
The following 24 consensus agreements are identified by shortened 
titles. Each listing provides the resolution number, date of adoption, a 
summary description, and an explanation of the U.S. position. The 
resolutions are listed in numerical order. 
 
1. Disaster Early Warning System 
A/Res/49/22B                    December 20 
Requests that the Secretary General report on early warning capacities 
in the UN system and make proposals on how they may be improved and 
better coordinated in order to provide for an adequate response to 
recurring natural and man-made disasters. 
 
The United States joined consensus on this resolution because of the 
pressing need for planning together to meet future disasters and 
emergencies with greater efficiency and success, and early warning of an 
impending crisis is an essential part of such planning. 
 
2. Situation in Haiti 
A/Res/49/27                    December 5 
Expresses appreciation to all countries assisting the Haitian people in 
their efforts to return to a constitutional order and democracy; pays 
tribute to efforts of President Aristide and other Haitian leaders and 
governmental bodies to lead the country out of its crisis; commends 
progress in preparations for parliamentary and municipal elections as a 
further stage in strengthening democracy; and urges increased assistance 
in Haiti in support of efforts to strengthen institutions responsible 
for dispensing justice and guaranteeing democracy, respect for human 
rights, political stability, and economic development. 
 
This resolution reflects U.S. policy and efforts to restore democracy in 
Haiti. 
 
3. Comprehensive Review of Peacekeeping Operations 
A/Res/49/37                    December 9 
Stresses that peacekeeping operations contribute to, but are not a 
substitute for, political settlement of disputes, and should be preceded 
and accompanied by the use of all possible means for a peaceful 
settlement; expresses the belief that a clear and precise formulation of 
the mandate, incorporating achievable objectives, within a clear time-
frame, which should contribute to a political solution, and which are 
clearly related to the availability of resources, is of paramount 
importance; calls for enhanced consultations with troop-contributing 
countries; requests that the Secretary General continue to provide 
analytic reports on the performance of all peacekeeping operations; 
stresses the need for a unified and well-defined UN command and control 
structure; urges that immediate steps be taken to strengthen 
arrangements for political direction, military command and control, and 
consultations, as well as to improve coordination with humanitarian and 
other civilian aspects of peacekeeping operations; calls upon member 
states to pay their assessed contributions in full and on time; calls 
for a better mechanism of financial control, including reinforcement of 
audit and inspection mechanisms; welcomes the work of the Stand-by 
Forces Unit, and looks forward to the completion of the compilation of 
lists of units, forces, capabilities, or resources that member states 
would be prepared to put at UN disposal; notes the growing weight of the 
civilian component in peacekeeping operations and, in this respect, 
requests that the Secretary General develop a proposal for regularly 
updating data banks recording the type and availability of resources 
that member states could provide; welcomes the creation of a Policy and 
Analysis Unit and a Planning Division in the UN Department of 
Peacekeeping Operations; requests that the Secretary General strengthen 
further the civilian police function in the UN, with particular 
attention to planning, training, logistical support, and standardized 
doctrine and procedures; stresses the need for security of UN personnel 
to be an integral part of the planning of any peacekeeping operation; 
notes the importance of concluding arrangements between the United 
Nations and troop contributors before deployment occurs; stresses the 
need for the United Nations to adopt a more active approach to public 
information policy for peacekeeping operations, to keep local 
populations informed, to facilitate constructive communication between 
the parties, and to provide the international media with objective 
information so as to promote a more accurate understanding of UN action; 
recognizes that the United Nations should establish basic guidelines and 
performance standards for training of personnel for peacekeeping 
operations, while recognizing that training is essentially the 
responsibility of member states, and welcomes the development of 
training manuals and encourages establishment of peacekeeping training 
centers; stresses the need to enhance cooperation and coordination 
between the United Nations and regional organizations able to assist in 
peacekeeping activities; and decides that the Special Committee on 
Peacekeeping Operations should continue its efforts for a comprehensive 
review of peacekeeping operations. 
 
Through this resolution, the U.S. supported strengthening the UN 
peacekeeping infrastructure, particularly the activities regarding 
civilian police, peacekeeping training, and public affairs programs. The 
resolution is a comprehensive and precise statement of member state 
views that will assist the Secretariat as it strengthens peacekeeping 
infrastructure and policies. 
 
4. Conference on International Criminal Court 
A/Res/49/53                    December 9 
Decides to establish an ad hoc committee to review the issues arising 
out of the draft statute for an international criminal court prepared by 
the International Law Commission and, in light of that review, to 
consider arrangements for the convening of an international conference; 
decides that the ad hoc committee will meet in April 1995 and, if it so 
decides, again in August 1995, and submit its report to the General 
Assembly in September 1995; and invites member states to submit written 
comments on the draft statute to the Secretary General. 
 
The United States strongly supported the ad hoc committee approach in 
this resolution, and believes a compelling case can be made for a 
permanent court to try crimes under international humanitarian law, 
where prosecutions will directly affect issues of peace and security and 
where no other forum will suffice. 
 
5. Attacks on UN Personnel 
A/Res/49/59                    December 9 
Adopts and opens for signature and ratification the Convention on the 
Safety of UN and associated personnel; urges states to take measures to 
ensure the safety of UN personnel in their territory; and underlines the 
importance of a comprehensive review of arrangements for compensation 
for death, disability, injury, or illness attributable to peacekeeping 
service, with a view to developing equitable arrangements and to 
ensuring expeditious reimbursement. (The text of the Convention is 
annexed to the resolution.) 
 
This resolution achieves an important goal of U.S. peacekeeping policy. 
It corrects an important deficiency in international law by enlarging 
legal protection for UN peacekeepers and others associated with 
operations under a UN mandate. 
 
6. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 
A/Res/49/70                    December 15 
Welcomes the multilateral negotiation on a comprehensive nuclear-test-
ban treaty (CTBT) and urges all participants to negotiate intensively to 
conclude a universal and verifiable treaty that contributes to nuclear 
disarmament and prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. 
 
The United States cosponsored this resolution, which provided an 
encouraging backdrop to the continuation of the CTBT negotiations in 
Geneva and advances the U.S. goal of reaching a universal and 
effectively verifiable treaty. 
 
7. Middle East Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone 
A/Res/49/71                    December 15 
Urges all parties directly concerned to consider taking steps required 
for implementation of the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free 
zone in the Middle East; calls upon all countries that have not done so 
to agree to place all their nuclear activities under International 
Atomic Energy Agency safeguards; takes note of the importance of the 
ongoing bilateral Middle East peace negotiations and the activities of 
the multilateral working group on arms control in promoting mutual 
confidence and security; invites all countries of the region to declare 
their support for establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone and not to 
develop, produce, test, or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or permit 
the stationing of nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices on their 
territories; invites the nuclear-weapon states and all other states to 
render their assistance in establishment of the zone; invites all 
parties to consider means to contribute toward general and complete 
disarmament and establishment of a zone free of weapons of mass 
destruction in the Middle East. 
 
The United States, which is interested in preventing the spread of 
nuclear weapons in such volatile areas as the Middle East, was able to 
join consensus on this resolution, which takes note of the importance of 
the ongoing bilateral peace talks in the area. 
 
8. Moratorium on Export of Anti-Personnel Land Mines 
A/Res/49/75D                    December 15 
Urges states to implement a moratorium on the export of anti-personnel 
land mines that pose grave dangers to civilian populations, endorses 
their eventual elimination, and emphasizes the importance of the 
convention on prohibiting excessively injurious weapons. 
 
The United States introduced this resolution, with over 70 cosponsors, 
in our ongoing effort to address the devastating consequences of the 
indiscriminate use of such weapons. 
 
 
9. Excessively Injurious Weapons 
A/Res/49/79                    December 15 
Welcomes the fact that additional states have signed, ratified, or 
accepted the convention on prohibitions or restrictions on use of 
certain excessively injurious conventional weapons; urgently calls on 
all states that have not done so to become parties; welcomes the request 
that the Secretary General convene a conference to review the 
convention; and notes with satisfaction the progress made by the group 
of experts reviewing the protocol on use of mines and booby traps and in 
discussing other weapon categories at present not covered by the 
convention. 
 
The United States joined consensus on this resolution because it moves 
forward the task of restricting the use of certain conventional weapons 
deemed to be inhumane. 
 
10. Rationalization of First Committee's Work 
A/Res/49/85                    December 15 
Confirms and continues the rationalization of the work of the Committee, 
and urges further improvement in future sessions. 
 
The United States supports a better organized and more focused 
discussion in the Committee's meetings, to which this resolution 
contributes without making the meetings too rigid and structured for 
effectively addressing issues. It addresses improvement of practical 
aspects of the Committee's operations, and does not contain contentious 
substantive language. 
 
11. Chemical and Biological Weapons 
A/Res/49/86                    December 15 
Notes that a majority of states parties to the convention on biological 
and toxin weapons requested that a special conference be convened to 
consider the final report of the group of experts; welcomes the final 
report of the conference at which the parties agreed to establish an ad 
hoc group to consider measures, including possible verification 
measures, to strengthen the convention; calls on all parties to the 
convention to participate in the exchange of information and data agreed 
to in the Final Declaration of the Third Review Conference; and calls on 
all signatory states that have not yet ratified the convention to do so 
without delay. 
 
The United States joined consensus on this resolution, considering a 
global, verifiable ban on such weapons a major arms control objective. 
 
12. External Debt Problems of Developing Countries 
A/Res/49/93                    December 19 
Recognizes that a durable solution to the debt problems of the poorest 
and most heavily indebted developing countries suggests even more 
favorable terms of debt relief measures; emphasizes the importance to 
developing countries of continuing their efforts to promote a favorable 
environment for attracting foreign investment; invites creditor 
countries to cancel official development assistance debt; calls upon 
donor countries and multilateral financial institutions to consider new 
measures for alleviating the debt burden of low-income countries; 
encourages private creditors to continue efforts to address the 
commercial debt problems of the least developed countries and of low- 
and middle-income developing countries; stresses the need for new 
financial flows to debtor developing countries, and urges creditor 
countries and multilateral financial institutions to continue to extend 
concessional financial assistance to support economic reforms so as to 
enable these countries to extricate themselves from the debt overhang 
and to achieve sustained economic growth; urges wider application of 
innovative measures such as debt-for-equity and debt-for-nature swaps; 
recognizes the need to assist developing countries to mobilize resources 
for development efforts; and recognizes that debt relief could 
contribute toward releasing domestic resources for sustaining social 
development efforts. 
 
The United States was able to join consensus on this resolution because, 
unlike in recent years, it was balanced in character, acknowledging the 
concerns of the heavily indebted countries while fully respecting the 
rights of the donors and the prerogatives of the individual lending 
institutions that assist developing countries. The resolution also, and 
most importantly, does justice to those measures best suited to resuming 
or maintaining economic growth in any country: stability, sound 
macroeconomic policy, a favorable investment climate, accessible 
markets, and participation in international trade. 
 
13. UN International Symposium on Trade Efficiency 
A/Res/49/101                    December 19 
Expresses gratitude to the United States and to the city of Columbus, 
Ohio, for hosting the symposium; welcomes the adoption of the Columbus 
Ministerial Declaration on Trade Efficiency, embodying a policy 
framework and a set of practical actions and recommendations for more 
efficient trade worldwide; welcomes the launching of the Global Trade 
Point Network, which, by electronically interconnecting trade points 
worldwide, will allow all member countries to trade more efficiently; 
expresses appreciation to the UN Conference on Trade and Development 
(UNCTAD) for organizing the symposium, which underscored the importance 
of market forces and trade liberalization to achieve economic 
development, and encouraged an open exchange of views on practical, 
market-oriented solutions to problems of economic development; 
encourages UNCTAD to continue its efforts to promote the use of the 
global marketplace to support development and implementation of the 
Declaration, in particular the establishment of trade points and their 
integration in the Global Trade Point Network, based on open systems 
that guarantee equality of access for all countries, with the 
cooperation of the private sector and UN bodies; and asks UNCTAD to 
continue its efforts in the trade efficiency area. 
 
The United States introduced this resolution, which notes the 
achievements of the U.S.-hosted symposium in which the importance of 
market forces and trade liberalization in achieving economic development 
was underscored. 
 
14.Integrating Economies in Transition into the World Economy 
A/Res/49/106                    December 19 
Invites the UN system to continue its support for the efforts of 
economies in transition as they transform their economies from centrally 
planned to market economies and integrate them into the world economy; 
and calls upon the UN system to continue studying possible ways of 
enhancing economic and technical cooperation among countries with 
economies in transition, identifying how the UN system can strengthen 
cooperation, with a view to encouraging greater participation by those 
countries in the world economy. 
 
The United States cosponsored this Estonia-drafted resolution, which 
notes the importance of the transformation to market economies and notes 
the role of the international financial institutions in encouraging 
sound economic policies. 
 
15. Global Learning to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) 
A/Res/49/112                    December 19 
Welcomes the U.S.-initiated GLOBE program, which aims to enhance 
awareness of individuals throughout the world concerning the 
environment, increase scientific understanding of the Earth, and help 
students reach the highest standards in science and mathematics 
education; welcomes participation by other governments with the United 
States in shaping the program; and encourages UN organs and programs to 
take part. 
 
The United States, recognizing the continuing deterioration of the 
global environment due to the impact of constantly increasing human 
activity, introduced this resolution. 
 
16. Unauthorized Fishing 
A/Res/49/116                    December 19 
Calls upon states to take measures to ensure that no fishing vessels 
entitled to fly their national flag engage in fishing in zones under the 
national jurisdiction of other states unless duly authorized by the 
competent authorities of the coastal states concerned; and calls upon 
development assistance organizations to support efforts to improve the 
monitoring and control of fishing activities, and the enforcement of 
fishing regulations. 
 
This resolution, cosponsored by the United States, helps protect U.S. 
fishing interests by calling for respect for the authority of coastal 
states in control over fishing. 
 
17. Fisheries Bycatch and Discards 
A/Res/49/118                    December 19 
Notes that the issue of bycatch (non-target fish and non-fish species) 
and discards in fishing operations warrants serious attention and that 
addressing this issue is necessary to ensure the long-term and 
sustainable development of fisheries; invites the UN Food and 
Agriculture Organization to formulate fisheries bycatch and discard 
provisions in its international code of conduct for responsible fishing; 
invites the UN Conference on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory 
Fish Stocks to elaborate fisheries bycatch and discard provisions; and 
invites relevant subregional and regional fisheries management 
organizations to review the impact of fisheries bycatch and discards on 
the sustainable use of living marine resources. 
 
The United States introduced this resolution as a part of its effort to 
promote the rational and sustainable development of fisheries and other 
living marine resources. 
 
18. Driftnet Fishing 
Decision                    December 19 
Reaffirms the importance of compliance with the global moratorium on all 
large-scale pelagic driftnet fishing on the high seas; expresses concern 
that, despite measures taken and progress made, there are reports of 
continuing conduct and activities inconsistent with the moratorium; and 
urges greater enforcement responsibility to ensure full compliance. 
 
The United States introduced the draft decision on this matter to 
emphasize the importance of better enforcement of the moratorium on 
driftnet fishing, as a follow-up to the effort begun in 1989 and 
strongly supported by the United States to control and mitigate large-
scale driftnet fishing on the high seas, which posed a serious threat to 
the marine environment. 
 
19. Strengthening Coordination of UN Humanitarian Emergency Aid 
A/Res/49/139                    December 20 
Acknowledges the need for further developing and strengthening of 
system-wide coordination to improve the capability for a quick and 
coordinated response to natural disasters and other emergencies; notes 
the usefulness of the Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF) for 
enhancing the capacity to address promptly the urgent requirements of 
the initial phase of such emergencies; recognizes the need to maintain 
an adequate level of resources in the CERF; invites the Secretary 
General to improve the CERF's functioning; stresses the responsibility 
of organizations having drawn from the CERF to reimburse the Fund fully 
and in a timely manner; urges all operational agencies to collaborate 
fully with the Department of Humanitarian Affairs in providing 
sufficient financial and human resources for rapid coordination 
arrangements to enhance the rapid-response capability of the UN system; 
encourages voluntary national and regional actions aimed at providing 
the UN system, on a stand-by basis, with specialized human and technical 
resources for emergency relief and rehabilitation; encourages these 
national volunteer corps ("White Helmets") to develop appropriate 
capabilities and expertise; invites governments to promote financial 
mechanisms to fund these national stand-by capacities; and invites the 
Secretary General to assess the potential for coordination of national 
volunteer corps by UN organs and for channeling UN funds to them. 
 
The United States, which has strongly supported efforts to strengthen 
coordination of UN programs to meet emergency humanitarian needs over 
the past two years, including stand-by ready-response capabilities and 
contingency funds, joined consensus on this resolution. 
 
20. New Agenda for Development of Africa 
A/Res/49/142                    December 23 
Reaffirms the high priority attached to Africa's economic recovery; 
calls anew upon the international community to provide full and tangible 
support to African efforts; urges the multilateral financial 
institutions and recipient and donor countries to pay special attention 
to eradication of poverty; affirms the need for further efforts to 
promote diversification of African economies; urges the international 
community to increase financial resource flows; invites the 
international community to address Africa's external debt crisis; urges 
states to work toward achieving an average of 4 percent real growth in 
annual financial resource flows to Africa; invites members of the 
African Development Bank, developed countries, multilateral 
institutions, and others to pay particular attention to diversification 
of African economies, particularly commodities, with a view to 
accelerating this process; and urges African countries to continue 
efforts to improve the investment climate, and urges donor countries to 
support those efforts by providing increased assistance to human 
resource development and to development of social and economic 
infrastructure. 
 
The United States, a leading supporter of international efforts to 
assist the troubled economies of Africa, regarded this resolution as 
containing may positive elements, and thus joined consensus on it. 
However, we underlined our continuing opposition to a diversification 
fund for African commodities and to the notion of convening a conference 
on African debt. And we reiterated that we do not accept the aid targets 
(percentages of the donor country's gross national product) specified in 
the resolution. 
 
21. Report of UN High Commissioner for Refugees 
A/Res/49/169                    December 23 
Deplores the fact that some refugees have been subjected to armed 
attack, murder, rape, and other violations of fundamental rights; calls 
upon all states to uphold asylum as an instrument for protection of 
refugees; recognizes the desirability of providing temporary protection 
in situations in which return home is considered the most appropriate 
durable solution; stresses the importance of burden-sharing and urges 
cooperation in efforts to lighten the burden borne by states that have 
received large numbers of refugees; reiterates that voluntary 
repatriation, when feasible, is the ideal solution to refugee problems, 
and encourages all countries to do everything possible to enable 
refugees to exercise their right to return home; calls for a more 
concerted response by the international community to the needs of 
internally displaced persons, and reaffirms support for the High 
Commissioner's efforts to provide humanitarian assistance and protection 
to such persons; calls upon parties to conflicts to ensure timely 
humanitarian access to persons in need of protection and assistance; 
emphasizes the need to preserve the impartial and purely humanitarian 
nature of the activities of the Office of the High Commissioner; and 
expresses profound concern at conditions in a number of countries that 
seriously endanger the security of relief workers, and calls upon 
parties to conflicts to ensure the security of staff undertaking 
humanitarian work. 
 
The United States, which strongly endorses and supports the work of the 
High Commissioner, cosponsored this resolution. 
 
22. Human Rights in Myanmar (Burma) 
A/Res/49/197                    December 23 
Deplores the continued violations of human rights in Myanmar; calls for 
the unconditional and immediate release of political prisoners; urges 
the Government of Myanmar to move toward restoration of democracy and to 
ensure that political parties can function freely; notes with concern 
that most representatives elected in 1990 are still excluded from 
participating in meetings of the National Convention created to draft a 
new constitution; urges the Government of Myanmar to allow citizens to 
participate freely in the political process and to accelerate the 
process of transition to democracy; urges an end to human rights 
violations: torture, abuse of women, forced labor, forced relocations, 
enforced disappearances, and summary executions; regrets continued 
detention of political leaders; and encourages the Government of Myanmar 
to create conditions to end the flow of refugees to neighboring 
countries and facilitate their speedy return, repatriation, and 
reintegration. 
 
The United States cosponsored this resolution to call international 
attention to the abysmal human rights situation and the shortcomings of 
the political process in Burma. 
 
23. Assistance in Mine Clearance 
A/Res/49/215                    December 23 
Welcomes the establishment by the Secretary General of a voluntary trust 
fund to finance information and training programs relating to mine 
clearance and to facilitate mine-clearance operations; emphasizes the 
importance of UN coordination of mine-clearance activities; urges 
states, regional organizations, and others to extend assistance to the 
Secretary General and to provide him with data and other resources 
useful in strengthening the coordination role of the United Nations in 
mine-awareness, training, surveying, mine detection and clearance, and 
scientific research for mine-detection technology; calls on states to 
assist in removing mines and booby traps; and asks the Secretary General 
to convene an international meeting on mine clearance, including experts 
and donors. 
 
The United States cosponsored and worked for the passage of this 
resolution to advance the U.S. goal of reducing the casualties caused by 
the indiscriminate use of mines. 
 
24. Budget Outline for 1996-1997 
A/Res/49/217                    December 23 
Invites the Secretary General to prepare his proposed program budget for 
the biennium 1996-1997 on the basis of the total preliminary estimate of 
$2.574 billion; and decides that the contingency fund shall be set at 
0.75 percent of the preliminary estimate, i.e., $20.6 million. 
 
In this resolution, we achieved consensus on a budget outline that 
maintains the U.S. policy of zero real growth, while identifying 
priorities consistent with our policy objectives: enhanced capacity for 
human rights and humanitarian affairs, reinforced backstopping for 
peacekeeping operations, and strengthened internal oversight functions. 
 
COINCIDENCE PERCENTAGES 
 
Tables below consolidate statistically the 15 important votes, discussed 
in Section III, with the 24 important consensus agreements above. They 
are meant to provide another perspective on cooperation between the 
United States and UN member states on important issues at the 49th UNGA. 
Since not all states are equally active at the United Nations, refined 
coincidence percentages are also provided for the number of consensus 
agreements credited to a state based on its participation in all UN 
voting overall. 
 
What the four columns of figures represent: 
 
 Voting coincidence. The percentage obtained when each UN member's 
record on important votes is combined with full credit for participating 
in all 24 important consensus resolutions. Countries with large numbers 
of absences score low in this table because they get little credit on 
the 24 consensus resolutions. 
 
 Absences. The number of times a country did not participate in the 92 
recorded plenary votes. Countries most frequently absent for votes were 
Zaire, 91 times; Seychelles, 73; Rwanda, 72; Bosnia and Herzegovina, 56; 
Angola, 48; Eritrea, 48; and Madagascar, 42. (Chad, Dominican Republic, 
Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Palau, Sao Tome and Principe, 
Somalia, and Yugoslavia did not participate. An asterisk appears in the 
voting coincidence columns for these countries.) 
 
 Participation Rate. Calculated by dividing the number of 
Yes/No/Abstain votes cast by a UN member in plenary (i.e., the number of 
times it was not absent) by the total of plenary votes (92). 
 
 Adjusted Coincidence. This modifies the voting coincidence percentages 
in column one by applying the "Participation Rate" to consensus 
agreements. For example, if a UN member state were absent for 10 of the 
92 votes in 1994, it would be given credit for only 89.1% (21.4) 
consensus resolutions rather than 24. 
 
The first table is organized alphabetically by country. The second lists 
countries by rank order of Adjusted Coincidence; when this figure is 
identical for two or more countries, they are ranked by participation 
rate; when this figure, too, is the same, countries are listed 
alphabetically. 
 
Important Votes and Adjusted Consensus 
------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                       VOTING               PARTICIPA-     ADJUSTED 
COUNTRY              COINCIDENCE   ABSENCES  TION RATE    COINCIDENCE 
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Afghanistan             81.1%        11         88.0%         79.5%  
Albania                 94.4%        11         88.0%         94.0%  
Algeria                 86.5%         1         98.9%         86.4%  
Andorra                 91.7%        12         87.0%         90.9%  
Angola                  90.3%        48         47.8%         83.8%  
Antigua and Barbuda     91.2%         3         96.7%         91.0%  
Argentina               97.1%         0        100.0%         97.1%  
Armenia                 90.9%         5         94.6%         90.5%  
Australia               91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Austria                 91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Azerbaijan              88.2%        15         83.7%         86.7%  
Bahamas                 89.2%         0        100.0%         89.2%  
Bahrain                 90.9%         8         91.3%         90.3%  
Bangladesh              83.3%         7         92.4%         82.4%  
Barbados                88.9%         1         98.9%         88.8%  
Belarus                 93.8%         0        100.0%         93.8%  
Belgium                 91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Belize                  91.2%        12         87.0%         90.3%  
Benin                   88.2%         2         97.8%         88.1%  
Bhutan                  88.2%        23         75.0%         85.7%  
Bolivia                 89.2%         0        100.0%         89.2%  
Bosnia and Herzegovina  93.8%        56         39.1%         88.5%  
Botswana                86.8%         0        100.0%         86.8%  
Brazil                  88.9%         0        100.0%         88.9%  
Brunei                  85.3%         1         98.9%         85.2%  
Bulgaria                94.3%         1         98.9%         94.2%  
Burkina Faso            85.7%         8         91.3%         84.8%  
Burundi                 85.3%        17         81.5%         83.1%  
Cambodia                94.1%        14         84.8%         93.4%  
Cameroon                90.3%         0        100.0%         90.3%  
Canada                  91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Cape Verde              91.4%        26         71.7%         89.4%  
Central African Rep.   100.0%        23         75.0%         100.0%  
Chad                         *       92          0.0%            * 
Chile                   91.9%         0        100.0%          91.9%  
China                   78.1%         8         91.3%         76.6%  
Colombia                86.1%         1         98.9%         86.0%  
Comoros                 97.0%        11         88.0%         96.7%  
Congo                   87.1%        12         87.0%         85.6%  
Costa Rica              94.4%         5         94.6%         94.2%  
Cote d'Ivoire           96.7%         0        100.0%         96.7%  
Croatia                 97.1%         7         92.4%         96.9%  
Cuba                    75.8%         7         92.4%         74.3%  
Cyprus                  88.6%         4         95.7%         88.2%  
Czech Republic          97.1%         0        100.0%         97.1%  
DPR of Korea            75.0%        12         87.0%         72.3%  
Denmark                 91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Djibouti                93.9%        12         87.0%         93.3%  
Dominica               100.0%        25         72.8%         100.0%  
Dominican Republic         *         92          0.0%         * 
Ecuador                 87.2%         1         98.9%         87.1%  
Egypt                   88.2%         8         91.3%         87.5%  
El Salvador             94.4%        15         83.7%         93.8%  
Equatorial Guinea          *         92          0.0%         * 
Eritrea                100.0%        48         47.8%         100.0%  
Estonia                 97.1%         5         94.6%         96.9%  
Ethiopia                90.6%         5         94.6%         90.2%  
Fiji                    97.1%         5         94.6%         96.9%  
Finland                 91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
France                  91.9%         2         97.8%         91.8%  
Gabon                   96.9%         2         97.8%         96.8%  
Gambia                  93.3%        35         62.0%         90.4%  
Georgia                100.0%         2         97.8%         100.0%  
Germany                 94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Ghana                   87.1%         8         91.3%         86.2%  
Greece                  91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Grenada                 91.4%         6         93.5%         91.0%  
Guatemala               93.5%        17         81.5%         92.5%  
Guinea                  88.2%         2         97.8%         88.1%  
Guinea-Bissau              *         92          0.0%         * 
Guyana                  89.2%         1         98.9%         89.1%  
Haiti                   89.5%         4         95.7%         89.2%  
Honduras                89.2%         5         94.6%         88.8%  
Hungary                 94.6%         0        100.0%         94.6%  
Iceland                 97.1%         1         98.9%         97.1%  
India                   79.4%         0        100.0%         79.4%  
Indonesia               78.9%         0        100.0%         78.9%  
Iran                    75.7%        12         87.0%         73.4%  
Iraq                    77.1%        16         82.6%         74.0%  
Ireland                 94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Israel                 100.0%         0        100.0%         100.0%  
Italy                   94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Jamaica                 91.7%         4         95.7%         91.4%  
Japan                   94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Jordan                  85.7%         7         92.4%         84.9%  
Kazakhstan              94.1%         1         98.9%         94.1%  
Kenya                   90.6%         0        100.0%         90.6%  
Kuwait                  91.4%         4         95.7%         91.2%  
Kyrgyzstan              93.5%        18         80.4%         92.4%  
Laos                    86.2%        20         78.3%         83.2%  
Latvia                 100.0%         5         94.6%         100.0%  
Lebanon                 85.7%        15         83.7%         83.9%  
Lesotho                 87.9%        10         89.1%         86.8%  
Liberia                      *       92          0.0%         * 
Libya                   73.7%         1         98.9%         73.5%  
Liechtenstein           91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Lithuania               97.0%        10         89.1%         96.7%  
Luxembourg              91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Madagascar              96.6%        42         54.3%         94.5%  
Malawi                  90.6%        27         70.7%         88.0%  
Malaysia                83.3%         1         98.9%         83.2%  
Maldives                88.6%         0        100.0%         88.6%  
Mali                    85.7%         2         97.8%         85.5%  
Malta                   94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Marshall Islands        97.1%         1         98.9%         97.1%  
Mauritania              88.6%         3         96.7%         88.3%  
Mauritius               94.3%         4         95.7%         94.1%  
Mexico                  86.1%         0        100.0%         86.1%  
Micronesia             100.0%         4         95.7%         100.0%  
Moldova                 97.1%         3         96.7%         97.0%  
Monaco                  94.4%        16         82.6%         93.7%  
Mongolia                89.2%         8         91.3%         88.5%  
Morocco                 90.9%         9         90.2%         90.2%  
Mozambique              88.2%         8         91.3%         87.5%  
Myanmar                 79.4%         1         98.9%         79.3%  
Namibia                 83.3%         1         98.9%         83.2%  
Nepal                   91.2%         1         98.9%         91.1%  
Netherlands             94.4%         1         98.9%         94.4%  
New Zealand             89.2%         0        100.0%         89.2%  
Nicaragua               91.9%         4         95.7%         91.7%  
Niger                   88.6%         0        100.0%         88.6%  
Nigeria                 90.3%         0        100.0%         90.3%  
Norway                  94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Oman                    85.7%         5         94.6%         85.2%  
Pakistan                81.1%         0        100.0%         81.1%  
Palau                       *        92          0.0%         * 
Panama                  91.4%         5         94.6%         91.1%  
Papua New Guinea        90.9%        10         89.1%         90.1%  
Paraguay                89.5%         1         98.9%         89.4%  
Peru                    91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Philippines             85.7%         0        100.0%         85.7%  
Poland                  94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Portugal                94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Qatar                   88.2%         9         90.2%         87.4%  
Republic of Korea       91.7%         2         97.8%         91.5%  
Romania                 94.3%         1         98.9%         94.2%  
Russia                  97.0%         0        100.0%         97.0%  
Rwanda                  96.8%        72         21.7%         91.8%  
St. Kitts and Nevis     91.4%         4         95.7%         91.2%  
St. Lucia               88.9%         9         90.2%         88.1%  
St. Vincent-Grenadines  91.7%         8         91.3%         91.2%  
Samoa                   91.9%        10         89.1%         91.3%  
San Marino              96.3%        32         65.2%         94.6%  
Sao Tome and Principe       *        92          0.0%         * 
Saudi Arabia            88.6%         4         95.7%         88.2%  
Senegal                 91.4%         4         95.7%         91.2%  
Seychelles              96.0%        73         20.7%         83.2%  
Sierra Leone            87.9%        10         89.1%         86.8%  
Singapore               91.4%         0        100.0%         91.4%  
Slovak Republic         94.3%         7         92.4%         94.0%  
Slovenia                94.6%         2         97.8%         94.5%  
Solomon Islands         97.1%        10         89.1%         96.9%  
Somalia                     *        92          0.0%         * 
South Africa            86.1%         2         97.8%         85.9%  
Spain                   91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Sri Lanka               83.3%         0        100.0%         83.3%  
Sudan                   75.0%        12         87.0%         72.6%  
Suriname                89.2%         0        100.0%         89.2%  
Swaziland              100.0%         9         90.2%        100.0%  
Sweden                  91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Syria                   75.7%        13         85.9%         73.2%  
Tajikistan              88.6%         9         90.2%         87.7%  
Thailand                85.7%         1         98.9%         85.6%  
TFYR Macedonia          94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Togo                    90.0%         1         98.9%         89.9%  
Trinidad and Tobago     91.7%         3         96.7%         91.5%  
Tunisia                 88.2%         1         98.9%         88.1%  
Turkey                  91.9%         1         98.9%         91.8%  
Turkmenistan            90.3%        33         64.1%         86.6%  
Uganda                  83.3%         1         98.9%         83.2%  
Ukraine                 93.9%         1         98.9%         93.9%  
United Arab Emirates    91.2%         7         92.4%         90.7%  
United Kingdom          94.4%         1         98.9%         94.4%  
U.R. Tanzania           80.0%         1         98.9%         79.8%  
Uruguay                 94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Uzbekistan              93.8%        14         84.8%         92.9%  
Vanuatu                 96.6%        29         68.5%         95.3%  
Venezuela               86.1%         0        100.0%         86.1%  
Vietnam                 75.8%        12         87.0%         73.2%  
Yemen                   85.7%         7         92.4%         84.9%  
Yugoslavia (S/M)            *        92          0.0%         * 
Zaire                   96.0%        91          1.1%         20.7%  
Zambia                  85.7%         1         98.9%         85.6%  
Zimbabwe                81.8%         0        100.0%         81.8%  
 
Average                 90.6%       87.0%        89.6%  
 
 
Important Votes and Adjusted Consensus  
(Ranked by Adjusted Coincidence) 
------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                       VOTING               PARTICIPA-     ADJUSTED 
COUNTRY              COINCIDENCE   ABSENCES  TION RATE    COINCIDENCE 
--------------------------------------------------------------------- 
Israel                 100.0%         0        100.0%        100.0%  
Georgia                100.0%         2         97.8%        100.0%  
Micronesia             100.0%         4         95.7%        100.0%  
Latvia                 100.0%         5         94.6%        100.0%  
Swaziland              100.0%         9         90.2%        100.0%  
Central African Rep.   100.0%        23         75.0%        100.0%  
Dominica               100.0%        25         72.8%        100.0%  
Eritrea                100.0%        48         47.8%        100.0%  
Argentina               97.1%         0        100.0%         97.1%  
Czech Republic          97.1%         0        100.0%         97.1%  
Iceland                 97.1%         1         98.9%         97.1%  
Marshall Islands        97.1%         1         98.9%         97.1%  
Moldova                 97.1%         3         96.7%         97.0%  
Russia                  97.0%         0        100.0%         97.0%  
Estonia                 97.1%         5         94.6%         96.9%  
Fiji                    97.1%         5         94.6%         96.9%  
Solomon Islands         97.1%        10         89.1%         96.9%  
Croatia                 97.1%         7         92.4%         96.9%  
Gabon                   96.9%         2         97.8%         96.8%  
Lithuania               97.0%        10         89.1%         96.7%  
Comoros                 97.0%        11         88.0%         96.7%  
Cote d'Ivoire           96.7%         0        100.0%         96.7%  
Vanuatu                 96.6%        29         68.5%         95.3%  
San Marino              96.3%        32         65.2%         94.6%  
Hungary                 94.6%         0        100.0%         94.6%  
Slovenia                94.6%         2         97.8%         94.5%  
Madagascar              96.6%        42         54.3%         94.5%  
Germany                 94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Italy                   94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Malta                   94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Portugal                94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
TFYR Macedonia          94.4%         0        100.0%         94.4%  
Netherlands             94.4%         1         98.9%         94.4%  
United Kingdom          94.4%         1         98.9%         94.4%  
Ireland                 94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Japan                   94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Norway                  94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Poland                  94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Uruguay                 94.3%         0        100.0%         94.3%  
Bulgaria                94.3%         1         98.9%         94.2%  
Romania                 94.3%         1         98.9%         94.2%  
Costa Rica              94.4%         5         94.6%         94.2%  
Mauritius               94.3%         4         95.7%         94.1%  
Kazakhstan              94.1%         1         98.9%         94.1%  
Slovak Republic         94.3%         7         92.4%         94.0%  
Albania                 94.4%        11         88.0%         94.0%  
Ukraine                 93.9%         1         98.9%         93.9%  
El Salvador             94.4%        15         83.7%         93.8%  
Belarus                 93.8%         0        100.0%         93.8%  
Monaco                  94.4%        16         82.6%         93.7%  
Cambodia                94.1%        14         84.8%         93.4%  
Djibouti                93.9%        12         87.0%         93.3%  
Uzbekistan              93.8%        14         84.8%         92.9%  
Guatemala               93.5%        17         81.5%         92.5%  
Kyrgyzstan              93.5%        18         80.4%         92.4%  
Austria                 91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Belgium                 91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Chile                   91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Denmark                 91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Finland                 91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Greece                  91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Luxembourg              91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Spain                   91.9%         0        100.0%         91.9%  
Turkey                  91.9%         1         98.9%         91.8%  
Rwanda                  96.8%        72         21.7%         91.8%  
France                  91.9%         2         97.8%         91.8%  
Australia               91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Canada                  91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Liechtenstein           91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Peru                    91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Sweden                  91.7%         0        100.0%         91.7%  
Nicaragua               91.9%         4         95.7%         91.7%  
Republic of Korea       91.7%         2         97.8%         91.5%  
Trinidad and Tobago     91.7%         3         96.7%         91.5%  
Singapore               91.4%         0        100.0%         91.4%  
Jamaica                 91.7%         4         95.7%         91.4%  
Samoa                   91.9%        10         89.1%         91.3%  
Kuwait                  91.4%         4         95.7%         91.2%  
Senegal                 91.4%         4         95.7%         91.2%  
St. Kitts and Nevis     91.4%         4         95.7%         91.2%  
St. Vincent-Grenadines  91.7%         8         91.3%         91.2%  
Nepal                   91.2%         1         98.9%         91.1%  
Panama                  91.4%         5         94.6%         91.1%  
Grenada                 91.4%         6         93.5%         91.0%  
Antigua and Barbuda     91.2%         3         96.7%         91.0%  
Andorra                 91.7%        12         87.0%         90.9%  
United Arab Emirates    91.2%         7         92.4%         90.7%  
Kenya                   90.6%         0        100.0%         90.6%  
Armenia                 90.9%         5         94.6%         90.5%  
Gambia                  93.3%        35         62.0%         90.4%  
Cameroon                90.3%         0        100.0%         90.3%  
Nigeria                 90.3%         0        100.0%         90.3%  
Bahrain                 90.9%         8         91.3%         90.3%  
Belize                  91.2%        12         87.0%         90.3%  
Ethiopia                90.6%         5         94.6%         90.2%  
Morocco                 90.9%         9         90.2%         90.2%  
Papua New Guinea        90.9%        10         89.1%         90.1%  
Togo                    90.0%         1         98.9%         89.9%  
Paraguay                89.5%         1         98.9%         89.4%  
Cape Verde              91.4%        26         71.7%         89.4%  
Bahamas                 89.2%         0        100.0%         89.2%  
Bolivia                 89.2%         0        100.0%         89.2%  
New Zealand             89.2%         0        100.0%         89.2%  
Suriname                89.2%         0        100.0%         89.2%  
Haiti                   89.5%         4         95.7%         89.2%  
Guyana                  89.2%         1         98.9%         89.1%  
Brazil                  88.9%         0        100.0%         88.9%  
Barbados                88.9%         1         98.9%         88.8%  
Honduras                89.2%         5         94.6%         88.8%  
Maldives                88.6%         0        100.0%         88.6%  
Niger                   88.6%         0        100.0%         88.6%  
Mongolia                89.2%         8         91.3%         88.5%  
Bosnia-Herzegovina      93.8%        56         39.1%         88.5%  
Mauritania              88.6%         3         96.7%         88.3%  
Cyprus                  88.6%         4         95.7%         88.2%  
Saudi Arabia            88.6%         4         95.7%         88.2%  
Tunisia                 88.2%         1         98.9%         88.1%  
St. Lucia               88.9%         9         90.2%         88.1%  
Benin                   88.2%         2         97.8%         88.1%  
Guinea                  88.2%         2         97.8%         88.1%  
Malawi                  90.6%        27         70.7%         88.0%  
Tajikistan              88.6%         9         90.2%         87.7%  
Egypt                   88.2%         8         91.3%         87.5%  
Mozambique              88.2%         8         91.3%         87.5%  
Qatar                   88.2%         9         90.2%         87.4%  
Ecuador                 87.2%         1         98.9%         87.1%  
Botswana                86.8%         0        100.0%         86.8%  
Lesotho                 87.9%        10         89.1%         86.8%  
Sierra Leone            87.9%        10         89.1%         86.8%  
Azerbaijan              88.2%        15         83.7%         86.7%  
Turkmenistan            90.3%        33         64.1%         86.6%  
Algeria                 86.5%         1         98.9%         86.4%  
Ghana                   87.1%         8         91.3%         86.2%  
Mexico                  86.1%         0        100.0%         86.1%  
Venezuela               86.1%         0        100.0%         86.1%  
Colombia                86.1%         1         98.9%         86.0%  
South Africa            86.1%         2         97.8%         85.9%  
Philippines             85.7%         0        100.0%         85.7%  
Bhutan                  88.2%        23         75.0%         85.7%  
Congo                   87.1%        12         87.0%         85.6%  
Thailand                85.7%         1         98.9%         85.6%  
Zambia                  85.7%         1         98.9%         85.6%  
Mali                    85.7%         2         97.8%         85.5%  
Brunei                  85.3%         1         98.9%         85.2%  
Oman                    85.7%         5         94.6%         85.2%  
Jordan                  85.7%         7         92.4%         84.9%  
Yemen                   85.7%         7         92.4%         84.9%  
Burkina Faso            85.7%         8         91.3%         84.8%  
Lebanon                 85.7%        15         83.7%         83.9%  
Angola                  90.3%        48         47.8%         83.8%  
Sri Lanka               83.3%         0        100.0%         83.3%  
Malaysia                83.3%         1         98.9%         83.2%  
Namibia                 83.3%         1         98.9%         83.2%  
Uganda                  83.3%         1         98.9%         83.2%  
Seychelles              96.0%        73         20.7%         83.2%  
Laos                    86.2%        20         78.3%         83.2%  
Burundi                 85.3%        17         81.5%         83.1%  
Bangladesh              83.3%         7         92.4%         82.4%  
Zimbabwe                81.8%         0        100.0%         81.8%  
Pakistan                81.1%         0        100.0%         81.1%  
U.R. Tanzania           80.0%         1         98.9%         79.8%  
Afghanistan             81.1%        11         88.0%         79.5%  
India                   79.4%         0        100.0%         79.4%  
Myanmar                 79.4%         1        98.9%         79.3%  
Indonesia               78.9%         0        100.0%         78.9%  
China                   78.1%         8        91.3%         76.6%  
Cuba                    75.8%         7        92.4%         74.3%  
Iraq                    77.1%        16        82.6%         74.0%  
Libya                   73.7%         1        98.9%         73.5%  
Iran                    75.7%        12        87.0%         73.4%  
Syria                   75.7%        13        85.9%         73.2%  
Vietnam                 75.8%        12        87.0%         73.2%  
Sudan                   75.0%        12        87.0%         72.6%  
DPR of Korea            75.0%        12        87.0%         72.3%  
Zaire                   96.0%        91         1.1%         20.7%  
Chad                         *       92         0.0%         * 
Dominican Republic           *       92         0.0%         * 
Equatorial Guinea            *       92         0.0%         * 
Guinea-Bissau                *       92         0.0%         * 
Liberia                      *       92         0.0%         * 
Palau                        *       92         0.0%         * 
Sao Tome and Principe        *       92         0.0%         * 
Somalia                      *       92         0.0%         * 
Yugoslavia (S/M)             *       92         0.0%         * 
 
Average                 90.6%       87.0%         89.6%  
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