U.S. Department of State
Vol. X, Part 1, FRUS, 1958-60: E. Europe Region; Soviet Union; Cyprus
Office of the Historian
[Section 1 of 19]
Foreign Relations of the United States, 1958 - 1960
Eastern Europe Region; Soviet Union; Cyprus
Editors: Ronald D. Landa
James E. Miller
David S. Patterson
Charles S. Sampson
General Editor : Glenn W. LaFantasie
United States Government Printing Office
DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 10040
OFFICE OF THE HISTORIAN
BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328 ISBN 0-16-038069-3
The Foreign Relations of the United States series presents the official documentary historical record of major foreign policy decisions and significant diplomatic activity of the United States Government. The series documents the facts and events that contributed to the formulation of policies and includes evidence of supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.
The Historian of the Department of State is charged with the responsibility for the preparation of the Foreign Relations series. The staff of the Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, plans, researches, compiles, and edits the volumes in the series. This documentary editing proceeds in full accord with the generally accepted standards of historical scholarship. Official regulations codifying specific standards for the selection and editing of documents for the series were promulgated by Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg on March 26, 1925. A statutory charter for the preparation of the series was established by Title IV of the Department of State's Basic Authorities Act of 1956 (22 USC 4351 et seq.), added by Public Law 102 - 138, the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993, which was signed by President George Bush on October 28, 1991.
The statute requires that the Foreign Relations series be a thorough, accurate, and reliable record of major United States foreign policy decisions and significant United States diplomatic activity. The volumes of the series should include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of major foreign policy decisions and actions of the United States Government, including facts which contributed to the formulation of policies and records providing supporting and alternative views to the policy positions ultimately adopted.
The statute confirms the editing principles established by Secretary Kellogg: the Foreign Relations series is guided by the principles of historical objectivity and accuracy; records should not be altered or deletions made without indicating in the published text that a deletion has been made; the published record should omit no facts that were of major importance in reaching a decision; and nothing should be omitted for the purposes of concealing a defect in policy. The statute also requires that the Foreign Relations series be published not more than 30 years after the events recorded.
The volume presented here, compiled in 1981 and 1982, meets all the standards of selection and editing prevailing in the Department of State at that time. This volume records policies and events of more than 30 years ago, but the statute allows the Department until 1996 to reach the 30-year line in the publication of the series.
Structure and Scope of the Foreign Relations Series
This volume is part of a triennial subseries of volumes of the Foreign Relations series that documents the most important issues in the foreign policy of the final 3 years (1958 - 1960) of the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. This subseries comprises 19 print volumes totaling more than 16,000 pages and 7 microfiche supplements presenting more than 14,000 additional pages of original documents.
In planning and preparing this 1958 - 1960 triennium of volumes, the editors chose to present the official record of U.S. foreign affairs with respect to Europe, the Soviet Union, and Canada in five print volumes. Part 1 of Volume X presents the record of U.S. policy with respect to Eastern Europe as a region, the Soviet Union, and Cyprus; Part 2, the record of U.S. policy with respect to East-West exchanges, Albania, Bulgaria, Finland, Greece, Poland, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. Volume VII (in two parts) documents U.S. policy on European economic and political integration, NATO, Canada, France, Italy, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Vatican. Volume VIII presents the record of U.S. policy during the first half of the Berlin crisis through the end of the Geneva Foreign Ministers meeting in August 1959. Volume IX presents documents on U.S. policy toward Berlin following the Foreign Ministers meeting with particular attention to the abortive summit conference in May 1960; U.S. relations with the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria; and U.S. policy toward the German Democratic Republic.
Sources for the Foreign Relations Series
The original research, compilation, and editing of this volume were done in 1981 and 1982 under the Department regulation derived from Secretary Kellogg's charter of 1925. This regulation prescribed that the Foreign Relations series include "a comprehensive record of the major foreign policy decisions within the range of the Department of State's responsibilities," presuming that the records of the Department of State would constitute the central core of documentation presented in the series. The Department of State historians have always had complete and unconditional access to all records and papers of the Department of State: the central files of the Department; the special decentralized (lot) files of the policymaking levels; the files of the Department of State's Executive Secretariat, which comprehended the official papers created by or submitted to the Secretary of State; the files of all overseas Foreign Service posts and U.S. special missions; and the official correspondence with foreign governments and with other Federal agencies. Any failure to include a complete Department of State record in the Foreign Relations series cannot be attributed to constraints or limitations placed upon the Department historians in their access to Department records, information security regulations and practices notwithstanding.
Secretary Kellogg's charter of 1925 and Department regulations derived therefrom required that further records "needed to supplement the documentation in the Department files" be obtained from other government agencies. Department historians preparing the Foreign Relations volumes documenting the Eisenhower administration, including the editors of this volume, fully researched the papers of President Eisenhower and other White House foreign policy records. These Presidential papers have become a major part of the official record published in the Foreign Relations series.
Presidential papers maintained and preserved at the Presidential libraries include some of the most significant foreign affairs-related documentation from other Federal agencies including the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency. All of this documentation has been routinely made available for use in the Foreign Relations series thanks to the consent of these agencies and the cooperation and support of the National Archives and Records Administration. Particular thanks are due to the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library for assistance in preparing this volume.
Department of State historians have also enjoyed steadily broadened access to the records of the Department of Defense, particularly the records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Selective access has been obtained to the records of several other agencies in order to supplement the official record of particular Foreign Relations volumes.
Completion of the declassification of this volume and the final steps of its preparation for publication coincided with the development since early 1991 by the Central Intelligence Agency, in cooperation with the Department of State, of expanded access by Department historians to high-level intelligence documents from among those records still in the custody of that Agency. The Department of State chose not to postpone the publication of this volume to ascertain how such access might affect the scope of available documentation and the changes that might be made in the contents of this particular volume. The Department is, however, using this expanded access, as arranged by the CIA's History Staff, for compilation of future volumes in the Foreign Relations series.
The statute of October 28, 1991, requires that the published record in the Foreign Relations series include all records needed to provide comprehensive documentation of all the major foreign policy decisions and actions of the United States Government. It further requires that government agencies, departments, and other entities of the United States Government cooperate with the Department of State Historian by providing full and complete access to records pertinent to foreign policy decisions and actions and by providing copies of selected records. These new standards go beyond the mandate of the prior Department of State regulations for the preparation of the series and define broadened access to the records of other government agencies. The research and selection of documents for this volume were carried out in 1981 - 1982 in accordance with the existing Department regulations. The editors decided not to delay publication to conduct the additional research needed to meet the new standards, but they are confident that the manuscript prepared in 1981 - 1982 provides a fully accurate record.The List of Sources, pages XIII - XVIII, identifies the particular files and collections used in the preparation of this volume.
Principles of Selection for Foreign Relations, 1958 - 1960, Volume X
In selecting documents for Part 1 of this volume, the editors placed primary consideration on the formulation of policy by the Eisenhower administration toward Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, and Cyprus. The memoranda of discussion and policy papers of the National Security Council with respect to basic U.S. policies toward these areas are presented as fully as possible. The editors had complete access to and made use of memoranda of discussion at National Security Council meetings and other institutional NSC documents included in the Whitman File at the Eisenhower Library, as well as more informal foreign policy materials in that file and in other collections at the Eisenhower Library. These Presidential files were supplemented by NSC and White House documents in Department of State files.
During the years 1958 - 1960, the Department of State worked closely with the White House in the formulation of U.S. policy toward Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, and Cyprus. Secretaries of State John Foster Dulles and Christian A. Herter advised President Eisenhower in detail and had major roles in the deliberations of the National Security Council. The White House and National Security Council also directed the preparation of reports based on interagency information on these areas. The Department of State prepared and coordinated exchanges of views and discussions of policy toward Cyprus with the British Government, and Department officers participated in the meetings between President Eisenhower and Chairman Nikita S. Khrushchev in September 1959.
The editors have selected from Department of State, White House, and National Security Council records memoranda of conversation and records of meetings between the President and his principal foreign policy advisers. They have also included internal U.S. Government policy recommendations and decision papers relating to these areas.
In addition to Department of State, White House, and National Security Council records, the editors made use of declassified JCS files at the National Archives and Records Administration. Copies of classified JCS materials were obtained from the Joint Staff on a request basis. The editors selected documents that indicated the policy recommendations of the Joint Chiefs of Staff regarding various major foreign affairs policies.
The editors did not seek to document the limited economic relations between the United States and the nations of Eastern Europe, nor did they document U.S. intelligence operations in the area. The substance of important intelligence assessments are included in the political- strategic documents selected for publication here.
This volume was compiled before the development in 1991 of procedures to expand access by Department of State historians to the historical records of the Central Intelligence Agency. As those procedures were being established, the declassification and final preparation for publication of this volume concluded. The Department of State chose not to postpone publication to allow for search for and assessment of relevant material in the Central Intelligence Agency's files.
The documents are presented chronologically according to Washington time or, in the case of conferences, in the order of individual meetings. Incoming telegrams from U.S. Missions are placed according to time of receipt in the Department of State or other receiving agency, rather than the time of transmission; memoranda of conversation are placed according to the time and date of the conversation, rather than the date the memorandum was drafted.
Editorial treatment of the documents published in the Foreign Relations series follows Office style guidelines, supplemented by guidance from the General Editor and the chief technical editor. The source text is reproduced as exactly as possible, including marginalia or other notations, which are described in the footnotes. Obvious typographical errors are corrected, but other mistakes and omissions in the source text are corrected by bracketed insertions: a correction is set in italic type; an addition in roman type. Bracketed insertions are also used to indicate omitted text that deals with an unrelated subject (in roman type) or that remains classified after declassification review (in italic type). The amount of material not declassified has been noted by indicating the number of lines or pages of source text that were omitted. The amount of material omitted because it was unrelated, however, is not accounted for. All ellipses and brackets that appear in the source text are so identified by footnotes.
The first unnumbered footnote to each document indicates the document's source, original classification, distribution, and drafting information. The source note also provides the background of important documents and policies and indicates if the President or his major policy advisers read the document. Every effort has been made to determine if a document has been previously published, and this information has been included in the source footnote.
Editorial notes and additional annotation summarize pertinent material not printed in the volume, indicate the location of additional documentary sources, provide references to important related documents printed in other volumes, describe key events, and provide summaries of and citations to public statements that supplement and elucidate the printed documents. Information derived from memoirs and other first-hand accounts have been used when appropriate to supplement or explicate the official record.
The declassification review of this volume in 1991 and thereafter resulted in the decision to withhold less than 4 percent of the documents originally selected. The remaining documentation provides a full account of the major foreign policy issues confronting, and the policies undertaken by, the Eisenhower administration with respect to Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, and Cyprus.
The Division of Historical Documents Review of the Office of Freedom of Information, Privacy, and Classification Review, Bureau of Administration, Department of State, conducted the declassification review of the documents published in this volume. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards set forth in Executive Order 12356 on National Security Information and applicable laws.
Under Executive Order 12356, information that concerns one or more of the following categories, and the disclosure of which reasonably could be expected to cause damage to the national security, requires classification:
1) military plans, weapons, or operations;
2) the vulnerabilities or capabilities of systems, installations, proj- ects, or plans relating to the national security;
3) foreign government information;
4) intelligence activities (including special activities), or intelligence sources or methods;
5) foreign relations or foreign activities of the United States;
6) scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to national security;
7) U.S. Government programs for safeguarding nuclear materials or facilities;
8) cryptology; or
9) a confidential source.
The principle guiding declassification review is to release all information, subject only to the current requirements of national security and law. Declassification decisions entailed concurrence of the appropriate geographic and functional bureaus in the Department of State, other concerned agencies of the U.S. Government, and the appropriate foreign governments regarding specific documents of those governments.
The editors wish to acknowledge the assistance of officials at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, in particular David Haight, who assisted in the collection of documents for this volume.
Under the supervision of former Editor in Chief John P. Glennon and Charles S. Sampson, Ronald D. Landa, David Patterson, and James E. Miller collected, selected, and edited the material presented on Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union, and Cyprus respectively. General Editor Glenn W. LaFantasie supervised the final steps in the editorial and publication process. Althea W. Robinson, Rita M. Baker, and Vicki E. Futscher did the copy and technical editing and Barbara-Ann Bacon of the Publishing Services Division (Natalie H. Lee, Chief) oversaw the production of the volume. Juniee Oneida prepared the index for Part 1.
William Z. Slany
Bureau of Public Affairs
Preface..............................................III List of Sources.....................................XIII List of Abbreviations................................XIX List of Persons......................................XXV Eastern Europe U.S. policy toward the Soviet-dominated nations in Eastern Europe; U.S. response to the Rapacki plan for creation of a nuclear-free zone in Central Europe; President Eisenhower's proclamation of Captive Nations Week...................................................1 Soviet Union January - February 1958: Soviet announcement of a reduction in its armed forces; Ambassador Mikhail A. Menshikov's presentation of credentials .....................................................146 March - June 1958: Soviet charges of U.S. violations of its air space; changes in the Soviet leadership...155 June - December 1958: C - 118 and C - 130 airplane incidents; U.S. balloon reconnaissance program; visits to the Soviet Union of Adlai E. Stevenson, Eric Johnston, and Hubert Humphrey...................170 January - February 1959: Visit to the United States of Anastas I. Mikoyan; the 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union..................207 May - June 1959: Visit to the Soviet Union of W. Averell Harriman..................................268 June - July 1959: Visit to the United States of Frol R. Kozlov....................................287 July - August 1959: Visit to the Soviet Union of Richard M. Nixon.....................................326 September - December 1959: Visit to the United States of Nikita S. Khrushchev..............................388 January - February 1960: Resumption and suspension of lend-lease negotiations; visit to the Soviet Union of Henry Cabot Lodge.................................498 May - July 1960: The U - 2 airplane incident.........510 July - September 1960: The RB - 47 airplane incident.540 September - October 1960: Visit to the United Nations of Nikita S. Khrushchev......................556 Cyprus January - April 1958: U.S. support for the Foot proposals............................................564 May - June 1958: The Macmillan proposals.............605 July - October 1958: Revision and implementation of the Macmillan proposals; efforts to convene a NATO conference on Cyprus.................................676 November - December 1958: Discussions at the United Nations.......................................735 December 1958 - February 1959: The final settlement on Cyprus............................................753 February 1959 - July 1960: Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus; efforts by the United States to secure its interests.................................772 August - December 1960: Initial U.S. relations with the Republic of Cyprus...............................835 Index................................................845 (###)
List of Sources
Department of State
Indexed Central Files. The principal source of documentation for this volume was the indexed central files of the Department of State. Most of the documents were selected from the following files:
033.1161: Soviet official visits to the United States
261.1111: Arrests or detentions of Soviet officials in the United States
320: United Nations General Assembly
411.6141: Soviet trade with the United Kingdom
411.6411: Trade with Hungary
601.61: Diplomatic representation--Soviet Union
611.49: U.S. relations with Czechoslovakia
611.64: U.S. relations with Hungary
640.0012: Disarmament in Europe
711.11 - EI: President Eisenhower
747C.00: Political reporting on Cyprus
761.00: Political reporting on the Soviet Union
764.00: Political reporting on Hungary
780A.00: Political reporting on Cyprus
Lot Files. Documents from the central files have been supplemented by the lot files of the Department, which are decentralized files created by operating areas. A list of the lot files used in or consulted for this volume follows.
Athens Embassy Files: Lot 64 F 5 See under Washington National Records Center.
Bohlen Files: Lot 74 D 379
Records maintained by Charles E. Bohlen, 1942 - 1970.
Budapest Mission Files: Lot 75 F 163
Classified and unclassified files relating to Cardinal Mindszenty, 1956 - 1972, maintained by the Mission in Budapest.
Conference Files: Lot 62 D 181
Collection of documentation on official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and on major international conferences attended by the Secretary of State for the years 1956 - 1958, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
Conference Files: Lot 63 D 123
Collection of documentation on official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and on major international conferences attended by the Secretary of State for the years 1955 - 1958, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
Conference Files: Lot 64 D 560
See under Washington National Records Center.
Daily Summaries: Lot 60 D 530
Master set of the Department of State classified internal publication Daily Secret Summary and Daily Top Secret Summary for the years 1953 - 1958, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
EE Files: Lot 57 D 514
...National Security Council documents relating to Soviet and satellite vulnerabilities, maintained by the Office of Eastern European Affairs.
EE Files: Lot 67 D 238
Economic and political files relating to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Poland for the years 1946 - 1965, maintained by the Office of Eastern European Affairs.
EE Files: Lot 76 D 232
Economic files relating to Eastern Europe and Poland, 1951 - 1960, including the U.S.-Polish economic talks, 1956 - 1957.
EE Files: Lot 79 D 55
Miscellaneous files pertaining to Hungary, 1945 - 1971, maintained by the Office of Eastern European Affairs.
Hungary Desk Files: Lot 75 D 45
Miscellaneous Hungarian files, 1949 - 1972, including material on the trial of Cardinal Mindszenty and his asylum in the Mission at Budapest.
INR - NIE Files
Files of National Intelligence Estimates, Special Estimates, and Special National Estimates retained by the Directorate for Regional Research, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
INR Files, Soviet Affairs
Master set of the classified Department of State monthly publication, Soviet Affairs, December 1948 - May 1959, maintained by the Office of Research and Analysis for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
Master files of the Reference and Documents Section of the Bureau of International Organization Affairs, comprising the official U.N. documentation and classified Department records on U.S. policy in the U.N. Security Council, Trusteeship Council, Economic and Social Council, and various special and ad hoc committees from 1946 to the present.
NEA/GTI Files: Lot 58 D 610
Files relating to Turkey, September 1949 - May 1958, maintained by the Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs.
NEA/GTI Files: Lot 60 D 39
Files relating to Greece and Cyprus, 1955 - 1958, maintained by the Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs.
NEA/GTI Files, Lot 61 D 96
Files relating to Turkey, 1956 - 1958, maintained by the Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs.
OCB Files: Lot 61 D 385
Master set of the administrative and country files of the Operations Coordinating Board for the years 1953 - 1960, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
OCB Files: Lot 62 D 430
Master files of the Operations Coordinating Board for the years 1953 - 1960, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
P Files: Lot 61 D 318
See under Washington National Records Center.
P/PG Files: Lot 60 D 605
See under Washington National Records Center.
P/PG Files: Lot 60 D 661
Subject files containing OCB and NSC documents retired by the Policy Plans and Guidance Staff in the Bureau of Public Affairs.
PPS Files: Lot 67 D 548
Subject, country, and chronological files, documents, drafts, and related correspond-ence of the Policy Planning Staff for the years 1957 - 1961.
Presidential Correspondence: Lot 64 D 174
Exchanges of correspondence between President Eisenhower and heads of foreign governments, excluding the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the Soviet Union, for the years 1953 - 1960, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
Presidential Correspondence: Lot 66 D 204
Exchanges of correspondence between the President and heads of foreign governments for the years 1953 - 1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
Presidential Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 66 D 149
Chronological record of cleared memoranda of conversation with foreign visitors for the years 1956 - 1964, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
Secretary's Memoranda of Conversation: Lot 64 D 199
Chronological collection of the Secretary of State's memoranda of conversation and the Under Secretary of State's memoranda of conversation for the years 1953 - 1960, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
SOV Files: Lot 69 D 162
Subject files of the Bilateral Political Relations Branch of the Office of Soviet Union Affairs on various aspects of Soviet-U.S. relations, 1943 - 1966.
S/P - NSC Files: Lot 61 D 167
Serial file of memoranda relating to National Security Council questions for the years 1950 - 1961, maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.
S/P - NSC Files: Lot 62 D 1
Serial and subject master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence for the years 1948 - 1961, maintained by the Policy Planning Staff.
S/S - NSC Files: Lot 63 D 351
Serial master file of National Security Council documents and correspondence and related Department of State memoranda for the years 1947 - 1961, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
S/S - NSC (Miscellaneous) Files: Lot 66 D 95
Administrative and miscellaneous National Security Council documentation, including NSC Records of Action, for the years 1947 - 1963, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
State - JCS Meetings: Lot 61 D 417
Top Secret records of meetings between representatives of the Department of State and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the years 1951 - 1959, and selected problem files on the Middle East for the years 1954 - 1956, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
USIA/IAE/E Files: Lot 64 A 536
See under Washington National Records Center.
USIA/IOP/C Files: Lot 70 D 398
See under Washington National Records Center.
Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
CFEP Chairman Records
Records of the Chairman of the Council on Foreign Economic Policy (Joseph M. Dodge and Clarence B. Randall), 1954 - 1961.
Papers of John Foster Dulles, 1952 - 1959.
Papers of James C. Hagerty, Press Secretary to the President, 1953 - 1961.
Papers of Christian A. Herter, 1957 - 1961.
From the White House Office Files, Records of the Special Assistant for Executive Appointments, 1952 - 1961. Daily appointment books for President Eisenhower.
Project Clean Up
From the White House Office Files, Records of Gordon Gray, Robert Cutler, Henry R. McPhee, and Andrew J. Goodpaster, 1953 - 1961.
Special Assistant for National Security Affairs Records
From the White House Office Files, Records of the Office of the Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (Robert Cutler, Dillon Anderson, and Gordon Gray), 1952 - 1961.
Staff Secretary Records
From the White House Office Files, Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary, 1952 - 1961. Records of Paul T. Carroll, Andrew J. Goodpaster, L. Arthur Minnich, and Christopher H. Russell.
White House Office Files
Several White House Office collections, including Project Clean Up.
Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President of the United States, 1953 - 1961, maintained by his Personal Secretary, Ann C. Whitman. The Whitman File includes the following elements: the Name Series, the Dulles - Herter Series, DDE Diaries, Ann Whitman (ACW) Diaries, NSC Records, Miscellaneous Records, Cabinet Papers, Cabinet Series, Legislative Meetings, International Meetings, Administration Series, International File.
Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
Athens Embassy Files: FRC 64 A 845
Lot 64 F 5: Classified and unclassified subject files of the Embassy in Athens, 1956 - 1958.
Conference Files: FRC 83 - 0068
Lot 64 D 560: Collection of documentation of official visits by heads of government and foreign ministers to the United States and of major international international conferences attended by the Secretary of State for the years 1958 - 1959, maintained by the Executive Secretariat.
P Files: FRC 64 A 867
Lot 61 D 318: Files of the Deputy Assistant Secretaries of State for Public Affairs, Robinson McIlvaine, E. Allan Lightner, Jr., and J. Burke Wilkinson, 1954 - 1959.
P/PG Files: FRC 72 A 248
Lot 60 D 605: Files of the Policy Plans and Guidance Staff, Bureau of Public Affairs, 1952 - 1959.
USIA/IAE/E Files: FRC 64 A 536
Lot 64 A 536: Miscellaneous files of the Office of Eastern European Affairs, U.S. Information Agency, 1955 - 1961.
USIA/IOP/C Files: FRC 72 A 5121
Lot 70 D 398: Alphabetical subject files containing Policy Guidance records as maintained by the Policy Guidance Staff, Office of Policy and Plans, U.S. Information Agency, for the years 1952 - 1967.
National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State
OSS - INR Intelligence Reports
Records of the Research and Analysis Branch, Office of Strategic Services, and the Office of Intelligence Research, Department of State, 1941 - 1961.
Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey
Daily Appointment Books, 1953 - 1959.
Documentary Collections and Periodicals
Bevans, Charles I., ed. Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776 - 1949. Washington, 1968.
Current Digest of the Soviet Press.
Greek Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Cyprus Question: Discussion at the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, September - October 1958. Athens, 1958.
Major Addresses, Statements and Press Conferences of General Charles de Gaulle, May 19, 1958 - January 31, 1964. New York, n.d.
Royal Institute of International Affairs, Gillian King, ed. Documents on International Affairs, 1958. London, 1962.
--------. Gillian King, ed. Documents on International Affairs, 1959. London, 1963.
--------. Richard Gott, John Major, and Geoffrey Warner, eds. Documents on International Affairs, 1960. London, 1964.
U.N. Office of Public Information. Yearbook of the United Nations, 1958, 1959, 1960. New York.
U.S. Congress. Committee on Foreign Relations. Executive Sessions of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (Historical Series), 1959, volume XI. Washington, 1982.
U.S. Department of State. American Foreign Policy: Current Documents, 1958, 1959, 1960. Washington.
--------. Department of State Bulletin. Washington.
--------. Documents on Disarmament, 1945 - 1959. 2 volumes. Washington, 1960.
--------. Documents on Disarmament, 1960. Washington, 1961.
--------. Toward Better Understanding. Department of State Publication 6881. Washington, 1959.
--------. Treaties and Other International Acts Series (TIAS). Washington.
--------. United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (UST). Washington.
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1958, 1959, 1960 - 61. Washington.
Note: The Department of State takes no responsibility for the accuracy of these memoirs nor does it endorse their interpretations.
Bohlen, Charles E. Witness to History, 1929 - 1969. New York, 1973.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. The White House Years, Waging Peace, 1956 - 1961. New York, 1965.
Eisenhower, John S.D. Strictly Personal. New York, 1974.
Khrushchev, Nikita S. Khrushchev Remembers: The Last Testament, translated by Strobe Talbott. Boston, 1974.
Lodge, Henry Cabot. The Storm Has Many Eyes: A Personal Narrative. New York, 1973.
Lodge, Henry Cabot. As It Was: An Inside View of Politics and Power in the 50s and 60s. New York, 1976.
Micunovic, Veljko. Moscow Diary, translated by David Floyd. New York, 1980.
Mindszenty, Jozsef Cardinal. Memoirs, translated by Richard and Clara Winston. New York, 1974.
Nixon, Richard M. Six Crises. Garden City, NJ, 1969.
Spaak, Paul-Henri. Combats inacheves: De l'espoir aux deceptions, 1936 - 1966. Paris, 1969.
List of Abbreviations
AEC, Atomic Energy Commission
AF, Air Force; Office of African Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs, Department of State
AFEX, Air Force Europe Exchange
AFL, American Federation of Labor
AGARD, Advisory Group for Air Research and Development
AKEL, Anorthotikon Komma Ergazomenou Laou (Progressive Party of the Working People of Cyprus)
AMAS, American Military Assistance Staff
ANTA, American National Theater Academy
ARMA, Army Attache
ATAF, Allied Tactical Air Force
APFCO, Athens-Pireus Electric Company
APO, Army Post Office
ARA, Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, Department of State
AVH, Allam Vedelmi Hatosag (State Security Authority of Hungary)
AVO, Allam Vedelmi Osztaly (State Security Department of Hungary)
BIS, Bank for International Settlements
BNA, Office of British Commonwealth and Northern European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
B/P, balance of payments
BP, Baghdad Pact
BPC, Bondholders' Protective Council
CA, circular airgram; Office of Chinese Affairs, Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State
CBS, Columbia Broadcasting System
CEMA, Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
CENTO, Central Treaty Organization
CF, Conference File
CFEP, Council on Foreign Economic Policy
ChiComs, Chinese Communists
CIA, Central Intelligence Agency
CINCEUR, Commander in Chief, Europe
CIO, Congress of Industrial Organizations
CM, Common Market
CMC, Cyprus Mines Corporation
CNU, Committee of National Union, Turkey
COMSIXATAF, Commander, Sixth Allied Tactical Air Force
CPR, Chinese People's Republic
CPSU, Communist Party of the Soviet Union
CSSR, Czechoslovak Soviet Socialist Republic
CT, Country Team
CU, Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs, Department of State
CY, calendar year
DCM, Deputy Chief of Mission
DDR, Deutsche Demokratische Republik (German Democratic Republic)
DEFREPNAMA, Defense Representative, Naval Attache, Military Attache
Deptel, Department of State telegram
DLF, Development Loan Fund
DOD, Department of Defense
DP, Democratic Party, Turkey
DS, Defense Support
E, Office of the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
E/OT, Office of International Trade, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
EAD, Epitropi Apokatastaseos tis Dimokratias (Committee for the Restoration of Democracy)
ECOSOC, Economic and Social Council, United Nations
EDA, Enomeni Dimokratiki Aristera (United Democratic Left of Greece)
EDFO, Economic Development Financing Organization
EDMA, Eniaion Dimokratikon Metopon Anadimiourgias (United Democratic Reconstruction/ Regeneration Front of Cyprus)
EE, Office of Eastern European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
EEC, European Economic Community
EFTA, European Free Trade Area
Embdes, Embassy despatch
Embtel, Embassy telegram
EOKA, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (National Organization of Cypriot Fighters)
EPU, European Payments Union
ERO, European Regional Organization of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
EUCOM, European Command
EUR, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
EUR/RA, Office of Regional Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
EXIM Bank, Export-Import Bank
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization
FAST(P), Familiarization and Short Term (Program)
FBI, Federal Bureau of Investigation
FDF, Finnish Defense Force
FDP, Freie Demokratische Partei (Free Democratic Party of the Federal Republic of Germany)
FE, Bureau of Far Eastern Affairs, Department of State
FO, Foreign Office
FonOff, Foreign Office
FTA, Free Trade Area
FY, fiscal year
FYI, for your information
GA, General Assembly
GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GDR, German Democratic Republic
GER, Office of German Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
GFR, German Federal Republic
GNA, Grand National Assembly, Turkey
GOC, Government of Cyprus
GOG, Government of Greece
GOT, Government of Turkey
GSEE, Geniki Synomospondia Ergaton Ellados (Greek General Confederation of Labor)
GTI, Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs, Bureau of Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs, Department of State
HEW, Department of Health, Education and Welfare
HG, Head of Government
HMG, Her (His) Majesty's Government
IAC, Intelligence Advisory Committee
IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency
IBRD, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICA, International Cooperation Administration
ICEM, Intergovernmental Committee on European Migration
ICFTU, International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
ICIS, Interdepartmental Committee on Internal Security
IDB, International Development Bank
IES, International Educational Exchange Service
IGY, International Geophysical Year
IIC, International Institute of Communications
ILO, International Labor Organization
ILU, International Longshoremen's Union
IMF, International Monetary Fund
INR, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
INR/IRC, Office of Intelligence Resources and Coordination, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
IO, Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Department of State
IPS, International Press Service, United States Information Agency
IR, Intelligence Report
ISA, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs
ITS, International Trade Secretariat
JCAE, Joint Committee on Atomic Energy (of the U.S. Congress)
JCS, Joint Chiefs of Staff
JUSMMAG, Joint United States Mission for Military Aid to Greece
JUSMMAT, Joint United States Mission for Military Aid to Turkey
KGB, Komitet Gosudarstvennyi Bezoibastnosti (Committee for State Security of the Soviet Union)
KKE, Kommounistikon Komma Ellados (Greek Communist Party)
L, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State
LA, Latin America
LCY, Savez Komunistia Jugoslaviye (League of Yugoslav Communists)
Legtel, Legation telegram
L/EUR, Office of European Affairs, Office of the Legal Adviser, Department of State
LS, Division of Language Services, Department of State
M, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
MAAG, Military Assistance Advisory Group
MAP, Military Assistance Program
MDAP, Mutual Defense Assistance Program
ME, Middle East
MFN, most favored nation
MGB, Ministerstvo Gosudarstvenyi Bezopastnosti (Ministry for State Security of the Soviet Union)
M/OP, Operations Coordinator, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, Department of State
MSA, Mutual Security Act
MSP, Mutual Security Program
MVD, Ministerstvo Vnutrennvkh Dei' (Ministry of the Interior of the Soviet Union
NAC, North Atlantic Council
NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NBC, National Broadcasting Company
NEA, Bureau of Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs, Department of State, until August 1958; thereafter Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs
Niact, Night action, communications indicator requiring attention by the recipient at any hour of the day or night
NIE, National Intelligence Estimate
NSC, National Security Council
OASD/ISA, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs
OCB, Operations Coordinating Board
ODM, Office of Defense Mobilization
OEEC, Organization for European Economic Cooperation
OPA, Omada gia mia Proletariaki Aristera (Group for a Proletarian Left)
OS, Outer Seven (members of the European Free Trade Association)
OSP, Off-Shore Procurement
OSS, Office of Strategic Services
OT, Office of International Trade, Bureau of Economic Affairs, Department of State
P.A., Purchase Agreements/ Procurement Authorizations
PAO, Public Affairs Officer
PEO, Pan-kyprios Ergatiki Omospondia (Pancyprian Federation of Labor)
PGOT, Provisional Government of Turkey
P.L., Public Law
POL, Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants
Polto, series indicator for telegrams from the Representative to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations to the Department of State
PPS, Policy Planning Staff, Department of State
PROAGS, Project Agreements
PX, Post Exchange
PZPR, PZR, Polska Zjednoszona Partia (United Workers Party) (Poland)
RA, Office of European Regional Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
RFE, Radio Free Europe
RG, Record Group
RPP, Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party) (Turkey)
RSFSR, Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic
RWP, Romanian Workers Party
S, Office of the Secretary of State
SAC, Strategic Air Command
SACEUR, Supreme Allied Commander, Europe
S/AE, Secretary of State's Special Assistant for Atomic Energy Affairs
SAK, Suomen Ammattiyhdistysten Keskusliitto (Finnish Confederation of Trade Unions)
SEATO, Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
SEF, Special East European File, United States Information Agency
SEK, Synomospondia Ergation Kypron (Confederation of Labor of Cyprus/Confederation of Cypriot Workers)
S/EWC, Office of the Secretary of State's Special Assistant for East- West Exchanges
SHAPE, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe
SKDL, Suomen Kansan Demokraattinen Liitto (Finnish Peoples Democratic League)
SKP, Suomen Kommunistinen Puolue (Finnish Communist Party)
SNIE, Special National Intelligence Estimate
SOF, Status of Forces
SOFA, Status of Forces Agreement
SOV, Sov, Soviet; Soviet Union, Office of Soviet Union Affairs, Department of State
SPD, Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (Social Democratic Party of Germany of the Federal Republic of Germany)
S/S, Executive Secretariat, Department of State
S/S - RO, Reports and Operations Staff, Executive Secretariat, Department of State
TEA, Ta'gmata Ethniki's Amy'nis (National Defense Battalions)
TL, Turkish lira
TMT, Turk Mukavemet Teskilati (Turkish Resistance Organization) (Cyprus)
Topol, series indicator for telegrams from the Department of State to the Representative to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations
TPSL, Tyovaen ja Pienviljelijain Sosialidemokraattinen Litto ((Workers and Small Holders) Social Democratic League) (Finland)
TUC, Trade Union Congress (United Kingdom)
TUSLOG, The United States Logistics Group
U, Office of the Under Secretary of State
UAR, United Arab Republic
UK, United Kingdom
UN, United Nations
UNGA, United Nations General Assembly
UNSC, United Nations Security Council
US, United States
USA, United States Army
USAF, United States Air Force
USAREUR, United States Army, Europe
USC, United States Code
USDA, United States Department of Agriculture
USEC, United States Mission to the European Communities
USEP, United States Escapee Program
USIA, United States Information Agency
USIB, United States Intelligence Board
USIS, United States Information Service
USMC, United States Marine Corps
USN, United States Navy
USOM, United States Operations Mission
USRO, United States Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations
USSR, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
USUN, United States Mission to the United Nations
VOA, Voice of America
W, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
W/CEA, Special Assistant for Communist Economic Activities, Office of the Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
WEU, Western European Union
WFTU, World Federation of Trade Unions
W/MSC, Office of the Special Assistant for Mutual Security Coordination
WPA, Works Progress Administration
ZMW, Zwiazek Mloudziezy Wiejskiej (Rural Youth Polish Union)
List of Persons
Ackerson, Garret G., Jr., Counselor of the Legation in Budapest and Charge d'Affaires ad interim
Addis, John M., Head, Southern Department, British Foreign Office
Adenauer, Konrad, Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany
Akalovsky, Alexander, interpreter, Department of State
Allen, George V., Director, United States Information Agency
Allen, Sir Roger, British Ambassador to Greece
Amery, Harold Julian, British Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, December 1958 - October 1960
Atherton, Alfred L., Jr., Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs, Department of State, from February 1959
Averoff-Tossizza, Evangelos, Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs until March 1958 and from May 1958
Barbour, Walworth, Minister and Deputy Chief of Mission of the Embassy in the United Kingdom
Barnes, N. Spencer, Member, Policy Planning Staff, Department of State
Bayar, Celal, President of Turkey until May 1960
Beale, Wilson T.M., Jr., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs until January 1960; Counselor for Economic Affairs of the Embassy in the United Kingdom from February 1960
Belcher, Taylor G., Consul General at Nicosia, July 1958 - August 1960
Benson, Ezra Taft, Secretary of Agriculture
Berger, Samuel D., Counselor of the Embassy in Greece from September 1958
Birgi, M. Nuri, Turkish Ambassador in the United Kingdom until September 1960; thereafter Permanent Representative to NATO
Blood, Archer, Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs, Department of State, until June 1960
Boggs, Marion W., Deputy Executive Secretary, National Security Council
Bohlen, Charles E., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State from December 1959
Bowker, Sir Reginald J., British Ambassador in Turkey until May 1958
Bulganin, Nikolai Alexandrovich, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union until March 1958
Burgess, W. Randolph, Chief of the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations at Paris
Burroughs, Sir Bernard A.B., British Ambassador to Turkey from May 1958
Cabell, Lieutenant General Charles P., Deputy Director of Central Intelligence
Caccia, Sir Harold A., British Ambassador to the United States
Calhoun, John A., Deputy Director, Executive Secretariat, Department of State, until September 1958; Director, September 1958 - August 1960; Counselor for Political Affairs of the Embassy in Greece from September 1960
Caramanlis. See Karamanlis
Cumming, Hugh, Jr., Director of Intelligence and Research, Department of State
Cutler, Robert, Special Assistant to President Eisenhower; member, Operations Coordinating Board; and Chairman, National Security Council Planning Board, through 1958
Davis, Richard H., Minister-Counselor of the Embassy in the Soviet Union until August 1959; Director, Office of Soviet Union Affairs, August - December 1959; thereafter Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs
De Gaulle, Charles, French Prime Minister, June 1958 - January 1959; thereafter President of France
Denktash, Rauf, a leader of the Turkish-Cypriot party
Dighenis, alias of George Grivas, EOKA Leader
Dillon, C. Douglas, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs until June 1958; Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs, July 1958 - June 1959; thereafter Under Secretary of State
Dulles, Allen W., Director of Central Intelligence
Dulles, John Foster, Secretary of State until April 22, 1959
Eisenhower, Dwight D., President of the United States
Eisenhower, Major John S. D., Assistant Staff Secretary to President Eisenhower
Eisenhower, Milton S., President of Johns Hopkins University
Elbrick, C. Burke, Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs until November 1958
Esenbel, Melih, Secretary General of the Turkish Foreign Ministry, 1958 - 1960; Ambassador to the United States, April - December 1960
Foot, Sir Hugh, British Governor-General and Commander in Chief of Cyprus until August 1960
Frederika, Queen of the Hellenes
Freers, Edward L., Director, Office of Eastern European Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State, until May 1959; thereafter Counselor of the Embassy in the Soviet Union
Gates, Thomas S., Jr., Secretary of Defense from December 1959
Gleason, S. Everett, Deputy Executive Secretary, National Security Council, until fall 1959
Gomulka, Wladyslaw, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party
Goodpaster, Brigadier General Andrew J., Staff Secretary to President Eisenhower
Goodyear, John, Counselor for Political Affairs of the Embassy in Turkey until August 1959
Gray, Gordon, Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization until June 1958; thereafter Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs
Greene, Joseph N., Jr., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State until summer 1959
Grivas, George, Greek military commander and leader of EOKA in Cyprus until March 1959
Gromyko, Andrei Y., Soviet Foreign Minister
Gursel, Cemal, President of Turkey from May 1960
Hagerty, James C., Press Secretary to President Eisenhower
Hall, Carlos C., Minister of the Embassy in Turkey until February 1959
Harding, Field Marshal Sir John, Governor-General of Cyprus until 1957
Harr, Karl G., Special Assistant to President Eisenhower for Security Operations Coordination and Vice Chairman, Operations Coordinating Board
Hart, Parker T., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State, from October 1958
Herter, Christian A., Under Secretary of State until April 21, 1959; thereafter Secretary of State
Houghton, Amory, Ambassador to France
Howe, Fisher, Director, Executive Secretariat, Department of State, until October 1958
Hoyer Millar. See Millar
Inonu, Ismet, former President and Prime Minister of Turkey
Irwin, John N., II, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs until September 1958; thereafter Assistant Secretary of Defense
Isham, Heyward, Intelligence Research Specialist, Department of State, until November 1959; thereafter Staff Assistant to the Special Assistant to the Secretary of State
Jandrey, Frederick, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs
Johnston, Eric, President of the Motion Picture Association of America
Jones, G. Lewis, Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs from July 1959
Jones, Owen T., Director, Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs, Department of State, until September 1960; thereafter Counselor for Economic Affairs of the Embassy in Yugoslavia and Director of the U.S. Operations Mission at Belgrade
Kadar, Janos, Hungarian Prime Minister until January 1958; First Secretary of the Hungarian Revolutionary Socialist Party
Karamanlis, Constantine, Greek Prime Minister until March 1958 and from May 1958
Kekkonnen, Urho, President of Finland
Khrushchev, Nikita S., First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; Vice Chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers to March 1958; thereafter Chairman of the Soviet Council of Ministers
Killian, James R., Jr., Special Assistant to the President
Kistiakowsky, George B., Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology
Kohler, Foy D., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs until December 1959; thereafter Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs
Kozlov, Frol R., Soviet First Deputy Premier from March 1958
Kutchuk, Mustafa Fazil, leader of the National Turkish Party, Cyprus; Turkish-Cypriot representative to the United Nations, November 1958, and to Cyprus independence conferences, February and September 1959; elected Vice President of Cyprus, December 1959
Kuznetsov, Vasiliy V., Soviet First Deputy Foreign Minister
Lacy, William S.B., Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for East-West Exchanges
Lay, James S., Executive Secretary of the National Security Council
Laingen, L. Bruce, Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs, Department of State, until October 1959; Officer in Charge of Greek Affairs, October 1959 - August 1960
Lennox-Boyd, Alan T., British Secretary of State for the Colonies until October 1959
Leverich, Henry P., Deputy Director, Office of Eastern European Affairs, Department of State
Liatis, Alexis S., Greek Ambassador to the United States
Lloyd, Selwyn, British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs until June 1960; Chancellor of the Exchequer thereafter
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Representative to the United Nations
Lyon, Frederick B., Minister of the Embassy in Turkey until April 1958
Macmillan, Harold, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and First Lord of the Treasury
Makarios III, Archbishop of Cyprus, Ethnarch and Primate of Cyprus; President of the Republic of Cyprus from August 1960
Maleter, Pal, Hungarian Minister of Defense in the Nagy government, October - November 1956
Matskevich, Vladimir V., Soviet Minister of Agriculture
McCone, John A., Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission
McElroy, Neil H., Secretary of Defense until December 1959
McKisson, Robert, Officer in Charge of Balkan Affairs, Bureau of European Affairs, Department of State
McSweeney, John M., First Secretary of the Embassy in Italy and Special Liaison to NATO until September 1958; Office of Eastern European Affairs, Department of State, September 1958 - December 1959; Acting Deputy Director, Office of Eastern European Affairs, December 1959 - June 1960; thereafter Director, Office of Soviet Union Affairs
Melas, George V., Greek Ambassador to the United States
Melas, Michael Constantine, Greek Permanent Representative on the North Atlantic Council
Menderes, Adnan, Turkish Prime Minister until May 1960
Menshikov, Mikhail A., Soviet Ambassador to the United States from February 1958
Merchant, Livingston T., Ambassador to Canada until November 1958; Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, November 1958 - August 1959; Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, August - December 1959; thereafter Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs
Mikoyan, Anastas Ivanovich, Soviet First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Millar, Sir Frederick Hoyer, British Permanent Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Mindszenty, Jozsef Cardinal, Primate of Hungary, resident in the Legation in Budapest from November 1956
Minnich, L. Arthur, Jr., Assistant Staff Secretary to the President
Mueller, Frederick H., Under Secretary of Commerce
Murphy, Robert D., Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs until August 1959; Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, August - December 1959
Nagy, Imre, Hungarian Prime Minister, October 24 - November 4, 1956
Nixon, Richard M., Vice President of the United States
Nolting, Frederick E., Jr., Deputy Head of the Mission to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and European Regional Organizations
Norstad, General Lauris, Supreme Allied Commander, Europe
Novotny, Antonin, President of the Republic of Czechoslovakia and President of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
O'Connor, Jeremiah J., Deputy Operations Coordinator, Department of State, March - July 1958; thereafter Operations Coordinator
Paul I, King of the Hellenes
Penfield, James K., Counselor of the Embassy in Greece until August 1958; Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs from September 1958
Persons, General Wilton B. (ret.), Deputy Assistant to the President to October 1958; thereafter Assistant to the President
Pissas, Michael, Secretary of Synomospondia Ergation Kypron
Polatkan, Hasan, Turkish Finance Minister until May 1960
Popovic, Koca, Yugoslav Minister of Foreign Affairs and member, Federal Executive Council
Quarles, Donald A., Deputy Secretary of Defense until May 1959
Rapacki, Adam, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs
Riddleberger, James W., Ambassador to Yugoslavia until January 1958; Ambassador to Greece, March 1958 - May 1959; Director of the International Cooperation Administration from March 1959
Roberts, Sir Frank, British Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization until May 1960
Ross, Archibald D.M., British Assistant Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
Rossides, Zenon G., Ethnarchy Adviser on Foreign Affairs until 1959; Cypriot member, Greek Delegation to the United Nations, 1958; Cypriot Ambassador to the United States and Permanent Representative to the United Nations from October 1960
Rountree, William M., Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs until August 1958; thereafter Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs
Sarper, Selim, Turkish Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council until spring 1960; Minister of Foreign Affairs from May 1960
Scribner, Fred C., Jr., Under Secretary of the Treasury
Sherer, Albert W., Officer in Charge of Polish, Baltic, and Czechoslovak Affairs, Office of Eastern European Affairs, Department of State
Sinclair, Sir G.E., British Deputy Governor of Cyprus until August 1960
Siscoe, Frank G., Counselor of the Embassy in Poland from May 1957
Smith, Bromley K., Senior Member, NSC Special Staff, through 1958; Executive Officer, Operations Coordinating Board, from 1959
Smith, Gerard C., Assistant Secretary of State for Policy Planning
Spaak, Paul-Henri, Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Stevenson, Adlai E., Democratic Party candidate for President in 1952 and 1956
Strauss, Lewis L., Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission until June 1958; Secretary of Commerce, November 1958 - June 1959
Striganov, Sergei R., Counselor of the Embassy and Charge d'Affaires of the Soviet Embassy in the United States until August 1958; thereafter Deputy Chief of the American Countries Division, Soviet Foreign Ministry
Sutterlin, James, Office of Eastern European Affairs, Department of State, until September 1960
Thompson, Llewellyn E., Ambassador to the Soviet Union
Thurston, Raymond L, Counselor and Political Officer of the Mission to SHAPE at Paris
Timmons, Benson E.L., III, Director, Office of European Regional Affairs, Department of State, until June 1959
Tito, Marshal Joseph Broz, President of the Federated Republic of Yugoslavia
Twining, General Nathan F., Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff until September 1960
Urguplu, Ali Suat Havri, Turkish Ambassador to the United States until December 1960
Vedeler, Harold C., First Secretary of the Embassy in Austria and liaison to the International Atomic Energy Agency until November 1959; Director, Office of Eastern European Affairs, Department of State, from December 1959
Voroshilov, Kliment Y., Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Warren, Fletcher, Ambassador to Turkey until November 1960
Washburn, Abbot, Deputy Director of the United States Information Agency
Weeks, Sinclair, Secretary of Commerce until August 1959
Wharton, Clifton R., Minister in Romania, March 1958 - October 1960
White, General Thomas D., Chief of Staff, United States Air Force
Whitman, Ann, Personal Secretary to President Eisenhower
Whitney, John Hay, Ambassador to the United Kingdom
Wilcox, Francis O., Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs
Wilkins, Fraser, Ambassador to Cyprus from September 1960
Williams, Murat, Office of Greek, Turkish, and Iranian Affairs, Department of State, until June 1959
Williams, Walter, Under Secretary of Commerce until 1958
Yemelyanov, Vasiliy S., Chairman, Soviet Main Administration for Atomic Energy
Zaroubin, Georgi N., Soviet Ambassador to the United States until January 1958; thereafter Deputy Foreign Minister
Zhukov, Georgi A., Chairman of the Soviet State Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries
Zorlu, Fatin Rustu, Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs until May 1960
[End of Section 1]