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[NOTE:  These Fact Sheets on major elements of global climate change 
issues are related to the March 28-April 7, 1995, Berlin Conference of 
Parties to the Framework Agreement on Climate Change]

1.  The Clinton Administration Program
2.  U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation
3.  The State and Local Outreach Program
4.  Rebuild America
5.  The Nice 3 Program
6.  Motor Challenge
7.  Green Lights
8.  Climate Wise
9.  Climate Challenge
10.  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
11.  State of Knowledge
12.  WasteWise

Fact Sheet 1:

The Clinton Administration Program

The Clinton Administration is strongly committed to addressing the 
challenge of climate change, with cost-effective policies that are good 
both for the environment and the economy. We support policies that 
provide insurance to reduce the risks posed by climate change. Our 
approach has three pillars. First, our policies are based on sound 
science. We strongly believe that policies should be based on mainstream 
science, not on the views of either skeptics or alarmists. Second, our 
policies are based on partnerships with the private sector-industry and 
nongovernmental organizations. This issue must be addressed in close 
cooperation with all stakeholders. Finally, we believe that climate 
change requires international solutions. Climate change is a global 
problem and must be addressed by the global community.

Sound Science

   The United States has based its climate change policies on the 
conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which has 
provided an authoritative international consensus on the science of 
climate change.  

   The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) provides a major 
contribution to the research base on which the IPCC assessments rely.  
The USGCRP was formally established by Congress in 1990 to coordinate 
the resources and research activities of a dozen federal agencies, 
especially national research activities and U.S. participation in 
international research activities supporting programs such as  the World 
Climate Research Programme, the International Geosphere-Biosphere 
Programme, and the Human Dimensions Programme. The USGCRP, funded at 
$1.8 billion in FY 1995, coordinates a broad agenda of research, 
supporting the Mission to Planet Earth, ozone depletion studies, and 
work on the human dimensions of global change.  Questions that drive the 
USGCRP's climate change research include: 

--  What is the climate's response to increasing concentrations of 
aerosols and greenhouse gases?

--  What are the impacts of  climate change on society and the 

--  How can society mitigate future climate change or adapt to its 

   Based on these questions, research focuses on observing and 
documenting Earth system behavior; understanding the processes that 
influence changes in the Earth system; developing and applying models to 
predict climate change; evaluating the effects of climate change on 
agriculture, forests, water resources, coastal regions, ecosystems, and 
other natural resources; and improving the capabilities to mitigate 
adverse consequences and capitalize on any beneficial opportunities that 
climate change may present.  Because the importance of climate change 
depends largely on the physical and economic impacts on human society, 
USGCRP has started to shift its funding toward increased evaluation of 
the socio-economic implications of climate change.

Partnerships with the Private Sector and State Governments 

   To meet the challenge of climate change, we must involve business, 
non-governmental organizations, and government at all levels.  Nowhere 
is this commitment reflected more strongly than in the President's 
Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP).  Released in October 1993, the CCAP 
implements President Clinton's commitment to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas 
emissions to 1990 levels by the  year 2000. 

   The CCAP demonstrates that government and the private sector can work 
together to better the economy and the environment. It is expected to 
produce energy savings of over $60 billion by the year 2000 and create 
clean jobs for the future.  Great strides have been made in the last 
year by the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, 
the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Transportation.  
Some of the highlights include:

--  By joining Climate Challenge,248 electric utilities,  representing 
53 percent of U.S. electric generating capacity, have committed to 
undertake voluntary measures to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 
44 million metric tons by the year 2000.

--  500 new participants have joined Green Lights since October 1993, 
for a total of more than 1,650.  These  participants have reduced  
lighting electricity consumption by an average of 47 percent, saving 
approximately $90 million.

--  Climate Wise, being carried out jointly by EPA and DOE, is designed 
to stimulate emission reductions across all sectors of the economy.  
Several industrial companies, representing 3 percent of U.S industrial 
energy use, have become partners in Climate Wise and pledged to reduce 
annual emissions by 20 million tons of carbon  equivalent by the year 

--  Motor Challenge, which helps companies install high-efficiency motor 
systems, has recruited over 200 partners,  established a national 
technical assistance hotline, and is soliciting sites for 25 showcase 
technology demonstrations.  These showcases will rapidly transfer high-
efficiency motor systems throughout industry.

--  Corporate response to WasteWise, which encourages voluntary source 
reduction  and recycling of business  waste, has attracted over 
300businesses; and more than 750 waste reduction programs are  underway.

--  Twenty-nine grants have been awarded through the National Industrial 
Competitiveness for Energy, Environment and Economy (NICE3) program.  
These grants will improve industrial process efficiency, reduce waste, 
and cut  greenhouse gas emissions in several key industries.

--  Natural Gas Star, designed to reduce methane losses from gas 
transmission and distribution lines, has expanded to include over 35 
corporate partners representing over 55 percent of  transmission company 
pipeline miles, 25 percent of distribution company pipeline miles, and 
35 percent of all service connections.

--  The State and Local Outreach Program awarded grants to 18 states. 
The state grants are to complete greenhouse gas inventories or to 
develop comprehensive mitigation strategies essential for laying the 
foundation for actual  reduction efforts.  In total, 24 states have 
participated in the program.  The effort now has seven cities in the 
"Green Fleets" initiative and 25 cities are targeted for the "Cities for 
Climate Protection" program. To illustrate the potential for localities, 
one medium-sized city has estimated that it can reduce emissions by the 
greenhouse gas equivalent of 4.8 million metric tons of carbon.

--  Seven joint implementation projects are underway which encourage 
renewable energy, fuel switching, energy efficiency and improved forest 
management in developing and transition economy countries.

International Solutions

   The United States is also demonstrating leadership under the 
Framework Convention  on Climate Change and in other international fora.  
The corner-stones of the Administration's policy include:

--  Promoting actions to strengthen the international response under the 
Framework Convention and working with other nations to determine 
appropriate goals for the next century.

--  Encouraging a strong  international process to review  national 
plans.  The United States is also helping to build the capacity for 
appropriate actions in nearly 60 developing counties and transition 
economies through the U.S. Country Studies program.

--  Demonstrating the benefits of joint projects through the U.S. 
Initiative on Joint Implementation, the first such program in the world.

--  Promoting the development and diffusion of beneficial  technologies. 

--  Supporting reform of international institutions, including working 
with the multilateral development banks, to better assist their clients 
to fulfill their obligations under the Convention.

--  Strengthening the newly restructured Global Environment Facility 
(GEF) to effectively serve as the  operating entity of the Convention's 
financial mechanism.  The United States is committed to ensuring the 
success of the GEF in responding to the threat of  climate change.

"We must take the lead in addressing the challenge of global warming, 
which could make our planet and its climate less hospitable and more 
hostile to human life."

President Clinton, Earth Day 1993

Recent Accomplishments of the USGCRP

--  Climate models successfully simulated the transient cooling of the 
lower atmosphere in response to the sulfates emitted by the eruption of 
Mt. Pinatubo.

--  The improved ability to forecast El Nino and resulting shifts in  
tropical and subtropical precipitation is helping farmers in North and 
South America to plan better and thereby boost yields and  reduce 
economic disruptions.

--  Model simulations of changes in climate over the last 100 years  
match observed patterns more closely when both greenhouse gases and the 
regional concentrations of sulfate aerosols are taken  into account.

--  Combined satellite and surface measurements recently identified  an 
unexpected absorption of 25-40 watts per square meter of radiation by 
the atmosphere. This new information will lead to a  reanalysis of the 
Earth's radiation balance and the role of clouds in climate change.

--  Observations show that since 1970, precipitation over the U.S. has  
increased by about 5 percent compared with the previous 70 years, 
primarily in the autumn. In addition, the frequency of  extreme rainfall 
events (more than 2" per day) has increased throughout much of the 

--  Arctic ecosystems exposed to elevated levels of carbon dioxide only 
increased productivity for a few years, suggesting that the CO2 
fertilization effect may be short-lived.


Fact Sheet 2:

U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation 
The U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) is a program 
designed to encourage international partnerships to reduce greenhouse 
gas emissions.  The Program stems from Article 4(2)(a) of the Framework 
Convention on Climate Change which allows Parties to meet their 
obligations "jointly with other Parties." The primary purpose of the 
USIJI is to help establish an empirical basis for considering approaches 
to joint implementation internationally and thus help realize the 
enormous potential for joint implementation to combat global warming and 
to promote sustainable development.   
   Activities currently underway as part of USIJI include review and 
processing of proposals, provision of public recognition and technical 
assistance to program participants, and research on approaches to joint 
   One of the USIJI pilot projects in Costa Rica, the Plantas Eolicas 
S.A. Wind Facility, will develop a 20 megawatt privately owned and 
operated wind plant.  Electricity generated by 55 U.S.- manufactured 
wind turbines will displace electricity currently  generated by the 
burning of fossil fuel. The project will constitute the largest private 
power project in Costa Rica and the first  commercial-scale wind project 
in Latin America. 
Facts and Figures 
Seven USIJI pilot projects  have already been approved, representing 
investments of approximately $40 million.  Expected reductions of carbon  
equivalents because of the pilot projects range from several thousand to 
millions of metric tons. 
Projects approved so far: 
Costa Rica: Project to Stabilize Existing and Expand Forest Cover 
Czech Republic: Fuel Switching for a District Heating System 
Honduras: Rural Solar Electrification 
Russia: RUSAFOR - Saratov Afforestration Project 
Belize: Forest Preservation and  Management 
Costa Rica: Plantas Eolicas S.A. Wind Facility 
Costa Rica: ECOLAND: Esquinas National Park 
Eight other proposals are  being further developed for the USIJI 
Evaluation Panel. 
Comments from USIJI Participants 
"It is imperative that businesses reduce their emissions in a cost-
effective manner, utilizing market-based approaches wherever possible.  
We are demonstrating that, through working in partnerships, we can 
accomplish a great deal."   
Richard A. Abdoo, Chairman and CEO  
Wisconsin Electric Power Company  
Partner, Belize and Czech Republic USIJI pilot projects  
"This pilot project represents our effort to find innovative solutions 
to a challenge that knows no territorial boundaries."   
John Sawhill, President and CEO  
The Nature Conservancy 
Partner, Belize USIJI pilot project  
"This project is a godsend for our city, because it allows us to clean 
up the severe air pollution that threatens the health of our people 
while contributing to the international effort to reduce greenhouse gas 
Milan Kunc, Mayor, City of Decin 
Czech Republic 
Partner, Czech Republic USIJI pilot project  

Fact Sheet 3:

The State and Local Outreach Program 
The State and Local Outreach Program forms partnerships with state and 
local governments to help them build their capacities for understanding 
the impacts of climate change and reducing emissions of greenhouse 
gases. State and local authorities are critical players in the effort to 
reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as they have jurisdiction over 
activities that create direct and indirect impacts, including land use, 
transportation, building codes, and waste management. Moreover, states 
and localities account for a significant percentage of global emissions 
of greenhouse gases. For example, carbon dioxide emissions from the top 
10 emitting cities account for 9 percent of the nation's total.   
   States and localities become partners in the State and Local Outreach 
Program by developing inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, forming 
action plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and implementing 
innovative pilot projects. By identifying and implementing cost-
effective measures and policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 
states and localities can simultaneously save energy, save money, foster 
technology-oriented business growth that helps create jobs, and improve 
quality of life by  alleviating such dilemmas as traffic congestion, 
shrinking  landfill capacity, and air pollution.   
   The Outreach Program supports the energy and innovative ideas of 
states and localities by providing a host of activities and services.  
These include technical and financial assistance, workshops, guidance 
documents, software tools, and analytic models. In addition, the 
National Partners workshop will provide training and education for all 
Outreach Program partners, while the Annual National Partners Conference 
will recognize and highlight partners' most  significant approaches and 
achievements. In an educational pilot project focusing on achieving 
energy efficiency through lighting equipment standards, Minnesota 
estimated that it could reduce annual carbon emissions by 35,000 tons 
while also saving $1.95 million per year.  
   In a demonstration project, Washington estimated that if 15 percent 
of the Puget Sound workforce telecommuted 2 days per week, 14 million 
gallons of gasoline and 7,000 tons of CO2 emissions would be saved each 
   The "Planet Protection Program," jointly developed by the Outreach 
Program, EPA's Atlanta office and the National Hardware Retail 
Association, is reaching the public through educational materials. It 
also trains store employees to assist homeowners in making informed 
decisions about  energy-saving products.    
   The "Environmental Justice and Sustainable Communities Project" 
provides funding and technical support to low-cost, grass roots 
endeavors targeted toward low-income neighborhoods and disadvantaged 
communities. In 1995, eight projects will help low-income residents 
improve their quality of life while simultaneously reducing their 
emissions of greenhouse gases.  
"Through the State and Local Outreach Program we will find a variety of 
ways to reduce greenhouse gases which will also create jobs and 
stimulate the Maine economy...We need to be thinking ahead, identifying 
opportunities for Maine and for the country and we need to be aggressive 
and innovative in capturing this green production for Maine."   
     Mark DesMeules 
     State of Maine    
     Planning Office 
"The State and Local Outreach Program provided the financial resources 
and knowledge base from which the State of South Carolina developed an 
implementation plan to mitigate the direct impact of medium- and long-
range climate variability on key natural resources. The information and 
expert evaluation provided by this unique EPA program supported all our 
activities at the state and local level..."   
     David J. Smith 
     State Climatologist 
     South Carolina Department of Natural Resources 
                              Facts and Figures 
   A total of 24 states are completing or have completed greenhouse gas 
emissions inventories to establish a  baseline and to forecast future 
emissions, while another five to eight states are expected to join this 
effort by mid-1995.  State partners range from  heavily industrialized 
states to rural and agriculturally-based states to coastal states that 
may be vulnerable to sea level rise. 
   The information gathered serves as a foundation for states to develop 
and  implement the comprehensive mitigation programs and policy options 
that comprise State Action Plans. Eight states are working on or have 
completed such plans and nine states have implemented innovative 
demonstration projects. 
   Local authorities join the State and Local Outreach Program through 
initiatives developed and coordinated by the International Council for 
Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) and Public Technology Inc. 
(PTI).  Through the Urban CO2 Reduction Program,  14 international 
cities became charter members, including the U.S. cities of Portland, 
Denver, Minneapolis and St. Paul, Chula Vista, as well as Dade County, 
Florida. This effort gave rise to two innovative programs, "Green 
Fleets" and "Cities for Climate Protection," which are engaging local 
authorities in voluntary efforts that garner energy savings, budgetary 
savings, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. 

Fact Sheet 4:

Rebuild America

Rebuild America is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program which 
supports the formation of community and regional partnerships to design 
and carry out commercial and multifamily building  renovation programs. 
By capturing existing  energy efficiency opportunities, building owners 
can reduce their operating costs by hundreds of millions of dollars 
annually. DOE will provide Rebuild America partnerships with assistance 
in program administration, staffing, development of technical plans, 
building audits, evaluation, and training.

   Rebuild America partnerships will design building renovation programs 
tailored to the needs of the communities they serve. Partners will 
conduct four activities:

--  Design Programs.  Partners will design specific activities to 
significantly expand the reach and effectiveness of existing programs 
for energy retrofits.

--  Form Teams.  Partners will obtain commitments from key leaders of 
local government and industry and form teams to carry out partnership 

--  Identify and Leverage Resources.  Partners will identify resources 
available from private and public sources, both federal and 	non-

--  Implement Retrofits.  Partners will carry out retrofit programs that 
achieve significant energy savings.

   Rebuild America will help replicate the success of existing community 
partnerships, such as a project started in Osage, Iowa in 1974 to reduce 
electricity use.

   The project has saved the community $1.2 million annually, customers 
have been given three rate reductions over the past 18 years, and no new 
generating capacity has been needed for the community.

   Working together with the U.S. Conference of Mayors, DOE recently 
announced the Rebuild America "Energy-Smart Challenge" to challenge U.S. 
mayors to initiate energy efficiency programs for their cities.

"U.S. cities should consider [energy-efficiency] options as they work to 
solve fiscal challenges. Too often, community leaders overlook energy 
efficiency as a great  opportunity to save money."

Victor Ashe
Mayor of Knoxville, Tennessee
President of the U.S. Conference of Mayors

Rebuild America partners will include:

--  Utilities
--  Business Leaders
--  Trade Associations
--  Financial Institutions
--  Educational Institutions
--  Economic Development Agencies
--  Public and Private Building Managers
-- Energy and Environmental Organizations

                                  Facts and Figures

Percentage of U.S. carbon emissions caused by  building energy use:  35%

Expected reduction in carbon equivalent emissions by the year 2000:  1.6 

Expected cost savings in 2000: $650 million/year

Number of organizations requesting applications toprepare investment 
proposals for Rebuild America financial partnerships: 450


Fact Sheet 5:

The NICE 3 Program 
The National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy, Environment, 
Economics Program (NICE3) is a cost-shared grant program which is 
operated jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Environmental 
Protection Agency. The goals of the program are to catalyze cleaner 
production and manufacturing processes, reduce wastes in industry, 
conserve energy and energy-intensive feedstocks, and improve industrial 
cost-competitiveness.  NICE3 is implemented through a competitive 
solicitation process leading to grant awards through which federal funds 
must be matched. Industry applicants must submit project proposals 
through a state energy, pollution prevention, or business development 
office. NICE3 awardees are expected to commercialize the process or 
technology developed.  
Through the NICE3 program, Chrysler Corporation's assembly plant in 
Newark, New Jersey is developing powder, coatings that could eventually 
replace  liquid-paint-spray systems in  auto manufacturing.  The plant 
currently generates more than 91 tons per year of volatile organic 
compounds, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide emissions.  Chrysler 
expects to be able to eliminate these emissions and save nearly $4 
million annually from reduced materials use, energy consumption, and 
waste disposal. 
AMPCO Metal Manufacturing in Ohio modified the existing method of 
heating a continuously heated holding furnace, resulting in a reduction 
of 89 percent in process energy and more than  50 percent in waste, 
while paying back the investment in aboutone year. 
AAP St. Mary's in Ohio has introduced a more efficient  technology for 
remelting the aluminum chips that result  from machining cast aluminum  
automobile wheels. Energy  consumption is reduced by 50 percent, waste 
is reduced by 90 percent and simple payback is about 1.5 years. 
"I believe the NICE3 Program is an excellent opportunity for federal and 
state agencies to form partnerships with industry which will benefit all 
parties and protect the environment at the same time." 
     Tommy Thompson -- Governor 
Facts and Figures 
Number of NICE3 partners:    120 
Number of NICE3 projects:      9 
Average private sector investment generated by each $1 of federal 
funding:      $4-5 

Fact Sheet 6:

Motor Challenge 
Motor Challenge is a voluntary partnership program between the U.S. 
Department of Energy (DOE) and industry to increase the use of energy-
efficient electric motor systems. U.S. industry spends more than $30 
billion annually on energy for motor systems.  Electric motors and 
motor-driven equipment such as fans, pumps, blowers, and compressors 
account for more than 70 percent of all electricity consumed by 
industrial facilities.   By working with industry,  Motor Challenge can 
help companies identify opportunities for motor-system improvements.     
DOE's implementation of Motor Challenge involves five program elements: 
--  Showcase Demonstrations prove the cost-effectiveness of high-
efficiency electric motors in various industrial applications. 
--  The Information Clearinghouse serves as a one-stop shop to provide 
access to a toll-free hot line for technical assistance, an electronic 
bulletin board, decision tools, training materials, and information 
about upcoming conferences.  
--  Motor Challenge Partnership involves conferences, seminars, and 
training designed to get the best information about electric motor-
driven systems into the hands of people that can use it.  
--  The Electric Motor Systems Database will consist ofreliable data 
concerning electric motor-driven system performance in real-world 
--  Market Transformation Strategies will leverage the substantial 
market position of large industrial motor system users to create a 
demand pull for high-efficiency motor-system equipment. 
   By deploying a team to survey their facilities, 3M Corporation has 
already identified opportunities to save $315,000 annually through 
motor-system upgrades.  Ultimately, 3M expects to save at least $8 
million per year by increasing the efficiency of their motor systems 
"Motor Challenged private  teamwork to accomplish shared goals in the 
energy and environmental arenas."   
David Buzzelli 
VP and Corporate Director 
Environmental Health and Safety and Public Affairs 
Dow Chemical   
                          Facts and Figures 
Number of Motor Challenge partners:  285 
Expected reduction in carbon equivalent in the year 2000:  6 MMTCE 

Fact Sheet 7:

Green Lights 
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Green Lights program 
encourages the widespread use of energy-efficient lighting through 
voluntary, profit-based partnerships.  Lighting accounts for 20-25 
percent of all electricity sold in the U.S.  Green Lights partners agree 
to survey 100 percent of their facilities and to upgrade 90 percent of 
their square footage that can be profitably upgraded without 
compromising lighting quality. EPA provides a range of support systems 
to help participants obtain information on energy-efficient lighting 
technology, financing options, and public recognition. 
   With help from Green Lights, Chevron retrofitted lighting in a 
250,000 square foot record-keeping warehouse.  With annual energy cost 
savings of $116,000, Chevron expects a payback period of a little over 
one year for the project, with an internal rate of return of 100 
*Only 2.5 MMTCE are scored under the U.S. Climate Change Action Plan 
because Green Lights began before 1993. 
"Our retrofit program would not have gotten off the ground without the 
assistance of the Green Lights staff.  They have provided us with 
information on utility incentives, ballast and lamp disposal methods, 
and technical issues.  The most vital piece of information I have 
received from Green Lights  is the technical data describing the 
different types of lighting equipment.  This tremendous resource has 
given me confidence in choosing the most cost-effective technologies."   
Gary McAvoy 
Energy Manager 
Melville Corporation 
"Through JCPenney's partnership with EPA, we have implemented 
responsible and cost-effective lighting conservation measures in our 
stores, avoiding the discharge of many tons of pollutants into the 
atmosphere.  We have improved lighting quality for our customers and 
associates and have reduced our overall cost of lighting."    
Alan Ross 
Energy Programs Manager 
JCPenney Company, Inc.  
                         Facts and Figures 
Current number of Green Lights participants:  1,676 
Percent of Fortune 500 corporations participating in Green Lights: 20 
Average lighting electricity reduction in completed upgrades: 47 percent 
Square footage of participants committed to Green Lights: 4.3 billion 
square feet 
Kilowatt-hour savings per year: 1,151 million kwh 
Electric bill savings per year: $89.7 million 
Average internal rate of return: 30 percent 
Expected reduction of carbon equivalent in the year 2000: 7.5 MMTCE* 

Fact Sheet 8:

Climate Wise 
Climate Wise, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE), targets industrial sector 
actions to stimulate greenhouse gas emission reductions. Through Climate 
Wise, EPA and DOE provide information on the full range of U.S. Climate 
Change Action Plan initiatives to help industries identify a 
comprehensive set of actions that are most appropriate for them.  
   Climate Wise encourages comprehensive emissions reduction plans by 
its partners. 
   As part of its Climate Wise pledge, Georgia-Pacific has agreed to: 
--  Establish energy management teams. 
--  Improve boiler controls and operation. 
--  Reduce waste wood sent to landfills. 
--  Increase carbon sequestration through a forestry program.  
--  Decrease transportation emissions. 
   As part of its Climate Wise pledge, Johnson & Johnson has agreed to: 
--  Reduce equivalent energy use by 10 percent by 1996. 
--  Complete commitments to Green Lights and WasteWi$e. 
--  Participate in Motor Challenge. 
--  Reduce nonhazardous production waste by 50 percent and hazardous 
waste by 10 percent by the year 2000. 
--  Conduct an annual Earth Day and Energy Awareness Week. 
--  Reduce office waste by 50 percent. 
Facts and Figures 
     Climate Wise participants include DuPont, AT&T, Quad Graphics, 
Martin Marietta, Weyerhaeuser, Georgia Pacific, Johnson & Johnson and 
Fetzer Vineyards. Together, these companies represent more than 3 
percent of U.S. industrial energy use and a carbon-equivalent reduction 
commitment of more than 20 million metric tons.* These participating 
companies expect to achieve savings of more than $50 million annually 
beginning in 1995. 
    "The Martin Marietta Corporation is pleased to add its pledge to the 
principles and voluntary action initiatives of the Climate Wise program.  
We feel it is both a matter of good business practice and prudent 
environmental action to address sooner, rather than later, an issue of 
the potential of global warming."     
Charles E. Carnahan 
Corporate Environment Health and Safety 
Martin Marietta Corporation  

Fact Sheet 9:

Climate Challenge 
Climate Challenge is a joint initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy 
(DOE) and the U.S. electric utility industry to obtain voluntary 
commitments by utilities to undertake actions to reduce, avoid or 
sequester greenhouse gas emissions. DOE provides technical information 
and support, and public recognition to utility participants.  The 
Climate Challenge Options Workbook, a joint effort of the utility 
industry and DOE, describes over 50 options that utilities can use to 
meet their commitments²ranging from generating plant efficiency 
improvements to forest management projects.  Program participants report 
their greenhouse gas emissions to DOE annually, along with information 
describing their Climate Challenge actions and achievements. 
    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has committed to 
reduce greenhouse gas emissions 30 percent below its 1990 level by the 
year 2000.  SMUD's strategy includes the following: 
--  Expanding current wind plant from 5 megawatts to 50 megawatts. 
--  Planting 500,000 shade trees. 
--  Expanding SMUD's electric vehicle fleet from 48 to 240 and adding 
200 public electric vehicle charging stations. 
--  Offering incentives for customers to buy energy-efficient lights, 
geothermal ground source heat pumps, solar water heaters, and high-
efficiency air conditioners and refrigerators. 
    "This voluntary, flexible initiative is the best way to tap the 
utility industry's technical skills and problem solving capabilities, 
while obviating the need for  costly command-and-control  requirements." 
     E. Linn Draper, Jr. -- Chairman 
     American Electric Power 
"Our Climate Challenge commitment reflects our continuing interest in 
cost-effective environmental progress.  It is good business for us to 
address both local and global environmental problems that concern our 
customers.  This program is an example of how, if given a chance, 
significant reductions can be achieved on a voluntary basis."   
     Eldon Cotton -- Assistant General Manager 
     Los Angeles Department of Water and Power 
*Some of the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions cited under this 
program may result from participation in a number of U.S. Climate Change 
Action Plan programs. 
Facts and Figures 
Current number of Climate Challenge partner utilities:       248 
Expected reduction in carbon-equivalent in the year 2000:     44 MMTCE* 

Fact Sheet 10:

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was established by the 
United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological 
Organization in 1988. The purpose of the IPCC is to assess information 
in the scientific and technical literature related to all significant 
components of the climate-change issue. To date, the IPCC has produced:  
--  A comprehensive assessment of climate change which evaluated 
alterations to the chemical/physical/biological components of the 
climate system, potential and alternative response measures (IPCC 1990). 
This report became a standard work of reference, widely used by policy-
makers, scientists, and other experts.  
--  A supplementary review of research on these same issues prepared for 
the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development (IPCC 1992). 
--  A special report prepared for the first meeting of the Conference of 
the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change covering 
radiative forcing of climate, greenhouse gas emissions scenarios, and 
methods for conducting national inventories of emissions of sources and 
sinks of greenhouse gases and assessments of climate change impacts 
(IPCC 1994).  
   Together, these reports have established a common basis of  
scientific opinion that was used by governments to negotiate the 
Framework Convention on Climate Change and will be used as a basis for 
the discussions by the Conference of the Parties.  
   The IPCC operates at two over-lapping but distinct levels: as a  
ormal intergovernmental body and as a scientific and technical 
assessment body. 
   Government representatives meet in formal plenary sessions to approve 
the topics for assessment and the overall workplans for preparation of 
the reports. They also review and accept the detailed scientific and 
technical reports as well as approve on a line-by-line basis the Panel's 
"Summaries for Policymakers" which highlight the policy implications of 
the detailed reports. It is through this inter-governmental review and 
approval mechanism that the work of the IPCC is connected to 
international and national policy concerns.  
The detailed reports themselves are prepared through the enthusiasm and 
cooperation of scientists and technical experts from around the world. 
These experts come from many countries and are trained in disciplines 
from atmospheric chemistry to economics. They include university 
professors, researchers working in private industry and at national 
aboratories, and scientific experts ffiliated with non-governmental  
organizations. The teams of experts which draft the individual sections 
of the reports are structured to include the broadest range of 
scientific opinions possible. Because the process of assessment involves 
reviewing the most up-to-date scientific information, reconciling 
competing views where possible, and characterizing the disagreements 
when achieving consensus is not possible, IPCC reports have identified 
climate change issues which deserve the priority attention of the 
research community in the future. Hundreds of experts are involved in 
preparing the different chapters of the reports; literally thousands are 
involved in providing expert peer review. 
Current Work 
   In 1991, after some reorganization, the IPCC committed itself to 
producing a Second Assessment Report in 1995, covering the same 
comprehensive range of topics covered in the 1990 report. This report is 
being prepared by three working groups. Working Group I, which is co-
chaired by the United Kingdom and Brazil, is charged with assessing the 
state of science with respect to the functioning of the climate system 
and possible changes to it resulting from human activities. Working 
Group II, co-chaired by the United States and Zimbabwe, is assessing 
potential impacts, adaptation, and mitigation measures in a broad range 
of ecological and socio-economic systems. Working Group III, co-chaired 
by Canada and South Korea, is focusing on assessments of the economic 
implications of climate change, including an evaluation of future trends 
in emissions of greenhouse gases. 

Fact Sheet 11:

State of Knowledge

The Earth's climate is predicted to change because human activities are 
altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere.  The buildup of 
greenhouse gases-primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and 
chlorofluorocarbons-is changing the radiation balance of the planet. The 
basic heat-trapping property of these greenhouse gases is essentially 
undisputed. However, there is considerable scientific uncertainty about 
exactly how and when the Earth's climate will respond to enhanced 
greenhouse gases. The direct effects of climate change will include 
changes in temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and sea level. 
Such changes could have adverse effects on ecological systems, human 
health, and socio-economic sectors. 

   Human-induced climate change is a complex problem, which can impact 
the economy and the quality of life for this and future generations.  
The lag time between emission of the gases and their impact is on the 
order of decades to centuries; so too is the time needed to reverse any 
effects. Thus, policy decisions in the near term will have long-term 

The Climate System

   A natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth 33OC warmer than it 
otherwise would be.  Without this, life as we know it would not be 
possible.  Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other trace gases trap heat 
as it is re-radiated from the Earth back to space.  However, since pre-
industrial times, human activities have added to the natural greenhouse 
effect by releasing additional greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The 
burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) for energy is the primary 
source of emissions; changing land-use patterns through agriculture and 
deforestation also contribute a significant share.  Current global 
emissions of carbon dioxide from energy use are approximately 6 gigatons 
of carbon (GtC) per year. 

   Future greenhouse gas emissions are sensitive to changes in 
demographic, economic, technological, policy, and institutional 
developments.  By the year 2025, world emissions could range from 8 to 
15 GtC per year.  In the year 2100, world emissions are projected to  
range from 5 to 36 GtC per year, depending on energy use.  The U.S. and 
the rest of the OECD countries currently contribute about 40 percent of 
global carbon dioxide emissions. Future growth in emissions from OECD 
countries is predicted to be significantly smaller than growth in 
developing countries and countries with economies in transition. 

   Since the pre-industrial era,  atmospheric concentrations of  carbon 
dioxide have increased by nearly 30 percent, methane concentrations have 
doubled, and nitrous oxide concentrations have risen by 15 percent.  
These increases result in a radiative forcing or heat-trapping of energy 
equivalent to about 2.8 watts per square meter (Wm-2).  A significant 
fraction of  warming may have been masked by increased levels of 
traditional air pollutants²sulfates and carbonaceous aerosols, 
particularly in the Northern Hemisphere²which  reflect incoming solar 
radiation and alter the reflective properties of clouds.  Aerosols are 
short-lived and vary regionally, hence they should not be regarded as a 
simple offset to greenhouse gas forcing.  Calculations suggest that the 
projected increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases 
alone will result in an additional radiative forcing of about 3 - 8 Wm-2 
by 2100.  For a given concentration of greenhouse gases, the resulting 
increase in radiation can be predicted with precision; but the resulting 
impact on climate is  more uncertain.
   Model calculations, based on plausible ranges of future emissions and 
climate sensitivities, suggest that the global surface temperature could 
increase an average of 0.9 - 5.0oC by 2100, with significant variation 
by region. This estimate does not account for offsets from aerosols 
which would somewhat lower these values. Global-average temperature 
changes of this magnitude would be greater than recent natural 
fluctuations and would occur at a rate significantly faster than any 
observed changes in the last 10,000 years. The U.S. and high latitudes 
are projected to warm more than the global average.  

   Model calculations also suggest that the rate of evaporation will  
increase as the climate warms, leading to an increase in average global 
precipitation. While precipitation at high latitudes is expected to 
increase, much of the precipitation increase may fall over the oceans. 
The models also suggest that the frequency of intense rainfall will 
increase and there will be a marked decrease in soil moisture over some 
mid-latitude continental regions during the summer.

   Sea level is projected to  increase by several tens of centimeters by 
the end of the next century, due primarily to the thermal expansion of 
the oceans and the melting of glaciers and ice sheets.

   Calculations of climate change at the regional scale are 
significantly less reliable than average global values, and it is 
unclear whether climate will become more variable.  The frequency and 
intensity of extreme weather events of critical importance to ecological 
systems (droughts, floods, frosts, cloudiness, the frequency of hot or 
cold spells, and the intensity of associated fire and pest outbreaks) 
could increase.

   Global mean surface temperatures have increased between 0.3 and 0.6oC 
over the past century, despite marked regional, seasonal and diurnal 

   There is consistency between the observed global average temperature 
trend over this period and model simulations of the warming due to 
greenhouse gases if  allowance is made for the increasing evidence of a 
cooling effect due to anthropogenic aerosols and stratospheric ozone 
depletion.  However, the warming is also at the upper end of the range 
of temperature fluctuations observed in the pre-industrial record. Thus, 
the observed temperature increase could be largely due to natural 
variability; alternatively, variability and other human factors could 
have offset a still larger human-induced warming. The unequivocal 
detection of the enhanced greenhouse effect from observations is likely 
to require another decade or more of data. 

   The nine warmest years this century have all occurred since 1980. 
1994 was the third or fourth warmest year on record, suggesting the 
atmosphere has rebounded from the transient cooling of 0.5oC caused by 
Mt. Pinatubo and simulated by the models.

   Several ancillary pieces of evidence consistent with warming, such as 
a decrease in Northern Hemisphere snow cover, a simultaneous decrease in 
Arctic sea ice, continued melting of alpine glaciers, and a rise of sea 
level, have also been corroborated. The frequency of extreme rainfall 
events has increased throughout much of the country, suggestive of an 
intensification of the hydrologic cycle.

   Carbon cycle models imply that limiting atmospheric concentrations of 
CO2 to any level below 750 parts per million by volume (ppmv), about 
three times the pre-industrial level, would require emissions worldwide 
to eventually drop below 1990 levels. The longer emissions continue to 
increase, the greater reductions would eventually have to be to 
stabilize concentrations at a given level.

   While much is already known about the greenhouse effect, substantial 
reduction of key uncertainties (detailed quantification of the timing, 
magnitude and regional patterns of climate change) may require a decade 
or more.  Accurate predictions are limited by our knowledge of the 
future emissions and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, 
aerosols and other  greenhouse gases,  the role of clouds and water 
vapor, and the role of the oceans.
Impacts of Climate Change

   Climate change poses threats to resources both domestically and 
internationally.  These threats could have significant, but uncertain, 
socioeconomic consequences.  Changes in temperature, precipitation and 
sea level driven by climate change can add to existing stresses on 
resources caused by other influences such as population growth, land-use 
changes, and pollution.  

   Overall, various strategies for coping with climate change can be 
identified for "intensively managed" systems (such as agriculture, water 
resources, and developed coastlines).  For these systems, technological 
and management options exist to some extent today, although they may be 
costly to implement.  By comparison, fewer options can be identified for 
natural systems (such as wetlands and wilderness areas).

   Temperature changes of the magnitude expected from the enhanced 
greenhouse effect have occurred in the past, but the previous changes 
took place over centuries or millennia instead of decades. Rates of 
natural migration and adaptation of species and communities appear to be 
much slower than the predicted rate of climate change.  As a result, 
populations of many species and inhabited ranges could change as the 
climate to which they are adapted effectively shifts northward or to 
higher elevations.

   One of the consequences of global climate change may be increases in 
the frequency of extreme weather events, particularly droughts and 
floods.  These events, when they do occur, can be costly. For example:

--  Damages from the Mississippi River flooding in 1993 are estimated to 
range from $10 billion  to $20 billion.

--  Almost $4 billion in federal payments went to farmers suffering crop 
losses during the 1988 drought. 

Examples of the kinds of effects that may result from climate change 

Water Resources

--  Changes in precipitation and increased evaporation from higher 
temperatures can affect water supplies and water quality, posing threats 
to hydropower, irrigation, fisheries, and drinking water.

--  Floods are more likely because the frequency of intense rainfall is 
predicted to increase.  

--  Droughts are likely to be more severe because warmer temperatures 
increase evaporation rates and thereby lead to drier soils during 
periods of little or no rain.

--  Climate change would be likely to add to the stress in several U.S. 
river basins such as the Great Basin, California, Missouri, Arkansas, 
Texas Gulf, Rio Grande, and Lower Colorado.

--  Water scarcity in Middle Eastern and African countries is also 
likely to be exacerbated by climate change.

Coastal Resources

-- A 50 cm rise in sea level by the year 2100, which is within the range 
projected by the IPCC, could inundate more than 5,000 mi2 of dryland and 
an additional 4000 mi2 of wetlands in the U.S. if no protective actions 
are taken.

--  Areas at highest risk from sea level rise are areas currently 
experiencing high erosion rates and those with very low elevations, such 
as parts of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts.

--  Internationally, many low-lying areas such as parts of the Maldives, 
Egypt, and Bangladesh would be completely inundated and uninhabitable by 
a similar sea level rise.


--  Climate change may shift the range of infectious diseases, with 
likely increased risks of malaria and dengue in the United States.  
Changing temperatures and precipitation patterns may produce new 
breeding sites for pests and pathogens.

--  Climate change may increase heat-stress mortality, particularly in 
the very young and very old.


--  Large areas of the eastern and central United States face moderate 
to severe drying.	Drought could become more frequent, particularly in 
the Great Plains.

--  Changes in management practices and technological advances might 
reduce or eliminate many of the potentially negative impacts ofclimate 
change in the agricultural sector.

--  Agriculture production in developing countries is likely to be more 
vulnerable to climate change given that they have relatively fewer 
economic resources.


--  Climate change over the next several decades might shift the ideal 
range for some North American forest species by as much as 300 miles to 
the north, exceeding the ability of forests and other ecological 
communities to migrate.

--  Forest damage from fire and diebacks driven by drought, insects and 
disease could increase.

--  The most vulnerable forest resources are those in regions subject to 
increased moisture stress, as in the dry continental interiors.

Energy and Transportation

--  Warmer temperatures will increase cooling demand but decrease 
heating requirements.

--  Changes in water availability may affect reliability of hydropower 

--  Warming should lead to fewer disruptions of winter transportation, 
but increased droughts and floods may interfere with water transport.


Fact Sheet 12:

WasteWi$e is a voluntary program developed by the U.S. Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) to assist businesses in taking cost-effective 
actions to reduce solid waste. WasteWi$e partners make voluntary 
commitments to achievements in waste prevention, recycling collection, 
and buying or manufacturing recycled products. 
   The WasteWi$e program has encouraged Aetna Life and Casualty Company 
to boost its previously existing recycling program.  Since joining 
WasteWi$e as a charter member, Aetna has set up a voluntary waste 
management team to conduct an assessment of their  in-house recycling 
programs.  Aetna has also made specific commitments to reduce waste and 
increase recycling. 
   Baxter International has targeted reduced packaging as one of their 
WasteWi$e goals. Through packaging redesign and working with their 
suppliers, Baxter is committed to reducing their use of packaging 15 
percent worldwide by 1995. 
   Preliminary reports of 1994 achievements indicate that WasteWi$e 
partners are reducing, reusing and recycling millions of pounds of 
materials (e.g. paper, plastic, glass, metal, and wood). Production and 
consumption of these materials generate  substantial greenhouse gas 
emissions. By reducing, reusing and recycling, WasteWi$e partners are 
helping to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. 
Facts and Figures 
Current number of WasteWi$e partners:  376 
Current number of WasteWi$e membership-based endorsers:  12  
"What the WasteWi$e initiative means to Aetna is the ability to 
revitalize our current waste reduction program and to generate interest 
in new activities.  It is with renewed vigor that we begin this venture 
with WasteWi$e."   
Kathleen  Murray
Vice President 
Aetna Life and Casualty Co. 
"Implementing WasteWi$e-type projects saved us $24 million in 1993 
alone, through reductions in packaging and other solid wastes. These 
initiatives serve us, our customers, our shareholders, and the 
William R. Blackburn
Vice President of Corporate Environmental Affairs and Chief 
Environmental Counsel
Baxter International, Inc. 
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