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U.S. Department of State
96/06/05 Quick Security Guidelines:  An Overview of Security Awareness 
Overseas
Released by the Bureau of Public Affairs
Published by The Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC)
November 1995


INTRODUCTION

There is nothing that contributes so much to our sense of security and 
self confidence as knowing we are prepared for potential crises.  
This pamphlet provides assistance in preparing us to face those 
emergencies we may encounter traveling, working, or living overseas.  

Cultural misunderstandings and inadequate local support services often 
make crises abroad more intense than similar situations in the United 
States.  Overseas, we must assume greater responsibility for our own 
safety.  

But many potential overseas crises may be eased or averted by taking the 
time to read and study the information that follows.
Information and suggestions in this pamphlet have been collected from 
several government and private sources.  Personal experiences of  those 
who have experienced emergencies abroad have added substantial validity 
to our advice.  The experience of each person--whether hostage, crime 
victim, evacuee, or other, is distinct.  Yet there are common threads 
that provide guidelines on how to handle crises successfully.  It is our 
hope that you will find this information useful as you travel, work, or 
live abroad. 

Basic Preparation

Have Your Affairs in Order

--  Discuss and plan with your family what should be done in the case of 
an emergency situation.
--  Supply family and close friends with numbers to notify in an 
emergency.
--  Update all important papers.  Leave originals with a family member 
or an attorney and carry only copies to your overseas assignment. 
Important Papers

Your collection of important papers might include:

--  Will
--  Birth and marriage certificates
--  Guardianship or adoption papers for children
--  Power of attorney for spouse or relative
--  Naturalization papers
--  Deeds, mortgages, stocks and bonds, car titles
--  Insurance papers, car, home, life, personal effects, medical records
--  Tax records
--  Proof of termination of any previous marriages

Miscellaneous Tips

--  Obtain an international driving permit.
--  Prepare a wallet card identifying your blood type, known allergies, 
required medications, insurance company, and name of person to contact 
in case of emergency.
--  Use hard, lockable luggage with concealed luggage identification 
tags.
--  Give your office a complete itinerary.  Be sure to notify the local 
company manager of your travel plans.
--  Obtain the name, address, and telephone numbers of the local office 
or offices you will be visiting.
--  Obtain a small amount of local currency if possible.
--  Plan for emergency notification to you.  Your family should be given 
the following telephone numbers:  U.S. Embassy, corporate security, 
local company office, U.S. Department of State, and the Red Cross.
--  Stay informed!  Check for any travel advisories pertinent to 
countries you plan to visit.
--  Inform a family member of specific travel plans.

In Transit

If you plan to stay in one country for a length of time, especially a 
country that is in a period of civil unrest, register with the embassy 
or consulate and provide a copy of your itinerary.  Registration makes 
it easier to evacuate in case of an emergency. 

On the Plane

--  Carry-on luggage should contain a supply of any regularly taken 
prescription medicines, an extra pair of eyeglasses, passport, and 
carefully chosen personal documents (copies only!).
--  Dress inconspicuously to blend into the international environment.
--  Do not discuss business or travel plans with fellow passengers.
--  Select a window seat in the coach section.  This position is less 
accessible by hijackers inflicting indiscriminate violence.
--  Memorize your passport number so you do not have to reveal your 
passport when filling out landing cards.

At an Overseas Airport

Maintain a low profile and avoid public areas as much as possible.

--  Check in quickly and do not remain in the main terminal area.
--  Survey surroundings, noting exits and safe areas.
--  Stay away from unattended baggage.
--  Always maintain custody of your carry-on bag.

Public Transportation

--  Stay on your guard against pickpockets and petty thieves while in a 
bus or train terminal or at a taxi stop.
--  Avoid carrying a wallet in your hip or easily accessible coat 
pocket.
--  Take only licensed taxis.  Generally those found in front of 
terminals and the better hotels are the safest.
--  Have the address of your destination written out in local language 
and carry it with you.
--  Get a map and learn the route to your destination. Note if taxi 
driver takes you a different or longer way.
--  Try not to travel alone in a taxi and never get out in deserted 
areas.  

Hotels

--  Stay alert in your hotel.  Put the "Do not Disturb" sign on your 
door to give the impression that the room is occupied while you are out.
--  Call the maid when you are ready for the room to be cleaned.
--  Consider leaving the light or TV on when you are out of the room.
--  Carry the room key with you instead of leaving it at the front desk.
--  Do not accept packages or open the door to workmen without 
verification from the front desk.

Hotel Fires

--  Stay in the most modern hotels; consider a U.S. chain.
--  Request a lower floor, ideally the second or third.
--  Locate exits and stairways as soon as you check in; be sure the 
doors open.
--  If the hotel has a fire alarm system, find the nearest alarm.
--  Ensure that your room windows open and that you know how the latches 
work.
--  Check the smoke detector by pushing the test button.  If it does not 
work, have it fixed or move to another room.
--  Keep the room key and a flashlight on the bedside table so that you 
may locate the key quickly if you have to leave your room.

If a Fire Starts

--  If you awake to find smoke in your room, grab your key and crawl to 
the door on your hands and knees; fresher air will be near the floor.
--  Before you open the door, feel it with the palm of your hand.  If 
the door is hot, the fire may be right outside.  Open the door slowly.  
Be ready to slam it shut if the fire is close by.
--  If your exit path is clear, crawl into the hallway.  Stay close to 
the wall to avoid being trampled.
--  Do not use elevators during a fire.
--  As you make your way to the fire exit, stay on the same side as the 
exit door.  Count the doors to the exit.
--  When you reach the exit walk down the stairs to the first floor.  
If you encounter heavy smoke in the stairwell, turn around and walk up 
to the roof fire exit.
--  If all exits are blocked or if there is heavy smoke in the hallway, 
you will be better off staying in your room.
--  If you know your plan of escape in advance, you will be less likely 
to panic and more likely to survive.

Civil Unrest

In some areas of the world, civil unrest or violence directed against 
Americans and other foreigners is common.  Travelers should be alert to 
indicators of civil unrest and take the following precautions in the 
event of such situations:

--  If in your hotel, stay there.
--  Contact your local office representative.
--  Do not watch activity from your window.
--  Choose an inside room, which provides greater protection from 
gunfire, rocks, grenades, etc.
--  If you are caught outside in the middle of a riot or unrest, do not 
take sides or attempt to gather information.  Play the role of the 
tourist who just wants to get home to his or her family.

TERRORISM

The likelihood of terrorist incidents varies according to the country or 
area of the world.  However, experience has shown that even in the most 
stable countries, terrorists have struck.  

Terrorist Surveillance

Terrorists may shadow an intended victim at length and with infinite 
patience before an actual abduction or assassination is attempted.

--  Make their job tougher by not being predictable.  Eat at different 
times and places.  Stagger professional and social activities; do not 
play tennis "every Wednesday at three," for example.
--  Be particularly observant whenever you leave your home or office.  
Look up and down the street for suspicious vehicles, motorcycles, 
mopeds, etc.  Note people near your home who appear to be repair 
personnel, utility crew teams, even peddlers.  Ask yourself if they 
appear genuine.
--  Know what is normal in your neighborhood and along your commute 
routes, especially at choke points.  If you know what is ordinary, you 
will notice anything extraordinary, people who are in the wrong place or 
dressed inappropriately, or cars parked in strange locations.
--  Know the choke points on your routes and be aware of other vehicles, 
vans, or motorcycles as you enter those bottleneck areas.  Search out 
safehavens that you can pull into along the route.
--  Drive with windows rolled up to within
2 inches of the top and lock all doors.
--  Always speak guardedly and caution children to do the same.  Never 
discuss travel or business plans within hearing of servants.  
Surveillants consider children and servants to be a prime source of 
information.  Always assume that your telephone is tapped.
--  If you become aware of surveillance, do not let those watching you 
know you are aware of them.  And certainly never confront them.  
Immediately notify your appropriate company representative. 

Hijackings

--  Blend in with the other airline passengers.  
--  Avoid eye contact with your captors.  Remember there may be other 
hijackers covertly mixed among the regular passengers.
--  Stay alert, but do not challenge the captors physically or verbally.  
Comply with their instructions.
--  If interrogated, keep answers short and limited to nonpolitical 
topics.
--  Carry a family photo; at some point you may be able to appeal to 
captors' family feelings.
--  Minimize the importance of your job.
--  Give innocuous reasons for traveling.

Kidnappings

--  If taken hostage, your best defense is passive cooperation.  You may 
be terrified, but try to regain your composure as soon as possible and 
to organize your thoughts.
--  Being able to behave rationally increases your chances for survival.
--  The more time that passes, the better your chances of being released 
alive.

Behavior Suggestions

Each captivity is different, but some behavior suggestions apply to 
most:

--  Try to establish some kind of rapport with your captors.
--  Plan on a lengthy stay and determine to keep track of the passage of 
time.
--  Manage your time by setting up schedules for simple tasks, 
exercises, daydreaming, housekeeping.
--  Build relations with fellow captives and with the terrorists.
--  Maintain your physical and mental health; it is critical to exercise 
body and mind.
--  Keep your mind active; read anything available.  Write, even if you 
are not allowed to retain your writings.  If materials are not 
available, mentally compose poetry or fiction, try to recall Scripture, 
design a house, even "play tennis" (as one hostage did).
--  Take note of the characteristics of your captors and surroundings.
--  You can expect to be accused of working for the government's 
intelligence service, to be interrogated extensively, and to lose 
weight.
Finally, it's worth keeping in mind three facts about terrorism:
--  The overwhelming majority of victims have been abducted from their 
vehicles on the way to or from work.
--  A large number of people taken hostage ignored the most basic 
security precautions.
--  Terrorist tactics are not static.  As precautions prove effective, 
terrorists change their methods.  There is a brief "window of 
vulnerability" while we learn to counter their new styles.

Evacuation

Many evacuations have taken place in past years for reasons of political 
instability, acts of terrorism, and natural disasters.

Preparation

--  Be prepared.  Assume an evacuation could occur at any point.
--  Determine the "who and where" with your family.  Who should be 
contacted and where your family would go in case of an extended 
evacuation.
--  Establish a line of credit to cover emergencies.  Obtain individual 
credit cards for you and your spouse.
--  Know the emergency evacuation plan of the school if your children 
are with you.
--  Keep a small bag packed with essentials: clothing changes, snack 
food (dry, nonperishable), bottled water, medications.
--  In your residence, group important papers together along with 
checkbooks, U.S. credit cards, some traveler's checks, a small amount of 
cash and U.S. driver's license.
--  Maintain a basic emergency supply of food, water, gasoline, and 
first-aid supplies.
If Evacuated
--  In the event an evacuation order is given, it is crucial for parents 
to discuss with children what is going to happen.
--  Establish a daily routine with the children as soon as possible 
after evacuation and relocation.

Culture Shock

Culture shock is the physiological and psychological stress experienced 
when a traveler is suddenly deprived of old, familiar cues--language, 
customs, etc.  Both the seasoned traveler and the first-timer, whether 
in transit or taking up residence, are susceptible.  Culture shock is 
most prevalent in the second or third month after arrival when the 
novelty of the new country fades.  Traveler disorientation is a form of 
culture shock.

Symptoms

Symptoms to watch for in adults and children include:

--  Sleepiness, apathy, depression
--  Compulsive eating or drinking
--  Exaggerated homesickness
--  Decline in efficiency
--  Negative stereotyping of nationals
--  Recurrent minor illnesses

Successful Handling

The trauma of culture shock is most successfully dealt with if you:

--  Realize that operating in a new setting with strange sights, sounds, 
smells, and possibly a new language, is a different experience for each 
person in the family.
--  Communicate with each other; have patience and be understanding.
--  Exercise!  Lack of proper rest, diet, and exercise aggravate culture 
shock stress symptoms.
--  Use the support system of experienced associates.  Begin to 
participate in the life of the new country to whatever extent possible.

Helping Children Adjust

Before the Move

--  Set the stage with children before the transfer process begins.  
--  Bring up selected subjects during routine activities--dinner or a 
weekend hike.

Talk to Them About

--  Cultural restrictions.  Help children accept the local mores rather 
than resent them.
--  Health precautions.  They may require shots or pills to prevent the 
onset of local diseases.
--  Stress factors.  Discuss with them the stress placed on a family by 
such a move and how they can relieve it.

Relocation Crisis

-- Settling children into a daily routine helps them adjust more 
successfully to any situation.
-- Encourage children to be physically active.  
Security Tips for Children

Children must be taught:

--  To keep a parent in sight in public places and to go to a store 
clerk if lost and in need of help.
--  Not to go anywhere with anyone without a parent's permission.
--  A password known only to family and close friends.
--  Not to accept packages or letters from people you do not know.
--  To know at least key phrases in the local language. 
--  To let someone know their location at all times.

Security Tips for Parents

Parents need to:

--  Teach your child never to get into a car or go into a house without 
your permission.  Do not leave your child alone in a public place, even 
for a moment.
--  Be certain your children know your home address and telephone 
number.
--  Train children not to give personal information over the phone, even 
though the caller purports to be a friend.
--  Explain the importance of never divulging any information in front 
of strangers.
--  Caution children to always keep doors locked and never to unlock a 
door to a stranger without adult approval.
--  Listen when your child tells you he or she does not want to be with 
someone--there may be a reason.

Checklist for Babysitters

--  Ensure all doors and windows are locked and that doors are not 
opened to anyone.
--  Do not give out any information over the telephone.  Simply state 
Mr. X or Mrs. X cannot come to the phone right now.  Take a message.
--  Never leave the children alone, even for a minute.
--  Know the dangers to children of matches, gasoline, stoves, deep 
water, poisons, falls.
--  Know the locations of all exits (stairs, doors, windows, fire 
escapes) and phones in case of emergency.
--  Know the names and ages of children.

Stress During Crisis

A crisis is best handled collectively.  Parents, teachers, family, and 
friends can play a part in helping any child handle a crisis.  Adults 
should support each other in guiding children through the crisis; there 
is no need to feel you are in this alone.  Play groups or support groups 
may be formed.

Parents and teachers are models.  If they handle a crisis calmly, 
children will be less anxious.

Children borrow strengths from adults around them.  Help them put labels 
on their reactions, encourage them to verbalize feelings.  Play is a 
natural form of communication for children, it will discharge bottled-up 
feelings.  If allowed to work through their fears, most children will 
emerge strengthened from a crisis.

Children need to see you express your feelings of fear and grief, too.  
By example, parents and other adults can show children how these 
feelings are handled.  it's important that they see not only the 
expression of grief and sadness, but that they understand that the 
feeling will pass.

Some parents attempt to protect children by not allowing discussion 
about a crisis.  The healthier route is to let them discuss it until 
they can get some psychological distance from it.  Verbal repetition is 
a natural cathartic process.

If a child requires medical attention, someone from the immediate family 
should stay with him or her.  See that the procedures that are to be 
done are explained to the child.

Residential Fire Safety

Although fire does not sound as dramatic as terrorism, in fact it kills 
far more people each year than does terrorist activity overseas.  In 
many countries fire regulations do not exist, firefighting equipment is 
antiquated, water sources are inadequate, and buildings are constructed 
with minimum standards.

Take these basic steps to protect your family from fire:

--  Use smoke detectors in your home.
--  Test smoke detectors monthly.
--  Prepare a fire escape plan with your family.
--  Conduct a fire drill at least once every 
6 months.

Fire Escape Plan

--  A fire escape plan is essential.  With your family, draw a floor 
plan of your house marking all possible exits.
--  Show all windows, doors, and outdoor features.  Note escape aids 
such as a tree or balcony; check to ensure that they would work.
--  Locate the nearest fire alarm box or the neighbor's house.
--  Designate a meeting place outside the house.
--  Tape a copy of the floor plan by the telephone.
--  Practice your plan!

Fire Extinguishers

Every home should have at least one fire extinguisher and one smoke 
detector.

Use a fire extinguisher only after you:

--  Are sure everyone else is out of the building.
--  Have called the fire department.
--  Are certain you can approach the fire safety.

A Summary of Fire Safety Reminders

--  After a smoke detector warns you of a fire, you have only a few 
moments to escape.
--  Sleep with bedroom doors closed.  A closed door can hamper the 
spread of a fire and the chances of a fire starting in a bedroom are 
remote.
--  To escape, keep low and crawl on hands and knees.  The safety zone 
of cleaner air is always near the floor.
--  Once out, no one should be permitted to re-enter a burning house for 
any reason.  Hold on to children who may impulsively run inside to 
retrieve a prized possession.
--  Children panic in fire and tend to attempt hiding as a means of 
escape.  Train them to react correctly.
--  Feel every door before you open it.
--  If clothes catch fire, drop to the ground and roll to extinguish 
flames, or smother the fire with a blanket or rug.
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