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Conserving Energy and the Environment 
At this 25th anniversary of Earth Day, April 22, 1995, the Department of 
State reaffirms its strong commitment to making the earth both energy-
efficient and environmentally sound. The Department has developed strong 
energy and environmental management programs for its buildings within 
the United States and its embassies abroad. These programs not only save 
energy, the environment, and money; they also serve as models for others 
to emulate and help promote U.S. technology in these fields in the rest 
of the world. To develop more innovative programs, the Department's 
energy and environmental professionals must closely cooperate with 
employees, the private sector, and other agencies.  
The U.S. Department of State purchases energy for about 300 facilities 
in the U.S. and overseas--60 million square feet (about 10 times the 
size of the Pentagon) of floor area. This energy is used to provide 
lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and other standard 
building services. The total obligation for utilities is about $60 
million per year. Both the magnitude of energy consumption and the 
potential energy savings have prompted initiatives to achieve energy 
conservation in these facilities. The Department aggressively pursues 
energy conservation initiatives in the extensive facilities under its 
Domestic Program 
The Department of State has developed an energy management and 
conservation plan designed and implemented to meet energy management 
goals for FY 1995-2000. These require 10%-20% reductions in energy 
consumption from the 1985 baseline levels to the extent that these 
measures are cost-effective in accordance with current regulations. 
Among the steps taken to implement the Department's plan are to: 
-- Record and analyze energy consumption figures for all domestic 
Department of State-owned and -operated properties where the Department 
pays utilities on an ongoing basis; 
-- Manage ongoing energy retrofit projects with high energy savings in 
many of the Department's federally owned properties; 
-- Incorporate energy conservation technologies in new domestic building 
construction projects; 
-- Prioritize all State Department domestic facilities for conducting 
energy surveys; 
-- Encourage the General Services Administration (GSA) to include 
energy-efficient and economically advantageous equipment retrofits when 
negotiating leased buildings for the Department's use; 
-- Adopt procurement policies and procedures, including the use of life-
cycle, cost-estimating techniques in acquiring energy-efficient supplies 
and services that are cost-effective and environmentally safe 
alternatives to petroleum consumption; 
-- Develop baseline standards for energy-efficient temperature 
parameters during summer cooling (74o-76o F) and winter heating (68o-70o 
F) seasons; and 
-- Identify and implement energy conservation opportunities, which 
include the installation of motion sensors, energy-efficient fluorescent 
tubes and electronic ballast, LED bulbs for all exit and elevator signs; 
and installation of efficient motor drives on air-handling equipment, 
roof replacement, and weather-sealing projects for the main State 
building. In particular, the Department participated in the Potomac 
Electric Power Company's rebate program and saved $1.6 million. 
Overseas Program 
The Bureau of Administration, Office of Foreign Buildings Operations 
(A/FBO), actively pursues a coordinated, cost-effective energy 
management program for overseas buildings and facilities. FBO supports 
this program by: 
-- Identifying energy reduction opportunities through energy surveys; 
-- Conducting life-cycle, cost-analysis of all energy management 
opportunities to verify effectiveness; 
-- Designing and constructing major energy projects; 
-- Implementing applicable energy projects based upon availability of 
-- Establishing follow-up procedures to assist posts with implementation 
and ensure that operation and maintenance procedures are continued; 
-- Improving operations and maintenance procedures; 
-- Implementing no-cost and low-cost efficiency measures; 
-- Conducting energy-efficient building retrofit and capital 
improvements; and 
-- Procuring energy-efficient goods and products. 
FBO has identified diverse energy conservation projects at 30 Foreign 
Service posts with potential energy cost-savings of more than $1.4 
million per year. These are targeted primarily at areas where the cost 
of electricity and fuel are extremely high. Embassy New Delhi is the 
most recent example of a major upgrade project. The projects identified 
for overseas posts involve one or more of the following: 
-- Modernizing and upgrading heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning 
equipment (HVAC) such as boilers and chillers; 
-- Re-lamping the embassy buildings and residences with energy-efficient 
lighting systems; and 
-- Modifying various architectural items, including upgraded windows, 
thermal insulation, loading-dock modifications, and other building-
envelope improvements.  
To provide additional support to these efforts to become more energy-
efficient, FBO provides energy conservation devices--motion-sensor 
lighting controls, power-factor correction devices, and compact 
fluorescent lights. FBO also works with the Department's Regional 
Procurement and Supply Office in Bonn, Germany, to provide energy-
efficient alternatives in every product category; most importantly, in 
lighting, heating, and air-conditioning. 
Future Activities 
The Department of State plans to incorporate energy-efficient products, 
using new technology, in all new construction design efforts. One 
notable example is the new Berlin Embassy, where design competition is 
now underway. This embassy will  showcase U.S. energy capabilities and 
technology. Among the many energy-efficient features under consideration 
are a new sulfur lamp system that will produce a high-quality white 
light, natural gas-powered fuel cells to generate very clean 
electricity, and low-flow faucets and toilets. 
Some U.S. embassies are located in the world's best wind-energy resource 
areas. FBO aims to establish two wind project demonstrations in the near 
future. Additionally, the Department built small solar-energy systems in 
Nicosia, Cyprus and Sanaa, Republic of Yemen, and is exploring the 
possibility of pilot programs using an economical photovoltaic system.  
The Department of State has made clear progress in the areas of energy 
efficiency, recycling, and other environmental practices such as 
limiting the output of ozone-depleting substances. The Department has a 
special responsibility to lead  by example in environmental management 
around the world. The actions taken at embassies can promote effective 
environmental management by industries, agencies, and communities in 
other countries. 
Reducing Air, Water, and Soil Pollution 
The Department of State strongly supports the reduction of pollutants in 
the air, water, and soil. Both domestically and wherever possible 
overseas, the Department adheres to the Clean Air Act and works 
diligently to reduce such workplace hazards as asbestos, 
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead in 
paint, radon, and underground storage tanks. 
Asbestos. To eliminate asbestos hazards, the Department initiated the 
1988 Environmental Services Program. The wide use of asbestos in 
construction during past decades has required a multi-year program to 
identify asbestos-containing materials. Thus far, the Department has 
surveyed 44% of all U.S. embassies overseas and has abated the most 
serious hazards in 32% of them. For each of the surveys, the Department 
generated an Asbestos Management Plan, a room-by-room asbestos report, 
and a computer-aided design management package. Where feasible, these 
plans were sent to posts for use in managing asbestos in place. The 
Department also addresses all asbestos hazards when a major renovation 
takes place or when emergencies require it. This occurred in Bonn 
following an unusual flooding and in Moscow after heating pipes 
ruptured.  Kits containing the needed equipment and supplies to conduct 
small asbestos repairs also are sent to selected posts. 
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). In pursuit of clean air, reducing global 
warming, and ozone depletion, the U.S. banned the use of carcinogenic 
CFCs in nonessential aerosols in 1978. Because protection of the ozone 
layer is possible only if all countries participate, the U.S. has urged 
worldwide restriction of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances. This 
effort led to a succession of landmark international agreements, 
including the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which established international 
agreement to address global warming problems, and a later U.S. decision 
to ban production of CFC refrigerants by the end of 1995. CFC 
refrigeration systems generally are found in the large centrifugal 
chillers that provide air-conditioning to large facilities. The 
Department' s main building in Washington, DC, is scheduled to undergo a 
complete physical rehabilitation under the GSA's major renovation 
program. Plans for the first phase of this renovation include 
replacement of all chillers with those not containing CFCs. 
Continued concern about global warming and ozone depletion also has 
resulted in an intensified effort to reduce dependence on CFC 
refrigerants at U.S. embassies around the world. The Department has a 
multi-staged program to reduce leakage of CFCs either by tightening the 
systems or by using a different fuel. One-half of 16 major chiller 
systems in posts like Moscow or San Salvador will be upgraded in 1995. 
The remaining half will be upgraded in 1996. 
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). The State Department undertook a major 
transformer replacement program, with multi-year funding, that changed 
PCB-containing electrical transformers to ones containing a cooling 
medium that is carcinogen free. PCBs have been removed from all federal 
buildings in the U.S., and the PCB Abatement Program essentially is 
complete at U.S. embassies. Twenty-four posts had been identified, as 
having one or more PCB-contaminated transformers installed in the 
electrical system. Of these, 16 posts have had contaminated transformers 
removed, and the projects have been completed. The other nine sites are 
either closed or in the process of having the PCB-contaminated 
transformers removed. No additional PCB-contaminated transformers have 
been identified within the past calendar year.  
Other aspects of the Environmental Management Program include addressing 
problems of radon contamination, lead in paint, pesticides, water 
quality, and leakage from underground fuel tanks. The Department's 
ongoing program to deal with these issues is designed to: 
-- Mitigate the hazards of radon to indoor air quality by identifying 
facilities containing excessive amounts of radon and either ventilating 
the spaces more completely or removing the contaminated earth; 
-- Institute an all non-leaded paint policy overseas, with priority 
given to residential dwellings with children; 
-- Identify ways to reduce pesticide problems; and 
-- Develop design standards for double-containment and monitoring 
systems in underground fuel storage tanks to avoid soil and ground water 
Future Efforts 
The Department is proceeding with its existing Environmental Management 
Program, which includes continuing CFC reduction and asbestos abatement, 
upgrading underground fuel storage tanks on all major renovation and new 
construction projects, and upgrading the remaining tanks on a first-
buried, first-upgraded basis. 
Waste Reduction 
In May 1990, the Department of State initiated a vigorous recycling 
program that continues to grow and flourish.  The program initially 
focused on the collection of two grades of office paper but quickly 
expanded its efforts to include collecting a third grade, newspaper, 
aluminum cans, glass bottles, and polystyrene material. 
The large quantities of these materials that have been recycled have 
considerably reduced the amount of trash and debris entering the waste 
stream. In 1994, the main State building recycled almost 330 tons of 
mixed paper and more than 63,000 pounds of aluminum cans and glass 
bottles. The GSA rated the Department's recycling effort "outstanding" 
in 1994, noting that the Department of State "has become a pillar in the 
recycling community, and other government agencies should emulate 
Department of State programs." 
In addition to fully supporting the recycling effort at their worksites, 
Department employees at the main building actively support the cafeteria 
contractor's efforts at recycling by separating their used polystyrene, 
plastics, and paper materials in the food service areas. In 1994, the 
cafeteria contractor collected 25 tons of used polystyrene through the 
cooperation of its Department of State customers. 
The Department is expanding its domestic recycling program. It expects 
to receive a medium-sized baler for compacting corrugated solid waste in 
the near future and also is purchasing a large baler for compacting 
purposes at its shipping and receiving warehouse in Franconia, Virginia. 
It also is studying recycling options for used carpeting, yard and 
construction debris, and steel products to limit types and amounts of 
potentially recyclable materials that currently are transported to 
landfill sites. 
Part of the Department's commitment to enhance its recycling program 
includes the purchase of recycled and environmentally oriented products 
such as copier paper, pens, pencils, machine cartridges, and computer 
paper. The State Department prints materials for public distribution on 
recycled paper.  It also is disseminating a rapidly increasing amount of 
foreign policy information via electronic, rather than hard-copy, 
dissemination.  For example, over the Department of State's Foreign 
Affairs Network on the Internet, an average of 21,000 documents are 
disseminated electronically every week, with no use of paper. 
Overseas posts face greater challenges in recycling, depending on their 
location. They must first start with a feasibility study to answer such 
questions as whether local trash companies have the storage and disposal 
capabilities to support recycling or what kinds of recycling programs 
exist in a particular city. Embassy Paris is the notable recycling 
success for overseas posts, and serves as a demonstration to American 
commitment to conserve natural resources. In cooperation with the 
recycling program of Paris, which will become mandatory by the year 
2002, the embassy has recycled nearly 25 tons of paper and more than 600 
pounds of aluminum cans. Other U.S. posts in the early stages or 
studying the prospect of recycling include Rome, Tegucigalpa, Jeddah, 
Auckland and Wellington, Mexico City, and the Hague. 
The Department of State recognizes that energy and environmental 
conservation can be achieved best in cooperation with other government 
agencies as well as the commercial and nonprofit private sectors and 
with other nations. To this end, the Department works closely with 
various entities in the U.S. and overseas. Primary U.S. Government 
associations include the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, 
Environmental Protection Agency, Occupational Safety and Health 
Administration, and Tennessee Valley Authority. The Department of State 
works very closely with the Department of Energy in developing plans for 
new construction, major upgrades, and pilot programs. 
In this cooperative environment, the Department also  
-- Has personnel serving on various Federal Energy Management program 
committees in support of Department of Energy and Environmental 
Protection Agency programs; 
-- Shares information at various national and international energy 
conferences with major utilities, government agencies, non-governmental 
agencies, and manufacturing companies; 
-- Complies with those foreign laws that are more stringent than those 
of the U.S.--Sweden, Netherlands, Germany; 
-- Hires U.S. consultants to design and upgrade domestic and foreign 
facilities; and 
-- Uses its CFC and PCB replacement programs to enhance the transfer of 
technology overseas by U.S. manufacturers. 
An integral part of the Department's energy and environmental management 
programs is developing knowledge and awareness among its employees--as 
professionals and as consumers. The Department staffs energy managers 
who have had specific training, testing, and certification in energy 
conservation, and who coordinate all domestic and overseas energy 
projects. Other building management employees are trained in energy 
management principles and in implementing appropriate operating 
guidelines.  Overseas, FBO personnel train post personnel in various 
areas so they can perform energy and environmental conservation 
functions such as making emergency asbestos repairs; reducing the 
release of hazardous refrigerants; installing new water-treatment 
systems for correct use that prevent damage to "higher technology" 
systems; detecting, preventing, and treating scale buildup on existing 
piping systems; and testing water for use in  HVAC systems. 
Although the energy and environment professionals are responsible for 
managing their programs and for taking the lead in conservation, it is 
not their responsibility alone. In order to have an effective 
conservation program, each and every Department of State employee must 
be involved in the process. The Department uses various ways to 
stimulate employee interest and support within the main State building. 
These include: 
-- An in-house, on-line TV network; 
-- Posters located on designated bulletin boards; and 
-- Literature such as hand-outs, Department notices, and the employees' 
State magazine. 
Literature, such as State magazine, also carries the conservation 
message to overseas embassies, many of which have sought the 
Department's guidance to initiate recycling programs. Some--such as 
Nicosia, which is organizing an environmental conference with its host 
community; Buenos Aires, coordinating activities with the UN Information 
Center, local non-governmental organizations, and other embassies; Santo 
Domingo, engaged in recycling, tree-planting, and energy and water 
conservation; and the American Institute in Taiwan, planning a trial 
cleanup that will include both American and local community groups--are 
using the 25th anniversary of Earth Day as a vehicle not only to develop 
awareness among embassy personnel, but also to demonstrate to their host 
nations America's commitment to energy and environmental conservation.   
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