U.S. Department of State
FRUS, 1961-63, Vol. IX: Foreign Economic Policy
Office of the Historian

[Section 1 of 18]

FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES
1961 - 1963
VOLUME IX

FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY

DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Washington

Editors: Evans Gerakas
David S. Patterson
William F. Sanford, Jr.
Carolyn B. Yee
General Editor: Glenn W. LaFantasie

United States Government Printing Office
Washington 1995

DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 10229
OFFICE OF THE HISTORIAN
BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328
ISBN 0-16-043103-4

Preface

The Foreign Relations of the United States series presents the official documentary historical record of major foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity of the United States Government. The series documents the facts and events that contributed to the formulation of policies and includes evidence of supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.

The Historian of the Department of State is charged with the responsibility for the preparation of the Foreign Relations series. The staff of the Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, plans, researches, compiles, and edits the volumes in the series. This documentary editing proceeds in full accord with the generally accepted standards of historical scholarship. Official regulations codifying specific standards for the selection and editing of documents for the series were first promulgated by Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg on March 26, 1925. These regulations, with minor modifications, guided the series through 1991.

A new statutory charter for the preparation of the series was established by Public Law 102 - 138, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993, which was signed by President George Bush on October 28, 1991. Section 198 of P.L. 102 - 138 added a new Title IV to the Department of State's Basic Authorities Act of 1956 (22 USC 4351, et seq.).

The statute requires that the Foreign Relations series be a thorough, accurate, and reliable record of major United States foreign policy decisions and significant United States diplomatic activity. The volumes of the series should include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the United States Government, including facts that contributed to the formulation of policies and records that provided supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.

The statute confirms the editing principles established by Secretary Kellogg: the Foreign Relations series is guided by the principles of historical objectivity and accuracy; records should not be altered or deletions made without indicating in the published text that a deletion has been made; the published record should omit no facts that were of major importance in reaching a decision; and nothing should be omitted for the purposes of concealing a defect in policy. The statute also requires that the Foreign Relations series be published not more than 30 years after the events recorded.

The editors of this volume are convinced that it meets all regulatory, statutory, and scholarly standards of selection and editing. Although this volume records policies and events of more than 30 years ago, the Foreign Relations statute allows the Department until 1996 to reach the 30-year line in the publication of the series.

Structure and Scope of the Foreign Relations Series

This volume is part of a subseries of the Foreign Relations series for the years 1961 - 1963. The subseries presents in 25 print volumes and 5 microfiche supplements a documentary record of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the administration of President John F. Kennedy. The record of U.S. foreign economic policy during 1961 - 1963 has been compiled in one print volume and one microfiche supplement.

This volume presents the documentary record of major foreign economic policies with respect to financial and monetary policy, foreign assistance, international development and investment, trade and commerce, economic defense, and strategic materials and commodities. A separate microfiche supplement will comprise additional documentation on general policy, financial and monetary policy, foreign assistance, and trade and commerce, regarded by the editors as significant but not warranting inclusion in the printed volume.

Sources for the Foreign Relations Series

The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major foreign policy decisions and actions of the U.S. Government. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. The editors believe that in terms of access this volume was prepared in accordance with the standards and mandates of the statute, although access to some records was restricted, as noted below.

The editors have had complete access to all the retired records and papers in the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the decentralized files ("lot files") of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department's Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. Certain intelligence-related files maintained in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research became available to the Department historians only after this volume was compiled. Arrangements have been made for Department historians to have access to these records for future volumes.

The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Kennedy and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from other federal agencies including the National Security Council, Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Office of the Special Trade Representative, the Department of the Treasury, and the Agency for International Development. All of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of these agencies and the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.

Department of State historians also have access to records of the Department of Defense (particularly the records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretary of Defense and his major assistants), the Department of Commerce, and the Agency for International Development.

Since 1991, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided expanded access to Department historians to high-level intelligence documents from those records still in the custody of that Agency. Department historians' access is arranged by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency. This access arrangement began with the research of volumes for the 1961 - 1963 triennium. Department of State and CIA historians continue to work out the procedural and scholarly aspects of this access, and the variety of documentation made available and selected for publication in the volumes has expanded.

The List of Sources (pages XIII - XVI) lists all the files consulted and cited in this volume.

Principles of Document Selection for the Foreign Relations Series

In preparing each volume of the Foreign Relations series, the editors are guided by some general principles for the selection of documents. Each editor, in consultation with the General Editor and other senior editors, determines the particular issues and topics to be documented either in detail, in brief, or in summary. Some general decisions are also made regarding issues that cannot be documented in the volume but will be addressed in a microfiche supplement or in bibliographical notes.

The following general selection criteria are used in preparing volumes in the Foreign Relations series. Individual compiler-editors vary these criteria in accordance with the particular issues and the available documentation. The compiler-editors also tend to apply these selection criteria in accordance with their own interpretation of the generally accepted standards of scholarship. In selecting documentation for publication, the editors give priority to unpublished classified records, rather than previously published records (which are accounted for in appropriate bibliographical notes).

Selection Criteria (in general order of priority):

1. Major foreign affairs commitments made on behalf of the United States to other governments, including those that define or identify the principal foreign affairs interests of the United States;

2. Major foreign affairs issues, commitments, negotiations, and activities, whether or not major decisions were made, and including dissenting or alternative opinions to the process ultimately adopted;

3. The decisions, discussions, actions, and considerations of the President, as the official constitutionally responsible for the direction of foreign policy;

4. The discussions and actions of the National Security Council, the Cabinet, and special Presidential policy groups, including the policy options brought before these bodies or their individual members;

5. The policy options adopted by or considered by the Secretary of State and the most important actions taken to implement Presidential decisions or policies;

6. Diplomatic negotiations and conferences, official correspondence, and other exchanges between U.S. representatives and those of other governments that demonstrate the main lines of policy implementation on major issues;

7. Important elements of information that attended Presidential decisions and policy recommendations of the Secretary of State;

8. Major foreign affairs decisions, negotiations, and commitments undertaken on behalf of the United States by government officials and representatives in other agencies in the foreign affairs community or other branches of government made without the involvement (or even knowledge) of the White House or the Department of State;

9. The role of the Congress in the preparation and execution of particular foreign policies or foreign affairs actions;

10. Economic aspects of foreign policy;

11. The main policy lines of U.S. military and economic assistance as well as other types of assistance;

12. The political-military recommendations, decisions, and activities of the military establishment and major regional military commands as they bear upon the formulation or execution of major U.S. foreign policies;

13. The main policy lines of intelligence activities if they constituted major aspects of U.S. foreign policy toward a nation or region or if they provided key information in the formulation of major U.S. policies;

14. Documentation that illuminates special decisionmaking processes that accomplished the policies recorded in particular volumes;

15. Diplomatic appointments that reflect major policies or affect policy changes.

Scope and Focus of Documents Researched and Selected for Foreign Relations, 1961 - 1963, Volume IX

In general, the editors of this volume, the research and editing of which was completed in 1992, have defined a "major issue" as a foreign economic policy or problem that received high-level attention within the U.S. Government, from the President, key White House aides, or Cabinet- level officials; and/or had long-range repercussions for U.S. foreign policy and interests. While it was impossible to include the details of U.S. policy on every foreign economic issue, documentation has been included, either in the print volume or the microfiche supplement, that delineates basic U.S. policies toward the subjects in question.

The primary focus of the documents in this volume is on the foreign policymaking process of the U.S. Government, including documentation illuminating policy formulation and major aspects and repercussions of its execution. Emphasis is placed on official memoranda that reveal policy positions, show differences within the U.S. Government over policy formulation, summarize developments and positions regarding an issue, and describe decisions or actions taken at the National Security Council. Some key instructions sent to diplomatic posts are included when they demonstrate the details of the execution of a policy. Memoranda of conversations with foreign leaders both abroad and in Washington were selected to provide additional information on the origins and impact of foreign policy decisions.

The editors selected only the most important reports from diplomatic posts, particularly those containing the records of significant conversations held with foreign leaders and their diplomatic repre- sentatives on economic issues. Details of military and economic assistance programs for specific nations or their implementation are not included.

Documentation selected by the editor for inclusion in the microfiche supplement provides additional details on the major issues covered in this volume. The annotation to printed documents contains references to related documents included in the microfiche supplement. The supplement also includes several lengthy attachments to printed documents. In these cases, the printed document contains editorial references to the appropriate microfiche document. The volume may be used without the supplement, but the microfiche should be used in conjunction with the printed volume.

The major topics and issues the editors sought to cover in volume IX are as follows:

1) Policies to reverse the deteriorating U.S. balance of payments.

2) Burdensharing negotiations to permit reductions in U.S. expenditures abroad.

3) Multilateral trade negotiations aimed at increasing U.S. exports abroad.

4) New foreign assistance policy aimed at moving the developing nations into self-sustained economic growth.

5) Promotion of U.S. economic and military assistance and development goals in multilateral forums.

6) Debate over liberalization of U.S. trade control criteria vis-a-vis the Sino-Soviet bloc.

7) Disposal of the surplus of the U.S. stockpile of strategic materials.

Editorial Methodology

For each of the seven foreign economic topics, the documents are presented chronologically according to Washington time or, in the case of conferences, in the order of individual meetings. Incoming telegrams from U.S. Missions are placed according to time of receipt in the Department of State or other receiving agency, rather than the time of transmission; memoranda of conversation are placed according to the time and date of the conversation, rather than the date the memorandum was drafted.

Editorial treatment of the documents published in the Foreign Relations series follows Office style guidelines, supplemented by guidance from the General Editor and the chief technical editor. The source text is reproduced as exactly as possible, including marginalia or other notations, which are described in the footnotes. Texts are transcribed and printed according to accepted conventions for the publication of historical documents in the limitations of modern typography. A heading has been supplied by the editors for each document included in the volume. Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation are retained as found in the source text, except that obvious typographical errors are silently corrected. Other mistakes and omissions in the source text are corrected by bracketed insertions: a correction is set in italic type; an addition in roman type. Words or phrases underlined in the source text are printed in italics. Abbreviations and contractions are preserved as found in the source text, and a list of abbreviations is included in the front matter of each volume.

Bracketed insertions are also used to indicate omitted text that deals with an unrelated subject (in roman type) or that remains classified after declassification review (in italic type). The amount of material not declassified has been noted by indicating the number of lines or pages of source text that were omitted. Entire documents withheld for declassification purposes have been accounted for and are listed by headings, source notes, and number of pages not declassified in their chronological place. The amount of material omitted from this print volume and from the microfiche supplement because it was unrelated to the subject of the volume, however, has not been delineated. All brackets that appear in the source text are so identified by footnotes.

The unnumbered first footnote to each document indicates the document's source, original classification, distribution, and drafting information. The source footnote also provides the background of important documents and policies and indicates if the President or his major policy advisers read the document. Every effort has been made to determine if a document has been previously published, and this information has been included in the source footnote.

Editorial notes and additional annotation summarize pertinent material not printed in the volume, indicate the location of additional documentary sources, provide references to important related documents printed in other volumes, describe key events, and provide summaries of and citations to public statements that supplement and elucidate the printed documents. Information derived from memoirs and other first- hand accounts has been used when appropriate to supplement or explicate the official record.

Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation

The Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation, established under the Foreign Relations statute, reviews records, advises, and makes recommendations concerning the Foreign Relations series. The Advisory Committee monitors the overall compilation and editorial process of the series and assists with any access and/or clearance problems that arise. Time constraints prevent the Advisory Committee from reviewing all volumes in the series.

This volume has not been reviewed by the Advisory Committee.

Declassification Review

The declassification review of this volume in 1993 and 1994 resulted in the decision to withhold approximately .01 percent of the documents originally selected; no documents were denied in full. The remaining documentation provides an account of the major foreign economic policy issues confronting, and the policies undertaken by, the U.S. Government during this period.

The Division of Historical Documents Review of the Office of Freedom of Information, Privacy, and Classification Review, Bureau of Administration, Department of State, conducted the declassification review of the documents published in this volume. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards set forth in Executive Order 12356 on National Security Information and applicable laws.

Under Executive Order 12356, information that concerns one or more of the following categories, and the disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security, requires classification:

1) military plans, weapons, or operations;

2) the vulnerabilities or capabilities of systems, installations, projects, or plans relating to the national security;

3) foreign government information;

4) intelligence activities (including special activities), or intelligence sources or methods;

5) foreign relations or foreign activities of the United States;

6) scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to national security;

7) U.S. Government programs for safeguarding nuclear materials or facilities;

8) cryptology; or

9) a confidential source.

The principle guiding declassification review is to release all information, subject only to the current requirements of national security and law. Declassification decisions entailed concurrence of the appropriate geographic and functional bureaus in the Department of State, other concerned agencies of the U.S. Government, and the appropriate foreign governments regarding specific documents of those governments.

Acknowledgements

The editors wish to acknowledge the assistance of archivists at the John F. Kennedy Library, in particular Suzanne Forbes, who assisted in the collection of documents for this volume. Officials at the Agency for International Development, especially Renee Poehls, also deserve special thanks.

David S. Patterson, Evans Gerakas, William F. Sanford, Jr., and Carolyn B. Yee compiled and edited the material presented in this volume, under the supervision of General Editor Glenn W. LaFantasie. Dr. Sanford also provided initial planning. Rita M. Baker, Vicki E. Futscher, and Deb Godfrey did the copy and technical editing and Barbara-Ann Bacon of the Publishing Services Division (Natalie H. Lee, Chief) oversaw the production of the volume. Paul Zohav prepared the index.

William Z. Slany The Historian Bureau of Public Affairs

December 1994

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Contents

Preface III List of Sources XIII List of Abbreviations XVII List of Persons XXIII General foreign economic policy 1 Financial and monetary policy 105 Foreign assistance policy 189 International investment and development policy 396 Trade and commercial policy 455 Economic defense policy 648 Strategic materials and commodities policy 751 Index 817

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List of Sources

Unpublished Sources

Department of State

Central Files: A major source of documentation for this volume was the indexed central files of the Department of State. Many of the documents were selected from the following files:

100.4: Interagency boards and committees

102.7: Department of Commerce

110.12BA: Under Secretary of State Ball

374.800: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

394.41: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

398.00: Conferences on economic, industrial, and social affairs

398.051: U.N. Special Fund

398.10: International financial conferences

398.13: International Monetary Fund

398.14: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

400.0041: Trade relations

400.11: Export trade of the U.S.

400.116: Other administrative measures affecting import trade

400.119: U.S. export controls

411.004: U.S. import tariffs

411.0041: U.S. trade relations

411.006: Other U.S. administrative matters affecting import trade

411.414: U.S. import tariff on the United Kingdom

411.9441: U.S. trade relations with Japan

460.119: U.S. export controls on trade with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

460.509: COCOM restrictions on trade with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

611.0041: U.S. trade agreements, treaties, and conventions

611.00431: U.S. economic treaties and agreements, double taxation

611.62A: Political relations between the United States and West Germany

611.9441: U.S. trade agreements, treaties, and conventions with Japan

700.5-MSP: Mutual defense

740.5-MSP: Mutual defense of Europe

800.0000: General economic matters

800.03: Food conditions; Food for Peace

800.235: Sugar

800.2553: Petroleum

811.00: U.S. general economic matters

811.0000: General world economic matters

811.0040: U.S. economic relations with Europe

811.10: U.S. financial and monetary matters

811.11: U.S. taxation

811.112: U.S. taxation income

AID 1: General aid policy, plans, and coordination

AID (IBRD) 1: Aid, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

AID (IDA): Aid, International Development Association

AID (US) 1: General U.S. aid policy, plans, and coordination

DEF 6 - 8 US/NATO: Defense affairs between United States and NATO, mobilization of armed forces

DEF 12 - 5: Defense affairs, procurement, sales

DEF 19 - 3: Military assistance

FT 4 US/TEA: U.S. foreign trade agreements, Trade Expansion Act

FN 1 US: General U.S. finance policy

FN 12: Balance of payments

FN 12 US: U.S. balance of payments

FN 16 US: U.S. revenue, taxation

FT 7: Tariff negotiations

FT 7 GATT: Tariff negotiations, GATT

FT (EX) US: U.S. foreign trade, export

INCO - COTTON: Cotton industry and commodities

INCO - POULTRY US: U.S. poultry industry and commodities

INCO - WOOL 4: Wool trade agreements

INCO - WOOL IT: Wool industry and commodities of Italy

INCO - WOOL US: Wool industry and commodities of United States

POL 7 US/UK: Political affairs and relations, visits, and meetings between United States and United Kingdom

Lot Files: Documents from the central files are supplemented by lot files of the Department, which are decentralized files created by bureaus, offices, divisions, and the Executive Secretariat. A list of the lot files cited or consulted in this volume follows:

Ball Files: Lot 74 D 272

Files of Under Secretary of State George W. Ball, 1961 - 1963.

Conference Files: Lot 65 D 366

Chronology of international conferences abroad attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials in 1961.

Conference Files: Lot 65 D 533

Chronology of international conferences abroad attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials in 1962.

Conference Files: Lot 66 D 110

Collection of documentation on international conferences abroad attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials, May 1961 - December 1964.

E Files: Lot 64 D 452

Files of the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 1962 - 1963, covering economic policy.

Presidential Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 66 D 149

Cleared memoranda of Presidential conversations with foreign visitors, 1956 - 1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

Secretary's Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 65 D 330

Memoranda of conversation of the Secretary and Under Secretary of State, 1961 - 1964.

S/P Files: Lot 70 D 199

Files of the Policy Planning Council, 1963 - 1964.

S/S Briefing Books: Lot 66 D 219

Various policy briefing books and situation chronologies used by the Secretary and Under Secretaries of State, 1962 - 1966.

S/S - NSC Files: Lot 70 D 265

Master set of papers pertaining to National Security Council meetings, including policy papers, position papers, and administrative documents, 1961 - 1966, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

S/S - NSC Files: Lot 72 D 316

Master set of National Security Action Memoranda, 1961 - 1968.

S/S - NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95

Administrative and miscellaneous National Security Council documentation, including NSC Records of Action, 1947 - 1963, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.

Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland

Record Group 40, Records of the Department of Commerce

Office of the Secretary of Commerce Files: FRC 69 A 6828

Executive Secretariat files for 1963 - 1964.

Under Secretary of Commerce Files: FRC 66 A 1971

Files of the Office of Edward Gudeman, Under Secretary of Commerce, 1961 - 1963.

Record Group 59, Records of the Department of State

E Files: FRC 71 A 6682, Item 53

Lot 65 D 68: Files containing origins, deliberations, and termination of the Interdepartmental Committee of Under Secretaries for Foreign Economic Policy (ICFEP), 1961 - 1963.

E/CBA/REP Files: FRC 72 A 6248

Lot 70 D 467: Master set of the Department of State classified internal publication Current Economic Developments for 1945 - 1969, maintained in the Bureau of Economic Affairs.

Record Group 286, Records of the Agency for International Development

AID Administrator Files: FRC 65 A 481

Executive Secretariat files for 1961 - 1962.

AID Administrator Files: FRC 67 A 1530

Executive Secretariat files for 1962 - 1964.

John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts

George W. Ball Papers

Transcripts of telephone conversations, 1961 - 1963.

C. Douglas Dillon Papers

Myer Feldman Papers

Christian A. Herter Papers

National Security Files (NSF)

Carl Kaysen Series

Countries Series

Departments and Agencies Series

Meetings and Memoranda Series

Subjects Series

Howard C. Petersen Papers

President's Appointment Books

President's Office Files

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

Chester A. Bowles Papers

Published Sources

Documentary Collections and Periodicals

U.S. Department of State. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)

--------. Department of State Bulletin, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)

U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Memoirs and Secondary Literature

Note: The Department of State takes no responsibility for the accuracy of these publications nor does it endorse their interpretations.

Ball, George W. The Past Has Another Pattern: Memoirs (New York: Norton, 1982)

Galbraith, John Kenneth. Ambassador's Journal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969)

Horsefield, J. Keith and Margaret G. de Vries. The International Monetary Fund, 1945 - 1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation. 3 volumes. (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1969)

Raucher, Alan R. Paul G. Hoffman: Architect of Foreign Aid (Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1985)

Rostow, Walt W. Eisenhower, Kennedy and Foreign Aid (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985)

--------. View From the Seventh Floor (New York: Harper & Row, 1964)

Rusk, Dean, as told to Richard Rusk. As I Saw It (New York: W.W. Norton, 1990)

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965)

Sorensen, Theodore C. Kennedy (New York: Harper & Row, 1965)

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List of Abbreviations

A, airgram

ACEP, Advisory Committee on Export Policy

AEC, Atomic Energy Committee

AF, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State

AID, Agency for International Development

ARA, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State

B, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs

BBC, British Broadcasting Corporation

BDSA, Business and Defense Services Administration, Department of Commerce

BIP, Bureau of International Programs, Department of Commerce

BNA, Office of British Commonwealth and Northern European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State

BOB, Bureau of the Budget

Busec, series indicator for telegrams to the Mission to the European Communities from the Department of State

CA, circular airgram

CAP, Common Agricultural Policy

CEA, Council of Economic Advisers

Cedto, series indicator for telegrams from Paris to the Department of State relating to OECD matters

CG, circular airgram; Consultative Group

CIA, Central Intelligence Agency

COCOM, Coordinating Committee of the Paris Consultative Group (CG)

COMIBOL, CMB, Corporacion Minera de Bolivia (Mining Corporation of Bolivia)

CP, Contracting Party or Parties

CSD, Commodities Division, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

CU, Office of the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs

CY, calendar year

D, Democrat; Office of the Deputy Administrator, Agency for International Development

DAC, Development Assistance Committee

DAG, Development Assistance Group

Depcirtel, Department of State circular telegram

DLF, Development Loan Fund

DM, D mark, Deutschemark

DOD, Department of Defense

E, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

EA, Office of East Asian Affairs, Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State

Ecbus, series indicator for telegrams from the Mission to the European Communities to the Department of State

ECD, Economic Defense Division, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

ECONAD, Committee of Economic Advisers (NATO)

ECOSOC, United Nations Economic and Social Council

ECRB, Export Control Review Board

ED, Economic Development Division, Office of International Financial and Development Affairs, Bureau of Economic Affairs

EE, East European; Office of Eastern European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State

EEC, European Economic Community

EFTA, European Free Trade Association

EMA, European Monetary Agreement

E.O., Executive Order

EPC, European Political Community

EUR, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State; European

EXIM, Eximbank, Export-Import Bank

EXSEC, Executive Secretariat, Agency for International Development

FAC, Office of the Deputy Coordinator for Foreign Assistance, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations

FAZ, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

FBI, Federal Bureau of Investigation

FE, Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State

FN, International Finance Division, Office of International Financial and Development Affairs, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

FODAG, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations

FonMin, Foreign Minister

FonOff, Foreign Office

FRB, Federal Reserve Board

FRC, Federal Records Center (Washington National Records Center)

FRG, Federal Republic of Germany

FSD, Fuels Division, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

FSE, Fuels and Energy Division, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

FY, fiscal year

G, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs

GA, United Nations General Assembly

GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GER, Office of German Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State

GNP, gross national product

GOI, Government of Iran

GOJ, Government of Japan

G/PM, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Politico- Military Affairs

GRC, Government of the Republic of China

GSA, General Services Administration

HEW, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

HMG, Her Majesty's Government

H.R., House of Representatives

H. Rept., House of Representatives Report

H. Res., House of Represenatives Resolution

IAC, Intelligence Advisory Committee

IAIAS, Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences (Costa Rica)

IBRD, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

ICA, International Cooperation Administration

ICAC, International Cotton Advisory Committee

ICFEP, Interdepartmental Committee of Under Secretaries on Foreign Economic Policy

IDA, International Development Association

IDB, Inter-American Development Bank

IDD, International Development Decade

IDY, International Development Year

IL, International List (of embargoed goods)

ILO, International Labor Organization, United Nations

IMF, International Monetary Fund

INR, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State

IO, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State

JCS, Joint Chiefs of Staff

JCSM, Joint Chiefs of Staff Memorandum

LA, Bureau for Latin America, Agency for International Development

LAS, long-range assistance strategy

LDC, less developed country

M, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs

MAAG, Military Assistance Advisory Group

MAP, military assistance program

MC, memorandum of conversation

MDC, Mutual Defense Control Staff, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

MFN, most favored nation

MITI, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

MOD, Ministry of Defense

MSA, Mutual Security Assistance

MSP, Mutual Security Program

NAC, National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Problems

NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NE, Office of Near Eastern Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State

NEA, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State

NESA, Bureau for Near East and South Asia, Agency for International Development

NSAM, National Security Action Memorandum

NSC, National Security Council

O, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Administration

OAS, Organization of American States

OC, Office of Communications, Department of State; Operating Committee of the Advisory Committee on Export Policy (ACEP)

OCB, Operations Coordinating Board

OCDM, Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization

OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

OEEC, Organization for European Economic Cooperation

OEP, Office of Emergency Planning

OES, Office of International Economic and Social Affairs, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State

OFD, Office of International Financial and Development Affairs, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

OFE, Office of International Finance and Economic Analysis, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

OIA, Office of International Affairs, Department of the Treasury

OIF, Office of International Finance, Department of the Treasury

OPEC, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

OR, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

OT, Office of International Trade, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

OTC, Organization for Trade Cooperation

P.L., Public Law

Polto, series indicator for telegrams from the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations to the Department of State

R, Republican

RA, Office of European Regional Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State

RAF, Royal Air Force

REA, Office of Inter-American Regional Economic Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State

ResDel, resident delegation

RG, Record Group

RO, Regional Office

RPE, Office of Political-Economic Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State

S, Office of the Secretary of State

SEATO, Southeast Asian Treaty Organization

SONJ, Standard Oil of New Jersey

SOV, Office of Soviet Union Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State

S/P, Policy Planning Council, Department of State

S/S, Executive Secretariat, Department of State

SUNFED, Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development

SYG, United Nations Secretary-General

TA, Trade Agreements Division, Office of International Trade, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State

TAC, Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements

Tanto, series indicator for telegrams from the United States delegation to the GATT conference in Geneva to the Department of State

Toced, series indicator for telegrams to Paris from the Department of State relating to OECD matters

Topol, series indicator for telegrams to the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations from the Department of State

Totan, series indicator for telegrams to the United States delegation to the GATT conference in Geneva from the Department of State

TPC, Trade Policy Committee

U, Office of the Under Secretary of State

UK, United Kingdom

UN, United Nations

UNCTAD, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDA, United Nations Development Authority

UNDD, United Nations Development Decade

UNGA, United Nations General Assembly

UNSC, United Nations Security Council

UNTA, United Nations Technical Assistance Program

USDA, United States Department of Agriculture

USDel, United States delegation

USIA, United States Information Agency

USOM, United States Operations Mission

USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

UST, United States Treaties and Other International Agreements

VOA, Voice of America

WHO, World Health Organization

WP, working party

WST, Office of West Coast Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State

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List of Persons

Adenauer, Konrad, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany until October 17, 1963

Alphand, Herve, French Ambassador to the United States

Amini, Ali, Prime Minister of Iran, May 5, 1961 - July 17, 1962

Asakai, Koichiro, Japanese Ambassador to the United States until April 1963

Ball, George W., Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, January 30 - December 3, 1961; thereafter Under Secretary of State

Behrman, Jack N., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce for International Affairs, March 24 - November 4, 1961; Assistant Secretary of Commerce for International Affairs, November 5, 1961 - October 1962; thereafter Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Domestic and International Business

Bell, David E., Director of the Bureau of the Budget, January 1961 - December 1962; Administrator of the Agency for International Development from December 21, 1962

Black, Eugene, President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development until December 31, 1962

Blumenthal, W. Michael, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, April 3, 1961 - July 31, 1963; thereafter Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations

Bohlen, Charles E., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State until September 4, 1962; Ambassador to France from October 27, 1962

Boutin, Bernard L., Deputy Administrator, General Services Administration, until February 1962; thereafter Administrator

Bowles, Chester B., Under Secretary of State, January 25 - December 3, 1961; President's Special Representative and Adviser on African, Asian, and Latin American Affairs, Department of State, December 4, 1961 - June 9, 1963; Ambassador to India from July 19, 1963

Brubeck, William H., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and Executive Secretary, May 14, 1962 - July 20, 1963; thereafter National Security Council Staff

Bullitt, John C., Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs, May 1961 - June 1962; thereafter Assistant Secretary

Bundy, McGeorge, President's Special Assistant for National Security Affairs from January 20, 1961

Bundy, William P., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs from January 1961

Carr, James K., Under Secretary of the Interior from January 1961

Carstens, Karl, German Deputy Foreign Minister from 1961

Carver, John A., Jr., Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Land Management

Chenery, Hollis, Director, Program Review and Coordination Staff, Agency for International Development, from October 1961

Cleveland, Harlan, Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs from February 23, 1961

Coffin, Frank M., Managing Director, Development Loan Fund, February - September 1961; thereafter Deputy Administrator, Agency for International Development

Cooley, Harold D., Democratic Representative from North Carolina; Chairman of the House Agriculture Committee

Coombs, Philip H., Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, March 23, 1961 - June 4, 1962

Couve de Murville, Maurice, French Foreign Minister

Dale, William B., Director, Bureau of International Programs, Department of Commerce, 1961 - 1962; Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce for International Affairs, 1962; U.S. Executive Director, International Monetary Fund, from November 1, 1962

De Gaulle, Charles, President of France

Dillon, C. Douglas, Under Secretary of State until January 4, 1961; Secretary of the Treasury from January 21, 1961

Dungan, Ralph A., President's Special Assistant

Eisenhower, Dwight D., President of the United States until January 20, 1961

Erhard, Ludwig, Vice Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany until October 17, 1963; thereafter Chancellor

Feldman, Myer, President's Deputy Special Counsel

Forrestal, Michael V., National Security Council Staff member from January 1961

Fowler, Henry H., Under Secretary of the Treasury from January 1961

Freeman, Orville L., Secretary of Agriculture from January 21, 1961

Fulbright, J. William, Democratic Senator from Arkansas; Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

Galbraith, John Kenneth, Ambassador to India, April 18, 1961 - July 12, 1963

Gardner, Richard N., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs from April 3, 1961

Gilpatric, Roswell L., Deputy Secretary of Defense from January 24, 1961

Giscard d'Estaing, Valery, French Finance Minister from January 18, 1962

Goldberg, Arthur J., Secretary of Labor, January 21, 1961 - September 24, 1962; Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, from October 1, 1962

Graham, John S., Commissioner, Atomic Energy Commission, until 1962

Gudeman, Edward, Under Secretary of Commerce until February 15, 1963

Hamilton, Fowler, Administrator of the Agency for International Development, October 3, 1961 - December 7, 1962

Harriman, W. Averell, Ambassador at Large, February 13 - December 3, 1961; Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, December 4, 1961 - April 3, 1963; thereafter Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs

Heller, Walter W., Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers from January 1961

Henning, John F., Under Secretary of Labor from September 1962

Herter, Christian A., Secretary of State until January 20, 1961; Special Representative for Trade Negotiations from November 1962

Hodges, Luther H., Secretary of Commerce from January 21, 1961

Hoffman, Paul G., Managing Director of the United Nations Special Fund

Home, Lord Alexander Frederick Douglas, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

Hood, Viscount Samuel, British Minister to the United States until December 1962; thereafter British Deputy Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

Humphrey, Hubert H., Democratic Senator from Minnesota

Jacobsson, Per, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund until May 1963

Johnson, G. Griffith, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs from May 18, 1962

Johnson, Lyndon B., Democratic Senator from Texas until January 20, 1961; Vice President of the United States, January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963; thereafter President

Johnson, U. Alexis, Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs from May 2, 1961

Katzenbach, Nicholas deB., Assistant Attorney General, Office of the Legal Counsel, Department of Justice, until May 1962; thereafter Deputy Attorney General

Kaysen, Carl, President's Deputy Special Assistant for National Security Affairs from November 1961

Kelly, John M., Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Mineral Resources

Kennedy, John F., President of the United States, from January 20, 1961 until his death on November 22, 1963

Kitchen, Jeffrey C., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Politico- Military Affairs from May 16, 1961

Klein, David, National Security Council Staff member from January 1961

Klutznick, Philip H., U.S. Representative to the United Nations Economic and Social Council until December 21, 1962

Kohler, Foy D., Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs until August 19, 1962; Ambassador to the Soviet Union from September 27, 1962

Komer, Robert W., National Security Council Staff member from January 1961

Labouisse, Henry R., Director of the International Cooperation Administration, February 22 - October 6, 1961; Ambassador to Greece from March 7, 1962

Leddy, John M., Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State until April 4, 1961; Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, April 1961 - June 1962; U.S. Representative to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development from October 3, 1962

Mansholt, Sicco Leendert, Vice President, European Economic Community Commission

Marjolin, Robert, Vice President, European Economic Community Commission

Martin, Edwin M., Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs until May 17, 1962; thereafter Assistant Secretary of State for Inter- American Affairs

Martin, William McChesney, Jr., Chairman of the Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System

McCone, John A., Director of Central Intelligence from November 29, 1961

McDermott, Edward A., Deputy Director, Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization until September 22, 1961; Deputy Director, Office of Emergency Planning, September 22, 1961 - February 2, 1962; thereafter Director

McGhee, George C., Counselor of the Department of State and Chairman, Policy Planning Council, February 16 - December 3, 1961; Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, December 4, 1961 - March 27, 1963; Ambassador to Germany from May 18 1963

McGovern, George, Director, Office of Food for Peace, January 1961 - April 1962

McNamara, Robert S., Secretary of Defense from January 21, 1961

Murrow, Edward R., Director of the U.S. Information Agency from March 15, 1961

Nitze, Paul H., Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, January 29, 1961 - November 29, 1963; thereafter Secretary of the Navy

Powell, Sir Richard, Permanent Secretary, British Board of Trade

Prado y Ugarteche, Manuel, President of Peru until July 18, 1962

Rathbone, Monroe Jackson, President of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey

Reed, James A., Assistant Secretary of the Treasury from February 1962

Reischauer, Edwin O., Ambassador to Japan from April 27, 1961

Reuter, Richard W., Director, Office of Food for Peace, from July 24, 1962

Rey, Jean, European Economic Community Commissioner for External Relations

Riddleberger, James W., Director of the International Cooperation Administration until February 22, 1961; Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, February 23 - August 1961; Head of U.S. Delegation to Development Assistance Group meeting, July 1961; Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations, August 1961 - October 1962; Ambassador to Austria from November 1962

Riley, Paul H., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Materiel Requirements

Roosa, Robert V., Under Secretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs from January 1961

Rostow, Walt Whitman, Deputy Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, January - November 1961; Counselor of the Department of State and Chairman, Policy Planning Council, from November 29, 1961

Rusk, Dean, Secretary of State from January 21, 1961

Schaetzel, J. Robert, Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, February 3, 1961 - March 26, 1962; Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State, March 27 - September 15, 1962; thereafter Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs

Schroeder, Gerhard, German Foreign Minister from November 14, 1961

Schweitzer, Pierre-Paul, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from September 1, 1963

Smith, Bromley, Executive Officer, Operations Coordinating Board, until February 1961; Acting Executive Secretary, National Security Council, June - August 1961; thereafter Executive Secretary

Southard, Frank A., Jr., U.S. Executive Director, International Monetary Fund, until November 1, 1962; thereafter Deputy Managing Director, International Monetary Fund

Spaak, Paul-Henri, Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization until March 5, 1961; Belgian Foreign Minister from April 25, 1961

Stevenson, Adlai E., III, U.S. Representative to the United Nations from January 23, 1961

Symington, Stuart, Democratic Senator from Missouri

Takeuchi, Ryuji, Japanese Vice Foreign Minister until April 1963; Ambassador of Japan from April 25, 1963

Taylor, General Maxwell D., President's Military Representative, July 1, 1961 - October 1, 1962; thereafter Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Thant, U, Acting Secretary-General of the United Nations, November 3, 1961 - November 30, 1962; thereafter Secretary-General

Trezise, Philip H., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs from October 9, 1961

Tuthill, John W., U.S. Representative to the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, March 6 - October 3, 1961; Representative to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, October 4, 1961 - October 22, 1962; thereafter Representative to the European Communities

Westrick, Ludgar, Office of the Chancellor, German State Secretary

White, Lee C., President's Assistant Special Counsel

Wirtz, W. Willard, Under Secretary of Labor until September 25, 1962; thereafter Secretary of Labor

Woods, George, President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development from January 1, 1963

Wyndham White, Eric, Executive Secretary of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

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[End of Section 1]

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