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U.S. Department of State
Sweden Country Commercial Guide
Office of the Coordinator for Business Affairs

                         COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE 
                                  FY 1996

                             AMERICAN EMBASSY

                   Fiscal Year 1996 Country Commercial Guide

Table of Contents
I.     Executive Summary
II.    Economic Trends and Outlook
    - Major Trends and Outlook
    - Principal Growth Sectors
    - Government Role in the Economy
    - Balance of Payments Situation
III.   Political Environment
    - Nature of Political Relationship  with the United States
    - Major Political Issues Affecting Business Climate
    - Political System, Schedule for Elections
    - Major Political Parties
IV     Marketing U.S. Products and Services
    - Distribution and Sales Channels
    - Use of Agents and Distributors; Finding a Partner
    - Franchising
    - Direct Marketing
    - Joint Ventures/Licensing
    - Steps to Establishing an Office
    - Selling Factors/Techniques
    - Advertising and Trade Promotion
    - Pricing Product
    - Sales Service/Customer Support
    - Selling to the Government
    - Protecting Your Product from IPR Infringement
    - Need for a Local Attorney
V.     Leading Sectors for U.S. Exports and Investments
    - Best Prospects for Non-Agricultural Goods and Services
    - Best Prospects for Agricultural Products
VI.    Trade Regulations and Standards
    - Trade Barriers, including Tariffs, Non-Tariff Barriers and Import 
    - Customs Valuation
    - Import Licenses
    - Export Controls
    - Import/Export Documentation
    - Temporary Entry
    - Labeling, Marking Requirements
    - Prohibited Imports
    - Standards
    - Free Trade Zones/Warehouses
    - Special Import Provisions
    - Membership in Free Trade Arrangements
VII.   Investment Climate
    - Openness to Foreign Investment
    - Conversion and Transfer Policies
    - Expropriation and Compensation
    - Dispute Settlement
    - Political Violence
    - Performance Requirements/Incentives
    - Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
    - Protection of Property Rights
    - Regulatory System: Laws and Procedures
    - Bilateral Investment Agreements
    - OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs
    - Labor
    - Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports
    - Capital Outflow Policy
    - Major Foreign Investors
VIII.  Trade and Project Financing
    - Banking System
    - Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trading
    - General Financing Availability
    - How to Finance Exports/Method of Payment
    - Types of Available Export Financing and Insurance
    - Project Financing Available
    - List of Banks with Correspondent U.S. Banking Arrangement
IX.    Business Travel
        - Business Customs
    - Travel Advisory and Visas
    - Holidays
    - Business Infrastructure
X.     Appendices
A.  Country Data
    - Population
    - Population Growth Rate
    - Religion(s)
    - Government System
    - Languages
    - Work Week
B. Domestic Economy
       - GDP
       - GDP Growth Rate 1996
       - GDP Per Capita
       - Government Spending as Percent of GDP
       - Inflation
       - Unemployment
       - Foreign Exchange Reserves
       - Average Exchange Rate for USD 1.00
       - Debt Service Ratio
C. Trade 
    - Total Country Exports
    - Total Country Imports
    - U.S. Exports
    - U.S. Imports
D. Investment Statistics
E. U.S. and Country Contacts
    - Government Agencies
    - Trade Associations/Chambers of Commerce
    - Market Research Firms
    - Commercial Banks
    - U.S. Embassy Trade Personnel
    - Washington-based U.S.Government Country Contact
    - U.S.-based Multipliers
F. Market Research
G.Trade Event Schedule


This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at 
Sweden's commercial environment through economic, political and market 
The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion 
Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate 
various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community. 
Country Commercial Guides are prepared annually at U.S. Embassies 
through the combined efforts of several U.S. government agencies.

Sweden is an advanced, industrialized country with a high standard of 
living and an extensive social services system. Situated in northwestern 
Europe with a climate like that of Minnesota, this constitutional 
monarchy is slightly larger in area than California but with a 
population of only some 8.8 million inhabitants. Sweden is an excellent 
market for U.S. products and services.  U.S. merchandise exports to 
Sweden (according to USDOC statistics) in 1994 totalled $2.5 billion 
c.v., an increase of 7 percent above 1993.  U.S. exports to Sweden will 
continue to grow as Sweden's economy and foreign trade expands.  While 
Sweden imports a wide range of manufactured and agricultural products 
from the United States, high technology products are experiencing the 
fastest growth.  During the last few years trade in services has been 
growing rapidly, and will continue to do so.
U.S. products are highly regarded in the Swedish market.  The United 
States is Sweden's third largest foreign supplier after Germany and the 
U.K.  The United States has a 9.1 percent share of the Swedish import 
Sweden maintains a friendly business attitude toward the United States.  
Currently there are some 370 U.S. companies and subsidaries with 
operations in Sweden. U.S. investment in Sweden at yearend 1994 was 
valued at $2.7 billion.   
Sweden's economy is experiencing an export led recovery.  GDP increased 
2.2 percent in 1994, and is projected to grow 2.5 percent in 1995.  
Unemployment and the fiscal situation, however, remain serious concerns.
Foreign trade is vital to Sweden's economy.  About 35 percent of 
Sweden's manufactured goods are exported.  Swedish industry relies 
heavily on imports of industrial goods, parts and components which it 
uses in the manufacture of Swedish products.  Because trade is so 
important to the economy, Sweden has traditionally maintained a policy 
favoring trade liberalization.  It takes an active part in international 
organizations which promote freer trade.
The Swedish legal system provides adequate protection to all property 
rights, including intellectual property.  Foreign owned companies enjoy 
the same access as Swedish ones to the credit market and any Government 
sponsored business programs.  Commercial transactions are in general not 
subject to any restrictions.
With stable political conditions, a skilled workforce, educated 
population, well developed infrastructure, and relatively low corporate 
tax rates, Sweden is an attractive location for foreign investment.  Its 
attractiveness was enhanced when Sweden entered the European Union in 
January 1995.  During the past several years Sweden liberalized its 
investment climate.  It now conforms to all European Union regulation 
and standards. Within the EU, Sweden is expected to be a leading force 
for further trade liberalization steps, including the EU's Common 
Agricultural Policy (CAP).

Country commercial guides are available on the National Trade Data Bank 
on CD-ROM or through the Internet. Please contact STAT-USA at 1-800-
STAT-USA for more information. To locate Country Commercial Guides via 
the Internet, please use the following worldwide web address: WWW.STAT-
USA.GOV. CCGs can also be ordered in hard copy or on diskette from the 
National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at 1-800-553-NTIS.

- Major Trends and Outlook
Sweden has recently pulled out of the deepest and most protracted 
recessionary period experienced since the depression years of the early 
1930s.  The visible cost to the country of this recession is 
unemployment at an unprecedentedly high level, whose costs, together 
with the cost of shoring up the banking system, have swelled public 
sector borrowing to alarming levels.  The reduction of government 
deficits and servicing of still-growing debts are necessitating a very 
tight hold on the nation's purse-strings and will continue to do so in 
the foreseeable future.
The more than 20-percent trade-weighted depreciation of the krona 
against other currencies after the enforced "float" of November 1992 has 
brought a strong export-led recovery in the economy, but the domestic 
market is lagging behind and there has been little overall effect on 
unemployment.  In the September 1994 general elections, Swedes ousted 
the center-right coalition -- with its focus on austerity and 
controlling inflation -- and returned the Social Democrats to power in a 
minority government. In the November 1994 referendum, Swedes elected to 
join the European Union; Sweden became a full EU member as of January 1, 
- Principal Growth Sectors
The fall of the Swedish krona by 20-25 percent since the November 1992 
float has pushed up the price of imports and could reduce demand for 
price-sensitive products. However, demand for the high-tech products 
that Sweden has traditionally been buying from the United States should 
remain buoyant in spite of the devaluation and thus Sweden will continue 
to be an attractive market for many U.S. exporters. The following 
sectors offer excellent export opportunities:
Computers, Peripherals, and Software: The Swedish market for computers, 
peripherals and software is estimated to be worth around $4.5 billion, 
although overall demand in this sector is expected to increase less than 
it had in previous years. The following markets will show the largest 
growth: customer support and computer software. 
Telecommunications Services: The Swedish telecommunications services 
market is estimated to be worth around $5.5 billion. It is expected that 
the marekt will increase by 10 percent during the next few years as a 
result of deregulation in the Swedish telecommunications industry. 
Sweden, despite its small size, has a large number of multinational 
companies that will be looking for alternate telecommunications service 
sources -- business partners who offer global services.
Aircraft and Parts: Sweden produces both military aircraft and commuter 
planes but the single biggest aerospace project remains the JAS 39 
Gripen.  Saab Aircraft is the industry's dominant company to which the 
United States is an important supplier. 
Defense Industry Equipment: Annual purchases of defense-related material 
and services in Sweden have a value of close to $1.8 billion. Although 
the majority of the orders are placed within Sweden, there are still 
sizable contracts for foreign suppliers. The  Swedish defense forces buy 
large quantities of communications equipment, vehicles, batteries, field 
equipment, protective clothing, and the like.
Medical Equipment and Supplies: Health care will continue to be oriented 
away from hospitals and toward local health care centers. Thus demand 
will remain stable for screening equipment, as well as analytical 
laboratory equipment. Interest remains strong for new techniques such as 
non-invasive biophysical measurement, and less harmful means of 
obtaining anatomical images.
Tourism: Sweden offers good opportunities for U.S. travel and tourism-
related businesses as the United States is the most preferred long-haul 
destination for Swedes. The general trend for travel to the United 
States from Sweden is favorable, and should remain so despite recent 
exchange-rate developments.
Agricultural Products: Sweden offers a good market for U.S. agricultural 
products, particularly apples, pears, cotton, tobacco, wine, and 
processed food/snack products. There are some opportunities for U.S. 
exports of certain types of hardwoods and plywoods and perhaps some 
market opportunities for winter vegetables and citrus fruits.

- Government Role in the Economy
Government activity is designed to assist the maintenance of full 
employment, particularly in such areas as northern Sweden where 
persistent high unemployment exists; to influence restructuring and 
modernization of Swedish industry; and to provide resources for projects 
that are unattractive to private industry because of risks involved.
Sweden combines a free enterprise economy with extensive government 
social welfare activities.  The state, in cooperation with local 
authorities, plays a vital role in providing medical, family, old age, 
disability, unemployment, and other social 

- Balance of Payments Situation
Sweden's current account improved from a deficit equivalent to 2.2 
percent of GDP in 1993 to a slight surplus of 0.4 percent of GDP in 1994 
and is predicted to show a surplus equivalent to 2.6 percent of GDP in 
1995 and 4.0 percent of GDP in 1996. The chief cause of this turnaround 
is the  burgeoning trade balance resulting from the strong ongoing 
export-led upswing. Among the component of the current account balance, 
the services balance showed a marked improvement from 1992 to 1993, 
thanks to a sharp drop in net expenditures on tourism. This was the 
result of the combined effects not only of the depreciation of the krona 
but also of lowered disposable income, which reduced travel from Sweden 
and increased tourism in Sweden. 


- Nature of Bilateral Relationship with the United States
The political bilateral relationship between Sweden and the United 
States is excellent. There is an ongoing dialogue on political issues. 
There have been top level visits by both sides regardless of which 
political party has been in office on either side. There are also 
contacts on all levels of the Swedish political sector, including youth 

- Major Political Issues Affecting Business Climate
Parliamentary elections were held in September, 1994, and the Social 
Democrats now form the ruling party of the parliament under the 
leadership of Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson. The referendum on European 
Union Membership was voted yes on November 13, 1994 and Sweden became a 
member of the EU on January 1, 1995.

- Brief Synopsis of Political System
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and a multiparty, parliamentary 
democracy. The King is the Head of State. All executive authority is 
vested in the Cabinet, which is formed through direct parliamentary 
elections every 4 years (until the 1994 elections this was only 3 years) 
and consists of the Prime Minister (Head of Government) and some 20 
Ministers. The present government is a Social Democratic government, 
with strong influence from the Left party and the Environment party, the 
Greens. The present PM is a Social Democrat.
- Schedule for Elections
The next election is scheduled for the third Sunday of September 1998.

- Orientation of Major Political Parties

The Social Democratic Party - regained power after the 1994 elections. 
The party has strong ties to the trade union movement and has made 
combatting unemployment its top priority. It has its strongest support 
among blue-collar workers and public-sector employees. The party has 
abolished many of its former socialist ideas but resists all attempts to 
concentrate power in the hands of the few.
The Moderate Party (conservative) stands for individual freedom with a 
minimum of involvement by the Government, low taxes, and stimulation of 
private industry and business and a strong defense.
The Center Party  has support from agrarian groups but also from a 
significant environmental faction. The party wants an economy based on 
free enterprise, competition and wide-spread ownership.
The Liberal Party,  liberalism's economic system is a socially oriented 
market economy. The party wants an economy that does not lead to 
concentration of power, economic gulfs and over-exploitation of the 
environment. It favors unrestricted immigration and generous aid to 
developing countries.
Left Party,  the party seeks to organize socialists, communists and 
others prepared to support its policies. Traditionally, it always 
supports a Social Democratic government. The party is strongly against 
EU membership; it is also the most populist party in the political 
The Environment Party, The Greens, the party's basic vision is of a 
society in ecological balance with nature. The economy must be 
subordinated to the ecological system. The party has a strong anti-EU 
stance and backs the political left.
The Christian Democratic Party, stands for a Christian philosophy and 
wants greater support for homes and families in order to reduce youth 
problems, alcoholism, criminality and other social problems. Society 
should work actively to prevent abortions. Like the Liberals, the party 
works for more aid to developing countries and for unrestricted 

- Distribution and Sales Channels
Sweden offers American exporters a wide range of methods for the 
distribution and sale of products.  The distribution structure has 
undergone substantial changes and is today characterized by a very high 
level of efficiency.  The Federation of Swedish Commerce and Trade 
(Grossistforbundet Svensk Handel) is the principal organization for the 
private wholesale and import trade in Sweden.  Its membership includes 
more than 50 trade associations, whose 1,200 member firms are importers, 
wholesalers, distributors, agents, and general agents of all types of 
goods.  Approximately two-thirds of all Swedish imports are purchased 
through wholesalers/importers.  Consumer goods and industrial raw 
materials are very often imported through these channels.
The major distribution centers are Stockholm, Goteborg and Malmo.
Stockholm is the capital and business center of Sweden with a 
metropolitan area population of more than 1.5 million.  Most head 
offices of Swedish industrial, commercial associations and large 
corporations are located in Stockholm.  Many multinationals also use 
Stockholm as their headquarters for Nordic and Baltic operations.
Goteborg, Sweden's second largest city with a population of 740,000, 
serves as the nation's foremost port for international shipping.  
Located on the Southwestern coast, Goteborg also serves as the center of 
a fast growing industrial complex with a wide spectrum of manufactured 
products ranging from motor vehicles to petrochemicals.
The third largest city and distribution center, Malmo, is located at the 
southern tip of Sweden, only a short distance from neighboring Denmark.  
It is an important center for Swedish shipping to continental Europe.  A 
bridge is to be built to connect Malmo and the Danish capital Copenhagen 
and thus Northern Europe with the Continent.  Helsingborg is also 
considered an active port in the southwest quadrant of Sweden.  
The northern two-thirds of Sweden are sparsely populated, but have many 
large industrial plants for forest products, mining, and hydroelectric 
power.  Major population centers are Sundsvall, Skelleftea, Lulea and 

-  Use of Agents/Distributors; Finding a Partner
Swedish commercial agents are organized under the Federation of 
Commercial Agents of Sweden (Svenska Handelsagenters Forbund).  In 
collaboration with organizations in the other Nordic countries, it has 
developed a new contract form for agency agreements.  The contract was 
developed in accordance with the EU's "Directive on the Coordination of 
the Laws of the Member States Relating to Self Employed Commercial 
Agents," dated December 1986.  Specific Swedish legislation sets out the 
rights and obligations of each party to an agency/principal contract or 
arrangement.  The basic law covering such agreements is found in the 
Swedish Code (SFS) 1914:45 as amended.  
Normally, an exclusive agent or distributor is appointed to cover the 
Swedish market.  Swedish agents/distributors often represent several 
foreign firms.  A visit to the market is the best way of making a first-
hand appraisal of the relative merits of prospective 
agents/distributors.  Close contact between the 
American principal and the Swedish agent/distributor is very important 
and should be developed early.  
- Franchising
Franchising is one of the fastest growing methods of doing business in 
Sweden.  It has taken off in Sweden only in the last decade, but growth 
has been rapid. 
It is strongly recommended that any U.S. companies considering 
franchising in Sweden conduct a qualified legal study to ensure full 
validity and enforcement of its franchising agreements.  To use an 
American form of franchising agreement without adjustments to Swedish 
laws and practices could be detrimental to the franchisor's business.  
There are several franchising consultants available in Sweden to help 
companies get started. Franchise networks, that have been successful in 
the United States would not automatically succeed in Sweden, but a name 
that is well-known in the U.S. market would have a great advantage.  
However, to meet the needs of the Swedish market, U.S. franchisors 
should be prepared to modify their product mix or implement other 
changes in their marketing policy in order to boost competitiveness.  
Franchising is popular in the fast food and auto related services.  
Other possibilities include the home improvement sector, apparel 
retailing, and business services. For detailed information on 
franchising contact should be made with the Swedish Franchise 
- Direct Marketing
American exporters of consumer goods may find it advantageous to sell 
directly to department stores, consumer cooperatives, chains, and other 
retail outlets.  Some of the larger Swedish retailers have purchasing 
agents in the United States.
Telephone marketing is still relatively rare, but mail-order sales and 
TV-shop sales are growing. Direct marketing is also used in the 
retailing of books and magazines.

- Joint Ventures/Licensing
In  Sweden a joint venture is an agreement between two or more parties 
to carry out a project together. It is not a legal entity, but only a 
contract or agreement, and a legal vehicle must be formed to pursue the 
project. This legal vehicle may be either a limited liability company 
(AB), with the joint-venture participants as shareholders, or a 
partnership (HB), with the joint-venture participants as partners. 
Agreements for production in Sweden of U.S.-originated goods are common.  
Royalty and license fee payments may be freely transferred out of 
- Steps to Establishing an Office
The following legally recognized forms of business enterprise exist in 
- Limited liability company (aktiebolag, abbreviated AB)
- Branch of a foreign company (filial)
- General or limited partnership (handelsbolag, enkelt bolag)
- Sole proprietorship (enskild firma)
- Economic association (ekonomisk forening)
Foreign investors in Sweden historically have favored the limited 
liability corporate form. A subsidiary of a foreign company established 
in Sweden in accordance with Swedish law is considered a Swedish company 
in all respects, and generally no legislative distinction is made 
between companies whose shares are wholly or mainly owned by foreigners 
and those owned by Swedes.
It may sometimes be advantageous to initially conduct business through a 
branch office of the parent organization.
Partnership or sole proprietorships are seldom used by foreign 
The founding of a company is governed by the Swedish Companies Act. Most 
often, however, an investor need not bother with these proceedings as it 
is much easier to acquire a ready registered shelf-company and adapt its 
articles of association to the needs and intents of the investor.

-  Selling Factors/Techniques
Selling techniques are comparable to the practices in the U.S. General 
competitive factors such as price, quality, promptness of delivery and 
availability of service are those which determine the success of a 
supplier. Swedish firms do not change suppliers easily and many 
commercial relationships have been built up and maintained over decades. 
- Advertising and Trade Promotion
All types of media are available in Sweden. Advertising plays a major 
role in Sweden's commercial life. Daily newspapers and other 
publications are by far the most important media for advertising in 
Sweden - over half of all expenditures. Direct mail is the second most 
important advertising medium, followed by radio and television 
commercials. Other forms, useful for certain types of products, are 
point-of-sale advertising, motion picture advertising, outdoor posters 
and billboard. Radio and television in Sweden until recently were 
government-run, but now commercial broadcasting exists and is growing in 
In order to place advertisements in newspapers, magazines, and trade 
journals, an agency must be authorized to do so by the Swedish 
Publishers Association (Svenska Tidningsutgivareforeningen) Box 22500, 
104 22 Stockholm. Tel: 46-8-13 25 20. Fax: 46-8-652 2855. Acceptance 
requires that the agency have experience in advertising and that its 
books be open for audit by the association.
The major metropolitan papers in Stockholm, Goteborg and Malmo have wide 
geographical circulation. The three large Stockholm dailies - Dagens 
Nyheter, Svenska Dagbladet, and Dagens Industry - enjoy nationwide 
circulation. The large dailies in Goteborg and Malmo (Goteborgs Posten, 
Sydsvenskan) are important media for advertising exposure in western and 
southern Sweden.
List of media advertising brokers, newspapers and trade journals is 
found below:
Advertising brokers
Carat Inter-Media AB
P.O. Box 125, S-101 22 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-10 05 75 
D`Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles AB
S-116 82 Stockholm
Media Broker AB
P.O. Box 70448, S-107 25 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-13 09 50
Media MarketingGruppen/MML HB
P.O. Box 3183, S-400 10 Goteborg
Tel:46-31-17 65 80
Annons-Krantz AB
Box 14208
104 40  Stockholm
Tel: 46-8-663 85 10; Fax: 46-8-661 14 25

TV-commercials are handled by:
Airtime AB
P.O. Box 2008, S-103 11 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-10 34 34; Fax:46-8-21 65 64

Major newspapers:
Svenska Dagbladet
S-105 17 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-13 50 00; Fax:46-8-13 58 20
Dagens Nyheter
S-105 15 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-738-1000; Fax:46-8-619-0811
Krusegatan 19, 205 05  Malmo
Tel: 46-40-28 12 00, Fax: 46-40-93 54 75
405 02  Goteborg
Tel: 46-31-62 40 00

Business magazines/journals
Affarsvarlden (Business weekly)
S-106 12 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-796 65 00; Fax:46-8-20 21 57
Manadens Affarer (Business monthly)
P.O. Box 3188, S-103 63 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-736 56 00; Fax:46-8-789 88 42
Dagens Industri (Business daily)
P.O. Box 3177, S-103 63 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-736 56 00; Fax:46-8-619 24 66
Aktuell Sakerhet (Safety & Security)
Kaknas, S-115 27 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-663 25 63; Fax:46-8-660 01 40
Computer Sweden (Computer industry)
Sturegatan 11, S-106 78 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-453 60 00; Fax:46-8-453 60 05
Data Teknik (Computer technics)
S-106 12 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-796 66 80; Fax:46-8-613 30 27
Datavarlden (Computers)
P.O. Box 3188, S-103 53 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-736 56 00; Fax:46-8-14 12 43
Elektroniktidningen (Electronics)
S-106 12 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-796 66 70; Fax: 46-8-613 30 34
ForsakringsVarlden (Insurance)
P.O. Box 45166, S-104 30 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-791 17 00; Fax:46-8-20 87 95
Kemisk Tidskrift (Chemistry)
Midskogsgrand 5, S-115 43 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-664 34 00; Fax: 46-8-664 21 24
Medicinsk Ekonomi & Teknik (Medical)
Jovisgatan 4, S-151 72 Sodertalje
Tel:46-8-550 605 54; Fax:46-8-550 606 64
Miljo i Sverige (Environment)
P.O. Box 11, S-221 05 Lund
Tel:46-46-14 11 02; Fax:46-46-13 49 32
Skydd & Sakerhet (Safety & Security)
S-115 87 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-783 74 25; Fax:46-8-661 22 84
Teknikens Varld (Automobiles)
P.O. Box 70452, S-107 26 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-736 37 00; Fax: 46-8-652 73 90
Bon Appétit (Food)
Odeng 15
114 24 Stockholm
Tel:46-8-20 23 52; Fax: 46-8-20 72 18

There are three major trade fair venues in Sweden.  Together they have 
approximately two million visitors each year.  The largest is Stockholm 
International Fairs with one million visitors, followed by the Swedish 
Exhibition and Congress Center and the Sollentuna Fairs.  For further 
information, please contact the addresses below.
Stockholm International Fairs
125 80 Stockholm
Tel: 46-8-749 41 00; Fax: 46-8-99 20 44
The Swedish Exhibition and Congress Center
Box 5222
402 24 Gothenburg
Tel: 46-31-10 91 00; Fax: 46-31-16 03 30   
Sollentuna Fairs
Box 174
191 23 Sollentuna
Tel: 46-8-92 59 00; Fax: 46-8-92 97 74

- Pricing  Product
Prices are set individually by companies.  According to the new Swedish 
Competition Act (which is in line with EU rules), companies are not 
allowed to practice price fixing.  All goods and services are subject to 
VAT, which ranges from 12% to 25%.     
Products in Sweden are priced using the following method:
CIF price + import duty + excise tax + profit + VAT

- Sales Service/Customer Support
Comparable to the practices in the United States.

- Selling to the Government
The procedures for procurement of goods, services, and construction at 
the national level is established by legislative enactment.  Government-
owned companies are not subject to the government purchasing 
proclamation but are completely free to establish their own procurement 
and purchasing policies, which are generally based on purely commercial 
The procuring entity is free to choose the tender procedure considered 
most economically advantageous to the entity. Suppliers may be invited 
through public announcement or letters of invitiation. When public 
announcement is not used, a sufficient number of suppliers are invited 
to bid so as to ensure effective competition.  Procuring entities are 
required to give bidders sufficient time to prepare and submit bids; the 
time depends on the circumstances in each case.
The Board for Public Procurement is responsible for assuring that 
government entities adhere to the Royal Purchasing Proclamation, and 
that government procurement procedures are coordinated.  
Under the GATT "Agreement on Government Procurement," signatories to the 
agreement, including Sweden, will not discriminate against or among the 
products of other signatories in purchases covered by the agreement.  
The agreement's coverage extends to purchases of goods by specified 
government entities (e.g ministries and departments) listed in the 
agreement on contracts valued at 130,000 Special Drawing Rights (as of 
January 1, 1988 about $150,000 or more).  The list includes all the 
central government entities of the major developed countries.  The 
agreement does not apply to such things as purchases of national 
security items, purchases by local governments, or purchases by any 
entity that has not been specified as being covered.  To eliminate 
discrimination against foreign products at all stages of the procurement 
process, the agreement includes detailed requirements as to how 
government procurement is to be conducted.  Many Swedish government 
procurement announcements, covered by the code are published in the U.S. 
Department of Commerce's publication, Commerce Business Daily.  Code-
covered tenders are also published in the Journal of Commerce, a private 
sector newspaper.

- Local Government Procurement
Local government procurement has become increasingly significant and in 
some cases offers American companies excellent trading opportunities.  
Local governments are not subject to the national procurement procedures 
but are free to adopt their own procurement rules.  The Swedish 
Association of Local Authorities and the Federation of Swedish County 
Councils have, however, adopted a recommendation aiming at rules for 
local government procurement which follow closely the rules of the 
national procurement regulations.
As is also the case with procurement on the national government level, 
purely business considerations determine the methods and sources of 
procurement by local governments and similar bodies, and no distinction 
is made between domestic and foreign suppliers or contractors.  The 
normal procedures in inviting bids is through circular letters addressed 
to firms known to be reputable and reliable.  Such firms could be 
Swedish or foreign, the latter often being the local subsidiary or sales 
representative of a foreign company.  Local governments and their 
procurement procedures and practices are reputed to be liberal and 
completely nondiscriminatory in character.

- Health Care Equipment Procurement
The county  councils arrange centralized equipment procurement for the 
medical care sector.  The 24 councils are autonomous units, and the 
degree of centralization varies.
The normal procurement procedure is for the county medical care 
authority, together with end-users of the equipment, to survey the 
equipment needs for hospitals and forward them to the purchasing 
departments.  In the case of replacements, the procurement request 
originates in the hospital department involved, with the decision to 
purchase made by the county authority.  There is a high degree of 
uniformity in the Swedish hospital organization.

- Protecting Your Product From IPR Infringement    
The Swedish legal system provides adequate protection to all property 
rights, including intellectual property.  As a signatory to the EEA 
agreement, Sweden has undertaken to obtain adherence, in 1993, with a 
series of multilateral conventions on industrial, intellectual, and 
commercial property.
Sweden is a member of the "Paris Union" International Convention for the 
Protection of Intellectual Property (patents, trademarks, commercial 
names, and industrial design) to which the United States and about 80 
other countries adhere.  American business executives and inventors are 
thus entitled to receive national treatment in Sweden (treatment equal 
to that accorded Swedish citizens), under laws regarding the protection 
of patents and trademarks.
American nationals are also entitled to certain other benefits, such as 
the protection of patents against arbitrary forfeiture for nonworking 
and a one-year "right of priority" for filing a patent application.  The 
"right of priority" period for trademarks is 6 months.  Applications or 
inquiries pertaining to intellectual property should be addressed to:

Director General
Patents and Registration Office
(Patent & Registreringsverket)
Box 5055, S-102 42 Stockholm
Tel: 46-8-782 2500; Fax: 46-8-666 0286

- Patents
Patents are adequately protected under the terms of the EEA agreement, 
which states that the signatory countries comply in their law with the 
substantive provisions of the European Patent Convention of 1973, which 
Sweden ratified in 1980.  Protection in all areas of technology may be 
obtained for 20 years.
Patent applications are examined for inventiveness and, if accepted, 
published for opposition for 3 months.  If no opposition is filed or it 
is successfully overcome, the application is allowed and a patent is 

- Copyrights
Protection of copyrights in Sweden is governed by Law No. 729 of 1960 as 
amended.  The term copyright protection of a work is for the author's 
life plus 50 years after the author's death.  It includes all literary, 
dramatic, musical, and artistic works.  Copyright includes the sole 
right to produce and reproduce the work or a translation of it; to 
publish such a work or translation; to perform it in public; and to 
authorize others to do so.
Sweden is a signatory to various multilaterial conventions for the 
protection of copyrights.  It is a member of the Universal Copyright 
Convention to which the United States and about 60 other countries 
adhere.  Works of American authors copyrighted in the United States are 
entitled to automatic protection in Sweden.  Authors need only show on 
such works, their name, year of publication, and the symbol "C" in a 
circle to obtain copyright protection.
Sweden is also a member of the "Berne Union" Copyright Convention.  
Although the United States is not a member of this convention, U.S. 
authors may obtain protection in Berne Union countries by publishing 
work in a Berne Union country at the same time it is first published in 
the United States.  Swedish copyright law also protects computer 
programs and data bases.  
However, there have been complaints from American software companies 
that the law is ineffective since companies cannot be searched without 
prior notification.

- Trademarks
Sweden protects trademarks under the Trademark Act, effective January 1, 
1961, and has undertaken to adhere to the 1989 Madrid protocol.  Sweden 
has adopted the Nice International Classification System for 
registration purposes.  Trademark registrations are valid for 10 years 
from the date of registration and are renewable for like periods.
The first applicant for a trademark is entitled to receive a 
registration and exclusive ownership.  If another party, however, can 
prove he was the first user, he may have the trademark canceled and re-
registered to himself.  After 5 years, a registration becomes 
incontestable on grounds of prior use.
Applications are examined and, if acceptable, published for opposition 
for 2 months.  Swedish or foreign official emblems or words, or markings 
contrary to public order or good morals, cannot be registered as 
trademarks.  A trademark registration may be canceled if not used within 
5 years, unless the registrant shows an acceptable reason for non-use.  
The EEA agreement's Article 4 of Protocol 28 covers the subject of 
semiconductor chip layout design protection.

- Need for a Local Attorney
This publication only gives general information on business activities 
in Sweden. Detailed advice in legal, accountancy, fiscal and other 
matters should be sought from professional advisors. A list of Swedish 
attorneys can be obtained from the Consular Section of the American 
Embassy in Stockholm. 


Best Prospects for Non-Agricultural Goods and Services
1.  Computers and Peripherals             (CPT)
2.  Computer Software                     (CSF)
3.  Electronic Components                 (ELC)
4.  Travel and Tourism                    (TRA)
5.  Aircraft and Parts                    (AIR)
6.  Telecommunication Services            (TES)
7.  Telecommunications  Equipment         (TEL)
8.  Pollution Control Equipment           (POL)
9.  Medical Equipment                     (MED)
10. Defense Industry Equipment            (DFN)
11. Analytical and Scientific Instruments (LAB)
12. Drugs and Pharmaceuticals             (DRG)
13. Sports and Leisure Products           (SPT)
14. Household Consumer Goods              (HCG)

Rank of Sector: 1
Name of Sector:  Computers and Peripherals (CPT)
Sweden is one of the most computer dense countries in the world.  
Approximately 25% of the Swedish population has a computer at home.  
Sweden ranks sixth worldwide in information technology overall 
investment.  The Swedish market is currently the fastest growing market 
in Europe.  The market for personal computers increased in volume by 
approximately 25% during 1994 and 525,000 units were sold.  The market 
for portable computers has also grown very much and represented 17% of 
the total market for personal computers.  Swedish corporate customers 
have a high brand awareness which favors U.S. brands and this attitude 
is exptected to last.  The printer market was the largest peripherals 
segment during 1994 with a market value of USD 120 million.  Best sales 
prospects are personal computers with internal CD-ROM drives and 
processors of at least 486DX capacity, modems, and low-priced, small 
color printers.  Following are the major U.S. players on the Swedish 
market:  Compaq, IBM, Apple, AST, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment, 
Sun Microsystems, Dell Computer, LexMark.  Some Swedish companies are 
Jet Data, UBI, Axis.  Domestic production of PCs consists mainly of 
small companies which import standardized components for assemply.  East 
Asian companies mainly compete in the portable PC and printer markets.  
Some of them are  OKI, NEC, Panasonic, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Brother, 
Samsung, Chicony, C. Itoh.
Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A.  Total Market Size         1809    1972    2149
B.  Total Local Production     443    469    496
C.  Total Exports              343    360    378
D.  Total Imports             1709    1863    2031
E.  Imports from the U.S.      600    660    726
Exchange rate used:  $1 equals SEK 7.71
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Rank of Sector: 2
Name of Sector:  Computer Software (CSF) 
Sweden is one of the most computer dense countries in the world.  
Approximately 25% of the Swedish population has a computer at home.  
Investments in information technology overall furthermore place Sweden 
as the sixth largest country in this respect.  Swedish users demand 
state-of-the art technology.  Consequently  it is expected that the 
market will increase commensurately with product development.   U.S. 
products enjoy a good reputation among Swedish users and will continue 
to do so.  Sweden has more Windows application users per capita than any 
other country, therefore Windows based applications are very attractive 
to the market.  Multimedia products are also very much in vogue and 
should see a good market, especially the consumer market. Major U.S. 
players on the market are Microsoft, Oracle, Lotus, Aldus, Informix, 
Autodesk, Adobe Systems, Mathworks, Artisoft, Microsim, CAD Solutions, 
James River Group.  Major Swedish companies are Industri-Matematik, 
Memory Data, Scandinavian PC Systems, Hogia, Mercur, Capitex, Mimer, and 
Ide Data.  Some third country competitors are Computer Power Group Ltd. 
(Australia), Holistic Systems (U.K.), Waterloo Maple Software (Canada), 
PCL International (U.K.), PSM GmbH (Germany),  Software AG (Germany), 
Dynatek (Canada), Accton Technology (Taiwan).     
Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A.  Total Market Size         813    901    982
B.  Total Local Production    424    467    514
C.  Total Exports              15    17    18
D.  Total Imports             404    451    487
E.  Imports from the U.S.     283    316    341
Exchange Rate used:  $1 equals SEK 7.71 
The above statistics are unofficial estimates

Rank of Sector: 3
Name of Sector: Electronic Components  (ELC)
The Swedish market for electronic components is dominated by the 
telecommunications sector, in which Telefon AB L.M. Ericsson is by far 
the biggest.  Domestic production is highly specialized and small in 
terms of quantity.  Main competitors for U.S. firms are companies 
located in the EU countries and Japan.  
There are no trade barriers or market impediments for electronic 
components.  Since Sweden is a member of the EU, however, U.S. 
electronic components will suffer from higher tariffs (approximately 14 
percent), unless the country of assembly is located within the EU.  It 
should be noted, though, that much of the export to Sweden is really 
direct product of U.S. tech data manufactured by U.S. subsidiaries set 
up in other countries.  
The U.S.A. is the leading supplier of sophisticated components to 
Sweden.  Strong competitors are the Japanese, the Europeans and the 
South Koreans.  Swedish manufacture of components has very little 
significance and is not a competitive factor for U.S. producers.  
The most promising subsector is semiconductors, which has a steadily 
increasing market.  The estimated total market size for semiconductors 
in 1995 is $800 million; the most important growth factor is Ericsson's 
successes on the mobile telephone market.  Other components with good 
sales prospects for the next three years are integrated circuits and 
In 1993 the Swedish market for electronic components amounted to $1,511 
million, and is estimated to grow by 5 to 10 percent through 1998.

Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A. Total Market Size         1594    1674    1757
B. Total Local Production     685     719     755
C. Total Exports              973    1021    1073
D. Total Imports             1882    1976    2075
E. Imports from the U.S.      418     439    461
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK 7.71.
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Rank of Sector: 4
Name of Sector: Travel & Tourism   (TRA)
Sweden offers good opportunities for U.S. travel and tourism related 
businesses. There was a  drop in arrivals statistics for Swedes entering 
the U.S. in 1994. However, since the economy is recovering the most 
noticable increase has been in business travel. It is rather common that 
Swedish businessmen add some holidays to their trips. The prevailing 
trend of frequent business as well as leisure travel to the U.S. 
The United States is the most preferred long-haul destination for the 
Swedish tourist. In 1994  215,000 Swedes traveled to the U.S. They spent 
some $300 million while in the U.S. (excluding airfare). The prediction 
for 1995 is that leisure as well as business travel will increase.
Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A. Total Sales:                 11,700    11,700   12,050
B. Sales by local firms:         6,650     6,350    6,540
C. Sales by foreign owned firms: 4,300     4,600    4,740
D. Sales by US-owned firms:        750       750      770
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK 7.71
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Rank of Sector: 5
Name of Sector: Aircraft and Parts  (AIR)
The Swedish aerospace industry  prospered in the late 1980s and early 
1990s but after the Gulf war, a severe downturn followed. Sweden 
produces both military aircraft and commuter planes but the single 
biggest aerospace project remains the JAS 39 Gripen. The project calls 
for 140 fighters to be delivered to the Swedish Air Force by the end of 
or around the century but an additional order is being discussed. Saab 
Aircraft is the industry's dominant company; it has been trying to rely 
less on military sales but the commercial aircraft division has become a 
headache for Saab which last year sold only 15 planes against the 50 
which it needs to sell to break even. Although the market for commuter 
planes looks very uncertain, there should be an improvement next year. 
The United States is an important supplier to Saab Aircraft Company, 
both to the military aircraft and to the commuter planes. Scandinavian 
Airlines System (SAS), the flag carrier, placed an order for 35 aircraft 
of the Boeing 737-600 type in early 1995 and has taken options to buy a 
further 35 planes. The initial deliveries are scheduled to come in the 
second half of 1998. SAS is a longtime buyer of U.S.-built aircraft but 
is, on the other hand, the only sizeable buyer of larger aircraft.  
After the turn of the century, the carrier will have to replace its 
fleet of 66 MD-80s.  As for other developments, the Swedish military is 
pondering a purchase of attack helicopters near the end of the century 
which may present opportunities to U.S. industry. 

Data Table - In USD Million     1994    1995    1996
A. Total Market Size         705    705    797
B. Total Local Production    829    829    921
C. Total Exports             675    675    675
D. Total Imports             551    551    551
E. Imports from the U.S.     307    307    307
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK 7.71
The latest available production data are from 1992 when Sweden produced 
aircraft and parts worth $921 million. We estimate that output declined 
10% in 1994 and will remain stagnant this year. Forecasters predict an 
improvement of local production in 1996 since airlines will have to 
replace aging planes in the latter part of the decade.

Rank of Sector: 6
Name of Sector:  Telecommunication Services (TES)
Sweden has the most open telecommunications market in the world.  There 
are no restrictions protecting Swedish interests or resticting foreign 
operations from establishing themselves in Sweden.  The Swedish market 
is a mature, well developed and demanding market with a high per capita 
rate of telephone ownership.  This fact makes Sweden attractive to major 
telecommunications companies despite the fact the country accounts for 
only 3% of the European market.  Sweden has a large number of 
multinational companies which have great demands for their 
telecommunications needs.  In the Stockholm region, there are more than 
30 companies which offer telephone services, mainly for international 
traffic.  Tele2 is also competing with domestic long distance traffic.  
Sweden has the highest number of cellular telephones per capita in the 
world, more than 1.4 million subscribers, which represents approximately 
15% of the Swedish population.  The paging market is also very developed 
with 2% of the population as subscribers.  There are three GSM operators 
in Sweden; Telia Mobitel, Comviq GSM and Europolitan.  Telia (the former 
Telecommunications Administration) has the highest number of 
subscribers.  Telia is the only company in Sweden which offers paging 
services.  The following foreign companies are active in the Swedish 
market:  BT, France Telecom, Cable & Wireless. Cyberlink, Singapore 
Telecom, Metropolitan Fiber Systems, AirTouch, and Vodafone.  The 
following Nordic operators are also present:  Telecom Finland, Telenor, 
Telekom Denmark.  The market for network services is expected to 
increase by approximately 35% during the next few years.  Another 
segment which will see expansion is multimedia services.Sweden has the 
most open telecommunications market in the world.  
Data Table - In USD Million       1994    1995    1996
A.  Total Sales                   4655    5172    5948
B.  Sales by Local Firms           N/A    N/A    N/A
C.  Sales by Local Firms           N/A    N/A    N/A
D.  Sales by Foreign Owned Firms   N/A    N/A    N/A
E.  Sales by U.S. owned Firms      N/A    N/A    N/A
Exchange rate used:  $1 equals SEK 7.71
The above statistics are unofficial estimates

Rank of Sector: 7
Name of Sector:  Telecommunications Equipment (TEL)
Sweden has the most open telecommunications market in the world.  There 
are no regulations protecting Swedish interests or restricting foreign 
operations from establishing themselves in Sweden.  The Swedish market 
is a mature, well developed and demanding market with a high per capita 
rate of telephone ownership.  This fact makes Sweden attractive to major 
telecommunications companies despite the fact that the country accounts 
for only 3% of the European market.  Sweden has a large number of 
multinational companies which have great demands for their 
telecommunications needs.  Sweden has the highest number of cellular 
telephones per capita in the world, more than 1.4 million subscribers, 
which represents approximately 15% of the Swedish population.  Private 
subscriptions is the fastest growing segment in the cellular market.  
The reason for this growth is falling prices on telephones, pagers and 
services.  Almost all cellular phones that are sold currently are pocket 
phones.  The major competitors on the market are Ericsson, Alcatel, 
Northern Telecom, Siemens, Nokia, Motorola, Philips, Doro, NEC, 
Goldstar, Zodiac, Mitsubishi, Multitech, General Datacomm, Bay Networks, 
Cisco.   Best sales prospects are network and data communication 

Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A.  Total Market Size         1441    1585    1744
B.  Total Local Production    3198    3518    3870
C.  Total Exports             2959    3255    3580
D.  Total Imports             1202    1322    1454
E.  Imports from the U.S.      114    123    133
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK 7.71
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Rank of Sector: 8
Name of Sector: Pollution Control Equipment (POL)
Sweden's major environmental concerns are acidification, ozone and 
pollution of the sea, most of which are generated outside of the 
country. Domestic suppliers like ABB Flakt (air pollution) Flygt and 
Purac (water treatment) are strong on the market, but nevertheless 
Swedish industry must look to import or form joint ventures to supply 
international demand and also needs newer products and services for 
domestic pollution control. Trade sources predict that industrial 
investments in pollution control equipment will show a strong increase, 
while investments made by the municipalities will remain relatively 
stable for the next few years.
Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A. Total Market Size         1,060    1,144    1,236
B. Total Local Production    1,388    1,499    1,618
C. Total Exports               882      952    1,028
D. Total Imports               554      598      646
E. Imports from the U.S.        76       82       89
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK 7.71
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Rank of Sector: 9
Name of Sector: Medical Equipment (MED)
Sweden is one of the most advanced medical equipment markets in the 
world. The factors reshaping the future health care system in Sweden are 
the increase in an aging population, efforts to contain cost and the 
influence of new technologies. Despite the dominant position of the 
German owned Siemens-Elema, the Swedish medical market looks to the U.S. 
for new developments in research and the application of new techniques. 
Other major competitors are the UK and  Japan. The demand will remain 
stable for screening equipment (including X-ray and ultra-sound 
equipment) and interest remains strong for cardiological equipment and 
laser based surgical equipment.
Data Table - In USD Million     1994    1995    1996
A. Total Market Size         280    292    303
B. Total Local Production    596    616    638
C. Total Exports             950    983    1,017
D. Total Imports             634    659    682
E. Imports from the U.S.     173    179    186
Exchange rate used:  $1 equals SEK 7.71
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Rank of Sector: 10
Name of Sector: Defense Industry Equipment  (DFN)
Sweden's Social Democratic Party won a resounding victory in the 
parliamentary elections last fall and immediately announced a cut in 
defense spending on grounds that Sweden does not face any immediate 
threats. Cut-backs would not occur overnight, but would be gradual over 
the long-term because of existing development projects. The current 
five-year defense decision framework carries through budget year 
1996/97. Even with spending reductions, it is unlikely that equipment 
procurement would be cut back drastically; rather there would be 
reductions affecting personnel. A number of bases and regiments will 
most likely be closed down. High-tech projects will probably survive 
without major cuts and commercial considerations will be given higher 
priority than earlier which may increase business opportunities for U.S. 
In 1994, the United States bought military equipment for $29 million 
from Sweden. Sweden purchases almost ten times as much from the United 

Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A. Total Market Size            1680    1720    1720
B. Total Local Production       1447    1447    1447
C. Total Exports                 478    478    478
D. Total Imports                 711    711    711
E. Imports from the U.S.         271    271    271
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK 7.71
The above statistics are unofficial estimates; due to the recent 
political changes they merely constitute rough estimates and are not 
precise.  Statistical data do not include costs for weapons systems.

Rank of Sector: 11
Name of Sector: Analytical and Scientific Instruments (LAB)
The U.S. market share has increased during the past five years at the 
expense of Germany's share.  Companies that utilize new computer 
technology will see a larger growth than others.  Most of the advanced 
laboratory equipment comes from Hewlett-Packard with some competition 
from Abbott Laboratories, which has concentrated on more specific 
instruments for a smaller market. Strong competitors are Germany, Great 
Britain, Japan, and Switzerland.
Large investments have been made in new plants, which will eventually 
raise the demand for qualitative analytical instruments.  Research by 
major high-tech companies in Sweden will increase, particularly within 
the pharmaceutical industry. 
There are no trade barriers or market impediments.  Since Sweden is a 
member of EU, however, the customs rate will be raised from 3.6%-5% to a 
maximum 7.2% depending on the type of goods.  
Instruments that lead to higher automation are predicted to have the 
highest growth rate.  Products for environmental use, e.g. analytical 
instruments for measurement of pollution, will also be in greater 
demand.  Microbiology, where DNA-manipulation and reproduction play an 
important role, will be of interest.

Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A. Total Market Size         261    274    287
B. Total Local Production    369    387    406
C. Total Exports             440    462    485
D. Total Imports             332    349    366
E. Imports from the U.S.      87    91    96
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK 7.71 
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Rank of Sector: 12
Name of Sector: Drugs and Pharmaceuticals  (DRG)
During the past twenty  years, the Swedish pharmaceutical industry has 
been very successful. Major areas of research and drug sales include 
oncology, growth disorders and eye diseases, dialysis, gastrointestinal, 
respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Domestic manufacturers Astra 
and Pharmacia dominate the market, while U.S. share of total sales is 
the highest among foreign suppliers - 22 %. American pharmaceutical 
firms are condsidered world-leaders in research and production and their 
products enjoy a good reputation. The Swedish pharmaceutical market is 
extremely competitive, but according to trade sources the following 
areas should represent opportunities for new entrants on the market: 
antibiotics, anti-asthmatics, treatments for Alzheimer, AIDS and cancer.
Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A. Total Market Size           457    483    507
B. Total Local Production    1,948    2,055    2,158
C. Total Exports             2,380    2,510    2,636
D. Total Imports               889    938    985
E. Imports from the U.S.        58    62    64
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK 7.71
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Rank of sector: 13
Name of sector: Sports and Leisure products (SPT)
The sports and leisure market grew by approx. 5 percent in 1994. The 
total sector including sports wear is worth approx. $1,2 billion. As the 
Swedish economy is recovering this sector is anticipated to continue to 
grow but at a slower rate in 1995. 
The European dominance on the market is lessened and the marketing 
efforts by U.S. producers have proven very efffective. U.S. producers 
traditionally have a strong position in the high-end segments. New 
items/quality products are often trend setting and enjoy a very good 
reputation in general.
The main volume of the sports market turnover in Sweden is divided 
between the following categories: bicycles, apparel, shoes, sports 
equipment and leisure articles.
The sport shoe market is now dominated by U.S. producers and the main 
market shares are held by Nike 25.8 percent; Reebok 22.2 percent; Adidas 
11.4 percent; Puma 4.0 percent; and Asics 3.7 percent and for aerobics 
footwear Reebok holds 61 percent of that market. 
Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996
A. Total Market Size:         444    458    464
B. Total Local Production:    130    134    138
C. Total Exports:             117    122    128
D. Total Imports:             431    446    454
E. Total Imports from U.S.:    43    45    49
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK  7.71    
The above statistics are unofficial estimates and excluding sportswear.    

Rank of sector: 14
Name of sector: Household Consumer Goods (HCG)
U.S. made consumer goods are by tradition well received in Sweden. New 
gadgets are always of interest from the trend-setting United States.  
Kitchen novelties, interior design articles, brick-a-brack, giftware, 
and advertising give-aways are not distinctly defined in the Swedish 
statistics and the figures below are estimated by people in the trade. 
Competition is mainly imports from the Far East and Eastern Europe. 
Well-known companies and brandnames represented in Sweden are: Hallmark, 
Tupperware, Mary Kay, The Rug Barn, 3D Brands, Anagram, Edgecraft, 
Carson, Pecoware, Character Collectables, Glass Dimensions, Alice 
Country Cottage, Luv'n Care, Annies Woodcraft, Lion/Offray Ribbons, 
Classico etc. 

Data Table - In USD Million    1994    1995    1996 
A. Total Market Size:         340    340    350
B. Total Local Production:    270    280    290
C. Total Exports:             175    180    185
D. Total Imports:             245    240    245    
E. Total Imports from U.S.:    18    18    18
Exchange rate used: $1 equals SEK  7.71 
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Best Prospect Sectors -  Food and Agricultural Products
Sweden is a major market for dried fruit, almonds, grapefruit, orange 
juice, apples and pears. However, domestic production, prices and 
competition from other countries can cause major swings in year to year 
imports of many of the commodities. Sweden has strict tolerances on the 
presence of inorganic bromide which has caused some shipments of nuts 
and rice to be rejected. High-fiber cereals are in demand together with 
pasta products, pasta sauces, fruit juices of all kinds, avocados, 
celery, apples and pears. The Swedish market is strong for spices and 
condiments. Swedish consumers are prepared to pay for high quality and 
insist on freedom from chemicals and pesticides.
In the fisheries sector, the United States dominates a stable market for 
"Swedish style" crayfish. There is some interest in Pacific salmon and 
white fish roe.
In the forestry sector, minor quantities of U.S. softwood plywood are 
being imported, and some hardwood lumber for the furniture industry. 
With some recovery from recession and increase in the building sector, 
imports could begin to grow again in 1996. In 1994, for the first time, 
softwood lumber was being exported from Sweden to the United States.

BEST PROSPECT 1994    Total Imports    Imports    Per/Capita
                        Metric Tons    from U.S.    cons/kg

24SR/Wine (table)         1,000 l    133,372    8,816    13,1 l
NA/Spirits                1,000 l    24,924    1,934    3,7 l
08/Frozen Orange Juice     20,966    1,060    N/A
24/Salmon                  10,268    2,083    1,4
24/Pet food for dogs and cats    80,665    8,340    N/A

11/Rice                  136,364    35,879    5,0
24/Crayfish    2,584    2,410    N/A
52/Pork    6,230    587    12,6
1/  This category covers the gamut of high value consumer ready products 
which  is one of the fastest growing percentage wise.Unfortunately, 
there is extremely limited data available from published sources.  
Limited staff resources do not permit the undertaking of surveys of 
individual companies in Sweden or the United States which might provide 
greater detail. However, in any  event, this type of information is 
usually considered proprietary and is not generally willingly shared.
2/  Quantity not known/no information.

24SR/Wine (table)  1,000 l        133,000              100,000 
NA/Spirits     1,000 l             25,000               28,000 
08/Frozen Orange Juice             27,000               28,000
24/Salmon                          10,000               12,000
24/Pet food for dogs and cats      80,000               85,000
11/Rice    1/                     136,000               85,000
24/Crayfish  1/                     2,500                2,700 
52/Pork 2/                          6,000                6,000
1/ Growth in these markets is limited but the U.S. has strong and in the 
case of crayfish, a dominant market position.  These markets are facing 
increasing competition from other countries and the U.S. must continue 
to promote its product or loose its market position.
2/ Developments in these markets will depend on U.S. progress in meeting 
European Union (EU) import regulations for third  countries.

-  Tariffs and Import Taxes 
After Sweden's entry into the European Union on January 1, 1995, the 
Swedish customs law and regulations were replaced by the EU law with 
coherent regulation which means that Sweden applies the external EU 
tariffs to imports from the United States and other non-EU countries. 
The EU tariff schedule utilizes the Harmonized System (HS) code. Most 
industrial products are charged between 5% to 14% duty.
Goods imported into Sweden are also subject to a value-added-tax (VAT). 
The general VAT rate is 25%  with a lower VAT rate of 12% for food and 
certain services effective from 1996.
Customs procedures, including the classification and valuation of 
imported goods, are governed by EU rules.
Certain agricultural products are subject to import duties and/or fees, 
which are imposed in accordance with EU rules and regulations. Among the 
products subject to these duties and fees are cereals, flour, certain 
fats and oils, fishery products, butter, cheese, eggs, poultry, meat and 
some cattle and hogs. During a transitional period, due to animal health 
protection reasons, Sweden maintains stricter rules on imports of 
certain agricultural products than the EU. As a member of the EU, Sweden 
maintains duty-free entry on all products originating in other EU 
countries. Sweden has bilateral trade agreements on cheese with the 
Canada and the Nordic countries. 
-  Customs Valuation
Virtually all import duties are on an ad valorem basis. The basis for 
valuation is the normal price of the merchandise plus costs of 
transportation and all other expenses, such as insurance and freight, 
connected with the sale and delivery of the merchandise up to the point 
of its introduction into Swedish customs territory.  Imports are also 
subject to the value-added tax. Some products are subject to special 
taxes. Information can be obtained through the Swedish Board of Customs 
and Excises (see appendix E.).

- Import Licenses
Import licenses are required for only a few commodities. Certain goods, 
such as weapons, explosives, drugs, poisons, etc., may be imported only 
by authorized persons and institutions. Import licences are also 
required for import of live animals.  

- Export Controls 
Export license applications are handled by the Swedish Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Trade Section, Unit for Export Control of Strategic 
Goods. Licensing decisions are taken by the Swedish government.
The legal basis for export control of dual-use goods and technologies 
consists of two laws (SFS 1991:341 and SFS 1994:2060) concerning 
strategic products.

- Import/Export Documentation
The documents required by Sweden from the exporter include a commercial 
invoice, a bill of lading, and such special certifications as may be 
necessary. Consular invoices and regular certifications of origin are 
not required. There are no stipulations as to the form of commercial 
invoices, bills of lading, or other shipping documents. Swedish customs 
regulations specify that the invoice (in triplicate) must contain the 
seller's name, signature, and address; the buyer's name and address; 
date the invoice was prepared; date the purchase contract was concluded; 
number of cases, parcels, or containers; the denomination of the 
merchandise; type and gross and net weight plus marking and number; 
product's discounts (and the nature of discount); and also conditions of 
delivery and payment. Goods liable to an ad valorem duty shipped on 
consignment should be accompanied by an invoice as though they had been 
sold. Shipping documents may be made out in the English language. The 
usual bill of lading (or an airway bill) suffices for shipment to 
Sweden. The bill of lading must be completed in accordance with the 
invoice. "To order" bills of lading are accepted. Sanitary certificates, 
which must show the country of origin, are required for goods that may 
be suspected of bringing contagious animal or vegetable diseases into 
the country or for goods for which special stipulations are prescribed. 
Goods subject to these sanitary certificates of origin include live 
animals, certain animal products (including meat and meat products); 
used dairy hollow wares; used sacks; feedstuffs; potatoes; live plants; 
seeds; margarine, cheese, and fatty emulsion; syrup and molasses; 
preparations containing spirits; concentrated alcohol; and shaving 
brushes. The sanitary certificate of origin must be legalized by a 
Swedish consul or an official authority in the country of production or 

- Temporary Entry
Sweden honors the ATA Carnet, an international customs document designed 
to simplify customs procedures for business and professional people 
taking commercial samples, advertising materials or film or medical or 
professional equipment into specified countries for a short period. More 
than 40 countries participate in the carnet system.  The U.S. Council of 
the International Chamber of Commerce, 1212 Avenue of the Americas, New 
York, NY 10036-4480 (fax 212-944-0012, tel. 212-354-4480) has been 
designated by the U.S. Bureau of Customs as the U.S. issuing and 
guaranteeing organization. U.S. firms should write to the U.S. Council 
at its New York address to apply for ATA Carnets. 

- Labeling, Marking Requirements
There is no general requirement in Sweden that imports be marked as to 
the country of origin. However, goods carrying incorrect designations of 
origin are prohibited, and a product which has been made to appear as 
though it has been produced or manufactured in Sweden may not be 
imported unless its foreign origin is clearly, conspicuously, and 
durably marked thereon. It would suffice if the marking in this case 
consisted only of the word "imported". 

Special marking regulations are required on a few products, e.g. 
pharmaceuticals and chemicals and Sweden has exacting labeling 
requirements for foods. Its health, sanitary and labeling rules are very 
strict and its Customs laboratory has sophisticated capability to 
monitor product quality.  A retail-size food package must show the name 
of the manufacturer, packer or importer, commercial name of the product, 
net metric weights or volume, ingredients in descending order of weight, 
last recommended date of sale, and storage instructions if perishable or 
intended for infants. Mandatory information described above must be 
labelled in Swedish. Swedish importers are helpful in arranging for 
proper labeling information.
Inspection and food labeling requirements were changed to conform to 
E.U. regulations when Sweden became a member of the E.U. on January 1, 

- Prohibited imports
There are no major import prohibitions, though a limited number of 
products such as weapons, explosives, drugs, poisons require import 
licenses or special permits.

- Standards
Sweden uses the metric system. Products for sale in Sweden should be 
adapted to it whenever possible. The United States is the only major 
nation where the metric system is not in full use. U.S. exporters not 
using the metric system have a serious disadvantage in world markets 
since overseas buyers are reluctant to accept products that are non-
metric. Information is available from the U.S. Department of Commerce 
Metric Program at (301) 975-3690. Electric current 
in Sweden is 50 hz, AC 230V/single phase and 400V three-phase. 
Information about Swedish standards may be obtained from:
Swedish Standards Institution
P.O. Box 3295, S-103 66 Stockholm, Sweden
Tel: Int/46/8-613 52 00,  Fax: 46-8-11 70 35.
Companies can invite an independent party to audit their production and 
issue a certificate regarding the quality system in compliance with the 
demands in ISO 9000, or some equivalent standards system. Information 
can be obtained from Swedac, a government entity with the following 
Swedac, Styrelsen for teknisk ackreditering
Box 878, S-501 15 Boras
Tel: Int/46/33-17 77 00, Fax: 46-33-10 13 93
Since the diversity of foreign standards, regulations, inspection 
procedures, and certification requirements can constitute a considerable 
barrier to increasing U.S. exports, American firms should keep abreast 
of standards abroad. Exporters can get up-to-date information about 
technical standards by contacting:
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room A 163, Building 411
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
Tel. (301) 975-4038

Information about industrial standards may also be obtained from:
The American National Standards Institute Inc.
11 West 42nd Street
New York, NY 10018
Tel. (212) 642-4900

- Free Trade Zones/Warehouses
There are free port facilities at Stockholm, Goteborg, Malmo, Norrkoping 
and Arlanda, where goods may enter without customs declaration or 
inspection. The facilities are municipal enterprises operated under the 
supervision of the Royal Board of Customs. The board has authority over 
all goods and traffic passing through the ports in order to ensure that 
Swedish laws and regulations are observed. Goods may be stored, sorted, 
repacked, sold, exported, or returned to the country of origin without 
payment of customs duties or other import charges. They may also be 
cleared through customs for domestic consumption. In order to carry on 
industrial operations in free port areas, special authorization must be 
obtained. Retail trade is prohibited, except as may be authorized to 
provision and service ships and aircraft.

- Special Import Provisions
With Sweden being a member of the European Union, the EU customs union 
system applies to all imports.

- Membership in Free Trade Arrangements:
Sweden is a member of the European Union and WTO.


- Openness to Foreign Investment
Up to the mid-1980's, Sweden's approach to direct investment from abroad 
was quite restrictive and governed by a complex system of laws and 
regulations. There were laws that allowed Swedish companies to restrict 
foreigners from acquiring their shares, laws that required foreigners to 
obtain permission to transact business in Sweden, foreign exchange 
controls, and a system of concessions and authorizations -- all of which 
made investing in Sweden somewhat problematic for outsiders.  
During the 1980's, doubts were raised about the effectiveness and 
desirability of controlling foreign direct investment (FDI) in Sweden. 
Such considerations, together with Sweden's movement toward January 1995 
accession to membership in the European Union (EU), brought changes in 
attitude to and legislation on FDI in Sweden. The Swedish authorities 
have also implemented reforms to improve the business regulatory 
environment that will benefit investment inflows, and are seeking ways 
to ensure wider ownership in Swedish industry, which they feel will 
increase competitive pressures and lead to greater efficiency. There is 
now almost total harmonization of Sweden's commercial and financial law, 
regulations, and business practices with those of the EU.. 
Foreign exchange transactions have been decontrolled; the law requiring 
foreigners to obtain permission to acquire shares or holdings in Swedish 
firms has been abolished; and  real estate regulations have been changed 
so that foreigners can now acquire commercial real estate and land for 
mining in Sweden. The abolition of the law that required foreigners to 
obtain permission to transact business in Sweden makes it easier for 
foreigners to invest in any form, including greenfield investments, 
which in the past have been modest. Also the former corporate practice 
of restricting some shares from foreign acquisition has been abolished. 
Today, all shares listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange may be acquired 
by Swedes and foreigners alike, though shares may still have differing 
voting strengths.
The regime for foreigners in financial services has been liberalized, 
too. Now, banks, foreign brokerage firms, and cooperative mortgage 
institutions are permitted to establish branches in Sweden on equal 
terms with domestic firms.  These fundamental changes in Sweden's FDI 
regime have significantly sweetened Sweden's investment climate and 
opened the country to foreign mergers and takeovers.  
Nevertheless, there remains a number of practical impediments to direct 
investment in Sweden. These include a fairly extensive, though non-
discriminatory, system of concessions and authorizations needed to 
engage in many activities, and the dominance of a few, very large 
players in certain sectors, e.g. construction and food wholesaling.  

One of the economic policy cornerstones of the right-center coalition 
government which came to power in 1991 (and was voted out in 1994) was a 
program to wholly or partly privatize many government-owned enterprises. 
While several corporations have actually been sold under the program, 
progress in this area has been hampered by the severe 1991-1993 
recession and the 1994 election of a Social Democrat minority 
government. Shares have been offered to domestic and foreign purchasers 
The Swedish Government provides many kinds of incentives to research and 
development programs through the National Board for Industrial and 
Technical Development (Swedish acronym, NUTEK). The country spends the 
equivalent of almost 3 percent of its GDP on research and development, 
which is one of the highest rates in the world.  
The Government pursues a regional development policy in order to 
generate more employment in certain areas of the country. There is a 
wide range of regional support which provides incentives for investing 
in these areas, and such support has not been affected by Swedish 
membership in the EU.   
- Conversion and Transfer Policies
There are no foreign exchange controls in Sweden, nor are there any 
restrictions on remittances of profits, of proceeds from the liquidation 
of an investment, or of royalty and license fee payments. A subsidiary 
or branch may transfer fees to a parent company outside of Sweden for 
management services, research expenditures, etc. In general, yields on 
invested funds, such as dividends and interest receipts, may be freely 
transferred. A foreign-owned firm may also raise foreign currency loans 
both from its parent corporation and credit institutions abroad.   

- Expropriation and Compensation
Private property is only expropriated for public purposes, in a non-
discriminatory manner, and in accordance with established principles of 
international law.   
- Dispute Settlement
There have been no major disputes over investment in Sweden in recent 
years. The country has written and consistently applied commercial and 
bankruptcy laws, and secured interests in property are recognized and 
Sweden is a member of the International Center for the Settlement of 
Investment Disputes and is a signatory to the New York Convention on the 
recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards.  
The Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce is one of 
the leading arbitration centers in the world, many of its disputes 
originating in East-West business relations. An agreement between the 
American Arbitration Association and the Russian Federation Chamber of 
Commerce, reached in 1993, provides for arbitration to take place in 
Sweden under the Rules of the United Nations Commission on International 
Trade Law, with the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce administering the 
cases and acting as appointing authority if needed.

- Political Violence
- Performance Requirements/Incentives
Sweden imposes no performance requirements on presumptive investors but 
offers certain incentives to set up a business in various targeted 
depressed areas. Loans are available on favorable terms from the 
National Board for Industrial and Technical Development and the Regional 
Development Funds, and a range of regional supports, including location 
and employment grants, reduced payroll taxes, low-rent industrial parks, 
and economic free zones, are also available. Regional development 
support is concentrated in the lightly populated northern two-thirds of 
the country.   
- Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
Rights of this kind are not specifically written into Swedish law, but 
individuals and Swedish entities are well protected by the legal system. 
Private enterprises enjoy as great an access to markets necessary for 
conducting business operations as do public enterprises.
- Protection of Property Rights
The Swedish legal system provides adequate protection to all property 
rights including intellectual property. Sweden has adhered to a series 
of multilateral conventions in industrial, intellectual, and commercial 
- Regulatory System: Laws and Procedures
Sweden has altered its legislation to comply with EU rules on 
competition. Sweden made extensive changes in its laws and regulations 
to harmonize with EU practices prior to joining the EU in January 1995, 
all with a view to avoid distortions in or impediments to the efficient 
mobilization and allocation of investment.

- Bilateral Investment Agreements
Sweden has concluded bilateral investment promotion and protection 
agreements with the following countries: Argentina (1991), Bolivia 
(1990), China (1982), Cote d'Ivoire (1965), Czechoslovakia (1990), Egypt 
(1978), Estonia (1992), Hungary (1987), Indonesia (1992), Latvia (1992), 
Lithuania (1992), Madagascar (1966), Malaysia (1979), Morocco (1990), 
Pakistan (1981), Poland (1989), Senegal (1967), Sri Lanka (1982), 
Tunisia (1984), Yemen (1983), and Yugoslavia (1978)--now valid with 
Slovenia. Sweden has also signed investment agreements with the 
following countries, though they have not yet come into force: Bulgaria 
(1993), Chile (1993), Peru (1994), and Vietnam (1993). Sweden is a 
signatory of the OECD's Guidelines for Multinational Companies, a 
voluntary and multilateral undertaking which states that foreign 
investors should receive no less favorable treatment than that extended 
to domestic firms.
-  OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs
- Labor
Sweden's labor force of 4.3 million is disciplined, well-educated and 
experienced in almost all modern technologies. About 87 percent of the 
work force belongs to a labor union, about the highest rate of 
unionization in the world. Swedish unions have helped to implement 
rationalization and strongly favor employee education and technical 
progress. Management-labor cooperation tends to be excellent and non-
confrontational. Labor, employers, and the government all openly welcome 
U.S. investment and involvement in the Swedish economy.  
Replacing an earlier strict division between blue- and white-collar 
workers, new work organization and technology are demanding more 
teamwork at workplaces. This is usually warmly welcomed by trade unions. 
Some companies have started to treat all workers more uniformly by 
introducing agreements covering both blue- and white-collar workers.  
Sweden has co-determination legislation which provides for labor 
representation on the boards of corporate directors. This law also 
requires management to negotiate with the appropriate union or unions 
prior to implementing certain major changes in company activities and 
calls for a company to furnish information on many aspects of its 
economic status to labor representatives. Labor and management usually 
find this system works to both sides' benefit.
There is no fixed minimum wage by legislation. Instead, wages are set by 
collective bargaining. This is preferred by both labor and management. 
Both unions and employers remain adamently opposed to the EU 
establishing by directive any minimum wage or any other workplace 
regulation that can instead be covered by collective bargaining. This 
was recognized in a provision in Sweden's EU accession agreement before 
Sweden's entry into the EU in January 1995.  
According to U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics figures, Sweden's average 
hourly compensation cost (including pay, benefits, social fees, taxes, 
etc.) for each production worker in manufacturing in 1993 at average 
exchange rates was USD 17.91. That is cheaper than the cost in Germany, 
Japan, the Benelux, Austria, Norway, Denmark, and a number of other 
countries, but about a dollar more than in the United States, which was 
USD 16.79.  
Almost all private sector collective bargaining agreements expired on 
March 31, 1995; almost all public sector agreements expired on June 30, 
1995. Intense negotiations were underway in a number of sectors as 
employees continued to work under their old agreements. As of late June 
1995, there were a number of major settlements, including metal workers, 
graduate engineers, retail workers, paper workers, and seafarers. These 
agreements give wage increases averaging of 3-4 percent per year. Most 
agreements also provide for a degree of individualized pay; employees, 
including those covered by collective bargaining agreements, judged to 
be more deserving get more pay from "pots" that are divided according to 
merit. Since agreements being concluded range from one to three years, 
Sweden will no longer have almost all collective bargaining agreements 
expiring on the same date as in the past.  
The 1995 wage round has proceeded in a business-like manner without 
inflammatory rhetoric. There have been a number of actions by unions and 
employers, including bans on overtime work and small strikes, usually 
answered by management lockouts. Except for strikes by Swedish SAS 
pilots on three days, answered   on each day by a management lockout, 
there have been no major disruptions or costly strikes/lockouts. A 
number of agreements have been reached the night before a strike/lockout 
was scheduled to begin. It is possible that the 1995 round of wage 
negotiations will be completed as was the 1993 round -- without any 
major strikes or disruption. Wildcat strikes of any significance are 
almost unheard of in Sweden.
The one labor dispute in 1995 that has had a degree of bitterness has 
been between the U.S.-based retailer "Toys 'R' Us" and the Retail 
Employees' Union. This involves only one employer with three stores and 
about 300 employees, but illustrates the depth of feelings on both 
"Toys 'R' Us" has declined to be bound by the standard agreement between 
the Commercial Employers' Association (HAO) and the union, stating that 
Toys' legitimate business needs required a customized agreement. The 
union maintains that Toys refuses to sign a collective bargaining 
agreement and as of late-June 1995 had been on strike for almost two 
months. A number of other unions performing services, from deliveries of 
merchandise to banking of cash register receipts, were refusing to 
service "Toys 'R' Us". Swedish unions with membership totalling 3.5 
million people have called for a consumer boycott of "Toys 'R' Us". As 
of late-June 1995, negotiations were continuing. 
Long accustomed to unemployment rates of 3 percent or less, Sweden's 
labor force is currently suffering its highest jobless rate since the 
1930's. Open unemployment in Sweden peaked in late-1993 from the very 
low figure of 1.5 percent of the work force in 1990 to level out at 
about 8.5 percent. It is down to about 7 percent now. Assuming 2-3 
percent annual growth, unemployment is forecast to decrease by about one 
percent a year for the next several years. With the high levels of 
unemployment, wage considerations seem less important among labor rank 
and file than does job security in many sectors of the economy.
The government's labor market policy has been to place emphasis on 
active measures rather than passive handouts. Indeed, to the 7 percent 
open unemployment statistic must be added a further 5-6 percent for 
people in government "labor market policy" retraining or work programs. 
Sweden's well-regarded work and training programs are at capacity and 
have become overburdened in terms of training capacity; there are 
limited job vacancies in almost every field for which training can be 
offered. These programs focus on providing the unemployed with new 
skills and job placement, rather than cash benefits. Unemployment was a 
major issue in the September 1994 Parliamentary elections.
Sweden has ratified most ILO conventions dealing with workers' rights, 
freedom of association, collective bargaining, and the major working 
conditions and occupations safety and health conventions. In the spring 
of 1994, Sweden's two largest labor confederations charged the 
government with non-compliance with some ILO standards regarding several 
minor changes in late-1993 to the country's labor laws. These changes 
were repealed by the Swedish Parliament in early 1995. Worker rights are 
respected in law and in practice. In many instances, Sweden exceeds ILO 
- Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports
Sweden has foreign trade zones with bonded warehouses in the ports of 
Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmo. Goods may be stored for an unlimited 
time in these zones without customs clearance, but they may not be 
consumed or sold on a retail basis. Permission may be granted to use 
these goods as materials for industrial operations within a free trade 
zone. The same tax and labor laws apply to foreign trade zones as to 
other workplaces in Sweden.
- Capital Outflow Policy
There are no policies or restrictions prohibiting capital outflow from 
Sweden. The country serves as a home base for a number of large  
multinational corporations with extensive worldwide operations. These 
corporations have been moving into foreign markets and investing abroad 
since the 1960's. The deregulation of exchange controls in 1989 and the 
removal of restrictions on real estate investment abroad partly 
accounted for an increase in Swedish outgoing foreign direct investment 
during the latter part of the 1980's.  Three government entities are 
involved in promoting Swedish investment in developing countries. These 
are the Swedish Agency for International Technical and Economic 
Cooperation (Swedish acronym BITS), which helps with large projects; 
Swedecorp, which operates at the small end of the cooperation spectrum; 
and Swedfund International AB, which provides risk capital and assists 
in establishing joint ventures.

-  Major Foreign Investors
Sweden's FDI outflows represent a more important part of its gross 
domestic product than for most OECD countries. Outgoing direct 
investment rose markedly in the booming latter half of the 1980's as 
firms sought to gain footholds within the EU. With Sweden's application 
for EU membership, three years of recession, and deflated real estate 
prices, Swedish net direct investment abroad peaked out in 1990 to tail 
off to less feverish levels. The recessionary period from 1991-1993 
adversely affected incoming direct investment, despite the removal of 
most impediments to such investment in order to harmonize with EU 
The United States is well represented on the Swedish business scene 
through subsidiaries which in 1993 employed 28,000 people, or 12-1/2 
percent of the work force of all foreign-owned subsidiaries in Sweden. 
The estimated book value of direct U.S. investment in Sweden at the end 
of 1994 stood at $2.7 billion (U.S. Department of Commerce figure). 
United States is represented in Sweden by a branch of Citibank.  
The dynamics of incoming FDI (and outward investment) are reflective of 
market forces and impossible to capture in a "static" list or table.  We 
nonetheless submit the following presentation of major foreign 
acquisitions of Swedish firms and Swedish acquisitions of foreign firms 
in 1994, prepared by the Corporate Finance Department of KPMG Bohlins 
AB, and the Ministry of Industry and Commerce in early 1995.
The following tables show the pattern of foreign direct investment in 
Sweden and, for comparison purposes, a breakdown of Swedish investment 

    Major Foreign Corporate Investments in Sweden,
    (Millions U.S. Dollars)

Foreign Investor            Swedish Target    Mil. USD
----------------            --------------    --------
Al Amoudi, Kuwait         OK Petroleum             797
CWB & Goldman Sachs, US   Tarkett                  459
ABN Amro Holding NV       Alfred Berg Holding      216
Orkla AS, Norway          Procordia Food           574
ISS, International,
  Denmark                 Vardbo                   n/a
ISS, International        Skandia Stad    n/a
Raision Tehtaat, Finland  ABB Flotek,(Sweden)      n/a
Bodycote International    ABB Powdermet (80%)        6
Grace & Co, W.R.,U.S.     Adtec (Sweden)           n/a
Parker Hannifin, U.S.     Atlas Copco Automation   n/a
British Steel, UK         Avesta Sheffield (9%)    137
Ad Opt Technologies,
  Canada                  Carmen Data Systems        3
Singer & Friedlander
  Group, U.S.             Carnegie (55%)            87
Leif Hoegh & CO, Norway   Cool Carriers (50.1%)    n/a
Ingram Industries, U.S.   Datateam                 n/a
Instrumentarium Corp.
  Finland                 Gambro                    61
CWB Capital Partners      Iro                       84
Siebe                     NAF Group                 35
Cambrex Corp. U.S.        Nobel Chemicals          131

    Major Swedish Corporate Investments Abroad,
    (Millions U.S. Dollars)

Swedish Investor            Foreign Target       Mil. USD
----------------            --------------       --------
NCC                        Vantaa Liikenne, Finland    32
EUROC                      Talsu Buv Materiali,Latvia   2
Svedala Industri           Polaris, South Africa      n/a
Avesta Sheffield           Eastern Stainless, U.S.    n/a
Volvo AB                   Drogmoller Karosserien,
                              Germany                 n/a
Getinge Industrier         Decker special Equipm.
                              Belgium                 n/a
Industrivarden             Illmastointi               n/a
Mo & Domsjo                Comercial Papelera, Spain  n/a
EUROC                      Cimangola (49%)             21
Celsius Industrier         Burmeister & Wain (stake)  n/a

- Description of Banking System
Credit-market institutions in Sweden fall into two main categories, 
banking institutions and capital-market institutions. Apart from the 
Central Bank, there are two main types of banks: commercial banks and 
savings banks. After amendments to banking legislation in 1969, the 
various types of banks are entitled to operate in what are basically 
identical areas. In 1990, Sweden opened its borders to foreign-owned 
banks but to date, these have primarily concentrated on the business 
sector. For banking operations, a charter ("oktroj") is necessary. 
Moreover, the banks' activities are subject to close supervision by the 
Swedish Finance Inspectorate (Finansinspektionen). The banking sector 
has been rocked to its very foundations by developments in the recent 
past. Deregulation of the sector, followed by sharply expanded lending 
(especially for real estate acquisition) during a period of overheating 
and rapid inflation in the second half of the 1980's, and the subsequent 
bursting of the bubble when real estate prices collapsed toward the end 
of the decade, led to substantial loan losses for the banks. As the bank 
crisis accelerated, the government had to engage itself in a series of 
ad hoc rescue efforts to guarantee the commitments of banks and mortgage 
institutions toward their depositors and investors and a special agency, 
the Bank Support Council, was set up to manage the assistance program. 
The largest banks are the state-owned Nordbanken, Skandinaviska Enskilda 
Banken, Svenska Handelsbanken and Swedbank (The Savings Bank 
Foundations). The only American bank represented in Sweden is Citibank.
- Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trading
Foreign exchange restrictions in Sweden were removed in 1991. Commercial 
transactions are in general not subject to any restrictions. There are 
no restrictions on remittances of profits, or from investment 
liquidation proceeds. Royalty and license fee payments may be freely 
transferred out of Sweden. Moreover, yields on invested funds, such as 
dividends and interest receipts, are usually freely transferred.
- General Financing Availability
Sweden does not offer special tax or other inducements to attract 
foreign capital. Foreign-owned companies enjoy the same access as 
Swedish-owned enterprises to the country's credit market and government-
sponsored incentives to business.

- How to finance exports/Methods of Payment
The Swedish Government provides basic export promotion support, through 
its financing, jointly with Swedish industry, of the Swedish Trade 
There are two general risks in the financing of foreign trade; the 
credit risk and the foreign exchange risk but the latter can be avoided 
by quoting sales in dollars only. Prepayment and letters of credit 
involve the least risk for the exporter but is not conducive to 
increased sales. After a relationship has been established, U.S. 
exporters should be open to other trade credit terms.

- Types of available export financing and insurance
- Project financing available
The Swedish Government and Swedish industry jointly finance the Swedish 
Export Credit Corporation, which grants medium- and long-term credits to 
finance exports of capital goods and large-scale service projects.
- List of banks with correspondent U.S. banking arrangement

Nordbanken AB                    Nordbanken U.S. 
Smalandsgatan 17                 555 Theodore Fremd Avenue
S-105 71 Stockholm               Suite B300
Tel: Int/46/8-614 7000           Rye, NY 10680
Fax: Int/46/8-200846             Tel: (914) 925-2344
                                 Fax: (914) 967-0519
Svenska Handelsbanken AB         Svenska Handelsbanken
Kungstradgardsgatan 2            599 Lexington Avenue
S-106 70 Stockholm               New York, NY 10022
Tel: Int/46/8-701 1000           Tel: (212) 326-5100
Fax: Int/46/8-701 4835           Fax: (212) 326-5196

SE-Banken                        Scandinaviska Enskilda Banken
Kungstradgardsgatan 8            245 Park Avenue
S-106 40 Stockholm               New York, NY 10167
Tel: Int/46/8-763 8000           Tel: (212) 286-0600
Fax: Int/46/8-763 7163           Fax: (212) 370-1709
Citibank                         Citibank
Box 1422                         399 Park Avenue
S-111 84 Stockholm               New York, NY 10167
Tel. Int/46/8-723 3400           Tel. (212) 559-1394
Fax  Int/46/8-611 4843           Fax  (212) 759-3973

- Business Customs
Business customs are similar to those in the United States and a 
visiting U.S. businessman would easily adapt to those prevailing in 

- Travel Advisory and Visas
U.S. travelers to Sweden must have a valid passport.  A tourist or 
business visa is not required for stays up to 3 months (the 90-day 
period begins when entering the Nordic area: Sweden, Norway, Denmark, 
Iceland or Finland).
For further information concerning entry requirements for Sweden, 
travelers can contact the Swedish Embassy at 1501 M Street, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. 20005, telephone: (202) 467-2600. Sweden has no 
vaccination requirements.
Certain vaccinations, however, are recommended or required by the United 
States for Americans traveling abroad.  Medical care is widely available 
in Sweden.  U.S. medical insurance is not always valid out of the United 
States.  Travelers have found that in some cases, supplemental medical 
insurance with specific overseas coverage has proved to be useful.  
Further information on health matters can be obtained from the Center 
for Disease Control's International Travelers' hot line, telephone: 
(404) 332-4559.

-  Holidays
New Year's Day: January 1
Epiphany: January 6 
Good Friday and Easter Monday 
Swedish Labor Day: May 1 
Ascension Day (sixth Thursday after Easter) 
Midsummer Day: (the Saturday between June 19 and 26) 
All Saints Day: (first Saturday in November) 
Christmas: December 25-26   
Offices are also closed on Mid-Summer Eve, Christmas Eve, and New Year's 
Eve.  Government and many business offices generally close 1:00 p.m. on 
the day before major holidays.  
- Business Infrastructure
The business infrastructure is comparable to the United States.

1. Profile
- Population    8.8 million        (a)
- Population growth rat    0.5 %
- Religions    Lutheran 90 %, other 10 %
- Government system    Constitutional monarchy
- Language    Swedish
- Work week    Monday-Friday, 40 hrs.

B. Domestic Economy (USD millions except where noted)
                              1994    1995(E)    1996(E)
- GDP                       196,200    201,105    206,900    (b)
- GDP growth rate (%)           2.2        2.5        2.9    (b)
- GDP per capita (U.S. $)    22,406     22,966     23,632    (b)
- Government spending as
  % of GDP                     70.5       70.1       67.5    (b)
- Inflation (%)                 2.2        2.9        2.7    (b)
- Unemployment (% of work-
  force)                        7.4        7.0        6.1    (b)
- Foreign exchange reserves  22,897        n/a        n/a    (b)
- Average exchange rate 
  for USD 1.00                 7.71       7.71       7.71    (b)
- Foreign debt(E)            69,000        n/a        n/a    (b)
- Debt service ratio
 (interest payments in 
  relation to foreign income)   22%        n/a        n/a    (b)

C. Trade (USD millions except where noted)
                           1994    1995(E)    1996(E)
- Total exports          61,117    67,595    72,529    (a,b)
- Total imports          51,587    55,456    58,783    (a,b)
- Exports (from the U.S.) 4,421     4,753     5,038    (a,c)
- Imports (from Sweden to
  the U.S)                4,881     5,398     5,792    (a,c)
Sources:  a) Swedish Central Bureau of Statistics
          b) Swedish Institute of Economic Research, Swedish
             Ministry of Finance, Central Bank
          c) Embassy forecasts

D. Investment statistics
    Net Foreign Investments in Sweden, 1991-1994
    by Country and Area
    (Millions SEK, Current Prices)

Country             1991    1992    1993    1994
-------                                     ----
Belgium             1,523       89       97      36
Denmark             4,034    1,052    1,907      35
Finland             1,545      978    3,009     751
France             12,507    1,608      344  -8,473
Germany             2,841    1,750      837     648
Netherlands        11,843  -10,632    2,565  21,285
Norway              2,094      682    1,041    -704
Switzerland           314       37    1,944   1,531
United Kingdom      1,020    3,041    2,267  12,018
United States      -2,114      842    2,497   2,195
Other Countries     2,371    1,308      727   7,310
Reinvested Profits
  (all countries)    216    -3,578      864   15,403
GRAND TOTAL       38,194    -2,823    18,099    52,127

  Total Nordics    7,673    2,712    5,957       82
  Total EFTA       4,899    1,777    5,998    1,604
  Total EC        33,970   -2,896    8,073    25,613
  Total OECD      36,802     -144   16,631    30,045
Source:  Central Bank, February 1995

    Net Foreign Investments in Sweden, 1994
    by Country and Area
    Percentage Shares of Total and GDP

Country          1994    Percent    Percent
-------          (Mil.    Share    Share
                  SEK)      of      of
                         Total      GDP
                 ----    ------    ------
Belgium            36    0.07    0.002
Denmark            35    0.07    0.002
Finland           751    1.44    0.049
France         -8,473  -16.25   -0.558
Germany           648    1.24    0.042
Netherlands    21,285   40.83    1.403
Norway           -704   -1.35    0.046
Switzerland     1,531    2.94    0.100
United Kingdom 12,018   23.06    0.792
United States   2,195    4.21    0.144
Other Countries 7,310   14.02    0.481
Reinvested Profits
  (all countries) 15,403    29.55    1.015
GRAND TOTAL    52,127    100.00    4.6342

  Total Nordics    82     0.16    0.005
  Total EFTA    1,604     3.08    0.105
  Total EC     26,613    49.14    1.688
  Total OECD   30,045    57.64    1.980
Source:  Central Bank, February 1995

    Direct Foreign Investment in Sweden, 1992-1994
    by Sector (1)
    (Millions SEK)
Sector                      1992    1993    1994
------                      ----    ----    ----
Agriculture, Forestry,
  Fishing                       0    0    0
Mining & Quarrying             19    80    17
Manufacturing              -6,083    12,921    19,584
  Of Which:
  Food, Beverages, Tobacco     4    2,809    149
  Textiles, Clothing,
    & Leatherwear             68    19    166
  Wood Products               34    40    3,378
  Pulp & Paper; Printing     -57    1,575    730
  Chemicals, Etc.          1,879    3,629    18,522
  Non-Metallic Mineral Prod  104    1,252    1,252
  Metal Production         1,610    110    1,176
  Machinery & Equipment   -9,743    3,309    -4,820
  Other                       19    1    0
Public Utilities               0    51    0
Construction                  44    934    14
  Hotels & Restaurants     1,771    2,919    7,925
  Post, & Telecom            375    1,178    1,503
Banking, Insurance,
  Real Estate              3,229    2,998    7,142
  Of Which:
  Banks & Other Finance
    Institutions            -722    2,573    2,816
  Insurance                1,977    -1,907    23
  Real Estate &
    Business Services      1,954    2,238    4,303
Public Administration        517    250    55
Undistributed                893    551    483
Reinvested Profits (2)    -3,578    7,760    15,403
GRAND TOTAL    -2,823    29,474    52,127
(1) By the organizations to which the firms are affiliated.
(2)  Not distributed by sector, not included in totals.
Source:  Central Bank, February 1995

    Direct Foreign Investment in Sweden, 1994
    by Sector (1)
    Percentage Shares of Total and GDP
Sector    1994    Percent    Percent
------    (Mil.    Share    Share
    SEK)      of      of
        Total      GDP
    ----    ------    ------
Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing    0    0.00    0.0001
Mining & Quarrying    17    0.03    0.0000
Manufacturing    19,584    37.57    1.2909
  Of Which:
  Food, Beverages, Tobacco    149    0.29    0.0009
  Textiles, Clothing,
    & Leatherwear    166    0.32    0.0109
  Wood Products    3,378    6.48    0.2232
  Pulp & Paper; Printing    730    1.40    0.0481
  Chemicals, Etc.    18,522    35.43    1.2209
  Non-Metallic Minerals    282    0.54    0.0185
  Metal Production    1,176    2.25    0.0775
  Machinery & Equipment    -4,820    -9.24    -0.3177
  Other    0    0.00    0.0000
Public Utilities    0    0.00    0.0000
Construction    14    0.02    0.0009
  Hotels & Restaurants    7,925    15.20    0.5224
Transportation, Telecom.    1,503    2.88    0.0990
Banking, Insurance,
  Real Estate    7,142    13.70    0.4707
  Of Which:
  Banks & Other Finance
    Institutions    2,816    5.40    0.1856
  Insurance    23    0.04    -0.0015
  Real Estate &
    Business Services    4,303    8.25    0.2836
Public Administration    55    0.10    0.0036
Undistributed    483    0.92    0.0318
Reinvested Profits (2)    15,403    29.55    1.0153
TOTAL    52,127    100.00    3.4360
(1)  By the organizations to which the firms are linked.
(2)  Not distributed by sector, not included in totals.
Source: Central Bank, April 1995

    Direct Foreign Investment in Sweden
    Stock Figures by Country, 1993
    Percentage Share of Total and GDP

Country    1993    Pct    Pct
-------    (Bil.    Share    Share
    SEK)     of     of
        Total     GDP
    ----    -----    -----
Switzerland    16    16.0    1.10
Norway    15    14.0    1.03
United States    13    12.1    0.89
France    10    9.3    0.69
Netherlands    20    18.6    1.38
Germany    8    7.4    0.55
Finland    13    12.1    0.89
Denmark    3    2.8    0.20
Other Countries    2    1.9    0.14
TOTAL STOCK    107    100.0    7.38
OECD      107    100.0    7.38
EU         48     44.8    3.09
Nordics    31     28.9    1.99

    Direct Foreign Investment in Sweden
    Stock Figures by Sector, 1993
    Percentage Share of Total and GDP

Sector    1993    Pct    Pct
------    (Bil.    Share    Share
    SEK)     of     of
        Total     GDP
    ----    -----    -----
Credit Institutions
  Banks                 2    2.00    0.13
  Insurance             0    0       0
  Other Institutions    0    0       0
Non-Credit Institutions
  Manufacturing       52    48.00    3.59
  Services            52    48.00    3.59
Other Sectors          1    1.00    0.06
TOTAL STOCK         107    100.00    7.38
Central Bank 1993 report on investments.
    Net Swedish Investments Abroad, 1991-1994
    by Country and Area
    (Millions SEK, Current Prices)

Country              1991    1992    1993     1994
-------             ----    ----    ----      ----
Belgium            -231    1,181    -2,209       136
Denmark             744    1,272     2,981       595
Finland            -580      163     4,164      -266
France           18,652   -1,094     1,877    -1,079
Germany             836   -7,309    -1,787    -4,614
Ireland             131     -733    -1,741     1,011
Italy               148       28     5,517       194
Netherlands       5,240   -6,471    -2,079    11,816
Norway            2,523      708      -683    -1,113
United Kingdom    3,827   11,746     4,246     1,656
United States     2,730    3,013      -303     8,798
Other Countries   3,280      507     1,545     1,015
Reinvested Profits
  (all countries)    5,070    2,518    -1,495    29,827
TOTAL    42,370    5,529    10,338    49,117

  Total Nordics    2,702    2,141    2,566    -779
  Total EFTA       2,881    1,303    2,413    -78
  Total EC        29,971   -2,638    5,884    10,374
  Total OECD      35,270    1,882    8,174    19,498
Source:  Central Bank, April, 1995
E. U.S. and Swedish Contacts

- Swedish Government Agencies
The Swedish National Rail Administration
S-781 85 Borlange
Phone: 46/243/450 00
Fax: 46/243/450 09
The Swedish Defense Materiel Administration
S-115 88 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/782 4000
Fax: 46/8/667 5799
The Swedish Civil Aviation Administration
S-161 69 Bromma
Phone: 46/8/979 6800
Fax: 46/8/98 35 43
The Swedish National Post & Telecom Agency
(Post & Telestyrelsen)
Box 5398
S-102 46 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/678 5500
Fax: 46/8/678 5505
The Swedish National Police Board
Box 12256
S-102 26 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/769 7000
Fax: 46/8/769 7075
The Swedish Maritime Administration
Box 27808
S-115 21 Stockholm
Phone:46/8/666 6600
Fax: 46/8/662 4634
Swedish National Food Administration
(Statens Livsmedelsverk)
Box 622
S-751 26 Uppsala
Phone: 46/18/17 55 00
Fax: 46/18/10 58 48
The Swedish Board of Customs and Excises
Box 2267
S-103 17 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/789 7300
Fax: 46/8/20 80 12
The Swedish National Road Administration
Box 4202
S-171 04 Solna
Phone: 46/8/757 6600
Fax: 46/8/98 30 30

- Swedish Trade Associations
Swedish Federation of Commerce and Trade
(Grossistforbundet Svenska Handel)
Mr. Sture Lindmark, President
Box 5512
S-114 85 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/663 5280
Fax: 46/8/662 7457
The Federation of Swedish Commercial Agents
(Sveriges Handelsagenters Forbund)
Ms. Anna Wigardt Duhs, President
Hantverkargatan 46
S-112 21 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/654 0975
Fax: 46/8/650 3517
The Swedish Association of Suppliers of Office & Computer Equipment
Mr. Hans Iwan Bratt, President
Box 142
S-182 12 Danderyd
Phone: 46/8/753 3180
Fax: 46/8/755 1913
The Federation of Swedish Industries
Mr. H.G. Wessberg, President (acting)
Box 5501
S-114 85 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/783 8000
Fax: 46/8/662 3595

- Swedish Chambers of Commerce
Stockholm Chamber of Commerce
Mr. Tell Hermanson, Director Int'l Department
Box 16050
S-103 22 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/613 1800
Fax: 46/8/411 2432
American Chamber of Commerce
Ms. Marianne Raidna Wali, Executive Director
Box 5512
S-114 85 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/666 1100
Fax: 46/8/662 7457
Goteborg Chamber of Commerce
Mr. Peter Larsson, Director Int'l Department
Box 5253
S-402 25 Goteborg
Phone: 46/31/83 59 00
Fax: 46/31/83 59 36
Malmo Chamber of Commerce
Mr. Ingmar Nilsson, Director In't Department
Skeppsbron 2
S-211 20 Malmo
Phone: 46/40/735 50
Fax: 46/40/11 86 09

- Swedish Market Research Firms
Borell Market Reserach AB
Ms. Lillemor Borell, President
Baldersgatan 2
S-114 27 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/24 35 30
Fax: 46/8/24 40 15
Sevenco AB
Box 30131
S-104 25 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/619 5200
Fax: 46/8/13 02 88
Box 5572
S-114 85 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/663 5030
Fax: 46/8/783 0051
Gartner Group (Information Technology only)
Mr. Karl-Ake Soderberg, President
Box 1006
S-164 21 Kista
Phone: 46/8/752 2440
Fax: 46/8/751 6039
IDC (Information Technology only)
Mr. Per Corlin, President
Box 1096 
S-164 21 Kista
Phone: 46/8/751 04 15
Fax: 46/8/750 5888

- Banks in Sweden
Citibank International plc, Sweden (corporate customers only)
Mr. James Morrow, Managing Director
Box 1422
S-111 84 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/723 3400
Fax: 46/8/611 4843
Mr. Martin Kallerman, Vice President
S-105 71 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/614 7000
Fax: 46/8/24 09 68
Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
Mr. Tom Kallander, Vice President
S-106 40 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/763 8000
Fax: 46/8/763 7163

Mr. Magnus Uggla, Vice President
S-106 70 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/701 1000
Fax: 46/8/611 3858

- U.S. Embassy Contact
American Embassy
Ms. Barbara Slawecki, Commercial Counselor
Strandvagen 101
S-115 89 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/783 5346
Fax: 46/8/660 9181
Mr. Thomas A. Hamby, Agricultural Counselor
Strandvagen 101
115 89 Stockholm
Phone: 46/8/783 5390
Fax: 46/8/662 8495
- Washington-Based U.S.Government Country  Contact
U.S Department of Commerce
Mr. James Devlin, Nordic Desk Officer 
Room H-3043
Washington, D.C.   20230
Phone: 202/482 4414
Fax: 202/482 2897
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Mr. Gordon Nicks, Northern Europe Area Officer
Foreign Agricultural Service
Washington, D.C.   20250
Phone: 202/720 2144
Fax: 202/690 2909

- U.S.- Based Multipliers
Embassy of Sweden
Mr. Lars Bjerde, Government Procurement
1501 M. Street N.W.
Washington, D.C.   20005
Phone: 202/467 2600
Swedish Trade Council
Mr. Anders Kuikka, President
250 North Michigan Avenue
Suite 1200
Chicago, IL   60601-7594
Phone: 312/781 6222
Fax: 312/346 0683
Swedish-American Chamber of Commerce
Mr. Staffan Derning, President
599 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY   10022
Phone: 212/838 5530
Fax: 212/755 7953

Foreign Commercial Service
- List of Available and Upcoming ISAs and STRs 

1995 -     Analytical and Scientific Instruments
    Banking in Sweden
    Computers and Peripherals
    Computer Software
    Computer Terminals
    Electronic Components
    Equestrian Equipment 
    Household Consumer Goods
    Insurance Services
    Management Consulting Services
    Marine Fisheries Products
    Medical Equipment
    Sporting Goods
    Telecommunication Services
    Veterinary Equipment 
    Swedish Pharmaceutical Industry (STR)
1996 -    Agricultural Equipment
    Automotive Parts & Service Equipment
    Defense Equipment
    Medical Lasers
    Mobile Communications
    Sports and Leisure Wear Market
    Environmental Technologies (STR)

- List of Available and Upcoming reports
1995 -    Dairy Annual      SW9551A
          Wine Marketing    SW9549A
          Citrus Annual     SW9508A
1996-     Kiwifruit Annual    SW9648A
          Oilseeds & 
          Products Annual     SW9606A
          Seafood Semi Annual SW9654B
          Sugar Annual        SW9619A
          Grain & Feed Annual SW9611A
          Tobacco Annual      SW9621A
          Forest Products Annual  SW9655A
          Livestock Annual        SW9652A
          Fresh Deciduous Fruit Annual  SW9609A
          Seafood Annual        SW9654A
          Agricultural Situation Annual  SW9624A

FCS and FAS reports are available on the National Trade Data Bank.


October      PC World Expo, Goteborg
October      Int'l Technical Fair, Stockholm
November    Scanautomatic (Industrial Automation Fair) Goteborg
November    Security, Goteborg
November    Medicine, (Int'l Medical Fair) Stockholm
November    Vin Nordic, Stockholm

February    Int'l Furniture Fair, Stockholm
February    Stockholm Fashion Fair, Stockholm
March        Int'l Boat Fair, Stockholm
March        Maintenance Fair, Goteborg
March        TUR (Travel/Tourism,) Goteborg
April        Food Pack/Food Industry, Goteborg
May        Electronics Production/Electronics, Stockholm
September    PC World Expo, Goteborg
September    Household Consumer Goods Fair, Goteborg
September    Protection, Stockholm
September    Networks - Data Telecom, Stockholm
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