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U.S. Department of State
Tunisia Country Commercial Guide
Office of the Coordinator for Business Affairs


                        COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE -- Tunisia 
I.     Executive Summary 
II.    Economic Trends and Outlook 
III.   Political Environment 
IV.    Marketing U.S. Products and Services 
V.     Leading Sectors for U.S. Exports and Investment 
VI.    Trade Regulations and Standards 
VII.   Investment Climate 
VIII.  Trade and Project Financing 
IX.    Business Travel 
X.     Appendices 
Tunisia offers good potential for American business.  It has sound 
macroeconomic policies and has successfully completed an International 
Monetary Fund and World Bank sponsored restructuring program (1987-
1994).  Thanks to ongoing privatization and market liberalization 
programs, the economy has grown at an average rate of 4.5 percent over 
the past three years.  Progress has been made in reforming the banking 
and financial sectors.  The local stock market, while still closed to 
foreign investors, is becoming more active.   
The private sector is playing an ever increasing role in the economy.  
Textiles and tourism are two of its biggest revenue earners.  The 
privatization program will pick up speed in 1995, focusing on industries 
in competitive sectors.   
Tunisia is committed to a free trade regime and export-led growth.  Most 
goods can be imported without restriction.  Significantly, Tunisia and 
the European Union initialed a free trade accord in 1995.  The pact will 
enter into force in 1997 and phase-in over 12 years.  The accord will 
allow the free trade of goods and services between Tunisia and its 
larger partner. 
Tunisia welcomes foreign investment.  Although residual bureaucratic 
bottlenecks can still hamper business, Tunisia has a comprehensive 
investment code, offering a variety of incentives to foreign investors.  
U.S. companies are present in Tunisia in a variety of sectors.  In 
recent years they have successfully competed against entrenched European 
interests and won significant Tunisian government contracts.   
Country Commercial Guides are available on the National Trade Data Bank 
on CD-ROM or through INTERNET.  Please contact STAT-U.S.A at 1-800-STAT-
U.S.A for more information.  To locate country Commercial Guides via the 
INTERNET, please use the following world wide WEB address: WWW.STAT-
U.S.A.GOV.  CCGs can also be ordered in hard copy or on diskette from 
the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at 1-800-553-NTIS.  
Major Trends and Outlook 
Tunisia, the Maghreb's smallest country, should not be overlooked 
because of its size.  An examination of its economic data tells an 
impressive story.  According to Tunisian government statistics more than 
60 percent of the population is middle class.  Only 6.7 percent falls 
below the poverty threshold.  The national savings rate is 23 percent.  
Eighty-one percent of Tunisians own their own homes.  Eighty-six percent 
of Tunisian homes are connected to the electrical grid and 70 percent 
have potable water. 
Since independence, Tunisia has traditionally taken a balanced approach 
to development that has emphasized family planning, education, and 
promotion of the status of women.  During 1987-1994, with International 
Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank support, it engaged in a series of 
important structural reforms. Tunisia simplified its tax system and 
reduced taxes, with a fixed maximum rate of 35 percent.  Banking and 
financial sectors were partly liberalized and restructured.  Some public 
companies were privatized and foreign trade and domestic prices 
decontrolled.  As of 1995, 87 percent of prices are free at the 
production level and 85 percent at the distribution level.  Over 93 
percent of imports are unrestricted. 
At the end of the structural adjustment program in 1994, all basic 
economic indicators had improved.  The average growth rate over 1987-
1994 was 4.5 percent with an average inflation rate of 5 percent. The 
Government budget deficit went from 5.5 percent of Gross Domestic 
Product (GDP) in 1986 to 2.6 percent in 1994.  It is expected to fall to 
1.5 percent of GDP in 1995.  Over the same period, the current accounts 
deficit went from 8 percent of GDP to 4.6 percent.  Similarly, debt 
service as a percentage of exports declined from 27.9 percent to 18.5 
Tunisia's efforts have attracted international attention.  It 
successfully raised $550 million in two bond issues on the Samurai 
market.  Moody's recently gave it an investment grade rating (BAA3).  
Tunisia has attracted 800 foreign companies to invest in its 
increasingly diversified economy.   
A member of GATT since 1990, Tunisia has concentrated its efforts on 
developing export-led growth.  Textiles and tourism are currently 
Tunisia's main hard currency earners.  In 1994 total textiles and 
leather export earnings were $2.1 billion.  Tourism followed at $1.3 
billion.  Other important sectors were mechanical and electrical 
equipment at $576 million, phosphates at $540 million, agriculture and 
food products at $525 million, and energy products at $460 million.  
General trade figures in 1994 show exports near $4.7 billion and imports 
averaging $6.6 billion.   
Principal Growth Sectors 
Constant GDP was $12.8 billion in 1994, of which services accounted for 
about 33 percent.  The manufacturing and agriculture sectors each 
comprised about 15 percent.  Non-manufacturing industries, primarily 
phosphate mining and hydrocarbons, contributed 12 percent to GDP.  The 
remainder was made up of noncommercial activities. 
Manufacturing consists primarily of textiles and food processing with 
textiles contributing over half the total revenue in the sector and most 
of the growth.  Tourism plays the same role in the services sector.  The 
Ministry of Tourism hopes to welcome five million tourists annually by 
the year 2000, 25 percent over current levels. 
A poor harvest due to a severe drought in 1993-94 slowed overall 1994 
economic growth to 3.4 percent, more than 2 points below early 
estimates.  Growth could well be under 4 percent in 1995 as Tunisia 
experiences a second consecutive year of drought.  The olive crop is 
particularly vulnerable.  
In 1994, strong performances by the textiles and tourism sectors 
moderated the impact of the drought.  Such relief may not be available 
in 1995.  Although textile exports remain strong, tourism will not 
likely repeat its record 1994 performance.  First quarter 1995 tourism 
figures, especially by Europeans (Tunisia's most important tourism 
market) are off by 5 percent compared to last year.  
Government Role in the Economy 
The government of Tunisia is methodically reducing its role in the 
economy.  By 1994, 46 of the 189 public enterprises were completely or 
partially privatized either through sale of shares or assets.  However, 
most of these 46 firms were small.  Although the privatization program 
is supported by the National Labor Federation (UGTT), the government is 
moving carefully to avoid mass firings in unprofitable and overstaffed 
public companies.  While the Tunisian government has been slow to carry 
out privatization, the program may be picking up steam in 1995.  A 
further 99 companies are under consideration for privatization.  The 
government is focusing on the stock market as the principal vehicle for 
the program.  Specific targets are companies operating in competitive 
sectors.  TunisAir and other major state owned companies will partially 
or wholly privatize by selling shares through the market. 
The most dramatic reorientation has occurred in the financial and 
banking sectors.  The Central Bank is gradually shifting to a  
supervisory and regulatory role.  Interest rates were officially 
deregulated and commercial banks allowed to move into the long term 
credit market.  The government made the dinar convertible for current 
account transactions and currency trading was privatized.  In the 
financial markets, the former state controlled exchange, the Bourse, was 
privatized.  The new structure is composed of brokerage houses.  
Similarly, a privately held central stock clearing house company was 
established.  The state will continue to exercise its supervisory and 
regulatory role through the Financial Market Council.  Non-Tunisians 
still cannot participate directly in the market.  The Bourse will need 
further growth and experience before it becomes an important vehicle for 
capital formation and investment. 
In 1995, the government restructured its economic ministries.  The 
former Ministry of National Economy was split into the Ministries of 
Industry and Commerce.  The Ministry of Industry is responsible for 
improving the international competitiveness of Tunisian industry.  It 
also retains control of the majority of state-owned industries.  The 
Ministry of Commerce manages consumer subsidy and price control 
policies.  Finally, the Ministry of Economic Development, formerly the 
Ministry of Planning, is responsible for long-term budget and policy 
The Tunisian government and the European Union in 1995 negotiated a 
major economic agreement on free trade.  The pact establishes the 
framework for free trade between Tunisia and the European Union.  The 
agreement, which will enter effect in 1997, has a 12-year phase-in 
Balance of Payments Situation 
Tunisia's trade deficit fell by 34 percent in 1994 to $1.671 billion.  
In 1994, exports surged 22.5 percent, but imports were held to a 4.3 
percent increase.  In the first five months of 1995, exports grew by 
15.7 percent and imports by 4.9 percent, causing the trade deficit to 
drop by 15 percent overall. 
The U.S. trade surplus with Tunisia widened in 1994 by nearly 17 percent 
as imports from the United States increased by 22 percent.  Exports to 
the United States increased, too.  The United States is Tunisia's fourth 
largest supplier of goods and services behind France, Italy and Germany.  
Agricultural exports typically account for one third of U.S. exports to 
Tunisia has a well-developed infrastructure: a 20,000-km road network; 
eight commercial ports; and six international airports.  Telephone 
density is now five telephones per 100 inhabitants and will reach 10 
telephones per 100 in 1996.  Total electric generating capacity of 1400 
MW will increase to 2050 MW in 1996.  An electricification rate of 81 
percent will increase to 86 percent in 1996.  A 500-km natural gas 
network serves principal population centers.  In major cities such as 
Tunis, Sousse and Sfax, infrastructure is generally good.  Water, 
electricity, sewage, telecommunications and roads are reliable and well-
maintained.  However, in rural areas, these services are consistently 
less reliable, less well-maintained and less accessible.  Rates for 
electricity and international telecommunications remain expensive. 
Tunisia has a network of primary and secondary roads with one modern 
four-lane freeway linking Tunis and the eastern coastal city of Sousse.  
This highway will eventually be extended to the industrial city of Sfax 
and ultimately to the Libyan border.  Another freeway is planned between 
Tunis and the northern coastal city of Bizerte.  All primary roads and 
most northern secondary roads are paved and generally well-maintained.  
However, the road network remains inadequate for growing levels  of 
commercial and private traffic.  The government of Tunisia is strongly 
committed to improving the road system and has obtained funding for road 
projects from the World Bank and African Development Bank. 
Tunisia has international airports in six cities:  Tunis-Carthage; 
Monastir; Jerba-Zarzis; Tabarka; Sfax; and Tozeur-Nefta.  The government 
airline, TunisAir, flies from Tunis to all major destinations in Europe 
and the Middle East, except Israel.  Most major European and Middle 
Eastern airlines stop in Tunis, but no U.S. carrier offers direct 
service to Tunisia.  A $45.6 million extension to upgrade the Tunis-
Carthage airport is currently underway.  Total capacity will be expanded 
to handle 4.5 million passengers.  Work will start in third quarter 1995 
on construction of a new three level terminal to accommodate departures, 
arrivals, and public transportation.  Parking areas will be expanded and 
an extension will also be added to Tunis' excellent light rail system to 
serve the airport.  
Reliable rail transport is available for passengers and freight to most 
major Tunisian destinations.  The Tunisian government is planning to 
upgrade its railroad network. 
Much effort is being put into developing telecommunications, to include 
fiberoptic transmission cable and digital switches.  Tunisia hopes to 
develop a telephone density similar to that of Southern Europe by the 
year 2010.  The French on-line information system, Minitel, will be 
available in Tunisia in late 1995. 
Serious study is being given to expanding Tunisia's container port 
capacity.  The U.S. firm Moffatt and Nichol just completed a feasibility 
study on a building a container terminal for the northern city of 
Bizerte.  Additional consideration is being given to modernizing the 
Tunis/Rades terminal and the port of La Goulette. 
Nature of the Political Relationship with the United States 
Tunisia and the United States enjoy friendly bilateral relations.  
President Ben Ali and his government are firmly committed to good 
relations with the United States, briefly interrupted during the Gulf 
crisis, when Tunisia did not support U.S. policy.  Tunisia  hosted the 
PLO leadership from 1982 until Yasir Arafat departed Tunis in July 1994.  
The Tunisian government has been a force for moderation in the Middle 
East Peace Process. Since the beginning, Tunisia has been an active 
participant in the multilateral aspect of the Process.  Tunisia has also 
contributed military contingents to U.N. peacekeeping missions in 
Cambodia, Somalia, the Western Sahara, and Rwanda.  Cooperation between 
the Tunisian and U.S. military has been growing, with an increasing 
number of joint exercises. 
U.S. bilateral economic assistance programs are being phased out, 
principally because of Tunisia's impressive economic development 
Major Political Issues Affecting Business Climate 
Tunisia is particularly concerned about the security situation  in 
neighboring Algeria.  Tunisia is bordered on the east by Libya, a state 
under international sanctions for its involvement in the Lockerbie 
bombing of 1988.  Tunisia honors the sanctions imposed by the U.N. 
Security Council on Libya. 
Synopsis of Political System, Schedule for Elections and Orientation of 
Major Political Parties 
The government of the Republic of Tunisia is headed by a president 
(since 1987, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali) elected directly by universal 
suffrage for a five-year term.  Under the constitution, the president 
may be elected for a maximum of three terms.  Cabinet members are named 
by the president and are responsible only to him.  Tunisian law 
prohibits parties based on religion, race, language or region.  The 
Tunisian Islamist party, An-Nahda (Renaissance), was banned in 1992 
after the Government accused members of the group of attempting to 
overthrow the Government.  Two hundred-sixty-five individuals were tried 
in 1992 and sentenced to varying prison terms. The 163 members of the 
unicameral parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, are elected for five 
year terms.  In the March 1994 general election, 144 deputies were 
elected on party lists in Tunisia's 25 electoral districts under a 
winner-take-all system.  To ensure representation of minority parties, 
nineteen additional seats were distributed proportionally on a national 
basis among the losers in the district balloting.  In March 1994, the 
voters gave President Ben Ali his second five-year electoral mandate.  
In the same election, the ruling Democratic Constitutional Rally (RCD) 
won the 144 district parliamentary seats.  Four opposition parties split 
the 19 proportional seats, with the Movement of Socialist Democrats 
(MDS) winning 10 spots.  The next presidential and legislative elections 
are slated for 1999.  Municipal elections took place in May 1995.  The 
RCD won 4,084 municipal council seats, a three-party opposition alliance 
took three, the MDS won two, and an independent candidate, one.  The RCD 
controls all of the country's 257 municipalities. 
Under the leadership of Ben Ali the ruling RCD is a pragmatic political 
grouping, committed to economic liberalization and to Middle East peace.  
As recent election results suggest, the RCD is the dominant force on the 
Tunisian political scene. The largest opposition party, MDS, usually 
supports RCD policies. The other five opposition parties do not have 
wide support.  
Distribution and Sales Channels 
Tunisia's distribution and sales channels have options for wholesale or 
retail marketing.  Most activity occurs in the major coastal cities, 
i.e., Tunis, Sfax, Sousse-Monastir, and Bizerte.   
Use of Agents and Distributors; Finding a Partner 
Agents/distributors can be an important help in introducing products 
into Tunisia.  Knowledge of the local market and local contacts can mean 
the difference between success and failure.  The key, however, is to 
find the right representative.  The Embassy commercial section can 
provide advice on reputable contacts.  U.S. firms should note that 
exclusive distribution contracts in Tunisia are now forbidden by law. 
Franchising is new to Tunisia.  A major fast food chain introduced the 
idea with the opening of a Tunis store in 1994.  An important American 
hardware chain is scheduled to open a local franchise in 1996.  There is 
growing interest in the idea and many Tunisian entrepreneurs are seeking 
contacts with American companies. 
Direct Marketing 
Direct marketing offers certain advantages.  Companies can avoid the 
sometimes lengthy process of looking for a suitable representative.  
However, it does require a local presence to follow through on details.   
Joint Ventures/Licensing 
There are several successful examples of joint ventures in Tunisia.  
Common sense, however, must be exercised. Companies should be rigorous 
in selecting a partner.  It is important, too, to ensure a controlling 
share in any resulting joint venture company.  Licensing agreements work 
well.  Periodic visits are necessary to ensure adherence to quality 
control and other standards.  
Steps to Establishing an Office 
Establishing an office is a relatively simple task.  The Agency for the 
Promotion of Industry (API) offers a "one stop shop" service to 
investors seeking to set up in Tunisia.  Generally, it takes 
approximately two weeks to complete all the necessary work.  Companies 
should get the advice of a local lawyer before starting the process.  
Many commercial lawyers have specialized staff who can handle the 
details with API or other ministries.  The Embassy maintains a list of 
reputable, English-speaking attorneys. 
Best Prospects for Non-agricultural Goods and Services 
1 - Telecommunications Equipment (TEL) 
There are a variety of opportunities in telecommunications.  The 
Ministry of Communications is expected to issue a $30-$40 million tender 
for a network systems management system in late 1995. Additionally in 
the same period it intends to issue a $30 million tender for a second 
phase expansion of its rural microwave communications system.  The 
Ministry also plans to develop Tunisia's limited cellular telephone 
network.  We expect a tender to be issued in late 1996.  The Ninth 
Development Plan (1997-2001) calls for a further 800,000 - 900,000 line 
expansion of Tunisia's main network in 1997/98.  There is also a 
significant unexploited market for private switchboards for hotels and 
2 - Construction and Engineering Services (ACE) 
Beginning in 1991 the Government of Tunisia, supported by the African 
Development Bank (AFDB) and the World Bank, embarked on a decade-long 
program to construct 21 large and medium sized and 100 smaller sized 
dams.  The program was privatized in 1992 and offers good opportunities 
for U.S. construction and engineering firms.  One American company is 
already involved in the sector. 
Tunisia is considering the possibility of using a build-operate-transfer 
(BOT) scheme to develop a series of major highway projects.  The first, 
Tunis-Bizerte, is a 60-kilometer link costing $165 million.  The second, 
Tunis-Bousalem, is 140 kilometers long and will cost $480 million.  The 
final link, M'saken-Gabes, is 250 kilometers long and will cost $750 
Other major opportunities in the future are the construction of a major 
sports complex for the 2001 Mediterranean games ($130-140 million), a 
national cultural center ($50 million), and a major international 
conference center.   
The National Port Authority (OPNT) is planning the construction of a 
container terminal for the port of Bizerte.  The U.S. Trade Development 
Agency financed a feasibility study for the project using the U.S. 
engineering company, Moffatt and Nichol.  Along with Bizerte, OPNT also 
plans to rehabilitate and modernize the ports of Rades and La Goulette.  
Total estimated project cost for the three ports is $78 million, of 
which 39 percent will be funded by a grant from the European Investment 
3 - Electrical Power Systems (EMP) 
Tunisia is actively exploring the possibility of a build-operate-own 
(BOO), or BOT proposal for power generation.  The estimated $300 million 
project calls for three 100 MW plants to be built in northern Tunisia by 
2000/2001. The electric power authority, STEG, is now considering 
options for implementation. 
4 - Medical Equipment and Services (MED) 
The number of increasingly sophisticated medical and dental clinics in 
Tunisia is growing. In the last five years there has been a tremendous 
increase in private sector care.  There are now approximately 15,000 
beds and 2,000 beds in public and private sector hospitals, 
respectively.  Opportunities exist in both areas for equipment sales and 
there is mounting interest in hospital management services.   
5 - Computer Equipment and Services (CPT) 
The computer sector in Tunisia is experiencing substantial growth.  U.S. 
equipment is preferred to European and Asian alternatives.  Tunisians 
want to buy directly from American companies.  The market is becoming 
more sophisticated and there is growing specialization, especially in 
computer services.  Opportunities are available in both government and 
the private sector.  Notably, Sun Microsystems signed a partnership 
agreement with the Tunisian company TMI to develop its services in 
Tunisia. U.S. firms may also want to consider Tunisia as a regional base 
for marketing efforts in the Maghreb, or even Subsaharan Africa. 
6 - Pollution Control Equipment and Services (POL) 
Tunisia continues to play a leading role in regional environmental 
affairs.  It has signed many environmental treaties and conventions and 
has been the host to a variety of environmental conferences. Tunisia has 
an active Ministry of Environment.  American exporters of environmental 
goods and services should find an interested and receptive market.  The 
most likely areas of interest are: clean technology; environmental 
cleanup; water resource and solid waste management; hazardous material 
handling; environmental accident response; and oil spill prevention and 
The government is exploring BOT and BOO alternatives for several major 
environmental projects.  The first involves a water treatment plant for 
the Greater Tunis region.  The project would include three pumping 
stations and two treatment stations at an estimated cost of $6 million.  
The second concerns a variety of purification plants, sewerage systems, 
and waste water treatment plants for Tunisia's largest cities, Tunis, 
Sousse, Bizerte, Gabes, and Sfax.  The total estimated cost is over $93 
The final project involves a concession for solid waste treatment and 
landfills for Tunis, Sousse, Nabeul, Monastir and Sfax at a total cost 
of $31.7 million. 
Best Prospects for Agricultural Products 
Cereals and Meal Feed 
The GOT, in response to the 1994/95 drought, will increase imports of 
cereals and other agricultural products to cover basic food needs.  GOT 
estimated cereals imports in the July 1995 - June 1996 period will reach 
at least $420 million, compared to a $130 million annual average.  
Higher than average cereals imports will likely continue through 1997, 
because Tunisia will need to replenish its strategic cereals reserve.  
The drought has also reduced Tunisian animal fodder and feed grain 
production, creating opportunities for corn, barley and soya meal feed 
Grain Silos/Elevators, Agricultural Equipment, and Livestock 
We believe that there is a sizeable market for agricultural equipment in 
Tunisia.   A GOT decision to privatize grain stockage has created a 
demand for silos.  Privatization of state owned farms and government 
incentives, including the new investment code, is spurring growth in the 
poultry, dairy, and other industries.  There is growing demand for new 
equipment and livestock.   
Trade Barriers 
Tunisia is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and is fully 
committed to a free trading regime.  Government officials have publicly 
and strongly supported WTO.  While maintaining restrictions on a few 
designated strategic areas, the Tunisian government is pursuing its 
program of freeing up imports.  By the first trimester 1995, over 90 
percent could be imported without prior authorization.  This represents 
a substantial increase over 1986 when only 23.6 percent of imports could 
be freely imported.  Tunisia has made substantial progress in 
liberalizing its trade regime.  Future polices and agenda are expected 
to reinforce this trend.  
Tunisia's basic tariff ranges from 10 percent to 43 percent.  In 
addition, several years ago Tunisia imposed a temporary supplemental 
duty on certain imports that compete with locally produced goods.  This 
policy, enacted in 1992, authorized a maximum additional duty of 30 
percent, to be reduced in 10 percent increments over three years.  It 
was originally scheduled to be phased out at the end of 1994, but 
remains in effect.  While the original items selected for the surcharge 
in 1992 have been reduced as scheduled, others have been added each year 
at the 30 percent rate.  The government now reports it does not intend 
to phase out the surcharges until all imports are otherwise free.  At 
this time, approximately 90 percent of imports are free of restrictions.  
Those articles still restricted are either hazardous materials or 
defense or security items. 
There are two agricultural products that face import barriers.  First, 
cotton imported from the United States and certain other non-Arab 
countries is subject to a 17 percent duty.  Cotton from Egypt, Syria and 
other major Arab-world suppliers is duty free.  Second, Tunisia 
prohibits the importation of American meat treated with hormones. 
Customs Valuation 
Imports are subject to a maximum tariff rate of 43 percent.  Certain 
products are also subject to a temporary additional duty that can run as 
high as an additional 30 percent.  Goods are also subject to a customs 
formality fee, currently costing five dinars. Certain imports are also 
liable to a value added tax (VAT) and a consumption tax.  These taxes 
also apply to locally produced items.  VAT rates run from six to 29 
percent.  Consumption tax rates can vary from 10 to as high as 500 
percent and are also payable on similar locally produced items.   
Import Licenses 
Tunisia still has non-tariff barriers such as import licenses on certain 
products, particularly consumer goods that compete against locally 
produced equivalents manufactured by "developing" industries, e.g., 
textiles.  For such products an importer must obtain a license from the 
Ministry of Commerce specifying the product, quantity and amount of 
foreign exchange needed.  Without this license a bank will not authorize 
the foreign currency transaction.  
Export Controls 
Export controls exist on some limited products.  These include items 
concerning security, public order, hygiene, health, morality, protection 
of flora and fauna, and cultural heritage.  Prior authorization is 
required for export of goods in these areas.  Other products not in 
these categories may be subject to technical control to ensure that they 
meet international standards, or the standards of the importing country. 
Import/Export Documentation 
Other than for the previously mentioned restrictions, no specific 
documentation is required.  Importers obtain hard currency for payment 
by presenting a pro forma invoice to their commercial bank. 
Temporary Entry 
Offshore enterprises are allowed temporary entry of goods.  Goods are 
allowed limited duty free entry into Tunisia for transformation and 
reexport.  Factories in this area are considered bonded warehouses and 
have their own assigned customs personnel. 
Labeling, Marking Requirements 
The Consumer Protection Law of 1992 established standard labeling and 
marking requirements.  Goods not specified under existing Tunisian 
regulations must meet international standards. 
Prohibited Imports 
Imports of explosives and security-related equipment are tightly 
controlled.  Imports are only allowed under license. 
Tunisia is moving to embrace ISO 9000 standards.  The National Institute 
for Standardization and Industrial Property (INNORPI) is responsible for 
establishing national standards.  European Union consultants are working 
with INNORPI in a three-year program to fully set up ISO 9000 norms by 
Free Trade Zones 
Tunisia has two free trade zones, one in the north at Bizerte and the 
other in the south at Zarzis.  The land is state owned, but managed by a 
private company.  Companies setting up in the free trade zones are 
exempt from most taxes and customs duties and benefit from special tax 
Membership in Free Trade Arrangements 
Tunisia is a member of the Maghreb Union (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, 
Mauritania, Libya), which allows duty free trade among members.  It also 
has an associate membership with the European Union, allowing 
preferential access for most Tunisia exports, except certain textile and 
agricultural products.  Tunisia initialed a free trade agreement with 
the European Union in April 95.  Following negotiations on various side 
issues, the agreement is expected to enter into force in January 1997 
and phase-in over 12 years.  After a four-year grace period, tariffs 
will gradually be lowered to zero.  Tunisia expects assistance from the 
European Union's Mediterranean Fund for its local industries during the 
transition period. 
Openness to Foreign Investment 
The Tunisian government actively encourages foreign direct investment 
and has an open investment regime; there is no screening of foreign 
investment.  There are some restrictions, however.  For onshore services 
companies, government authorization is required if foreign ownership 
exceeds 50 percent.  Foreign investors are denied national treatment in 
the agriculture sector.  Although land can be gotten on long-term lease, 
foreign ownership of agricultural land is prohibited. 
The privatization program has again picked up.  The government  intends 
to privatize companies operating in competitive sectors.  Among those 
slated for partial or full privatization in 1995/1996 are TunisAir, the 
ferry company CTN, the Coca Cola and beer bottler SBFT, SOSTEM the 
bottled water company, SOTUVER the glass manufacturing company, the 
Hotel Africa, the Hilton Hotel, and various cement companies.  The 
government has stated its willingness to have foreign participation in 
the revamped privatization program. 
There is no discrimination against foreign investors either at the time 
of the initial investment or later.  There are no discriminatory or 
excessively onerous visa, residence, work permit or other requirements 
inhibiting foreign investors.   
Conversion and Transfer Policies 
The Tunisian dinar is now commercially convertible for all bona fide 
trade and investment operations.  The dinar is still subject to a few 
restrictions.  It is illegal to take Tunisian bank notes and coins in or 
out of the country.  Central Bank authorization is still needed for some 
foreign exchange operations, particularly those done by Tunisians.  
There is no limit to the amount of foreign currency that visitors can 
bring into Tunisia and exchange for Tunisian dinars.  The unused balance 
of such foreign currency may be taken out of the country.  Amounts 
exceeding the equivalent of TD 1,000 must be declared at the port of 
Nonresidents are exempt from most exchange regulations.  Foreign 
investors may transfer returns on direct or portfolio investments at any 
time and without prior authorization.  This applies to both principal or 
capital in the form dividends or interest. Under foreign currency 
regulations, nonresident companies are defined as having: 
-  nonresident individuals who own 66 percent of the capital, and; 
-  capital financed through imported foreign currency. 
The dinar is traded on an intra-bank market, established in 1994. 
Trading operates around a "fix" established by the Central Bank.  The 
dollar/dinar value fluctuates on a daily basis, but is roughly 
equivalent to one to one. 
The estimated annual U.S. dollar value of local currency likely to be 
used by the Embassy is estimated at $7 million.  The average exchange 
rate is 1:1.  There is little likelihood of significant devaluation or 
depreciation over the next year. 
Expropriation and Compensation 
The government does expropriate property by eminent domain.  Just 
compensation is offered at the time of expropriation.  There are no 
recent cases of investment expropriation. Nor have there recently been 
any cases of expropriation or nationalization of business property. 
However, there are several pending cases concerning expropriation of 
residential property.  These relate to titles registered to foreigners 
before 1958.   No policy changes are anticipated that would lead to 
unexpected expropriation in the future.  In expropriation by eminent 
domain, there is no discrimination against U.S. and foreign companies or 
Dispute Settlement 
The Tunisian government has a relatively good track record on this 
score.  There have been very few investment disputes in Tunisia and none 
in the past ten years.  No recent investment disputes involve the 
Tunisian government.  There is no pattern of significant investment 
disputes involving U.S. or other foreign investors.  However, contracts 
for investment projects should always contain a clause showing how 
eventual disputes should be handled and the applicable jurisdiction.  As 
mentioned earlier, there are several pending court cases concerning 
expropriation of residential property. 
The Tunisian legal system is based upon the French Napoleonic Code.  
There are effective means for enforcing property and contractual rights.  
The court system is widely regarded as largely independent.  There are 
both written and consistently applied commercial and bankruptcy laws.  
Several U.S. firms have successfully sought patent and trademark 
protection through the Tunisian courts.  
Political Violence 
Tunisia is a stable country.  Over the past few years there have been no 
incidents involving politically motivated damage to economic projects or 
installations.  There are continuing concerns, however, about the 
security situation in neighboring Algeria.  
Protection of Property Rights 
Tunisia is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization, and 
has signed the UNCTAD agreement on the protection of patents and 
trademarks. The agency responsible for patents and trademarks is the 
National Institute for Standardization and Industrial Property 
(INNORPI).  Foreign patents and trademarks should be registered with 
INNORPI.  Tunisia's patent and trademark laws provide excellent 
protection for duly registered owners.   American businesses are 
guaranteed treatment equal to that afforded to Tunisian nationals in the 
area of patents.  Copyright protection is the responsibility of the 
Organisme Tunisienne de Protection des Droits d'Auteur (OTPDA), which 
also represents foreign copyright organizations.  Tunisian copyright law 
has recently been updated to cover modern techniques.  Legislation on 
industrial ownership is undergoing revision and a new law is due in 
Trademark pirating exists on a small scale.  It particularly concerns 
clothing, sunglasses, shoes, cassettes, videos and computer software.     
Royalty payments are approved by relevant government ministries in 
consultation with the Central Bank.  Rates reflect the estimated value 
of the technology involved and the duration of the particular contract.   
Regulatory System 
The Tunisian government has adopted transparent policies and laws to 
foster competition.  Tax, labor, health and safety, and other laws avoid 
distortions or impediments to efficient mobilization and allocation of 
Capital controls are still in place.  Capital investors are not 
currently permitted to directly invest in Tunisia.  However, indirect 
investment is allowed through established mutual funds.  Credit is 
generally allocated on market terms.  Foreign investors can get credit 
on the local market.  There are many financial instruments available in 
Tunisia.  Stocks and bonds are attracting more interest. Several mutual 
funds exist and a merchant bank was just established.  
In the last five years legal, regulatory and accounting systems have 
been brought in line with accepted international practices.  Tunisian 
firms quoted on the stock exchange are required to publish semiannual 
corporate reports audited by a certified public accountant. 
The banking system is considered generally sound.  Some state owned 
banks have weak portfolios, but the government is enforcing strict new 
requirements.  These include legal lending limits and capital 
requirements.  The estimated total assets of the country's five largest 
banks are $9.5 billion. 
There is limited merger and acquisition activity in Tunisia.  Hostile 
takeovers, etc. are uncommon.    
Bilateral Investment Agreements 
A bilateral investment treaty between Tunisia and the United States took 
effect in 1991. 
Investment Insurance Programs      
OPIC is active in Tunisia and provides political risk insurance and 
other services to a variety of U.S. companies.  OPIC promotes private 
U.S. investment in Tunisia and has sponsored several reciprocal 
investment missions. 
Tunisian labor is readily available.  Tunisia has a labor force of 
approximately 2.6 million and a national literacy rate of about 65 
percent, the highest in Africa.  About 90 percent of the work force 
under 35 is literate.  The official unemployment rate is in the region 
of 15 percent, but unofficial estimates are as high as 25 percent in 
some southern and interior regions.  The one national labor union is the 
General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT).  The right to form a union is 
protected by Tunisian law, but not much more than one fifth of the labor 
force is unionized.  Some foreign firms sign agreements with employees 
that prohibit unions. 
Free Trade Zones 
Foreign firms have the same investment incentives as Tunisian ones.  
According to free zone legislation, free zone land is state-owned 
property and cannot be sold.  It is managed by an operating company that 
is responsible for infrastructure, real estate development, and various 
services within the zone.  Companies operating in free zones are exempt 
from taxes and customs duties, except social security taxes for 
employees who opt for the Tunisian social security system.   
Employees with nonresident status benefit from the following advantages: 
-  a flat income tax rate of 20 percent; and 
-  exemption from customs duties and taxes on imports of personal goods, 
including one car per employee. 
With respect to foreign exchange and trade regulation advantages, free 
zone companies may choose between resident and nonresident status 
depending on the foreign contribution to the company's capital. 
Nonresident companies are entitled to the following advantages: 
-  guaranteed transfer of foreign currency capital invested in a free 
zone and the income derived from it; 
-  all payments made within the free zone may be made either in foreign 
currency or in convertible dinars; and 
-  any commercial relationship between companies located in the free 
zone and those located outside Tunisia, and between companies within the 
free zone itself, is not subject to control. 
Capital Outflow 
The dinar is convertible for current account transactions. 
Major Foreign Investors 
Total foreign investment in Tunisia over the period 1980-1993 is 
estimated at $2.85 billion.   In 1994, foreign investment totaled more 
than $250 million.  There are approximately 370 foreign-owned, wholly 
exporting companies now in business.  Foreign investment in 
manufacturing, tourism, services, finance, and agriculture now runs at 
$90 million annually. 
The majority, 78 percent, of foreign investment is in the energy sector.  
European Union countries lead the way, accounting for nearly 66 percent 
of total foreign investment, largely in the petroleum, textile and 
leather industries.  The U.S. share is 17 percent, mostly in oil 
exploration.  The 8 percent share of Tunisia's Arab investment is nearly 
all in tourism and finance.  Tourism investment in 1993 totaled $206 
million.  Of this, 69 percent, or $142 million, was from Arab investors 
and 31 percent, or $64 million, was from Europe. 
French companies currently have 58 joint projects in plastics, 
electricity and mechanics, generating a total investment of 
approximately $150 million. Two major French oil companies, Total and 
ELF, are active in Tunisia.     
Existing Italian investment consists of $60 million in joint ventures, 
including 89 export companies, up from 65 in 1991, and 22 service sector 
companies.  AGIP, the Italian oil company, has a strong presence, too.   
Belgian investment consists of 110 Belgian or Tunisian-Belgian companies 
in Tunisia worth $23 million. 
German investment includes 170 companies, mainly manufacturing textile 
There is no information on Tunisian direct investment abroad.   
The major U.S. companies in Tunisia are Citibank, Marathon, Samedan, and 
RJR Nabisco.  There is no information on size of current investments.  
The Banking System 
The Tunisian banking system is open and relatively modern.  It is 
composed of 12 commercial banks, eight development banks, one savings 
bank, five portfolio management institutions, three leasing companies, 
seven offshore banks, and one merchant bank.  The banks are regulated by 
the Central Bank of Tunisia.  Tunisian banks tend to be very 
conservative in their lending practices.  Most lending is focused on 
larger, established companies. 
Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trade   
Many foreign exchange controls have been lifted.  The Tunisian dinar is 
now convertible for current account transactions and there is free 
repatriation of dividends and capital.  Most transactions occur with 
little problem on a letter of credit basis.   
General Financing Availability 
Financing is generally available.  Tunisian banks are conservative and 
are reluctant to deal with newer firms. 
How to Finance Exports / Methods of Payment 
Tunisian firms generally use letters of credit.  They are prohibited 
from paying cash in advance. 
Types of Available Export Financing and Insurance 
Eximbank is active in Tunisia, with lending focused exclusively on state 
enterprises.  EXIM has been aggressive in matching concessional 
financing.  Companies competing for government tenders are advised to 
work closely with the Embassy and EXIM once evidence of concessional 
financing becomes clear. 
Project Financing Available 
The World Bank (IBRD) and African Development Bank (AFDB) support a 
variety of projects in Tunisia.  IBRD efforts are focused on several 
areas including the environment, solar power, reforestation, dams and 
irrigation, and rural roads.  AFDB assistance includes two major dam 
The European Investment Bank (EIB) is involved in financing a variety of 
major infrastructure projects.  The EIB also finances imports of 
European capital goods. 
List of Banks with Correspondent U.S. Banking Relationships 
Citibank, the only American bank operating in Tunisia, has both onshore 
and offshore branches, with offices in both Sfax and Tunis.  Most 
Tunisian banks maintain a corresponding relationship with one or more 
U.S. bank.   
Business Customs 
Tunisia is an open, western-oriented society that prides itself in being 
a bridge between the European and Arab worlds.  Although the official 
language is Arabic, French is widely spoken and  serves as the common 
business language.  Many Tunisians also speak German, Italian and 
Travel Advisory and Visas 
American business travelers may obtain an airport visa upon arrival.  
Stays longer than four months require a visa extension. Residency and 
work permits are available from the Ministry of Interior and Ministry of 
Labor and Social Affairs, respectively.  Applications for residency 
permits are made through the local police station. 
Major Tunisian secular are as follows: 
Tunisian Independence Day  March 20 
Martyr's Day               April 9 
Labor Day                  May 1 
Republic Day               July 25 
Women's Day                August 13 
November 7 Commemoration   November 7 
The following religious holidays are also observed.  Actual dates are 
based on the lunar calendar and vary from year to year.   
Aid Esseghir (El-Fitr)     
Aid el Kebir (El-Idha)     
Ras el Am El Hijri       
Business Infrastructure 
The Tunisian business infrastructure is excellent.  The main container 
port at Rades/Tunis handles most incoming and outgoing traffic.  Sfax, 
Tunisia's second largest city and a large commercial center, can also 
handle container traffic.  The road network is well developed.  It was 
improved in March 1993 when the final link in the Tunis-Sousse highway 
was opened.  Tunisia is embarking on a major telecommunications upgrade 
that has already brought marked improvements to service and quality.  
Expatriate housing is extremely comfortable and reasonably priced.  
Houses in the Tunis neighborhoods of Mutuelleville, Notre Dame, 
Carthage, Sidi Bou Said, La Soukra, La Marsa, and Gammarth compare 
favorably with many suburban U.S. communities.  
Medical and dental services are good to excellent in the major cities.  
Tunis has several large, well-equipped private clinics.  Except for 
specialized care, most illnesses can be treated locally.  Food standards 
are good and the water in the coastal area is drinkable.  For those who 
wish, bottled water is cheap and easily available.  
  Appendix A -  Country Data 
  Sources - Tunisian Government Economic Budget 1995 
   8th Economic Development Plan 
   Institute National de la Statistique 
Population              8.7 Million (Mid-Year) 
Population Growth Rate  1.8% 
Religion                Moslem (Over 99%) with 
                        Very Small Indigenous Jewish 
Government System       Republic with Democratically 
                        Elected Parliament 
Languages               Arabic, French 
Work Week               Monday-Friday 
             (Private Sector and Banks) 
            (Public Sector) 
  Appendix B - Domestic Economy 
                      (All figures in USD Millions) 
                            1994        1995        1996 
                                       (Est.)       (Est.)   
GDP                      12784.9     13321.8   14214.4 
(Constant Terms 1990)  
GDP % Growth Rate            3.4         4.2       4.5 
GDP per Capita            1463.5      1496.5    1567.9 
Government Spending 
As % of Current GDP         34.2        34.2      34.2 
Inflation                    4.7         5.8       6.0 
                (Four months) 
Foreign Exchange             
Reserves at Year End      1500.0      1300.0    1500.0 
Average Exchange Rate 
$1 =                         1.03        1.0  
Foreign Debt              8675.0      9430.0    8975.0  
Debt Service Ratio          18.5        16.4      15.7 
U.S. Assistance 
-  Economic                 11.8           0      0 
(including housing guarantees) 
-  Military                   .5          .8     .8     
  Appendix C - Trade    
                         1994       1995        1996 
Total Goods Exported      4696.6      5000.0  N/A 
Total Goods Imported      6647.3      7500.0  N/A 
Exports to U.S.             49.2       N/A    N/A 
Imports from U.S.          437.7       N/A    N/A 
U.S. % Share of  
 Tunisian Imports            6.6       N/A    N/A 
Imports of Manufactured     
  Goods                    4889.3      N/A    N/A 
Imports of Manufactured 
  Goods from U.S.             N/A      N/A    N/A 
U.S. Share of Manufactured 
  Goods Imports               N/A      N/A    N/A 
Manufactured Goods Trade 
  Balance with U.S.           N/A      N/A    N/A 
Projected Average Annual 
  Growth Rate from World      N/A      N/A    N/A 
Projected Average Annual 
  Growth Rate from U.S.       N/A      N/A    N/A 
  Major Trading Partners (1994) 
                     Imports  Exports 
France                                1824.4   1262.4 
Italy                                 1025.0    907.6 
Germany                                812.0    730.1 
U.S.A.                                 437.7      49.2 
  Appendix D - Investment Statistics 
                         1994        1995        1996 
Including Gas Pipeline 
   And Miskar           4657.6      4798.6    N/A 
Excluding Gas Pipeline 
  And Miskar            4237.0      4715.0      N/A 
     Agricultural Goods Traded 
  Imports of Agricultural Goods (Millions of U.S. $) 
                       1993    1994    1995 
Total (World)          846     1300*  1200* 
From United States     141      260*    240* 
U.S. Share (%)          17       20*     20* 
Agricultural Trade Balance 
(in U.S. $)           135       285*    210* 
                  * Projected 
  U.S. Exports to Tunisia in 1994 
  millions of US$ 
Cereals                         80.0 
(Wheat, Corn) 
Iron and Steel Articles         31.0 
(Pipes and Tubing) 
Drilling platforms              42.0 
Prefabricated buildings         42.0 
Vegetable Oils                  35.0 
(Soya Bean Oil) 
Cotton              10.0 
Mechanical Equipment           48.0 
(Turboreactors, Pumps, 
Filtering Equipment,  
Earthmoving Equipment, 
Data Processing) 
Electrical Equipment           25.0  
(Transmission Equipment) 
Aircraft                       35.0 
  Appendix E - U.S. and Country Contacts 
American Chamber of Commerce 
Tunisian-American Chamber of Commerce (TACC) 
15 Rue Aziza Othmana 
Tel: 216-1-288.316 
Fax: 216-1-799.851 
Government Contacts 
Ministry of International Cooperation  
and Foreign Investment 
149, Avenue de la Liberte 
Tel: 216-1-798.522 
Fax: 216-1-799.069 
Ministry of Industry 
37, Avenue Kheireddine Pacha 
Tel: 216-1-781.919 
Fax: 216-1-782.742 
Ministry of Commerce 
37, Avenue Kheireddine Pacha 
Tel: 216-1-289.801 
Fax: 216-1-792.420 
Ministry of Economic Development 
Place Ali Zouaoui 
Tel: 216-1-334.022  
Fax: 216-1-351.666 
Ministry of Finance 
Place du Gouvernement 
La Kasbah 
Tel: 216-1-566.210  
Fax: 216-1-563.959 
Ministry of Environment  
Centre Urbain Nord 
Tel: 216-1-704.000 
Fax: 216-1-702.431 
Ministry of Agriculture 
30 Rue Alain Savary 
Tel: 216-1-681.654  
Fax: 216-1-890.391 
Ministry of Tourism and Handicrafts 
Avenue Mohamed V 
Tel: 216-1-341.077 
Fax: 216-1-350.997 
Ministry of Transport  
Zone Montplaisir 
Avenue Mohamed V 
Tel: 216-1-781.824 
Fax: 216-1-790.149 
Entreprise Tunisienne Des Activities Petrolieres (ETAP) 
27 Bis Avenue Kheireddine Pacha 
Tel: 216-1-782.288 
Fax: 216-1-784.092 
(State Petroleum Company) 
Agence de Promotion de l'Industrie (API) 
Rue de Syrie 
Tel: 216-1-792.144 
Fax: 216-1-782.482 
Institut National de la Normalisation et de la 
Propriete Industrielle (INNORPI) 
Cite El Khadra 
Tel: 216-1-785.922  
Fax: 216-1-781.563 
(Industrial Standards and Copyright Authority) 
Tunisian Gas and Electricity Company (STEG) 
38, Rue Kamel Ataturk 
Tel: 216-1-341.311 
Fax: 216-1-341.401 
Office National D'Assainissment 
32 Rue Hedi Nouira 
Tel: 216-1-343.200 
Fax: 216-1-350.411 
(State Sanitation Agency) 
Direction General des Telecommunications 
Boulevard du 9 Avril 
Tel: 216-1-561.933 
Fax: 216-1-564.357 
(Telecommuncations Department of the  
Ministry of Communications) 
Boulevard du 7 Novembre 
Tel: 216-1-700.100 
Fax: 216-1-700.008 
(State Airline) 
Central Bank of Tunisia 
Rue Hedi Nouira 
Tel: 216-1-340.588 
Fax: 216-1-340.615 
Bureau of Customs 
Rue Ich-Bilia 
Tel: 216-1-333.600 
Fax: 216-1-353.255 
Tunisian Embassy   
1515 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. 
Washington D.C. 20005 
Tel: (202) 862-1850 
Fax: (202) 862-1858 
Market Research 
Kaena Inc. 
8 Ave des Etats-Unis 
1002 Tunis-Belvedere 
Tel: 216-1-792-885 / 799-297 
Fax: 216-1-792-885 
International Executive Service Corps (IESC) 
15, Rue Aziza Othmana 
Tel: 216-1-795.733 
Fax: 216-1-792.726 
Commercial Banks 
Banque Franco Tunisienne 
13, Rue d'Alger 
Tel: 216-1-342.100 
Fax: 216-1-352.055 
Banque International Arabe De Tunisie (BIAT) 
70-72, Avenue Habib Bourguiba 
Tel: 216-1-340.722 
Fax: 216-1-340.680 
Banque Nationale Agricole (BNA) 
Rue Hedi Nouira 
Tel: 216-1-791.200 
Fax: 216-1-793.031 
Banque du Sud 
111, Avenue de la Liberte 
Tel: 216-1-289.400 
Fax: 216-1-780.686 
Banque de Tunisie 
3, Avenue De France 
Tel: 216-1-340.544  
Fax: 216-1-352.321 
Amen Bank 
13 Avenue De France 
Tel: 216-1-340.511 
Fax: 216-1-349.909 
Societe Tunisienne De Banque (STB) 
Rue Hedi Nouira 
Tel: 216-1-340.377 
Fax: 216-1-340.009 
Union Bancaire Pour Le Commerce et L'industrie (UBCI) 
79, Rue Jamel Abdenasser 
Tel: 216-1-340.644 
Fax: 216-1-340.644 
Union International De Banques (UIB) 
65, Avenue Habib Bourguiba 
Tel: 216-1-347.000 
Fax: 216-1-353.090 
Arab Tunisian Bank (ATB) 
9, Rue Hedi Nouira 
Tel: 216-1-351.155 
Fax: 216-1-342.852 
International Maghreb Merchant Bank 
Immeuble Maghrebia Tour A 
Z.I. Charguia 2035 
Tel: 216-1-708-220 
Fax: 216-1-708-020 
3, Avenue Jugurtha 
Tel: 216-1-790.066 
Fax: 216-1-785.556 
(Only U.S. Bank in Tunisia with 
onshore and offshore Services)  
U.S. Embassy Trade Contacts 
American Embassy Tunis 
144, Avenue de la Liberte 
1002 Tunis-Belvedere 
Tel: 216-1-782-566 
Fax: 216-1-789-719 
David Peashock, Economic/Commercial Counselor 
David Fetter, Commercial Attache 
Bechir Ouederni, Commercial Specialist 
Charlotte Joulak, Economic Specialist 
Nelly Ali, Translator/Commercial Specialist 
Evans Browne, Agricultural Counselor 
 Office of Agricultural Affairs 
Washington-Based U.S.Government Country Contacts 
U.S. Department of Commerce 
Tunisia Desk Officer 
Office of the Near East 
Herbert Hoover Building Room 2039 
Washington D.C. 20230 
Tel: (202) 377-2515 
Fax: (202) 377-5737 
U.S. Department of State  
Tunisia Desk Officer 
Room 5250 
Washington D.C. 20520 
Tel: (202) 647-3614 
  Appendix F - Market Research 
The Embassy does not have the resources for in-depth market analysis, 
but has produced a comprehensive guide entitled  "Doing Business in 
  Appendix G -Trade Event Schedule 
The Agricultural Festival, October 11-15, 1995.   
Himyea Environmental Fair, November 29 - December 2, 1995 
Tunis International Fair, October 18-27, 1996.  Major U.S. participation 
with national pavilion. 
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