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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE
August 1994 US Report to UN on Status of Women 1985-1994
GLOBAL CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT

[Section 1 of 5]


    U.S. Report to the United Nations on the Status of Women, 1985-1994

                Prepared by:  U.S. Department of State




                              Table of Contents

I.

WHO ARE THE WOMEN OF THE U.S. ..................................1
  SOURCES for WHO ARE THE WOMEN OF THE U.S. ....................6

EQUALITY........................................................7
  WOMEN IN ELECTIVE OFFICE......................................7
    FEDERAL.....................................................7
    STATE.......................................................7
    TRIBAL......................................................7
    LOCAL.......................................................7
    County governing boards.....................................7
    Mayors and city council members.............................7
  LEGAL RIGHTS TO OFFICE; ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL WOMEN AND ORGANIZATIONS AS 
POLICY MOTIVATORS, INNOVATORS, AND FUNDERS......................8
  WOMEN IN APPOINTIVE OFFICE: ..................................9
    FEDERAL LEVEL...............................................9
      ADVANCEMENT SINCE 1985....................................9
    STATE LEVEL.................................................9
      GENDER BALANCE LAWS.......................................9
    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ACTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS...................9
  WOMEN EMPLOYED IN FEDERAL AGENCIES...........................10
    ADVANCEMENT SINCE 1985.....................................10
      FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAM................................10
    U.S. WOMEN IN THE INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC SECTOR..............11
      Women Ambassadors and in Senior Foreign Service..........11
      U.S. Agency for International Development................11
      U.S. Information Agency..................................11
      U.S. Peace Corps.........................................11
      U.S. Women Employed in U.N. Agencies.....................11
      U.S. Women in Other International Organizations..........11
  WOMEN AND THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM................................12
      FEDERAL..................................................12
      STATE....................................................12
      TRIBAL...................................................12
    GENDER BIAS IN THE COURTS..................................12
      ADVANCEMENTS SINCE 1980..................................12
      CURRENT CHALLENGES.......................................13
      NON-GOVERNMENT ACTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS..................13
      LEGAL RIGHTS, LEGAL LITERACY, AND LEGAL SERVICES.........14
  WOMEN DECISION-MAKERS IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR..................15
      Business Proprietors.....................................15
    FEDERAL ACTION -- LEGISLATION..............................15
    FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAM..................................16
      Corporate Managers, Executives, Directors................16
      Corporate Management.....................................17
      Corporate Boards.........................................17
    FEDERAL ACTION - LEGISLATION...............................17
    FEDERAL ACTION - PROGRAM...................................18
      Nonprofit Corporation Management and Boards..............19
      Philanthropic Organizations..............................19
      Labor Union Leaders......................................22
      The Media................................................23
  MECHANISMS TO ADVANCE THE STATUS OF WOMEN....................25
      NATIONAL.................................................25
      STATE AND LOCAL..........................................25
      NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS...........................26
    SOURCES for EQUALITY SECTION...............................27

II.

DEVELOPMENT....................................................29
  OVERCOMING POVERTY...........................................29
    AGING AMERICA..............................................29
      CURRENT CHALLENGES.......................................29
      FEDERAL ACTION...........................................30
    TEEN PREGNANCY.............................................30
      CURRENT CHALLENGES.......................................30
      FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAM................................30
    WELFARE REFORM.............................................31
      FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAMS...............................31
    HOUSING....................................................32
      WHERE WE ARE.............................................32
      CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES........................35
    HEALTH.....................................................36
      WHERE WE ARE.............................................36
      FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAM................................39
      FEDERAL ACTION -- RESEARCH...............................40
      CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES........................40
        HEALTH CARE REFORM FOR WOMEN...........................40
      FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAM RESEARCH.......................41
    MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH..................................42
      ADVANCEMENT SINCE 1980...................................42
      CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES........................43
      FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAM................................44
      FEDERAL PROGRAM -- NUTRITION.............................44
    BREAST CANCER..............................................45
      WHERE WE ARE.............................................45
      FEDERAL ACTION -- CONFERENCE.............................45
    HIV AMONG WOMEN............................................45
      WHERE WE ARE.............................................45
      CURRENT NATIONAL STRATEGIES..............................46
      FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAMS AND RESEARCH..................47

III.

  EDUCATION....................................................48
      WHERE WE WERE BEFORE 1985 AND WHERE WE ARE NOW...........48
      Degrees..................................................49
      FEDERAL ACTION -- LEGISLATION............................50
      CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES........................52
      NON-GOVERNMENTAL ACTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS --
        EDUCATION OF GIRLS.....................................53
      NON-GOVERNMENTAL ACTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS -- THE GIRL CHILD - 
        BEYOND EDUCATION.......................................53
      FEDERAL ACTION -- SPECIAL PROGRAMS.......................54
      FEDERAL ACTION -- LITERACY PROGRAMS......................55
      ADVANCEMENT SINCE 1985...................................55
      HOW ARE WE DOING?........................................55
  WORK.........................................................56
    EMPLOYMENT.................................................56
    CONTINGENT WORK............................................56
      FEDERAL ACTION...........................................58
      NON-GOVERNMENTAL ACTION AND ACHIEVEMENTS.................58
    UNWAGED WORK...............................................58
      ADVANCEMENT SINCE 1985...................................58
      CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES........................59
    EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION..................................59
      WHERE WE WERE IN 1985....................................59
      ADVANCEMENT SINCE THEN...................................60
      CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES -- PARTICIPATION IN THE 
        LABOR FORCE............................................62
      FEDERAL ACTION -- LEGISLATION............................62
    WAGES AND BENEFITS.........................................63
      WHERE WE WERE IN 1985....................................63
      ADVANCEMENTS SINCE THEN..................................63
      CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES........................64
      FEDERAL ACTION -- RESEARCH...............................65
      FEDERAL ACTION -- FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE LEGISLATION...66
      NON-GOVERNMENTAL ACTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS - WORK AND
        FAMILY.................................................66
      FEDERAL ACTION -- RESEARCH: CHILD CARE AND JOB TRAINING 
        SUCCESS................................................67
        Employer-Supported Child Care..........................67
        A Comparison of Three Types of Child Care Arrangements.68
      WHERE WE ARE -- PENSIONS FOR WOMEN RETIREES..............69
    DETERRING SEXUAL HARASSMENT................................71
      ADVANCEMENTS SINCE 1985	.................................71
    ACCESS TO VOCATIONAL RESOURCES.............................75
      FEDERAL PROGRAM..........................................75
        The Job Training Partnership Act.......................75
        Job Corps..............................................75
        Teen Parent Program....................................76
        Apprenticeship.........................................76
        Women in the Skilled Trades (WIST) Initiative 
          of 1990-91...........................................77
        Other Training Efforts.................................77
    ENVIRONMENT................................................78
      WHERE WE ARE.............................................78
      RESEARCH AND RISK ASSESSMENT.............................79
      FEDERAL ACTION -- LEGISLATION ON PESTICIDES AND FOOD 
        SAFETY.................................................79
        Toxic Substances Control Act...........................79
      FEDERAL ACTION -- AIR PROGRAMS...........................80
        Air Pollution..........................................80
        Indoor Air Quality.....................................80
        Other Hazardous Pollutants.............................80
        Safe Drinking Water....................................80
        Atomic Energy Act......................................81
      CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES........................81
    NON-GOVERNMENTAL SOURCES for DEVELOPMENT SECTION...........82

IV.

PEACE..........................................................83
  VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN.......................................83
    WHERE WE WERE IN 1985......................................83
    ADVANCEMENT SINCE THEN.....................................84
    FEDERAL ACTION -- LEGISLATION..............................85
      The Criminal Justice Response:...........................85
      Investigation, Prosecution, and Adjudication.............85
      Victims' Rights and Treatment............................86
      Prevention, Education, and Intervention..................87
    FEDERAL ACTION -- RESEARCH.................................88
    FEDERAL ACTION -- PROGRAM AND POLICIES.....................88
      Prevention, Education, Intervention......................88
      Criminal Justice System..................................89
      Victims' Rights and Treatment............................90
    CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES..........................90
  WOMEN IN THE MILITARY........................................92
    WHERE WE WHERE IN 1980.....................................92
    ADVANCEMENTS -- PARTICIPATION..............................92
      Non-Traditional Military Occupations.....................93
      Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm.....................93
      Women in Combat..........................................94
      PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS....................................95
      CIVILIAN LEADERSHIP POSITIONS............................95
    FEDERAL POLICIES AND PROGRAMS..............................95
      Veteran Affairs..........................................95
      DOD Family Programs......................................95
      Sexual Harassment in the Military........................96
  REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT.........................................96
    ADVANCEMENTS SINCE 1985....................................97
    CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES..........................98
  ADVOCACY FOR PEACE...........................................98
    NON-GOVERNMENTAL ACTIONS AND ACHIEVEMENTS..................98
    CURRENT CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES.........................100
    SOURCES for PEACE SECTION.................................100

APPENDICES....................................................101

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