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August 1994 US Report to UN on Status of Women 1985-1994

[Section 5 of 5]




By 1985, there had emerged within the U.S. a public discourse on 
violence against women, which recognized -- for the first time -- the 
acute danger of physical and sexual violence that many women faced in 
their own homes.  Federal statistics offer the following picture of 
violence in America during the years 1979-1987:

o  Women were generally less likely than men to be crime victims -- The 
average annual rate at which women fell victim to a non-lethal violent 
crime (defined as including rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and 
simple assault) was 25.8 per 1,000 persons -- or approximately three-
fifths the average annual rate of non-lethal violent victimization 
(45.1) for men.  The rate of homicide victimization during 1980-1984 was 
likewise lower for women than for men (3.61 per thousand for women, 
compared to 12.40 per thousand for men), however, homicide is by far the 
most frequent manner in which women workers are fatally injured.

o  Rate of female victimization remained constant through 1987 -- 
Whereas men's rate of non-lethal violent victimization decreased 
approximately 20% from 1973 through 1987, the rate at which women fell 
victim to violent crime essentially remained constant.

o  Greatest risks to women were sexual assault and domestic violence -- 
Although women were less likely than men to be victims of violent crime 
generally, they were eight times more likely than men to be victims of 
sexual assault and three times more likely than men to be victims of 
violence perpetrated by family members or intimates (including spouses, 
ex-spouses, boyfriends, or girlfriends).  Therefore, whereas addressing 
the problem of violence against men mainly involves addressing the 
causes of random violence perpetrated by strangers, addressing the 
problem of violence against women requires development of strategies 
aimed at combating the unique issues surrounding sexual assault and 
domestic abuse.

o  Low-income and minority women were most at risk -- African American 
women experienced non-lethal violent crime at a rate 44% higher than 
that of women of other races, and Hispanic women were 19% more likely to 
be non-lethal violent crime victims than non-Hispanic women.  In 
homicide comparisons, race disparities were even more marked.  African 
American women from 1980-1984 were five times more likely than white 
women to be victims of homicide.

     Likewise, low-income women were twice as likely to be victims of 
non-lethal violent crime than were women with high family incomes.  
Women younger than the age of 35 experienced significantly higher rates 
of crime than men or women over the age of 35.

o  Abortion clinics and health care clinics offering abortions services 
have been increasingly subject to acts of violence -- acts that target 
doctors, staff, patients, volunteers and the facilities.  Three doctors 
and a clinic escort have been murdered in the past 17 months.  The 
violence and intimidation has forced some clinics to close and some 
health providers to quit, leaving many women who depend on these clinics 
without alternative health care services.  Of the 281 clinics 
participating in a 1993 Feminist Majority Foundation Clinic Violence 
Survey, 50.2% experienced anti-abortion violence.  These violent acts 
included death threats (21%), stalking (14.9%), arson (1.8%, bomb 
threats (18.1%), invasions (14.6%), and blockades (16%),.  Most of these 
clinics, 93.6% offered health care services in addition to abortion, 
including birth control, cancer screening, infertility treatment and 
pre-natal care.

By 1985, public awareness of and response to violence against women had 
risen dramatically.  Shelters organized by volunteers and often run out 
of private homes had begun to open their doors to battered women in 
1974; by 1985, many of these shelters received federal assistance and 
occupied large facilities.  (It is estimated that only two shelters 
existed in the U.S. in 1974; by 1984, that number had risen to 780.)

Private non-governmental organizations, such as the National 
Organization for Women and the National Coalition Against Domestic 
Violence, undertook advocacy on behalf of battered women, and began to 
articulate the need for research into the problem as well as for federal 
and state funding of local assistance services.

A public opinion poll released by the Family Violence Prevention Fund in 
April 1993 revealed that nearly nine out of ten Americans (87%) say that 
women being beaten by their husbands or boyfriends is a serious problem 
facing many families, and more than one in three Americans (34%) report 
directly witnessing an incident of domestic violence.  For the first 
time, the American public no longer blames the woman or excuses the man, 
and most Americans no longer accept the excuse that "he was drunk."  The 
poll found that the vast majority of Americans believe that domestic 
violence can be prevented, but they don't know how to get involved.


Many of the current programs and policies designed to address violence 
against women are only recently underway, and thus their impact is 
perhaps yet to be felt.  Indeed, an analysis of the most recently 
available statistics (for 1987-1991) on violence against women suggests 
that modest statistical progress had been made since 1985:

o  The non-lethal annual violent crime victimization rate for women 
declined modestly -- In 1991, the female rate of non-lethal violent 
crime victimization was 22.9 per thousand women, compared with the 
average annual rate of 25.8 from 1979-1987.  The average annual rate of 
female violent victimization from 1987-1991 was 24.8 per thousand, thus 
indicating that the female violent crime victimization rate declined 
more in 1991 than in 1987-1991 as a whole.  This perhaps suggests that 
the victimization rate could decline further as the effect of the more 
recent federal programs is felt.

o  The rate of female violent victimization declined less than the rate 
of male violent victimization -- The average annual rate of violent 
victimization for men declined 10% between 1979-1987 and 1987-1991 (from 
45.1 per thousand to 40.5 per thousand), whereas the average annual rate 
of violent victimization for women declined less than 4% during the same 
period (from 25.8 per thousand in 1979-1987 to 24.8 per thousand in 

o  Women remain more likely than men to be attacked by intimates and 
acquaintances and to be raped -- Whereas women in 1979-1987 were three 
times more likely than men to be victims of violent intimates, in 1987-
1991 they experienced over 10 times as many incidents of violence by an 
intimate than did men.  In the U.S., domestic violence is the leading 
cause of injury to adult women, according to a 1989 report by the 
Surgeon General.  Nine of ten female homicides are committed by men, 
half of them by the woman's partner.  A rape is committed every six 
minutes. [The Global Campaign for Women's Human Rights.  "Gender Based 
Violence: Some Facts of the Matter"]  An estimated 31.7 million women 
(22%) have been victims of sexual assault, and two-thirds of them were 
assaulted before the age of 18.  Some 5 million assaulted women 
currently suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, which can last a 
lifetime when left untreated.  Rape, domestic violence and childhood 
abuse substantially increase the risk of other trauma-related disorders, 
including depression, anxiety, suicide attempts, substance abuse, eating 
disorders, and sexually transmitted diseases. [HHS, Confronting Violence 
in America]

o  Racial disparities in the rate of female violent victimization 
declined modestly -- In 1987-1991, African American women experienced 
violent crime victimization at a rate 36% higher than white women; in 
1979-1987, the rate was 44% higher for African American women.


Following the rising public awareness, federal and state legislation has 
been enacted to address the problem of violence against women:

The Criminal Justice Response:

Investigation, Prosecution, and Adjudication -- In 1985, most of the 
governmental policies designed to address violence against women focused 
on the criminal justice response by seeking to investigate, prosecute, 
and adjudicate rapists and domestic abusers in the same manner as other 
criminals.  These legal and criminal justice measures were designed to 
take seriously the types of violence to which women are most often 

o  Mandatory Arrest of Domestic Violence Perpetrators -- Historically, 
domestic violence incidents were treated by the criminal justice system 
as private matters that should be left to a husband and wife to work 
out.  Law enforcement agencies often responded to incidents of domestic 
violence by "mediating" the dispute rather than arresting the offender.  
In response to the proven ineffectiveness of the traditional approach, 
the 1984 Final Report of the Attorney General's Task Force on Family 
Violence asserted that "the legal response to family violence must be 
guided primarily by the nature of the abusive act, not the relationship 
between the victim and the abuser."  The 1984 Final Report advocated the 
implementation of mandatory arrest policies, which require the arrest of 
an offender by law enforcement when there is probable cause that abuse 
has occurred.  Mandatory arrest policies are, today, on the books in 
nearly one-third of all states; the preferred response to domestic 
violence, as currently reflected in the statutory language of virtually 
all states -- is arrest.  Many states also enacted legislation that 
specifically identified domestic violence as a definable crime with its 
own penalties.  

o  Protection from threatening behavior -- States created civil 
protection measures intended to prevent threatening behaviors, such as 
harassment, that could lead to future violence.  Armed with civil 
protection orders (which an individual could obtain without legal 
representation), a victim had the legal means, for example, to bar the 
offender from the home or establish conditions for safe child 
visitation.  In 1983, only 17 states provided protection against abuse 
by an unmarried partner living as a spouse; by 1988, 39 states provided 
for that kind of protection.  (By 1993, virtually all states had enacted 
some form of civil protection legislation.)  Furthermore, following the 
1984 civil judgement in the case of Thurman v. City of Torrington, which 
held that police could be held civilly liable for failure to respond 
adequately to domestic violence, the law enforcement response to 
domestic violence came under further scrutiny.  The multimillion dollar 
damages awarded in that case prompted the states to provide, through 
legislation, for law enforcement training on domestic violence response.

o  Rape legislation reform -- In 1974, the state of Michigan had passed 
the first law that represented a break from the traditional view of sex 
crimes.  The traditional view of rape held, for example, that a woman's 
attire might have provoked the crime; that she had to offer proof of 
physical resistance to the assault; that the court had a right to 
scrutinize her character and prior sexual conduct in determining whether 
a crime had been committed.  In the decade between 1974 and 1984, all 
states passed some form of rape legislation reform.  These reforms 
generally consisted of the following: a redefinition and grading system 
for criminal acts; gender neutralization of language (which recognized 
that males are also victims of sexual violence); the imposition of 
mandatory sentences for subsequent offenses; change in resistance 
standards, and repeal of requirements for corroborating testimony; 
redefinition of force; elimination of the need for proof of 
"nonconsent"; elimination of the marital rape exemption, which enabled 
prosecution of sexual assault by the victim's spouse; and rape shield 
laws, which protected the victim's privacy by rendering inadmissible, 
information about her lifestyle, conduct, or sexual history.  In 1986, 
Congress enacted the Sexual Abuse Act, which reformed federal laws on 
rape and extended their reach to other sex offenses.  The Act's reforms 
paralleled many earlier state reforms.

o  "Battered woman syndrome" defense -- Congress enacted the Battered 
Women's Testimony Act of 1992, which promotes the use of expert 
witnesses in criminal trials of battered women who have assaulted or 
killed their abusers.  It also authorizes grants to organizations for 
collecting and analyzing information on the experiences of battered 
women and expert testimony about their psychological state.

o  Anti-stalking legislation -- Forty-eight states have enacted anti-
stalking legislation since 1990.  These laws typically define stalking 
as willful, malicious and repeated following and harassing of another 
person. In 1993, Congress legislatively directed the Attorney General to 
develop and distribute among the states a "constitutional and 
enforceable" model anti-stalking code.  This model code was published in 
October 1993, together with a profile of existing state stalking 
statutes, an overview of police agencies' current management of stalking 
incidents, and discussion and recommendations concerning bail and 
sentencing for states' consideration.

o  Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) -- In May 1994, 
President Clinton signed the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act 
(FACE) into law.  This Act provides protection from force, threat of 
force, or physical obstruction for those seeking or providing abortions.  
The Act provides strong federal jurisdiction over anti-abortion 
violence, and enacts stiff federal penalties for those who engage in 
these acts.

Victims' Rights and Treatment -- Also growing was an awareness and 
desire to recognize the rights of victims to fair and sensitive 
treatment by the criminal justice system, compensation for out-of-pocket 
losses arising from the crime (such as lost wages, forensic 
examinations, and funeral expenses), and support services such as 
counselling and shelters.

o  Protection of victims and witnesses within the criminal justice 
system -- In 1982, Congress enacted the Victim and Witness Protection 
Act, which articulated the specific responsibilities of federal 
prosecutors to victims.  These responsibilities included protection from 
intimidation and harassment, as well as the provision of restitution and 
assistance.  Although the Act's reach is limited to victims of federal 
crimes, its provisions apply to American Indian victims of domestic and 
sexual violence, whose assistance needs had not previously been formally 

o  Victims' Compensation -- In 1984, Congress enacted the Victims of 
Crime Act (VOCA) of 1984, which created a Crime Victims Fund in the U.S. 
Treasury and authorized the newly created Office for Victims of Crime to 
use Fund monies for victim assistance and compensation programs at the 
state level.  Under the Act's original language, services for victims of 
domestic violence, sexual assault, and child abuse, were to receive 
priority funding consideration.  (This provision, although modified, 
remains in effect today.)

o  Medical Services for Rape Victims -- In 1984, the President's Task 
Force on Victims of Crime issued its Final Report, a blueprint of 68 
recommendations to improve the treatment of crime victims by all sectors 
of society.  The report presented as its illustration of the typical 
crime victim experience, the account of a sexual assault survivor whose 
participation in the criminal justice process is a traumatizing rather 
than healing process.  One of the Final Report's major recommendations 
was that victims of sexual assault not be required to pay the costs 
associated with medical forensic exams.  (Four years later, a report 
issued by the Department of Justice, found that, as of 1986, nearly half 
the states required victims to pay for these exams.  Today, virtually 
all states cover the costs of medical forensic exams for victims of 
sexual assaults.)  The Final Report also called for the enactment of 
Federal legislation to address the rights and needs of all crime 

o  AIDS testing of sexual assault offenders -- States have responded 
legislatively to the AIDS epidemic, the threat of which compounds the 
trauma and fear experienced by the victims of sexual assault and abuse.  
Sixteen states specifically authorize the involuntary pre-conviction 
AIDS testing of accused offenders, two states allow voluntary pre-
conviction testing, and twenty states authorize post-conviction testing 
of offenders.

Prevention, Education, and Intervention -- In 1985, the Surgeon General 
issued a major report identifying sexual and domestic violence as a 
major health problem for women.  Also at the federal level, Congress 
enacted significant legislative measures to fund prevention and 
assistance services for women victims of violence.  These measures, 
administered by the Department of Health and Human Services, consisted 
of the following:

o  The Preventive Health and Health Services Block Grant Act, Title XIX 
of the Public Health Services Act, reserved $3.5 million in fiscal years 
1985 through 1987 for rape prevention and services to rape victims.

o  The Social Services Block Grant Act, Title XX of the Social Security 
Act, appropriated $2.7 billion for fiscal years 1985 and 1987 and $2.6 
billion in fiscal year 1986 for general and special protective and 
health support services, including prevention of neglect, abuse, and 
exploitation of children and adults.  In fiscal year 1985, a special 
one-time appropriation of $25 million was set aside for training child 
care operators in the prevention of child abuse and neglect.

o  The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act appropriated $6 
million in fiscal 1985 for grants to States for local public agencies 
and nonprofit organizations for family violence prevention projects, 
shelters, and other assistance to victims of family violence.  In fiscal 
year 1986, the appropriation was $25 million, and in fiscal year 1987, 
it was $8.5 million.

Federal funding for services was complemented by monies made available 
at the state levels.  By 1985, many shelter programs for battered women 
were no longer operated out of homes, but rather, were part of an 
extensive network of services that were made operable by public funds.


A number of ground-breaking studies, on such issues as the effectiveness 
of mandatory arrest, were supported by funds from the National Institute 
of Justice.  A number of federally funded research efforts are currently 
underway.  These efforts are designed to gather accurate information 
about the extent of the problem of violence against women, to develop 
new methods for prevention and reduction of such violence, and to 
improve the administration of criminal justice.  Efforts to evaluate the 
effectiveness of existing programs are also underway.

The National Institute on Mental Health focuses considerable attention 
on gender-related prevention research.  Areas of investigation include: 
1) the mental health needs of women who are victims of sexual and 
physical abuse--as children and as adults; 2) the range of psychological 
effects of family violence; and 3) the effectiveness of various 
treatment modalities for mental health disorders among women.


In the past decade, public commitment to addressing the problem of 
violence against women has only grown.  Indeed, societal violence of all 
kinds is currently receiving a great deal of attention in the United 
States.  For the first time in modern polling history, crime was listed 
by respondents in a January 1994 USA Today/CNN/Gallup poll as being the 
most important domestic problem facing the United States.

With the increased concern about violence in general, governmental and 
private entities have begun increasingly to focus on methods to prevent 
violence, such as education, as well as on the criminal justice response 
to violence.  Indeed, current programs and policies designed to address 
violence, and violence against women in particular, are devoting 
substantial portions of their resources to violence prevention.  The 
following outlines current major programs and policies designed to 
combat violence against women:

Prevention, Education, Intervention

--  Federal funding for sexual assault and domestic abuse prevention and 
education -- An assortment of federal funding mechanisms exist for 
sexual assault prevention and education efforts at the state and local 
levels.  For example, as part of its overall effort to combat violence, 
the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) supports a broad range 
of activities designed to prevent sexual assault and assist victims, and 
the Department of Education operates under a number of authorizations 
for sexual assault prevention education.  In 1994, the National Center 
for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and 
Prevention received over $7 million to launch the Prevention of Violence 
Against Women Initiative, a five-year campaign to prevent physical and 
sexual abuse by partners, acquaintances, and strangers.  HHS Social 
Services in FY 1994, will spend $27.7 million through the Administration 
for Children and Families in support of state and local programs to 
prevent family violence and provide temporary shelter and other 
assistance to victims and their dependents.  HHS' Administration on 
Aging will spend $4.6 million supporting efforts to prevent abuse of 
older persons the majority of whom are women.

--  Systematic data collection remains inadequate.  Domestic violence 
incidents and arrests are not collected for the FBI's Uniform Crime 
Reports.  The Department of Justice's National Crime Survey does not 
separate violence against women in the home from other workplace and 
familial violence incidents.  

--  Campus sexual assault education -- The Higher Education Amendments 
of 1992 required colleges and universities receiving federal student 
financial assistance funds to develop education programs to promote the 
awareness of rape, acquaintance rape, and other sex offenses.

--  Federal support for families -- In an effort to curb domestic 
violence, the Clinton Administration significantly increased the 
resources of the federal Family Preservation and Family Support Program, 
which provides $1 billion over five years to fund family support 
programs such as community-based family resource centers or home 
visiting programs.  These family support programs are designed to work 
with families before a crisis occurs, to promote the well-being of 
children and families by enhancing family functioning and early 
childhood development, and to intervene with families where children are 
experiencing maltreatment or other family crises.  In addition, the 
federal government funds the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act 
programs, which funds local prevention activities, as well as a number 
of state and community-based initiatives designed to combat domestic 

--  Community-based public education/media campaigns -- The Family 
Violence Prevention Fund (FUND), based in San Francisco, has developed 
the first national campaign to promote prevention and intervention on 
domestic violence.  Sponsored by the National Advertising Council and 
selected to be its major public education initiative for the next 
several years, the FUND's THERE'S NO EXCUSE campaign will give the issue 
of domestic violence unprecedented visibility:  the Ad Council arranges 
for millions of dollars of donated media space, enabling the message to 
appear in national newsmagazines, on prime time network television, in 
national and local newspapers, and on radio stations across the country.  
In addition to the campaign messages, a national toll-free number is 
publicized on each of the ads, and callers receive a Community Action 
Kit that suggests specific local strategies they can enact to reduce and 
prevent domestic violence in their own communities.  The Oakland Men's 
Project (Oakland, California) is a community organizing and training 
center dedicated to stopping violence against women.    

Criminal Justice System

--  Sensitive treatment by criminal justice personnel of sexual assault 
and domestic abuse victims -- The Department of Justice has funded 
national-scope training and technical assistance on the use of multi-
disciplinary teams in the investigation of both adult and child sexual 
assault and abuse cases.  A multi-disciplinary approach that is victim-
centered mitigates possible secondary trauma to the victim by minimizing 
repetitive and intrusive interviews and keeping the victim informed of 
key criminal justice proceedings.

--  Gender Balance In Policing --  The Los Angeles City Council this 
year ratified a policy requiring Los Angeles Police Academy classes to 
be at least 43.4% women.  Data show that increasing the number of women 
in law enforcement improves police responsiveness to domestic violence, 
reduces police brutality, and facilitates implementation of community 

--  Training of law enforcement professionals -- A number of federal 
agencies have provided funding to train criminal justice professionals 
(including judges, agents, prosecutors, and correctional officials) on 
identifying  abusive situations, responding effectively to domestic 
abuse and sexual assault situations, and treating victims sensitively.

--  Truth in Sentencing -- In practice, many domestic abusers and sexual 
assault perpetrators do not receive adequate penalties because of 
lenient sentencing or overly broad early release mechanisms.  The 
federal government has addressed these problems by adopting truth in 
sentencing reforms for all federal cases -- under which offenders must 
actually serve at least 85% of the prison term imposed by the court -- 
and by prescribing severe penalties for sexual abuse offenses in the 
federal sentencing guidelines.

Victims' Rights and Treatment

--  Medical treatment of victims -- The federal government has assisted 
the formulation of an improved response by medical practitioners to 
victims in emergency room settings.  This is intended to facilitate the 
delivery of timely, appropriate, and effective treatment services to 
victims of sexual assault and domestic abuse by, for example, educating 
medical professionals on how best to detect abuse and treat abuse 
victims.  In 1988, the Department of Justice funded the development of a 
model sexual assault evidence collection protocol and kit; twelve states 
adopted the model and continue to refine and use it.  Likewise, the 
Justice Department funds national-scope training to mental health 
practitioners on topics such as post-traumatic stress disorder of 
victims of sexual assault and abuse.



A Women's sports retailer, is a founding sponsor of the Ryka ROSE 
Foundation (Regaining One's Self-Esteem TM), a non-profit organization 
to help stop violence against women through education as well as grants 
to battered women's shelters and rape crisis centers. 

[End box]


In a Fact Sheet released in 1994, The Family Violence Prevention Fund 
reported that:

--  Within the last year, 7% of American women (3.9 million) who are 
married or living with someone as a couple were physically abused, and 
37% (20.7 million) were verbally or emotionally abused by their spouse 
or partner.

--  The U.S. Department of Justice estimates that 95% of assaults on 
spouses or ex-spouses are committed by men against women.

--  Domestic violence is repetitive in nature: about 1 in 5 women 
victimized by their spouse or ex-spouse reported that they had been a 
victim of a series of at least 3 assaults in the last 6 months.

--  A 1993 national poll found that more people (34% of men and women) 
have directly witnessed an incidence of domestic violence, than muggings 
and robberies combined (19%).  And 14% of American women acknowledge 
having been violently abused by a husband or boyfriend.

--  One study showed that 30% of women presenting with injuries in an 
Emergency Department were identified as having injuries caused by 

--  Pregnancy is a risk factor for battering.  Several studies indicate 
a range of incidence from 8% to 15% of pregnant women in public and 
private clinics to 17% to as much as 24% to 26%.

--  The level of injury resulting from domestic violence is severe: of 
218 women presenting at a metropolitan emergency department with 
injuries due to domestic violence, 28% required admission to hospital 
for injuries, and 13% required major medical treatment.  40% had 
previously required medical care for abuse.

--  30% of women murdered in the U.S. in 1992 were murdered by a husband 
or boyfriend.

--  In 40% of cases in one study in which physicians treated battered 
women in an emergency department setting, staff did not discuss the 
abuse with the patients.

--  In one study of 476 consecutive women seen by a family practice 
clinic in the midwest, 394 (82.7%) agreed to be surveyed.  Of these 
patients, 22.7% had been physically assaulted by their partners within 
the last year, and the lifetime rate of physical abuse was 38.8%.  
However, only six women said they had ever been asked about domestic 
violence by their physician.

--  A recent national study of the 143 accredited U.S. and Canadian 
medical schools revealed that 53% of the schools do not require medical 
students to receive instruction about domestic violence.

--  The Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Hospitals and 
Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) requires that accredited emergency 
departments have policies and procedures, and a plan for educating staff 
on the treatment of battered adults.

--  A national public health objective set by the U.S. Public Health 
Service for the year 2000 is for at least 90% of hospital emergency 
departments to have protocols for routinely identifying, treating, and 
referring victims of sexual assault and spouse abuse. 

President Clinton recently formed an Interagency Working Group on 
Violence headed by HHS and Justice, with participation by the 
Departments of Education, Labor, HUD, and Agriculture, as well as the 
Office of National Drug Control Policy.  The Working Group examined ways 
to curb societal violence generally, and in particular youth violence 
(increasingly and more virulently committed by girls), family and 
domestic violence, community violence, hate violence, and sexual 
assault.  Specific federal policies and programs are likely to flow from 
the Working Group's work.  In addition, the federal government intends 
to continue to expand existing policies and programs designed to combat 
violence against women.

Several pieces of legislation to address violence against women are 
currently under consideration by the U.S. Congress.  These include a 
comprehensive Violence Against Women Act and several other proposals 
that have already been approved by one or both Houses of Congress.  
Noteworthy features of the pending legislation include:

     Increased support for enforcement efforts against domestic and 
sexual violence, including specialized police and prosecution units that 
target such crimes, and training of criminal justice personnel to deal 
effectively with these crimes;

     Establishment and improvement of data, records, tracking, and 
registration systems for domestic and sexual violence perpetrators;

     Increased support for education and social service programs which 
help to prevent domestic and sexual abuse offenses, and assist their 

     Reform of evidentiary rules for sexual abuse and domestic violence 
cases, including broadened admission of evidence that sexual assault 
defendants have committed similar crimes on other occasions; and

    Creation of a federal civil rights remedy for felonious gender-
motivated violence.



Almost all women in the military prior to the 20th century were nurses.  
(Congress established the Army Nurse Corps in 1901, and the Navy Nurse 
Corps in 1906).  With World War I the role of women became somewhat 
broader, to include clerical and administrative jobs in the military.  
At the end of World War I, however, all women in the U.S. armed forces 
except nurses were discharged.  During World War II the pattern was 
repeated, with women being recruited to alleviate the staff shortage in 
certain areas -- primarily clerical/administrative, but in some other 
fields as well.

* The material concerning the pre-1980 history of women in the military 
is taken from Ellen Collier, CRS Issues Brief: Women in the Armed 
Forces, Congressional Research Service, 1993, and from Jeanne Holm, 
Women in the Military: An Unfinished Revolution, Presidio Press, 1992.

After World War II women became more fully integrated into the U.S. 
military.  Rather than being organized in separate or auxiliary 
organizations, women became part of the regular Army, Navy, Air Force 
and Marine Corps.  The Armed Forces Integration Act of 1948 limited the 
number of enlisted women to 2% of enlisted strength,  the number of 
women officers (excluding nurses) to 10% of the number of enlisted 
women, and the rank a female officer could achieve.  In practice, 
however, the limits on numbers of women in the military were not 
binding:  until the mid-1970's, only about 1% of uniformed military 
personnel were women.

In 1967, the ceiling on rank was eliminated, and the 2% statutory 
limitation was repealed (although Service policies continued to place a 
numeric limit on the number of women recruits).  On June 11, 1970, the 
first women were promoted to flag rank, when Anna Mae Hays and Elizabeth 
P. Hoisington were promoted to the rank of brigadier (one-star) general 
in the Army.  In the next two years, the Air Force and the Navy each 
promoted a woman to the one-star level.  Concurrently, the Services 
began allowing women to enroll in the Reserve Officer's Training Corps 
(ROTC), the college-based program that provides scholarships to students 
who train to become military officers while in college and commit to 
joining military service after graduation.

The next barrier to fall was the exclusion of women from the Service 
academies -- the United States Military Academy (West Point), the Air 
Force Academy, and the Naval Academy.  In Fall 1976, women were admitted 
to all three academies -- 8% of the entering class at West Point, 10% at 
the Air Force Academy, and 6% at the Naval Academy.  

Changes in law and Department of Defense (DoD) policy in the 1970's also 
opened career and promotion opportunities to single parents, military 
couples, and married women.  In 1971, the Navy and Air Force rescinded 
their regulations barring the enlistment of married women; the Army 
followed in 1973, and the Marine Corps in 1974.  Also in 1974, all 
Services eliminated the policy of involuntary separation for pregnant 
women and mothers; the choice to remain in the military or request a 
discharge due to parental responsibilities was left to the military 


Since 1980, the percentage of women on active duty in the officer and 
enlisted ranks combined has grown from about 8% to almost 12%.  In June 
of 1993, the most recent period for which data are available, 11.5% of 
enlisted personnel and 12.3% of officers were women.  

Among those joining the officer corps, graduation from one of the 
Service academies has historically been the most prestigious route into 
the military.  The women who first entered the academy in 1976 graduated 
in 1980, and the proportion of women among graduates has gradually 
increased since then.  Historically, the Air Force Academy has had the 
highest percent of women in its graduating classes, with the Navy having 
a somewhat smaller percentage.  Academy graduates of June 1993, included 
3,851 women, 9.8% of the total.  

As women began participating more extensively in the All Volunteer 
Force, they have increasingly been represented at the higher ranks.  
Promotion studies indicate that women are generally promoted at rates 
similar to men.  In fact, while the actual number of field grade 
officers within DoD decreased by more than 10,000 since September 1986, 
the number of female field grade officers increased by almost 4,000.  

As increasing numbers of women have joined the officer corps and worked 
their way up through the ranks, the percentage of officers with the rank 
of major (lieutenant commanders in the Navy) who are women has grown 
from 4.4% in 1980 to 13.2% in June 1993 (the most recent quarter for 
which data are available).  The proportion of women lieutenant colonels 
(commanders in the Navy) has similarly grown.  Positive trends are 
evident as well among the higher ranks, but it normally takes 18-24 
years for an officer to reach the rank of colonel (captain in the Navy), 
and 25-30 years to reach flag rank.  Thus the increased number of women 
entering the military in the era of the All Volunteer Force will not be 
reflected at the highest ranks until the late 1990's.

Between September 1987 and June 1993, the Department's active duty 
strength declined by almost 370,000 personnel, while the representation 
of women increased from 10.2 to 11.6% of the force.  As the drawdown 
continues, analysis indicates the representation of women on active duty 
will remain fairly stable.

Non-Traditional Military Occupations -- Although the majority of women 
continue to serve in traditional skills (33.1% of enlisted women serve 
in support and administrative skills and 45.6% of women officers serve 
in health care skills), approximately 8,900 women serve at sea and 
nearly 1,000 serve as pilots, Naval Flight Officers or navigators in the 
Army, Navy or Air Force.

In 1993, although women officers still are found disproportionately in 
the medical and administrative fields, they also fill their share, or 
more, of jobs in the fields of military intelligence and supply and 
logistics.  Women in the enlisted ranks fill their share or more of jobs 
in these same fields, as well as being very well represented in 
technical and service handler positions.

The medical field, however, still absorbs by far the greatest fraction 
of all women officers.  Women enlisted members of the military are 
distributed more evenly across career fields.

Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm*

More than 500,000 U.S. troops deployed to the Persian Gulf during 
Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-91, as part of the 
multilateral response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.  Women were well-
represented among the U.S. forces, comprising about 41,000 of the U.S. 
total (about 7%).  Women worked in a wide variety of locations ranging 
from Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea, to Bahrain on the Persian 
Gulf and at sea.  They were stationed in cities and in undeveloped 
desert areas.  They performed a wide range of tasks throughout the area 
before, during, and after the air and ground war.  They worked as 
clerks, mechanics, health care workers, fuel handlers, intelligence 
analysts, helicopter pilots, and military police, among other jobs, 
according to their military training and unit assignment.  Although 
barred from ground combat units, Army women received combat flying time 
credit, and Combat Medical patches.  Marine Corps women received Combat 
Action Ribbons due to the location and timing of their service.

* Material in this section is taken from the General Accounting Office 
publication entitled Women in the Military: Deployment in the Persian 
Gulf War, (GAO/NSIAD-93-93), July 1993.

Discussions with several hundred military personnel who had participated 
in the Gulf War revealed the following:

o  Perceptions of women's performance were highly positive.
o  Women and men endured similar harsh encampment facilities and 
o  In general, physical strength was neither a problem nor an issue 
during deployment.
o  Gender was not a determinant of unit cohesion, and generally bonding 
in mixed-gender units was as good as, and sometimes better, than in 
single-gender units.

Women in Combat -- Until recently, women had been prohibited by law from 
being assigned to combatant ships, and from assignment to Navy and Air 
Force aircraft with combat missions.  Although no law restricted women 
from ground combat, DoD policy barred women from those ground skills and 
positions which, by doctrine or mission, invited the highest probability 
of direct combat action.    

In 1988, about half of the then 2.2 million active duty military 
positions were closed to women.  At that time, DoD modified its policy 
by adoption of the "Risk Rule" to evaluate whether a non-combat position 
should be closed to women:  Non-combat units can be closed to women on 
grounds of risk of exposure to direct combat, hostile fire, or capture 
provided the type, degree, and duration of risk is equal to or greater 
than that experienced by associated combat units in the same theater of 

In 1991, Congress established a 15-member Commission on the Assignment 
of Women in the Armed Forces to study and make recommendations on issues 
related to assigning women to combat positions.  The Commission 
completed its work and reported to the President and Congress in late 
1992.  Its members were unable to come to consensus, and the final 
report resolves few major issues.  

Also in 1991, as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for 1992 
and 1993, most legal provisions restricting DoD from assigning women to 
aircraft engaged in combat missions were repealed, leaving intact only 
the prohibition of women from combat ships.  

With the change in Administration in January 1993, the issue of women in 
combat was revisited, and in April 1993 Secretary of Defense Aspin 
announced a decision to let women fly in combat aircraft and to ask 
Congress to repeal the ban on women in combat ships.  Congress responded 
by lifting the final restrictions prohibiting women from assignment to 
combat ships with the passage of the Defense Authorization Act of 1994.  
The new law and policy allow women to compete for assignments in all 
combat aircraft and to serve on an increasing number of naval vessels.  
Women remain restricted from direct ground combat units, defined as 
those that engage an enemy on the ground with individual or crew-served 
weapons while being exposed to hostile fire and a high probability of 
direct physical contact with the enemy.  

Over 9,000 attack helicopter pilot positions are now open to women in 
the Army.  Several women have already completed training to pilot the 
Army's Cobra and Apache attack helicopters.  The Navy opened an 
additional 18 non-combatant ships, including four command ships, to 
women, and has a phased plan to place women on combat vessels, including 
aircraft carriers.  With the issuance of the new policy, the Air Force 
opened combat aircrew positions to women.  Women are now training to be 
Air Force fighter pilots.  The Marine Corps conducted a review of every 
military occupational specialty and unit and initiated gender-neutral 
pilot accessions.  Applying this new assignment policy allowed the 
Marine Corps to open 14 new occupational specialties and two units which 
had previously been completely closed to women.

Women also continue to excel in other military jobs and high level 
command and staff positions.  For example, Rear Admiral Patricia Tracey 
recently became one of the youngest flag officers in Navy history.  She 
is assigned as the Director for Manpower and Personnel, Office of the 
Joint Chiefs of Staff.  Rear Admiral Louise Wilmot became the first 
woman to command a United States Naval Base.  Lieutenant Colonel 
Patricia Farnes recently became the first woman to command an Air Force 
missile squadron.


Personnel from the U.S. Armed Forces were assigned to six United Nations 
peacekeeping forces and related missions as of August 31, 1993.  Two of 
these entailed significant numbers of personnel:  over 600 U.S. 
personnel in the UN Protection Force in the former Yugoslavia 
(UNPROFOR), and almost 3,000 in the UN Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II).  
Although their precise number changes as personnel and units rotate 
through these assignments, women serve in a variety of positions, 
including medical and administrative jobs, as well as supply and 
logistics, military police, and other non-traditional occupations.  
Women in civilian leadership positions within DoD also are closely 
involved in peacekeeping operations.  For example, Sarah Sewall is the 
first incumbent of the recently-created position of Deputy Assistant 
Secretary of Defense for Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement Policy. 


There is a long history of women in civilian leadership positions within 
DoD.  When the position of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower 
and Personnel was first created in 1950, Anna Rosenberg was appointed to 
it.  The participation of women at the highest levels of decision-making 
continues today, with Sheila Widnall currently serving as the Secretary 
of the Air  Force, Deborah Lee serving as Assistant Secretary of Defense 
for Reserve Affairs, and Alice Maroni serving as the Deputy Comptroller 
of DoD.


Veteran Affairs -- Women veterans are part of a comprehensive system of 
historical assistance to U.S. veterans.  Services available to women 
solely on the basis of their military service include:  a full continuum 
of health care and special health programs, compensation and pension 
benefits including vocational counseling, training and education 
benefits, home loan guaranties, insurance, and burial benefits (cemetery 
sites, headstones, and grave markers). 

DOD Family Programs -- In response to the increased number of women in 
the military, the expanded proportion of the force that is married and 
the growing number of dual income families, the DoD has established a 
number of programs to assist Service members and families.  There are 
317 Family Centers throughout DoD.  These centers provide a wide array 
of programs and services particularly relevant to active duty women, 
spouses and families such as, financial managements, spouse employment 
assistance, relocation assistance, stress management, assertiveness 
training and parenting programs.

As in the civilian community, family violence is a problem where women 
are often the victims.  The DoD Family Advocacy Program (FAP), designed 
specifically to address spouse and child abuse, is a comprehensive 
approach to prevent family violence, intervene if it does occur, protect 
victims and provide treatment to victims and offenders.

For the expanded number of military mothers and working spouses, the DoD 
Child Development Program has the largest corporate sponsored child care 
program in the country.  DoD provides child care at over 389 locations 
around the world.  There are over 128,000 spaces combined in 750 child 
development centers and 12,000 family child care homes.  The programs 
provide full day, part day, and school child care for children ages 
birth through twelve whose parents work outside the home.  

Sexual Harassment in the Military

Sixty-four percent of uniformed women officers and 30-40% of civilian 
military personnel reported having been harassed according to the 
National Council Against Sexual Assault.  Unlike civilians, uniformed 
military officers are not protected from sexual harassment under Title 
VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.  Since uniformed officers cannot use 
the EEOC, they must instead rely on informal, ad hoc procedures.  There 
is a high rate of non-reporting, since officers fear retaliation and 
dismissal.  According to the National Women's Law Center, "the victim 
has no right to independent investigation, hearing, written statement of 
findings, right of appeal to court or external body."

Major steps reported by the Department of Defense to eliminate sexual 
harassment include:

1.  Annual policy statements are issued that explain sexual harassment 
and reaffirm that it will not be tolerated.

2.  Training programs are required at all levels for civilian and 
military personnel, with special emphasis on co-workers.

3.  Quality control mechanisms are established to ensure effective 
training for military and civilian personnel.

4.  Prompt and thorough investigations and resolutions are a priority in 
every sexual harassment complaint.

5.  Accountability procedures have been established for commanders, 
supervisors, and managers to provide their subordinates guidance on what 
constitutes sexual harassment and procedures for seeking redress.

6. Sexual harassment prevention and education is a special item for 
review in appropriate Inspector General inspections and visits to DoD 
facilities and agencies.

7.  Military and civilian personnel are informed of the consequences on 
their performance appraisals for failure to comply with DoD policy; 
possible penalties are loss of benefits, etc.



They are Cambodian, Hmong, Bosnian, Cuban, Amerasian, Somali, Lowland 
Lao, Iraqi, Haitian, Romanian, Vietnamese, Iranian, Afghan, Ethiopian, 
Kurd, or from the former Soviet Union...  They are young, middle-aged, 
elderly, single, married, separated, divorced, widowed.  They were never 
educated; they are college graduates.  They speak English; they are 
illiterate even in their mother tongue.  They have children; their 
children are dead; they are pregnant; they have no children.  They come 
from a rural area; they were city girls.  They were raped during their 
escape; their escape was violence-free.  They are the keeper of their 
cultures; they are refugees. 

Since 1985, the U.S. has resettled over 900,000 refugees.  Those 
refugees were assisted by the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) in 
the Department of Health and Human Services.  In FY 1993, approximately 
120,000 refugee and Amerasian immigrants were admitted.  Data, as of 
December 30, 1988, indicated that refugee women represented 48.8% of the 
total refugee population.  A breakdown by ethnic background showed the 
female proportion ranging from a low of 34.9% for Ethiopians to a high 
of 51.1% for refugees from the former Soviet Union.  Of the Southeast 
Asian refugee population 44.8% were female.	

Women refugees resettling in the U.S. after months of persecution and/or 
life in refugee camps face many of the same problems as male refugees: 
finding housing, learning a new language, getting a job, negotiating 
bureaucratic systems, and making friends.  In addition, they face a 
daunting list of gender-specific problems -- some the result of the 
flight to freedom -- such as mental and physical illnesses resulting 
from rape.   Other issues arise during resettlement when the traditional 
support systems of family, friends, and village are not immediately 
available and refugee women may find themselves isolated and lacking a 
support network.   

A significant problem facing refugee women in the U.S. is a low level of 
literacy and lack of English-speaking skills.  Worldwide, a higher 
proportion of women are illiterate than men, and illiteracy in their own 
language makes life more difficult for the woman refugees in America.  
Many of those who are literate in their own language, do not speak 
English well.  Another problem these women face is depression, a serious 
problem for some refugees, but particularly among refugee women who were 
raped or who witnessed the rape of their mothers, daughters, and 
friends.  Women who are raped during their journey to freedom have been 
more likely to become victims of domestic violence in their new homes.  

In addition, Save the Children's Woman/Child Impact Program reports that 
refugee women are distressed and anxious about their ability to provide 
the special needs of their children, particularly with regard to 
education.  This is a source of particular distress, especially when 
their children are having problems in school.  They are not able to 
approach school counselors or the principal, for instance.

Children acculturate more rapidly than adults and develop high 
expectations for their material needs.  As women tend to be perceived as 
most responsible for children, their anxiety increases.

Save the Children finds that licensing of refugee para-professionals 
through training for MSW degrees allows the people most knowledgeable 
about the community to provide counseling services.


The Refugee Act of 1980, which established the Office of Refugee 
Resettlement (ORR), requires "...that women have the same opportunities 
as men to participate in training and instruction."  In FY 1986, ORR 
funded services to homebound women.  In 1987, a joint project with the 
U.S. ACTION Agency, which coordinates domestic volunteer programs, 
trained refugee women as community volunteers.

In FY 1989, an ORR workgroup was established to assess whether the 
refugee program was adequately addressing the service needs of refugee 
women.  The workgroup undertook a needs assessment by contacting refugee 
women leaders, service providers, and State Refugee Coordinator staff.  
It also reviewed data and conducted a literature review.  Three of its 
recommendations which were instituted included:  a requirement that 
refugee Mutual Assistance Associations, ethnically-based nonprofit self-
help groups, include women on their boards; language in the social 
service funding announcement which requires States to ensure that women 
have the same opportunities as men to participate in training and 
instruction; and the development of a discretionary grant program to 
address the special needs of women who are particularly vulnerable, such 
as hard-to-serve, isolated women, and victims of domestic violence.  

ORR's resettlement program also promoted a refugee women's initiative 
which provided funding to 12 states for such services as:  literacy and 
English as a Second Language (ESL) for homebound women; the 
establishment of peer support groups; life skills training, day care, 
and transportation; and workshops on parenting skills, domestic 
violence, and leadership training.

Refugee women also participate in ORR's Microenterprise Development 
Initiatives.  Refugee women face barriers related to information about 
the American business culture, access to capital, and technical 
expertise.  While some refugee women have started full-blown businesses, 
others have attempted smaller, part-time enterprises that are often 
home-based.  However, many refugee women tend to turn to part time work 
in the informal sector.  They do not get any benefits.  Reduced income 
and lack of benefits further constrains them.


Refugee resettlement programs are reaching out to refugee women, but 
slowly.  More must be done to make the system respond in a timely 
fashion.  Two related issues are the lack of programs designed for 
refugee women and the lack of staff assigned to assist them.  Also, 
there is a lack of gender disaggregated data.  Reporting forms must be 
changed to correct this problem.  

And, studies confirm what service providers know -- the provision of 
more English as a Second Language (ESL) classes alone is not enough to 
solve the problems of refugee women.  More day care and transportation 
services are needed.  These are particularly important in facilitating 
refugee women's participation in employment programs.

Additionally, support groups have been found to be an effective strategy 
for bringing refugee women together to solve their own problems.  
Opportunities for refugee women to participate in such groups need to be 
provided, and counseling services to deal with psychological distress 
are also needed.


At least since 1952* (the earliest available opinion data by gender), 
women have generally been less willing than men to support military 
conflict.  This has held true for conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, Lebanon, 
Grenada, Central America, and the Persian Gulf.  Just months after the 
Persian Gulf War ended, only 39% of women (53% of men) wanted the U.S. 
to take the lead military role in the world.

* Celinda C. Lake, a noted political consultant and frequent opinion 
pollster gathered this data over the years, and published this analysis 
in "Different Voices, Different Views: The Politics of Gender," The 
American Woman 1992-93 for the Women's Research and Education Institute.

While the differences in women's and men's attitudes toward war long 
predate the current gender gap, in recent years they have led to 
substantial differences in opinion on social programs, defense spending, 
and relative funding priorities.  Since the end of the 1980's, in a 
vastly changed world of foreign policy and defense needs, women are 
forming their own opinions about the direction of the new world order 
and the international role of the U.S.  


Throughout the past decade, U.S. women have been in the forefront of 
efforts that are generally categorized as the peace movement.  They have 
engaged in citizen diplomacy, development of legislation, nation-wide 
lobbying, and support of women political leaders advocating peace.  
While organizations like Women's International League for Peace and 
Freedom (dating from WWI) and Women Strike for Peace (founded 1961) have 
continued their advocacy, many other women's organizations were formed 
during the 1980's.


Women in International Security (WIIS), an international, network and 
educational organization dedicated to enhancing opportunities for women 
in foreign and defense policy established in 1987, includes women from 
academia, think tanks, the diplomatic corps, the intelligence community, 
the military, the media, and the private sector.  They are active on 
issues ranging from arms control and arms transfers to democratization 
and the development of international trade blocs.

[End box]

Examples include Peace Links, WAND, Another Mother for Peace, and 
Grandmothers for Peace.  The Council of Presidents, a coalition which 
includes every major women's organization in the country representing 
millions of women, adopted annual agendas including peace issues.  
Women's organizations with broader concerns such as the YWCA, League of 
Women Voters and America Association of University Women have included 
concerns about peace in their agendas.  

Women have also worked with men in organizations such as SANE/Freeze 
(now Peace Action), Physicians for Social Responsibility, Institute for 
Defense and Disarmament Studies, and the International Peace Research 
Association, often holding leadership positions.  Their missions have 
ranged from pacifism, to conflict resolution, to ending the arms race, 
to campaigning against nuclear weapons and waste, to ending the Cold 
War, to working against human rights violations and war crimes 
particularly rape and sexual violence.

Women of all generations are approaching peace issues at several 
different levels, from grassroots activism to teaching conflict 
resolution and cooperation, providing professional policy research and 
analysis, and promoting peace by seeking elected and appointed offices.

Working in coalition with a wide range of non-governmental 
organizations, women's peace organizations have been instrumental in 
working to affect U.S. foreign and military policy, including:  
Extending the moratorium on nuclear testing, preventing the deployment 
of the Cruise missiles, preventing full-scale implementation of the 
Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars), encouraging forward progress 
on negotiations for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and establishing 
the acceptance of rape/sexual assault as a war crime.

Women's organizations have also been effective in building a peaceful 
global community through a vast array of local, national, and 
international projects.  The diversity of such projects include: The 
Ribbon, Women for Meaningful Summits' delegation to the first Reagan-
Gorbachev Summit, Peace Links' U.S. - U.S.S.R. pen pal project and 
ongoing citizen exchanges, WILPF's "Women of Vision Project", the "Peace 
Tent" at the Third World Women's Conference in Nairobi, and holding 
annual ceremonies commemorating Hiroshima/Nagasaki in most communities 
in the U.S.

Examples of citizen diplomacy are the exchanges between Peace Links and 
women of the former Soviet Union and now the Independent States of 
Eastern Europe.  These exchanges are part of efforts in global education 
on women's issues.  Women from Russia, and the newly independent states 
of Eastern Europe have participated annually since 1984 in exchanges 
with Peace Links sharing their experiences and learning techniques of 
organizing for volunteerism, having "hands on" experience in democracy, 
and exploring common concerns such as health care, nuclear disarmament, 
the environment, children in crisis, women in decision making roles, and 
world peace.

In conflict resolution, Peace Links initiatives include a conflict 
resolution center in Arkansas and training programs for care givers in 
day care centers and for parents in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.  Peace 
Links believes that conflict resolution skills can be invaluable tools 
for peacemaking and peacekeeping; that they should be taught to all, 
from pre-schoolers to United Nations officials.  A recent survey of 
Peace Links across the nation surfaced 100 conflict resolution efforts.

The U.S. section of the Women's International League for Peace and 
Freedom (WILPF) works in the area of peace education and conflict 
resolution.  Through its Jane Addams Peace Association, New York, it 
commissioned a curriculum guide for children's peace camps, has a 
newsletter on peace education, and continues to give annual book awards 
in children's literature.

Undoing Racism Workshops were held in all regions of the U.S. where 
there are WILPF branches.

Women as teachers and community leaders have brought such issues as 
conflict resolution and tolerance for diversity into the classroom.  
Women's organizations have also been in the forefront of raising 
awareness and concern for international armed conflict and the effect 
this violence on the civilian populations, especially women and 


While significant gains have been made in bringing women's voices and 
perspectives to bear on issues of foreign and military policy, efforts 
must continue to include women at every level of decision-making and 

Nuclear weapons arsenals and weapons of mass destruction continue to 
pose a grave threat to humanity and the environment.  World-wide 
reduction of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, 
including high-tech conventional and chemical and biological weapons, 
should be accomplished.  In particular, women's organizations involved 
in the peace movement are continuing to work for ratification of a 
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, renewal of a Nuclear Non-Proliferation 
Treaty, implementation of START agreements, and further, drastic 
multilateral weapons reductions.

Warfare and armed conflict involves the systematic terrorization of the 
population and the destabilization and destruction of the economic, 
social and political infrastructures.  Women's organizations working for 
peace consider a major challenge for the foreseeable future to be 
converting the world economy and state of mind from military pursuits to 
peaceful endeavors.  To this end, they work for the reallocation of U.S. 
resources from military to civilian human needs.

These organizations believe that increased development and use of 
peaceful conflict resolution carried out using culturally relevant and 
collaborative methods should be pursued in order to prevent future wars.  
They advocate the expansion of education on peaceful conflict resolution 
in schools at all levels and of programs that build community and peace 
through reduction of violence, protection of all human/women's rights 
and the meeting of human needs.



DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION: The mission of the Department of Education is 
to ensure equal access to education and to promote excellence in 
education throughout the nation.  The Department of Education is the 
Cabinet-level department that establishes policy for, administers, and 
coordinates most Federal assistance to education.  

The work of the Department of Education relating to education 
instruction, research, and services coordinated through Federal-States 
relationships (with emphasis on the advancement of women) is centered in 
the following Department components:  
Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs is responsible for 
overall leadership for the Department in establishing and directing 
effective two-way communications with a wide variety of 
intergovernmental, interagency, international, and public advocacy 
groups and directs programs driven by legislation or executive order.    

Office of Civil Rights (OCR) enforces laws that prohibit discrimination 
on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age or disability in 
education programs receiving federal funds.  Provides technical 
assistance to help schools achieve voluntary compliance with the civil 
rights laws that OCR administers.  OCR collects all of its civil rights 
policy documents in a "Policy Codification System" (PCS).  To ensure the 
greatest possible dissemination of PCS documents, OCR maintains a public 
toll-free line for requests for a copy of any OCR policy documents at 1-

Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services' (OSERS) primary 
function is the enforcement of legislation enacted to advance the status 
of women and girls with disabilities including Individuals with 
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); Americans with Disabilities Act of 
1990 (ADA); Rehabilitation Act of 1972; Technology-Related Assistance of 
Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988; Education of the Deaf Act of 
1986, as amended in 1992; and Temporary Care of Children with 
Disabilities and Crisis Nurseries Act of 1986.

OSERS administers programs relating to the free appropriate public 
education of all children, youth, and adults with disabilities, provides 
for the rehabilitation  of youth and adults with disabilities , and 
supports research to improve the lives of individuals with disabilities.  
Divided into three program areas the programs, research and services are 
administered by the Office of Special Education Programs; the 
Rehabilitation Services Administration; and the National Institute on 
Disability and Rehabilitation Research. 

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) promotes and 

  o  Studies that examine the nature and extent of gender bias, gender 
discrimination and gender role development.

  o  A variety of research efforts designed to improve the education for 
women and girls and supported through projects funded by the Office of 
Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) Field-Initiated Studies 
(FIS).  Examples of funded projects include the study of equity in 
mathematics education, identification of mentoring relationships that 
will enhance gender equity and eliminate barriers to women's 
participation in such relationships; and study the effects of tracking 
in middle and secondary schools to reveal whether tracking practices are 
a source of inequities in the transmission of learning opportunities to 

  o  The Women's Education Equity Act (WEEA) Publishing Center 
initiatives are funded by OERI and are designed to provide gender-fair 
multicultural materials, training, consulting and referrals.  WEEA 
products are widely utilized in classrooms, businesses, and gender-
equity programs of interests to Title IX Coordinators, Superintendents, 
Principals, Directors of Counseling, Librarians, Media Specialists, and 
Vocational Education Coordinators through customer services.  WEEA 
provides grants to develop, field test, and disseminate model strategies 
to promote gender equity in education.

  o  The National Center for Education Research (NCES) collects, 
analyzes, and disseminates data on all levels of education in the United 
States; conducts studies on international comparisons of education 
statistics; and provides leadership in developing and promoting the use 
of standardized terminology and definitions for the collection of those 
statistics.  NCES works collaboratively with states, local education 
agencies, other federal agencies, international organizations, and 
education constituent groups and makes NCES data available through its 
publications program and the Education Information Branch as well as the 
National Data Resource Center.

  o  The National Resources Information Center (ERIC) funded by the 
OERI, is a nationwide information network that acquires, catalogs, 
summarizes, and provides access to education information from all 
sources.  The data base and document collections are housed in about 
3,000 locations worldwide, including most major public and university 
library systems.  ERIC provides extensive user assistance including Ask 
ERIC, an electronic question answering service for teachers on the 
internet (Ask ERIC  ERIC includes 16 subject-specific 
Clearinghouses; through ACCESS ERIC at 800-LET-ERIC (1-800-553-3742).

Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA) 
administers the following special programs that serve students with 
limited English proficiency:

Division of National Programs:

  o  Academic Excellence Program provides financial assistance for model 
programs of transitional bilingual education, developmental bilingual 
education, or special alternative instruction that have an established 
record of providing effective, academically excellent instruction and 
that are designed to facilitate the dissemination of effective bilingual 
education practices.  Applications are available through local school 
districts, institutions of high education, or private/nonprofit 

  o..Family English Literacy Program makes grants supporting programs 
that are designed to help Limited English Proficiency (LEP) adults and 
out-of-school youth achieve English language competence and provide 
instruction on how parents and family members can facilitate the 
education achievement of their children.  Applications are available 
through local school districts, institutions of higher education, or 
private/nonprofit organizations.

  o..Special Population Program makes grants supporting programs that 
are designed for special education, gifted and talented, and preschool 
LEP children.  Applications are available through local school 
districts, institutions of higher education, or private/nonprofit 

Division of State and Local Programs:

  o..Developmental Bilingual Education Program makes grants supporting 
instructional programs of structured English language and second 
language instruction designed to help children achieve competence in 
English and a second language while mastering subject matter skills and 
meeting grade promotion standards.  Applications are available through 
local education agencies.

  o  Special Alternative Instruction Programs makes grants supporting 
programs that have specially designed curricula and provide structured 
instructional services to allow LEP children to achieve English 
competence and to meet grade promotion and graduation requirements.  
Applications are available through local education agencies.

  o  Transitional Bilingual Education Program makes grants supporting 
programs that are designed to provide structured English language 
instruction and native language instruction to allow children to achieve 
competence in the English language and to meet grade promotion and 
graduation standards.  Applications are available through local 
education agencies.     

Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE) manages programs 
that provide financial assistance, direction, leadership, and technical 
assistance to state and local education agencies to improve elementary 
and secondary education.  OESE carries out grant and school improvement 
programs.  OESE administers the WEEA program to provide funds to 
eligible institutions and individuals.

Women's Educational Equity Act Program (WEEA)

The Women's Educational Equity Act program which provides funds to 
eligible institutions and individuals to develop model programs designed 
to promote education equity for women and girls at all levels of 
education, in particular, women and girls who suffer multiple 
discrimination, bias, or stereotyping based on sex and race, ethnic 
origin, disability or age.  It also provides financial assistance to 
enable education institutions to meet the requirement of Title IX of the 
Education Amendments of 1972.  Materials developed under the program are 
available from the Women's Educational Equity Act Publishing Center in 
Newton, Massachusetts.  The WEEA Publishing Center is funded by OERI.  
Information about WEEA programs is also available through school 

New Legislation:

Safe Schools Act

The Safe Schools Act, enacted by Congress in 1993 as part of the GOALS 
2000:  Education America Act, authorizes the Secretary of Education to 
make competitive grants to local educational agencies (LEAs) to enable 
them to carry out projects and activities designed to ensure that all 
schools are safe and free of violence.

Grants may be used to support a variety of activities, including 
identifying and assessing school violence and discipline programs, 
affecting both girls and boys conducting school safety reviews, planning 
for comprehensive and long-term violence prevention strategies, training 
school personnel and involving parents in efforts to prevent school 

Office of Postsecondary Education provides financial assistance through 
Federal Student aid loans and grants for students enrolled in 
postsecondary education programs in colleges and universities; supports 
institutions in the development of student services, college housing and 
facilities and innovative instructional program.  The Center for 
International Education administers some individual and institutional 
Fulbright awards for Americans to study and conduct research abroad.  
The Center also administers grants to foreign area studies centers at 
U.S. universities and implements Title VI of the Higher Education Act.  
Approximately 57.4% of all financial assistance for students enrolled in 
postsecondary programs was received by women in 1991.

Other OPE programs to advance the status of women include the Patricia 
Roberts Fellowship Program for Women Studying at the Graduate Level: 
Cooperative Education Grant Program; Minority Science Improvement Grant 
Program that encourages women to enter professional career fields where 
they have been traditionally under-represented; and the Fund for the 
Improvement of Education grants that support projects to develop the 
discipline of Women's Studies and to incorporate perspectives relating 
to women in the college and university level curriculum, as well as to 
fund grants to higher education institutions for development of service 
programs for women (and other segments of the population) experiencing 
difficulty gaining access to services.   

Office of Vocational and Adult Education  programs to increase access to 
and improve educational programs which promote work force preparation 
and lifelong learning.  OVAE serves as the principal Federal entity for 
the provision of vocational education and adult education and literacy 
services.  In this capacity the Office provides a unified Federal 
approach to vocational education and literacy for youth and adults.  
This includes maintaining increasing adult learning, eliminating adult 
illiteracy, and insuring the equal access of minorities, women, 
handicapped, and disadvantaged persons to vocational and adult 

In addition, OVAE works cooperatively with the U.S. Department of Health 
and Human Services to support efforts related to the Job Opportunities 
and Basic skills Training (JOBS) programs.  This program is designed 
primarily for young unmarried mothers and teenage parents.  Its purpose 
is to improve a family's ability to become and to remain self-sufficient 
through education and training that would lead to employment.    

The National Institute for Literacy is administered under an interagency 
agreement among the Secretaries of Education, Labor, and Health and 
Human Services.  The Institute's mission is to enhance the national 
effort to eliminate illiteracy for the year 2000 by creating a national 
network and serving as a focal point for coordination and dissemination 
of information.    

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES: is the principal agency for 
protecting health and providing essential human services to Americans.  
It is the largest federal department (FY 1993 budget was $590 billion) 
and accounts for about 40 percent of the U.S. budget.  In fact, it is 
the third largest budget in the world, exceeded only by the budgets of 
the U.S. and Japan.  

HHS provides direct services or income support to more than one in every 
five Americans.  HHS administers more than 250 programs including AIDS 
research, cancer treatment, alcohol and drug abuse prevention, 
immunizations, and aid to the elderly, poor and disabled.  From ensuring 
the foods we eat and medicines we take are safe, to helping families 
gain self-sufficiency through financial aid and job training, to making 
sure all babies get a healthy start through good prenatal care, the work 
of HHS affects everyone.

The work of HHS is carried out under four divisions: Public Health 
Service (the world's largest public health program which serves to 
protect and advance the health of Americans); Social Security 
Administration (which provides financial assistance to the elderly, 
disabled, widowed, orphaned, or low-income elderly through payroll taxes 
on workers); Health Care Financing Administration (which manages health 
insurance for the elderly, certain disabled individuals and the poor); 
and Administration for Children and Families (the focal point for all 
HHS efforts for children and families).  What follows is a break-down of 
the primary components of each of these agencies. 

Administration on Children and Families

By providing income support and social services, ACF programs aim to 
improve the well-being of low-income families, neglected and abused 
children and youth, Native Americans, refugees, people with 
developmental disabilities, and those with mental retardation.  ACF 
programs are at the heart of the Federal effort to strengthen families 
and communities.  ACF program offices and administrations include: 

Administration on Children Youth and Families  - oversees matters 
relating to  the sound development of children, youth and families.  It 
administers a variety of programs, including: 1. Head Start provides 
comprehensive developmental services to low-income, preschool children 
and their families. Head Start is operated through grants to local 
private nonprofit agencies which are required to contribute a non-
Federal share. 2. The Child Care and Developmental Block Grant provides 
grants to States and Tribes for affordable quality child care services 
for low income families.  This program helps low-income families that 
are working or receiving job training or education. 3. Foster Care and 
Adoption Assistance helps State public assistance agencies provide 
proper care in a foster family home or in an institution and helps find 
adoptive homes for hard-to-place children.  The program also provides 
funds to assist adoptive children with special needs.  It is jointly 
funded by the Federal and State governments. 4. Child Welfare Services 
was designed to help families stay together.  State public assistance 
agency services include preventive intervention to keep children at 
home, services to develop alternative placements if the child cannot 
remain at home, and reunification services.  States jointly fund the 
program with the Federal government. 5. Child Abuse and Neglect 
programs. Federal funds stimulate diverse programs to respond to reports 
of child abuse and neglect and sexual abuse, fund the Statewide public 
awareness campaigns and fund and strengthen self-help groups.  6. The 
Runaway and Homeless Youth Program  authorizes Federal grants to public 
and private agencies to provide crisis intervention and family 
reunification services to runaway and homeless youth and their families.

Office of Family Assistance - is concerned with matters related to 
public assistance and economic self-sufficiency.  It provides direction 
and technical guidance for the nationwide administration of the 
following programs: 1. The Aid to Families with Dependent Children 
(AFDC) program provides temporary financial assistance to needy families 
with dependent children through State welfare agencies.  Federal and 
State governments share costs. 2. The AFDC Unemployed Parent Program 
(AFDC-UP) provides assistance to families in which a child is deprived 
because one of the parents in the home is unemployed. Federal and State 
governments share costs. State welfare agencies are responsible for 
operations. 3. The Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) 
Program provides AFDC recipients with the opportunity to take part in 
job training, work activities and education to gain self-sufficiency.  
Program operations are the responsibility of the State welfare agency.  
Federal funds are available to reimburse qualifying State expenses.  
Transportation and child care services may be available to participants.  
4. The Emergency Assistance Program assists needy families with children 
who need temporary financial assistance and services to prevent  the 
child's destitution and to provide living arrangements for them, if 
necessary.  State welfare agencies operate the program.  Federal and 
State governments share the costs. 5. The At-Risk Child Care Program 
offers child care to low-income families that are not receiving AFDC, 
need the care in order to work and would be at-risk for AFDC without the 
care.  The program is a State option, operated by State welfare agencies 
and is jointly funded by Federal and State governments. 6. Aid to the 
Aged, Blind and Disabled in Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. 
This program grants qualified recipients financial assistance.

The Child Support Enforcement Program - is a Federal/State/local effort 
to locate absent parents, establish paternity when necessary, and 
establish and enforce legal order for support.  The program offers an 
opportunity for children in need to receive the financial support they 
deserve from both parents.  More than 8.8 million mothers rearing 
children whose father is not in the household may benefit from CSE 

The Office of Community Services - oversees the administration of 
community programs that promote economic self-sufficiency including: 1. 
The Community Services Block Grant (CSBG) provides annual funding to 
State community action agencies, State CSBG offices, Indian tribes and 
tribal organizations, and migrant and seasonal farmworker organizations 
to provide a wide range of services and activities to assist low-income 
persons. 2. The Low Income Housing Energy Assistance Program assists 
low-income household to meet the costs of home heating and cooling 
needs.  This program is operated through grantees which include States, 
territories and Indian tribes and tribal organizations. 3. The Emergency 
Community Services Homeless Grant Program expands services to the 
homeless, helps homeless persons obtain social and maintenance services, 
promotes private sector assistance to the homeless,a nd provides funds 
to prevent homelessness.  Federal funds are distributed by formula to 
the States which award funds to community action agencies, organizations 
serving migrant and seasonal farmworkers and certain other organizations 
eligible under special waiver or under the CSBG Act. The Social Services 
Block Grant is distributed to States for award to entities which will 
use funds to help persons achieve economic self sufficiency; prevent or 
remedy neglect, abuse or exploitation; reduce inappropriate 
institutionalization or make referrals to institutions where 
appropriate. 5. The Domestic Violence Program assists States, 
Territories, and Indian Tribes in their efforts to prevent family 
violence and to provide immediate shelter and related assistance for 
victims of family violence and their dependents. 
Office of Refugee Resettlement - provides assistance to help refugees 
achieve economic self-sufficiency within the shortest time possible 
following their arrival in the U.S.  The number of refugees admitted to 
the U.S. each year is determined by the President in consultation with 
Congress.  In FY 1993, this assistance was made available through the 
auspices of five different programs:  Cash and Medical Assistance, 
Social Services, Preventive Health Services, Voluntary Agency Matching 
Grant Program, and the Targeted Assistance Grant Program.  Approximately 
120,000 refugees were admitted to the U.S. in FY 1993.

The Administration on Developmental Disabilities - sets policies 
relating to persons with developmental disabilities.  Developmental 
Disabilities Programs support and encourage quality services to persons 
with developmental disabilities.  Grants help State and local 
governments and the private sector to integrate these individuals into 
mainstream society through, for example, special services, education, 
advocacy, removing architectural barriers, transportation and research.

The Administration for Native Americans - is concerned with matters 
relating to American Indians, Alaskan Natives, Native Hawaiians, and 
Native Pacific Islanders. Competitive grants are awarded to constituents 
to encourage self-supporting communities.

Social Security Administration

The Social Security Administration pays benefits to almost 37 million 
retired workers and their families, widows, and survivors through its 
largest program, the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) program.  
SSA also administers two other national programs: the Social Security 
Disability Insurance program (DI), and the Supplemental Security Income 
program (SSI).  The Disability Insurance program provides benefits to 
almost 5.2 million disabled workers and their families, while the SSI 
program provides cash assistance to 5.9 million aged as well as disabled 
children and adults. The 1993 administrative budget for SSA was over 
$4.6 billion.  Historically, administrative costs represent less than 1 
percent of total program costs. 

Administration on Aging

The Administration on Aging has as its mission to provide nutrition and 
supportive services for persons 60 years and older through a network of 
state and area agencies on ageing; to serve as an advocate for older 
Americans; to advise the President and Secretary (HHS) on all matters 
relating to older Americans.  The to 1993 budget for AoA is 
$838,677,000, of which $460 million is for nutrition services and $296 
million is for supplemental services.  Despite its relatively small size 
and budget, AoA is a very visible agency in human services for the 

is the principal Federal agency responsible for programs concerned with 
the Nation's low and moderate income housing needs, fair and equal 
access to housing opportunities, and improving and developing the 
nation's communities.  Its major activities include:

o   insuring mortgages for single-family and multifamily housing;

o   channelling funds from investors into the mortgage industry through 
the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA);

o   providing grants for construction or rehabilitation of housing for 
low- and moderate-income households and special populations (the elderly 
and disabled);

o   providing shelter and services to homeless individuals and families;

o   providing housing vouchers to low-income households to enable them 
to pay for privately-owned housing;

o   providing grants to states and localities for community and economic 

o   furthering and enforcing fair housing and fair lending laws; and

o   funding the construction, modernization, and maintenance of public 
and Indian housing.

Functionally, HUD implements its programs primarily through four program 
offices:  Community Planning and Development, Office of Housing/Federal 
Housing Administration (FHA), Office of Fair Housing and Equal 
Opportunity, and Public and Indian Housing.

HUD'S stated mission is to help people build communities of opportunity.  
This means that its purpose is to take the lead in helping people become 
self-sufficient; pursue opportunities for economic and personal growth; 
and raise their children in safe, supportive neighborhood environments.

With the exception of the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), HUD 
programs are generally targeted to households that have incomes at or 
below 50 percent of the area median.  HUD's housing assistance programs 
give priority to families whose current housing is unsafe or 
structurally inadequate or who are paying more than half their incomes 
in rent. 

In 1991, 57 percent of rental households receiving HUD assistance had 
incomes below the poverty level.  In all, HUD rental assistance served 
31 percent of the nation's 7.8 million poor households. 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Women's Bureau: created by Congress in 1920, the 
only Federal agency with a congressional mandate to promote the welfare 
of working women:

--  to formulate standards and policies which shall promote the welfare 
of wage-earning women, improve their working conditions, increase their 
efficiency, and advance their opportunities for profitable employment.

The Women's Bureau participates in departmental policy making and 
program planning, and serves as a coordinating body in the Department of 
labor for programs affecting women.  It has been strengthened in recent 
years by an Order by the Secretary of Labor requiring the heads of all 
agencies within the Department of Labor to consult with the Women's 
Bureau in the development of all policies, programs, research, or 
materials that may affect the participation of women in the work force.

To establish vital links at local levels, the Women's Bureau has offices 
in the ten Federal regions across the U.S.  Headed by regional 
administrators, the offices implement national programs and policies, 
develop local initiatives to address local needs, and disseminate 
information and publications.  Both national and regional offices work 
cooperatively with women's organizations and commissions for women, the 
private sector, unions, program operators, educational and training 
personnel, social service agencies, and government at all levels.

To remain in the forefront on issues, the Women's Bureau initiates and 
supports research and analyses in economic, social, and legislative 
areas, and makes policy recommendations.  It also tests innovative ideas 
and approaches through demonstration projects that help prepare women to 
enter or reenter the work force, move into new areas of work, or move up 
in their careers.  On the international level, the Bureau participates 
actively in high-level policy development for working women.

The Bureau carries out an information and education program through 
publications, audiovisuals, media relations, feature articles, and 
public speaking.  To help U.S. women attain legal literacy about their 
rights, the Women's Bureau publishes A Working Woman's Guide to Her Job 
Rights, most recently published in 1992.  This 70 page booklet describes 
the protection and services provided under Federal law which affect 
women's rights when seeking employment, while working, and when 
retiring.  The Women's Bureau provides more technical legal information 
in its Handbook on Women Workers, scheduled for publication in 1994.   

To meet the challenge of the '90s, the Women's Bureau has launched a 
bold two-year program.  It is based on the concept that working women 
themselves are an untapped resource for addressing workplace programs.  
The goal is to make women's concerns a vital part of American public 
policy.  The experiences of working women around the nation have helped 
to shape the Women's Bureau's action agenda:

     Don't Work in the Dark --  A public service campaign to inform 
women of their rights regarding pregnancy discrimination, family and 
medical leave, and sexual harassment.  The campaign features easy-to-
read brochures in English and Spanish and a toll-free number to the 
Women's Bureau Clearinghouse.  

     Working Women Count! -- From May through August 1994, the Women's 
Bureau Working Women Count! questionnaire asks American women to speak 
their minds about work.  To highlight the Working Women Count! campaign, 
the Women's Bureau Director headed a team of public leaders and policy 
makers on a four city tour to hear directly from American women about 
their lives on the job.  The questionnaire is appearing in major women's 
magazines and being distributed by associations, employers, businesses 
and unions nationwide. Findings from the Working Women Count! 
questionnaire will be released in the fall of 1994 and will be included 
in a national report on how working women feel about their jobs and what 
they would like to change.   

     75th Anniversary of the Women's Bureau Celebration -- In May 1995, 
the Women's Bureau will mark its 75th birthday.  Women around the 
country will be invited to join the festivities -- to appreciate our 
history, celebrate victories, and look to future gains for all working 

Selected Other DOL Agencies and Offices

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has published data on women since 
the early years of this century.  Since 1978, BLS has published 
Employment in Perspective: Women in the Labor Force, a quarterly report 
devoted solely to data on women in the labor force.  Other BLS 
publications include Where to Find BLS Statistics on Women (1989), 
Working Women: Where Have We Been?  Where Are We Going? (1990) looking 
at the major social transformation of the role of women in the labor 
market in the last century, and Working Women: A Chartbook (1991) 
summarizing the main characteristics of women in the labor market today 
and changes that have occurred in the recent past, providing a reference 
point from which to observe and analyze the changes in the economic role 
of women that the 21st century is sure to bring.

BLS data are used by private firms and public agencies as they formulate 
their equal employment opportunity plans.  BLS databases allow users to 
compare their establishments with the U.S. as a whole in terms of 
women's employment by occupation and women's earnings.  Such information 
enables researchers and others to monitor women's progress and the 
effect of equal employment programs and policies on the labor market 
status of women.

Any agency, firm, or individual can have access to all the gender-
specific data that BLS publishes.  On a fee for service basis, BLS can 
also provide many special tabulations based on the variables in the 
household database to any user.  BLS provides technical assistance to 
users and policy makers who need to understand methodologies and to 
interpret the data in its social and economic context.  Advice and 
consultation on appropriate use of all statistical series, including 
those on women are provided both informally to individuals, and formally 
as lectures and seminars to data-users' groups.  Training in statistical 
methods and analysis is provided to persons from many countries as part 
of the BLS program of international training.   

The Employment and Training Administration (ETA) oversees the nation's 
major job training, employment, and unemployment compensation programs.  

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) enforces the 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.

The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) in the 
Employment Standards Administration (ESA) enforces Executive Order 
11246, prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or 
national origin, and requiring affirmative action by Federal 
contractors.  OFCCP also enforces section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act 
of 1973, and the non-discrimination and affirmative action provisions of 
the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974, which 
protects disabled workers and certain veteran workers.  The OFCCP 
ensures that firms contracting with the Federal government abide by laws 
and regulations requiring equal employment opportunity and affirmative 
action.  The Office ensures that the tens of thousands of contractors 
that do business each year with the Federal Government not only do not 
discriminate, but actively seek to hire and promote qualified disabled, 
minority and women workers.   

The Wage and Hour Division  in ESA enforces the Fair Labor Standards Act 
and the Family and Medical Leave Act.

The Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration (PWBA) administers and 
enforces provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 
1974 that governs private sector, employment based benefits, including 
pension and health plans.

The Directorate of Civil Rights (DRC) in the Office of the Assistant 
Secretary for Administration and Management (OASAM) develops, 
administers, and enforces departmental policies, practices, and 
procedures under Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; 
sections 164 and 167 of the Job Training Partnership Act of 1982; the 
Rehabilitation Act of 1973; the Age Discrimination Act of 1975; title IX 
of the Education Amendments of 1972; and related statutes and Executive 

DCR's two main units are the Office of Equal Employment and Affirmative 
Action Programs (EEOAAP) and the Office of Program Compliance and 
Enforcement (OPCE).  EEOAAP manages affirmative action and special 
emphasis programs for the national and regional components of Labor.  It 
also conducts formal equal employment opportunity investigations related 
to complaints alleging discrimination on the basis of sex, race, color, 
religion, national origin, age, and disability.  OPCE conducts 
compliance reviews of DOL funding recipients, and oversees enforcement 
activities to ensure that the recipients of financial assistance from 
DOL adhere to applicable equal employment opportunity and non-
discrimination laws and regulations.  
The DOL Academy trains Department of Labor employees; it is recognized 
as a model training program throughout government.  

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs conducts a variety of Agency 
for International Development funded labor study programs each year for 
foreign visitors to the U.S.  In 1991, a total of 36 women and 5 men in 
labor, management and government from 14 countries in Africa, Eastern 
Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean participated in two programs 
entitled "Women's Issues in the Workplace."  The programs were designed 
to demonstrate how to address issues faced by working women, including, 
inter alia, preparation for and entry into the workplace; employment 
creation and unemployment; career advancement; work-family issues; self-
employment and entrepreneurship; pay equity; pensions and social 
security; and health and safety.  This highly successful program was 
repeated twice in 1992.

Agency is responsible for implementing Federal laws designed to protect 
the environment through research, monitoring, standard-setting, 
enforcement, and educational activities.  EPA also coordinates and funds 
research and anti-pollution activities of state, tribal governments, and 
local governments, private and public groups, individuals, and 
educational institutions.  In addition, the Agency monitors the 
potential environmental effects of the operations of other federal 

whose five members are appointed by the President.  EEOC enforces the 
major federal laws prohibiting discrimination in employment.  These 
include:  Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended,  (Title 
VII) which prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, 
sex, religion or national origin; the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which 
requires that men and women who perform substantially equal work under 
the same conditions receive equal pay; the Age Discrimination in 
Employment Act of 1967, which protects women and men aged 40 or older 
against age-based employment discrimination; Title I of the Americans 
with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which prohibits disability-based 
discrimination in private and in State and local government employment; 
and Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, which 
prohibits disability-based discrimination in federal government 
employment.  EEOC also enforces the Civil Rights Act of 1991, which 
strengthened protection and remedies for persons covered by Title VII, 
the ADA, and other laws.  

EEOC receives and investigates discrimination complaints, and where it 
finds that they are justified, tries to resolve them through 
conciliation.   Where conciliation fails, EEOC may file suit in court or 
authorize the complainant to file a private suit.  EEOC Commissioners 
also may file charges against employers.  

has been helping people help themselves.  In addition to humanitarian 
assistance, USAID's work concentrates on four areas-all interrelated-and 
all crucial to achieving U.S. foreign policy objectives: improving 
health and population conditions; protecting the environment; promoting 
economic growth; and supporting democracy.

A federal agency, USAID is based in Washington, D.C., but derives its 
strength from its field missions abroad.  USAID staff work with 
teachers, farmers, microentrepreneurs, nurses and other members of the 
local community in four regions of the world: (1) Africa, (2) Asia and 
the Near East, (3) Latin America and the Caribbean, and (4) Central and 
Eastern Europe and the New Independent States of the former Soviet 

To promote development, USAID works in close partnership with other U.S. 
government agencies, U.S. business, other developed nations, private 
voluntary organizations, indigenous non-governmental organizations, 
international agencies and universities.

THE PEACE CORPS was established in 1961 to promote world peace.  The 
agency has had three goals since its inception:

--  helping people of interested countries meet their needs for trained 
men and women;
--  promoting a better understanding of America in other countries; and
--  promoting a better understanding of those countries here in the 
United States.

Since 1961, more than 140,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in 124 
countries around the world in grassroots development projects in 
agriculture, education, the environment, health, small business 
development and urban development.  With a budget of $220 million and a 
Volunteer force of about 6500, Peace Corps is actively engaged in 
development projects in 93 countries in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, Latin 
America, the Caribbean, Eurasia and the Middle East.

Rights Act of 1957, is an independent, bipartisan, factfinding agency of 
the executive branch.  Although the membership was changed from six to 
eight under the Act of 1983, the Commission's duties and powers are the 
same as those of the previous Commission.

The Commission is authorized to: (1) investigate sworn allegations that 
certain citizens of the United States are being deprived of their right 
to vote, or have that vote counted by reason of color, race, religion, 
sex, age, handicap, national origin, or fraudulent practices; (2) study 
and collect information concerning legal developments constituting 
discrimination or a denial of equal protection of the laws under the 
Constitution because of color, race, religion, sex, age, handicap, 
national origin, or administration of justice; (3) appraise the laws and 
policies of the Federal Government with respect to discrimination or 
denial of equal protection of the laws under the Constitution; (4) 
investigate sworn allegations that citizens are being accorded or denied 
the right to vote in Federal elections as a result of patterns or 
practices of fraud or discrimination; (5) serve as a national 
clearinghouse for information to the public with respect to such 
discrimination or denials of equal protection in voting, education, 
housing, employment, access to public facilities; and, (6) submit 
findings, reports, and recommendations to the President and to the 

In furtherance of its factfinding duties, the Commission may hold 
hearings and issue subpoenas for the production of documents and the 
attendance of witnesses at such hearings.  It maintains State advisory 
committees, and consults with representatives of Federal, State, and 
local governments, and private organizations.

counsel, assist and protect the interests of small business; ensure that 
small business concerns receive a fair portion of Government purchases, 
contracts and subcontracts; make loans to small business concerns, State 
and local development companies, and the victims of floods or other 
catastrophes; and license, regulate and make loans to small business 
investment companies.  Women are equally served through all programs.  

Office of Women's Business Ownership (OWBO) - was established in 1979 to 
develop and coordinate a national program to increase the strength, 
profitability and visibility of women-owned businesses, while making 
maximum use of existing government and private sector resources.  The 
OWBO also serves as the primary advocate on behalf of current and 
potential women business owners with Federal agencies, state and local 
governments and private sector organizations.   
THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT:  The mission of the Office of 
Personnel Management is to serve the public by providing human resource 
management leadership and high-quality services based on merit 
principles, in partnership with Federal agencies and employees.  

DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS: is the agency devoted to providing care, 
support, and recognition to the nation's 26 million veterans.  With 
about 250,000 employees nationwide, VA is the second largest civilian 
agency.  VA provides a full continuum of health care services and 
special health programs such as those for spinal injury, homeless 
mentally ill, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; compensation and 
pension benefits; and cemetery sites, headstones, and grave markers.  

VA delivers services and benefits through three major divisions:  The 
Veterans Benefits Administration (which operates Regional Offices in 
every state, administering benefits programs and providing veterans 
director service and assistance in obtaining benefits); the Veterans 
Health Administration (which operates 171 medical centers; 350 clinics, 
nursing homes and domiciliaries and centers for research and education); 
and the National Cemetery System (which operates 114 national cemeteries 
and 33 monument and burial sites, and administers grants for state 
veterans' cemeteries).  The three administrations provide a structure 
for the delivery of quality, compassionate service to veterans and their 

[End of Section 5 of 5]

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