U.S. Department of State
FRUS, 1961-63, Vol. IX: Foreign Economic Policy
Office of the Historian
[Section 1 of 18]
FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Editors: Evans Gerakas
David S. Patterson
William F. Sanford, Jr.
Carolyn B. Yee
General Editor: Glenn W. LaFantasie
United States Government Printing Office
DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 10229
OFFICE OF THE HISTORIAN
BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328
The Foreign Relations of the United States series presents the official documentary historical record of major foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity of the United States Government. The series documents the facts and events that contributed to the formulation of policies and includes evidence of supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.
The Historian of the Department of State is charged with the responsibility for the preparation of the Foreign Relations series. The staff of the Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, plans, researches, compiles, and edits the volumes in the series. This documentary editing proceeds in full accord with the generally accepted standards of historical scholarship. Official regulations codifying specific standards for the selection and editing of documents for the series were first promulgated by Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg on March 26, 1925. These regulations, with minor modifications, guided the series through 1991.
A new statutory charter for the preparation of the series was established by Public Law 102 - 138, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993, which was signed by President George Bush on October 28, 1991. Section 198 of P.L. 102 - 138 added a new Title IV to the Department of State's Basic Authorities Act of 1956 (22 USC 4351, et seq.).
The statute requires that the Foreign Relations series be a thorough, accurate, and reliable record of major United States foreign policy decisions and significant United States diplomatic activity. The volumes of the series should include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the United States Government, including facts that contributed to the formulation of policies and records that provided supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.
The statute confirms the editing principles established by Secretary Kellogg: the Foreign Relations series is guided by the principles of historical objectivity and accuracy; records should not be altered or deletions made without indicating in the published text that a deletion has been made; the published record should omit no facts that were of major importance in reaching a decision; and nothing should be omitted for the purposes of concealing a defect in policy. The statute also requires that the Foreign Relations series be published not more than 30 years after the events recorded.
The editors of this volume are convinced that it meets all regulatory, statutory, and scholarly standards of selection and editing. Although this volume records policies and events of more than 30 years ago, the Foreign Relations statute allows the Department until 1996 to reach the 30-year line in the publication of the series.
Structure and Scope of the Foreign Relations Series
This volume is part of a subseries of the Foreign Relations series for the years 1961 - 1963. The subseries presents in 25 print volumes and 5 microfiche supplements a documentary record of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the administration of President John F. Kennedy. The record of U.S. foreign economic policy during 1961 - 1963 has been compiled in one print volume and one microfiche supplement.
This volume presents the documentary record of major foreign economic policies with respect to financial and monetary policy, foreign assistance, international development and investment, trade and commerce, economic defense, and strategic materials and commodities. A separate microfiche supplement will comprise additional documentation on general policy, financial and monetary policy, foreign assistance, and trade and commerce, regarded by the editors as significant but not warranting inclusion in the printed volume.
Sources for the Foreign Relations Series
The Foreign Relations statute requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation on major foreign policy decisions and actions of the U.S. Government. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the U.S. Government cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. The editors believe that in terms of access this volume was prepared in accordance with the standards and mandates of the statute, although access to some records was restricted, as noted below.
The editors have had complete access to all the retired records and papers in the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the decentralized files ("lot files") of the Department at the bureau, office, and division levels; the files of the Department's Executive Secretariat, which contain the records of international conferences and high-level official visits, correspondence with foreign leaders by the President and Secretary of State, and memoranda of conversations between the President and Secretary of State and foreign officials; and the files of overseas diplomatic posts. Certain intelligence-related files maintained in the Bureau of Intelligence and Research became available to the Department historians only after this volume was compiled. Arrangements have been made for Department historians to have access to these records for future volumes.
The editors of the Foreign Relations series also have full access to the papers of President Kennedy and other White House foreign policy records. Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from other federal agencies including the National Security Council, Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Office of the Special Trade Representative, the Department of the Treasury, and the Agency for International Development. All of this documentation has been made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of these agencies and the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration.
Department of State historians also have access to records of the Department of Defense (particularly the records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Secretary of Defense and his major assistants), the Department of Commerce, and the Agency for International Development.
Since 1991, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided expanded access to Department historians to high-level intelligence documents from those records still in the custody of that Agency. Department historians' access is arranged by the History Staff of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency. This access arrangement began with the research of volumes for the 1961 - 1963 triennium. Department of State and CIA historians continue to work out the procedural and scholarly aspects of this access, and the variety of documentation made available and selected for publication in the volumes has expanded.
The List of Sources (pages XIII - XVI) lists all the files consulted and cited in this volume.
Principles of Document Selection for the Foreign Relations Series
In preparing each volume of the Foreign Relations series, the editors are guided by some general principles for the selection of documents. Each editor, in consultation with the General Editor and other senior editors, determines the particular issues and topics to be documented either in detail, in brief, or in summary. Some general decisions are also made regarding issues that cannot be documented in the volume but will be addressed in a microfiche supplement or in bibliographical notes.
The following general selection criteria are used in preparing volumes in the Foreign Relations series. Individual compiler-editors vary these criteria in accordance with the particular issues and the available documentation. The compiler-editors also tend to apply these selection criteria in accordance with their own interpretation of the generally accepted standards of scholarship. In selecting documentation for publication, the editors give priority to unpublished classified records, rather than previously published records (which are accounted for in appropriate bibliographical notes).
Selection Criteria (in general order of priority):
1. Major foreign affairs commitments made on behalf of the United States to other governments, including those that define or identify the principal foreign affairs interests of the United States;
2. Major foreign affairs issues, commitments, negotiations, and activities, whether or not major decisions were made, and including dissenting or alternative opinions to the process ultimately adopted;
3. The decisions, discussions, actions, and considerations of the President, as the official constitutionally responsible for the direction of foreign policy;
4. The discussions and actions of the National Security Council, the Cabinet, and special Presidential policy groups, including the policy options brought before these bodies or their individual members;
5. The policy options adopted by or considered by the Secretary of State and the most important actions taken to implement Presidential decisions or policies;
6. Diplomatic negotiations and conferences, official correspondence, and other exchanges between U.S. representatives and those of other governments that demonstrate the main lines of policy implementation on major issues;
7. Important elements of information that attended Presidential decisions and policy recommendations of the Secretary of State;
8. Major foreign affairs decisions, negotiations, and commitments undertaken on behalf of the United States by government officials and representatives in other agencies in the foreign affairs community or other branches of government made without the involvement (or even knowledge) of the White House or the Department of State;
9. The role of the Congress in the preparation and execution of particular foreign policies or foreign affairs actions;
10. Economic aspects of foreign policy;
11. The main policy lines of U.S. military and economic assistance as well as other types of assistance;
12. The political-military recommendations, decisions, and activities of the military establishment and major regional military commands as they bear upon the formulation or execution of major U.S. foreign policies;
13. The main policy lines of intelligence activities if they constituted major aspects of U.S. foreign policy toward a nation or region or if they provided key information in the formulation of major U.S. policies;
14. Documentation that illuminates special decisionmaking processes that accomplished the policies recorded in particular volumes;
15. Diplomatic appointments that reflect major policies or affect policy changes.
Scope and Focus of Documents Researched and Selected for Foreign Relations, 1961 - 1963, Volume IX
In general, the editors of this volume, the research and editing of which was completed in 1992, have defined a "major issue" as a foreign economic policy or problem that received high-level attention within the U.S. Government, from the President, key White House aides, or Cabinet- level officials; and/or had long-range repercussions for U.S. foreign policy and interests. While it was impossible to include the details of U.S. policy on every foreign economic issue, documentation has been included, either in the print volume or the microfiche supplement, that delineates basic U.S. policies toward the subjects in question.
The primary focus of the documents in this volume is on the foreign policymaking process of the U.S. Government, including documentation illuminating policy formulation and major aspects and repercussions of its execution. Emphasis is placed on official memoranda that reveal policy positions, show differences within the U.S. Government over policy formulation, summarize developments and positions regarding an issue, and describe decisions or actions taken at the National Security Council. Some key instructions sent to diplomatic posts are included when they demonstrate the details of the execution of a policy. Memoranda of conversations with foreign leaders both abroad and in Washington were selected to provide additional information on the origins and impact of foreign policy decisions.
The editors selected only the most important reports from diplomatic posts, particularly those containing the records of significant conversations held with foreign leaders and their diplomatic repre- sentatives on economic issues. Details of military and economic assistance programs for specific nations or their implementation are not included.
Documentation selected by the editor for inclusion in the microfiche supplement provides additional details on the major issues covered in this volume. The annotation to printed documents contains references to related documents included in the microfiche supplement. The supplement also includes several lengthy attachments to printed documents. In these cases, the printed document contains editorial references to the appropriate microfiche document. The volume may be used without the supplement, but the microfiche should be used in conjunction with the printed volume.
The major topics and issues the editors sought to cover in volume IX are as follows:
1) Policies to reverse the deteriorating U.S. balance of payments.
2) Burdensharing negotiations to permit reductions in U.S. expenditures abroad.
3) Multilateral trade negotiations aimed at increasing U.S. exports abroad.
4) New foreign assistance policy aimed at moving the developing nations into self-sustained economic growth.
5) Promotion of U.S. economic and military assistance and development goals in multilateral forums.
6) Debate over liberalization of U.S. trade control criteria vis-a-vis the Sino-Soviet bloc.
7) Disposal of the surplus of the U.S. stockpile of strategic materials.
For each of the seven foreign economic topics, the documents are presented chronologically according to Washington time or, in the case of conferences, in the order of individual meetings. Incoming telegrams from U.S. Missions are placed according to time of receipt in the Department of State or other receiving agency, rather than the time of transmission; memoranda of conversation are placed according to the time and date of the conversation, rather than the date the memorandum was drafted.
Editorial treatment of the documents published in the Foreign Relations series follows Office style guidelines, supplemented by guidance from the General Editor and the chief technical editor. The source text is reproduced as exactly as possible, including marginalia or other notations, which are described in the footnotes. Texts are transcribed and printed according to accepted conventions for the publication of historical documents in the limitations of modern typography. A heading has been supplied by the editors for each document included in the volume. Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation are retained as found in the source text, except that obvious typographical errors are silently corrected. Other mistakes and omissions in the source text are corrected by bracketed insertions: a correction is set in italic type; an addition in roman type. Words or phrases underlined in the source text are printed in italics. Abbreviations and contractions are preserved as found in the source text, and a list of abbreviations is included in the front matter of each volume.
Bracketed insertions are also used to indicate omitted text that deals with an unrelated subject (in roman type) or that remains classified after declassification review (in italic type). The amount of material not declassified has been noted by indicating the number of lines or pages of source text that were omitted. Entire documents withheld for declassification purposes have been accounted for and are listed by headings, source notes, and number of pages not declassified in their chronological place. The amount of material omitted from this print volume and from the microfiche supplement because it was unrelated to the subject of the volume, however, has not been delineated. All brackets that appear in the source text are so identified by footnotes.
The unnumbered first footnote to each document indicates the document's source, original classification, distribution, and drafting information. The source footnote also provides the background of important documents and policies and indicates if the President or his major policy advisers read the document. Every effort has been made to determine if a document has been previously published, and this information has been included in the source footnote.
Editorial notes and additional annotation summarize pertinent material not printed in the volume, indicate the location of additional documentary sources, provide references to important related documents printed in other volumes, describe key events, and provide summaries of and citations to public statements that supplement and elucidate the printed documents. Information derived from memoirs and other first- hand accounts has been used when appropriate to supplement or explicate the official record.
Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation
The Advisory Committee on Historical Diplomatic Documentation, established under the Foreign Relations statute, reviews records, advises, and makes recommendations concerning the Foreign Relations series. The Advisory Committee monitors the overall compilation and editorial process of the series and assists with any access and/or clearance problems that arise. Time constraints prevent the Advisory Committee from reviewing all volumes in the series.
This volume has not been reviewed by the Advisory Committee.
The declassification review of this volume in 1993 and 1994 resulted in the decision to withhold approximately .01 percent of the documents originally selected; no documents were denied in full. The remaining documentation provides an account of the major foreign economic policy issues confronting, and the policies undertaken by, the U.S. Government during this period.
The Division of Historical Documents Review of the Office of Freedom of Information, Privacy, and Classification Review, Bureau of Administration, Department of State, conducted the declassification review of the documents published in this volume. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards set forth in Executive Order 12356 on National Security Information and applicable laws.
Under Executive Order 12356, information that concerns one or more of the following categories, and the disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security, requires classification:
1) military plans, weapons, or operations;
2) the vulnerabilities or capabilities of systems, installations, projects, or plans relating to the national security;
3) foreign government information;
4) intelligence activities (including special activities), or intelligence sources or methods;
5) foreign relations or foreign activities of the United States;
6) scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to national security;
7) U.S. Government programs for safeguarding nuclear materials or facilities;
8) cryptology; or
9) a confidential source.
The principle guiding declassification review is to release all information, subject only to the current requirements of national security and law. Declassification decisions entailed concurrence of the appropriate geographic and functional bureaus in the Department of State, other concerned agencies of the U.S. Government, and the appropriate foreign governments regarding specific documents of those governments.
The editors wish to acknowledge the assistance of archivists at the John F. Kennedy Library, in particular Suzanne Forbes, who assisted in the collection of documents for this volume. Officials at the Agency for International Development, especially Renee Poehls, also deserve special thanks.
David S. Patterson, Evans Gerakas, William F. Sanford, Jr., and Carolyn B. Yee compiled and edited the material presented in this volume, under the supervision of General Editor Glenn W. LaFantasie. Dr. Sanford also provided initial planning. Rita M. Baker, Vicki E. Futscher, and Deb Godfrey did the copy and technical editing and Barbara-Ann Bacon of the Publishing Services Division (Natalie H. Lee, Chief) oversaw the production of the volume. Paul Zohav prepared the index.
William Z. Slany The Historian Bureau of Public Affairs
Preface III List of Sources XIII List of Abbreviations XVII List of Persons XXIII General foreign economic policy 1 Financial and monetary policy 105 Foreign assistance policy 189 International investment and development policy 396 Trade and commercial policy 455 Economic defense policy 648 Strategic materials and commodities policy 751 Index 817
List of Sources
Department of State
Central Files: A major source of documentation for this volume was the indexed central files of the Department of State. Many of the documents were selected from the following files:
100.4: Interagency boards and committees
102.7: Department of Commerce
110.12BA: Under Secretary of State Ball
374.800: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
394.41: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
398.00: Conferences on economic, industrial, and social affairs
398.051: U.N. Special Fund
398.10: International financial conferences
398.13: International Monetary Fund
398.14: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
400.0041: Trade relations
400.11: Export trade of the U.S.
400.116: Other administrative measures affecting import trade
400.119: U.S. export controls
411.004: U.S. import tariffs
411.0041: U.S. trade relations
411.006: Other U.S. administrative matters affecting import trade
411.414: U.S. import tariff on the United Kingdom
411.9441: U.S. trade relations with Japan
460.119: U.S. export controls on trade with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
460.509: COCOM restrictions on trade with Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
611.0041: U.S. trade agreements, treaties, and conventions
611.00431: U.S. economic treaties and agreements, double taxation
611.62A: Political relations between the United States and West Germany
611.9441: U.S. trade agreements, treaties, and conventions with Japan
700.5-MSP: Mutual defense
740.5-MSP: Mutual defense of Europe
800.0000: General economic matters
800.03: Food conditions; Food for Peace
811.00: U.S. general economic matters
811.0000: General world economic matters
811.0040: U.S. economic relations with Europe
811.10: U.S. financial and monetary matters
811.11: U.S. taxation
811.112: U.S. taxation income
AID 1: General aid policy, plans, and coordination
AID (IBRD) 1: Aid, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
AID (IDA): Aid, International Development Association
AID (US) 1: General U.S. aid policy, plans, and coordination
DEF 6 - 8 US/NATO: Defense affairs between United States and NATO, mobilization of armed forces
DEF 12 - 5: Defense affairs, procurement, sales
DEF 19 - 3: Military assistance
FT 4 US/TEA: U.S. foreign trade agreements, Trade Expansion Act
FN 1 US: General U.S. finance policy
FN 12: Balance of payments
FN 12 US: U.S. balance of payments
FN 16 US: U.S. revenue, taxation
FT 7: Tariff negotiations
FT 7 GATT: Tariff negotiations, GATT
FT (EX) US: U.S. foreign trade, export
INCO - COTTON: Cotton industry and commodities
INCO - POULTRY US: U.S. poultry industry and commodities
INCO - WOOL 4: Wool trade agreements
INCO - WOOL IT: Wool industry and commodities of Italy
INCO - WOOL US: Wool industry and commodities of United States
POL 7 US/UK: Political affairs and relations, visits, and meetings between United States and United Kingdom
Lot Files: Documents from the central files are supplemented by lot files of the Department, which are decentralized files created by bureaus, offices, divisions, and the Executive Secretariat. A list of the lot files cited or consulted in this volume follows:
Ball Files: Lot 74 D 272
Files of Under Secretary of State George W. Ball, 1961 - 1963.
Conference Files: Lot 65 D 366
Chronology of international conferences abroad attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials in 1961.
Conference Files: Lot 65 D 533
Chronology of international conferences abroad attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials in 1962.
Conference Files: Lot 66 D 110
Collection of documentation on international conferences abroad attended by the President, the Secretary of State, and other U.S. officials, May 1961 - December 1964.
E Files: Lot 64 D 452
Files of the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, 1962 - 1963, covering economic policy.
Presidential Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 66 D 149
Cleared memoranda of Presidential conversations with foreign visitors, 1956 - 1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
Secretary's Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 65 D 330
Memoranda of conversation of the Secretary and Under Secretary of State, 1961 - 1964.
S/P Files: Lot 70 D 199
Files of the Policy Planning Council, 1963 - 1964.
S/S Briefing Books: Lot 66 D 219
Various policy briefing books and situation chronologies used by the Secretary and Under Secretaries of State, 1962 - 1966.
S/S - NSC Files: Lot 70 D 265
Master set of papers pertaining to National Security Council meetings, including policy papers, position papers, and administrative documents, 1961 - 1966, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
S/S - NSC Files: Lot 72 D 316
Master set of National Security Action Memoranda, 1961 - 1968.
S/S - NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95
Administrative and miscellaneous National Security Council documentation, including NSC Records of Action, 1947 - 1963, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
Record Group 40, Records of the Department of Commerce
Office of the Secretary of Commerce Files: FRC 69 A 6828
Executive Secretariat files for 1963 - 1964.
Under Secretary of Commerce Files: FRC 66 A 1971
Files of the Office of Edward Gudeman, Under Secretary of Commerce, 1961 - 1963.
Record Group 59, Records of the Department of State
E Files: FRC 71 A 6682, Item 53
Lot 65 D 68: Files containing origins, deliberations, and termination of the Interdepartmental Committee of Under Secretaries for Foreign Economic Policy (ICFEP), 1961 - 1963.
E/CBA/REP Files: FRC 72 A 6248
Lot 70 D 467: Master set of the Department of State classified internal publication Current Economic Developments for 1945 - 1969, maintained in the Bureau of Economic Affairs.
Record Group 286, Records of the Agency for International Development
AID Administrator Files: FRC 65 A 481
Executive Secretariat files for 1961 - 1962.
AID Administrator Files: FRC 67 A 1530
Executive Secretariat files for 1962 - 1964.
John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
George W. Ball Papers
Transcripts of telephone conversations, 1961 - 1963.
C. Douglas Dillon Papers
Myer Feldman Papers
Christian A. Herter Papers
National Security Files (NSF)
Carl Kaysen Series
Departments and Agencies Series
Meetings and Memoranda Series
Howard C. Petersen Papers
President's Appointment Books
President's Office Files
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
Chester A. Bowles Papers
Documentary Collections and Periodicals
U.S. Department of State. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
--------. Department of State Bulletin, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: John F. Kennedy, 1961, 1962, 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office)
Memoirs and Secondary Literature
Note: The Department of State takes no responsibility for the accuracy of these publications nor does it endorse their interpretations.
Ball, George W. The Past Has Another Pattern: Memoirs (New York: Norton, 1982)
Galbraith, John Kenneth. Ambassador's Journal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969)
Horsefield, J. Keith and Margaret G. de Vries. The International Monetary Fund, 1945 - 1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation. 3 volumes. (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1969)
Raucher, Alan R. Paul G. Hoffman: Architect of Foreign Aid (Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1985)
Rostow, Walt W. Eisenhower, Kennedy and Foreign Aid (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985)
--------. View From the Seventh Floor (New York: Harper & Row, 1964)
Rusk, Dean, as told to Richard Rusk. As I Saw It (New York: W.W. Norton, 1990)
Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965)
Sorensen, Theodore C. Kennedy (New York: Harper & Row, 1965)
List of Abbreviations
ACEP, Advisory Committee on Export Policy
AEC, Atomic Energy Committee
AF, Bureau of African Affairs, Department of State
AID, Agency for International Development
ARA, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State
B, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
BBC, British Broadcasting Corporation
BDSA, Business and Defense Services Administration, Department of Commerce
BIP, Bureau of International Programs, Department of Commerce
BNA, Office of British Commonwealth and Northern European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
BOB, Bureau of the Budget
Busec, series indicator for telegrams to the Mission to the European Communities from the Department of State
CA, circular airgram
CAP, Common Agricultural Policy
CEA, Council of Economic Advisers
Cedto, series indicator for telegrams from Paris to the Department of State relating to OECD matters
CG, circular airgram; Consultative Group
CIA, Central Intelligence Agency
COCOM, Coordinating Committee of the Paris Consultative Group (CG)
COMIBOL, CMB, Corporacion Minera de Bolivia (Mining Corporation of Bolivia)
CP, Contracting Party or Parties
CSD, Commodities Division, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
CU, Office of the Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs
CY, calendar year
D, Democrat; Office of the Deputy Administrator, Agency for International Development
DAC, Development Assistance Committee
DAG, Development Assistance Group
Depcirtel, Department of State circular telegram
DLF, Development Loan Fund
DM, D mark, Deutschemark
DOD, Department of Defense
E, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
EA, Office of East Asian Affairs, Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State
Ecbus, series indicator for telegrams from the Mission to the European Communities to the Department of State
ECD, Economic Defense Division, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
ECONAD, Committee of Economic Advisers (NATO)
ECOSOC, United Nations Economic and Social Council
ECRB, Export Control Review Board
ED, Economic Development Division, Office of International Financial and Development Affairs, Bureau of Economic Affairs
EE, East European; Office of Eastern European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
EEC, European Economic Community
EFTA, European Free Trade Association
EMA, European Monetary Agreement
E.O., Executive Order
EPC, European Political Community
EUR, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State; European
EXIM, Eximbank, Export-Import Bank
EXSEC, Executive Secretariat, Agency for International Development
FAC, Office of the Deputy Coordinator for Foreign Assistance, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations
FAZ, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
FBI, Federal Bureau of Investigation
FE, Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State
FN, International Finance Division, Office of International Financial and Development Affairs, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
FODAG, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations
FonMin, Foreign Minister
FonOff, Foreign Office
FRB, Federal Reserve Board
FRC, Federal Records Center (Washington National Records Center)
FRG, Federal Republic of Germany
FSD, Fuels Division, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
FSE, Fuels and Energy Division, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
FY, fiscal year
G, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
GA, United Nations General Assembly
GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GER, Office of German Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
GNP, gross national product
GOI, Government of Iran
GOJ, Government of Japan
G/PM, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Politico- Military Affairs
GRC, Government of the Republic of China
GSA, General Services Administration
HEW, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
HMG, Her Majesty's Government
H.R., House of Representatives
H. Rept., House of Representatives Report
H. Res., House of Represenatives Resolution
IAC, Intelligence Advisory Committee
IAIAS, Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences (Costa Rica)
IBRD, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICA, International Cooperation Administration
ICAC, International Cotton Advisory Committee
ICFEP, Interdepartmental Committee of Under Secretaries on Foreign Economic Policy
IDA, International Development Association
IDB, Inter-American Development Bank
IDD, International Development Decade
IDY, International Development Year
IL, International List (of embargoed goods)
ILO, International Labor Organization, United Nations
IMF, International Monetary Fund
INR, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
IO, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State
JCS, Joint Chiefs of Staff
JCSM, Joint Chiefs of Staff Memorandum
LA, Bureau for Latin America, Agency for International Development
LAS, long-range assistance strategy
LDC, less developed country
M, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
MAAG, Military Assistance Advisory Group
MAP, military assistance program
MC, memorandum of conversation
MDC, Mutual Defense Control Staff, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
MFN, most favored nation
MITI, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan
MOD, Ministry of Defense
MSA, Mutual Security Assistance
MSP, Mutual Security Program
NAC, National Advisory Council on International Monetary and Financial Problems
NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NE, Office of Near Eastern Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State
NEA, Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State
NESA, Bureau for Near East and South Asia, Agency for International Development
NSAM, National Security Action Memorandum
NSC, National Security Council
O, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Administration
OAS, Organization of American States
OC, Office of Communications, Department of State; Operating Committee of the Advisory Committee on Export Policy (ACEP)
OCB, Operations Coordinating Board
OCDM, Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization
OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OEEC, Organization for European Economic Cooperation
OEP, Office of Emergency Planning
OES, Office of International Economic and Social Affairs, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State
OFD, Office of International Financial and Development Affairs, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
OFE, Office of International Finance and Economic Analysis, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
OIA, Office of International Affairs, Department of the Treasury
OIF, Office of International Finance, Department of the Treasury
OPEC, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OR, Office of International Resources, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
OT, Office of International Trade, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
OTC, Organization for Trade Cooperation
P.L., Public Law
Polto, series indicator for telegrams from the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations to the Department of State
RA, Office of European Regional Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
RAF, Royal Air Force
REA, Office of Inter-American Regional Economic Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State
ResDel, resident delegation
RG, Record Group
RO, Regional Office
RPE, Office of Political-Economic Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
S, Office of the Secretary of State
SEATO, Southeast Asian Treaty Organization
SONJ, Standard Oil of New Jersey
SOV, Office of Soviet Union Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
S/P, Policy Planning Council, Department of State
S/S, Executive Secretariat, Department of State
SUNFED, Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development
SYG, United Nations Secretary-General
TA, Trade Agreements Division, Office of International Trade, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
TAC, Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements
Tanto, series indicator for telegrams from the United States delegation to the GATT conference in Geneva to the Department of State
Toced, series indicator for telegrams to Paris from the Department of State relating to OECD matters
Topol, series indicator for telegrams to the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations from the Department of State
Totan, series indicator for telegrams to the United States delegation to the GATT conference in Geneva from the Department of State
TPC, Trade Policy Committee
U, Office of the Under Secretary of State
UK, United Kingdom
UN, United Nations
UNCTAD, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDA, United Nations Development Authority
UNDD, United Nations Development Decade
UNGA, United Nations General Assembly
UNSC, United Nations Security Council
UNTA, United Nations Technical Assistance Program
USDA, United States Department of Agriculture
USDel, United States delegation
USIA, United States Information Agency
USOM, United States Operations Mission
USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
UST, United States Treaties and Other International Agreements
VOA, Voice of America
WHO, World Health Organization
WP, working party
WST, Office of West Coast Affairs, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State
List of Persons
Adenauer, Konrad, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany until October 17, 1963
Alphand, Herve, French Ambassador to the United States
Amini, Ali, Prime Minister of Iran, May 5, 1961 - July 17, 1962
Asakai, Koichiro, Japanese Ambassador to the United States until April 1963
Ball, George W., Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, January 30 - December 3, 1961; thereafter Under Secretary of State
Behrman, Jack N., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce for International Affairs, March 24 - November 4, 1961; Assistant Secretary of Commerce for International Affairs, November 5, 1961 - October 1962; thereafter Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Domestic and International Business
Bell, David E., Director of the Bureau of the Budget, January 1961 - December 1962; Administrator of the Agency for International Development from December 21, 1962
Black, Eugene, President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development until December 31, 1962
Blumenthal, W. Michael, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, April 3, 1961 - July 31, 1963; thereafter Deputy Special Representative for Trade Negotiations
Bohlen, Charles E., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State until September 4, 1962; Ambassador to France from October 27, 1962
Boutin, Bernard L., Deputy Administrator, General Services Administration, until February 1962; thereafter Administrator
Bowles, Chester B., Under Secretary of State, January 25 - December 3, 1961; President's Special Representative and Adviser on African, Asian, and Latin American Affairs, Department of State, December 4, 1961 - June 9, 1963; Ambassador to India from July 19, 1963
Brubeck, William H., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State and Executive Secretary, May 14, 1962 - July 20, 1963; thereafter National Security Council Staff
Bullitt, John C., Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs, May 1961 - June 1962; thereafter Assistant Secretary
Bundy, McGeorge, President's Special Assistant for National Security Affairs from January 20, 1961
Bundy, William P., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs from January 1961
Carr, James K., Under Secretary of the Interior from January 1961
Carstens, Karl, German Deputy Foreign Minister from 1961
Carver, John A., Jr., Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Land Management
Chenery, Hollis, Director, Program Review and Coordination Staff, Agency for International Development, from October 1961
Cleveland, Harlan, Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs from February 23, 1961
Coffin, Frank M., Managing Director, Development Loan Fund, February - September 1961; thereafter Deputy Administrator, Agency for International Development
Cooley, Harold D., Democratic Representative from North Carolina; Chairman of the House Agriculture Committee
Coombs, Philip H., Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, March 23, 1961 - June 4, 1962
Couve de Murville, Maurice, French Foreign Minister
Dale, William B., Director, Bureau of International Programs, Department of Commerce, 1961 - 1962; Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce for International Affairs, 1962; U.S. Executive Director, International Monetary Fund, from November 1, 1962
De Gaulle, Charles, President of France
Dillon, C. Douglas, Under Secretary of State until January 4, 1961; Secretary of the Treasury from January 21, 1961
Dungan, Ralph A., President's Special Assistant
Eisenhower, Dwight D., President of the United States until January 20, 1961
Erhard, Ludwig, Vice Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany until October 17, 1963; thereafter Chancellor
Feldman, Myer, President's Deputy Special Counsel
Forrestal, Michael V., National Security Council Staff member from January 1961
Fowler, Henry H., Under Secretary of the Treasury from January 1961
Freeman, Orville L., Secretary of Agriculture from January 21, 1961
Fulbright, J. William, Democratic Senator from Arkansas; Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Galbraith, John Kenneth, Ambassador to India, April 18, 1961 - July 12, 1963
Gardner, Richard N., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs from April 3, 1961
Gilpatric, Roswell L., Deputy Secretary of Defense from January 24, 1961
Giscard d'Estaing, Valery, French Finance Minister from January 18, 1962
Goldberg, Arthur J., Secretary of Labor, January 21, 1961 - September 24, 1962; Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court, from October 1, 1962
Graham, John S., Commissioner, Atomic Energy Commission, until 1962
Gudeman, Edward, Under Secretary of Commerce until February 15, 1963
Hamilton, Fowler, Administrator of the Agency for International Development, October 3, 1961 - December 7, 1962
Harriman, W. Averell, Ambassador at Large, February 13 - December 3, 1961; Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, December 4, 1961 - April 3, 1963; thereafter Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
Heller, Walter W., Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers from January 1961
Henning, John F., Under Secretary of Labor from September 1962
Herter, Christian A., Secretary of State until January 20, 1961; Special Representative for Trade Negotiations from November 1962
Hodges, Luther H., Secretary of Commerce from January 21, 1961
Hoffman, Paul G., Managing Director of the United Nations Special Fund
Home, Lord Alexander Frederick Douglas, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Hood, Viscount Samuel, British Minister to the United States until December 1962; thereafter British Deputy Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Humphrey, Hubert H., Democratic Senator from Minnesota
Jacobsson, Per, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund until May 1963
Johnson, G. Griffith, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs from May 18, 1962
Johnson, Lyndon B., Democratic Senator from Texas until January 20, 1961; Vice President of the United States, January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963; thereafter President
Johnson, U. Alexis, Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs from May 2, 1961
Katzenbach, Nicholas deB., Assistant Attorney General, Office of the Legal Counsel, Department of Justice, until May 1962; thereafter Deputy Attorney General
Kaysen, Carl, President's Deputy Special Assistant for National Security Affairs from November 1961
Kelly, John M., Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Mineral Resources
Kennedy, John F., President of the United States, from January 20, 1961 until his death on November 22, 1963
Kitchen, Jeffrey C., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Politico- Military Affairs from May 16, 1961
Klein, David, National Security Council Staff member from January 1961
Klutznick, Philip H., U.S. Representative to the United Nations Economic and Social Council until December 21, 1962
Kohler, Foy D., Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs until August 19, 1962; Ambassador to the Soviet Union from September 27, 1962
Komer, Robert W., National Security Council Staff member from January 1961
Labouisse, Henry R., Director of the International Cooperation Administration, February 22 - October 6, 1961; Ambassador to Greece from March 7, 1962
Leddy, John M., Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State until April 4, 1961; Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, April 1961 - June 1962; U.S. Representative to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development from October 3, 1962
Mansholt, Sicco Leendert, Vice President, European Economic Community Commission
Marjolin, Robert, Vice President, European Economic Community Commission
Martin, Edwin M., Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs until May 17, 1962; thereafter Assistant Secretary of State for Inter- American Affairs
Martin, William McChesney, Jr., Chairman of the Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System
McCone, John A., Director of Central Intelligence from November 29, 1961
McDermott, Edward A., Deputy Director, Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization until September 22, 1961; Deputy Director, Office of Emergency Planning, September 22, 1961 - February 2, 1962; thereafter Director
McGhee, George C., Counselor of the Department of State and Chairman, Policy Planning Council, February 16 - December 3, 1961; Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, December 4, 1961 - March 27, 1963; Ambassador to Germany from May 18 1963
McGovern, George, Director, Office of Food for Peace, January 1961 - April 1962
McNamara, Robert S., Secretary of Defense from January 21, 1961
Murrow, Edward R., Director of the U.S. Information Agency from March 15, 1961
Nitze, Paul H., Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs, January 29, 1961 - November 29, 1963; thereafter Secretary of the Navy
Powell, Sir Richard, Permanent Secretary, British Board of Trade
Prado y Ugarteche, Manuel, President of Peru until July 18, 1962
Rathbone, Monroe Jackson, President of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey
Reed, James A., Assistant Secretary of the Treasury from February 1962
Reischauer, Edwin O., Ambassador to Japan from April 27, 1961
Reuter, Richard W., Director, Office of Food for Peace, from July 24, 1962
Rey, Jean, European Economic Community Commissioner for External Relations
Riddleberger, James W., Director of the International Cooperation Administration until February 22, 1961; Special Assistant to the Secretary of State, February 23 - August 1961; Head of U.S. Delegation to Development Assistance Group meeting, July 1961; Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations, August 1961 - October 1962; Ambassador to Austria from November 1962
Riley, Paul H., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Materiel Requirements
Roosa, Robert V., Under Secretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs from January 1961
Rostow, Walt Whitman, Deputy Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, January - November 1961; Counselor of the Department of State and Chairman, Policy Planning Council, from November 29, 1961
Rusk, Dean, Secretary of State from January 21, 1961
Schaetzel, J. Robert, Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, February 3, 1961 - March 26, 1962; Special Assistant to the Under Secretary of State, March 27 - September 15, 1962; thereafter Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs
Schroeder, Gerhard, German Foreign Minister from November 14, 1961
Schweitzer, Pierre-Paul, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund from September 1, 1963
Smith, Bromley, Executive Officer, Operations Coordinating Board, until February 1961; Acting Executive Secretary, National Security Council, June - August 1961; thereafter Executive Secretary
Southard, Frank A., Jr., U.S. Executive Director, International Monetary Fund, until November 1, 1962; thereafter Deputy Managing Director, International Monetary Fund
Spaak, Paul-Henri, Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization until March 5, 1961; Belgian Foreign Minister from April 25, 1961
Stevenson, Adlai E., III, U.S. Representative to the United Nations from January 23, 1961
Symington, Stuart, Democratic Senator from Missouri
Takeuchi, Ryuji, Japanese Vice Foreign Minister until April 1963; Ambassador of Japan from April 25, 1963
Taylor, General Maxwell D., President's Military Representative, July 1, 1961 - October 1, 1962; thereafter Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Thant, U, Acting Secretary-General of the United Nations, November 3, 1961 - November 30, 1962; thereafter Secretary-General
Trezise, Philip H., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs from October 9, 1961
Tuthill, John W., U.S. Representative to the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, March 6 - October 3, 1961; Representative to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, October 4, 1961 - October 22, 1962; thereafter Representative to the European Communities
Westrick, Ludgar, Office of the Chancellor, German State Secretary
White, Lee C., President's Assistant Special Counsel
Wirtz, W. Willard, Under Secretary of Labor until September 25, 1962; thereafter Secretary of Labor
Woods, George, President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development from January 1, 1963
Wyndham White, Eric, Executive Secretary of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
[End of Section 1]