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U.S. Department of State 
Pakistan Country Commercial Guide 
Office of the Coordinator for Business Affairs 

                         COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE FY'96

                TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.      Executive Summary 

II.     Economic Trends and Outlook
        A.      Major Trends and Outlook
        B.      Principal Growth Sectors
        C.      Government Role in the Economy
        D.      Balance of Payments Situation 
        E.      Infrastructure Situation

III.    Political Environment
        A.      Nature of Political Relationship with the United States
        B.      Major Political Issues Affecting Business Climate
        C.      Political System
                1.     Schedule for Elections 
                2.     Major Political Parties
IV.     Marketing U.S. Products and Services
        A.      Distribution of Sales Channels
        B.      Use of Agents/Distributors:  Finding a Partner
        C.      Franchising
        D.      Direct Marketing
        E.      Joint Ventures/Licensing
        F.      Steps to Establishing an Office
        G.      Selling Factors/Techniques
        H.      Advertising and Trade Promotion
        I.      Pricing Products
        J.      Sales Service/Customer Support
        K.      Selling to the Government
        L.      Protecting Your Product from IPR Infringement
        M.      Need for a Local Attorney

V.      Leading Sectors for U.S. Exports and Investment
        A.      Best Prospects for Non-Agricultural Goods & Services
        B.      Best Prospects for Agricultural Products
        C.      Significant Investment Opportunities

VI.     Trade Regulations and Standards
        A.      Trade Barriers
        B.      Customs Valuation
        C.      Import Licenses
        D.      Export Controls
        E.      Import/Export Documentation
        F.      Temporary Entry
        G.      Labeling, Marking Requirements
        H.      Prohibited Imports
        I.      Standards
        J.      Free Trade Zones/Warehouses
        K.      Special Import Provisions
        L.      Membership in Free Trade Arrangements 

VII.    Investment Climate
        A.      Openness to Foreign Investment
        B.      Conversion and Transfer Policies
        C.      Expropriation and Compensation
        D.      Dispute Settlement
        E.      Political Violence
        F.      Performance Requirements/Incentives
        G.      Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
        H.      Protection of Property Rights
        I.      Regulatory System: Laws and Procedures
        J.      Bilateral Investment Agreements 
        K.      OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs
        L.      Labor
        M.      Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports
        N.      Capital Outflow Policy
        O.      Major Foreign Investors

VIII.   Trade and Project Financing
        A.      Brief Description of Banking System
        B.      Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trading
        C.      General Financing Availability
        D.      How to Finance Exports/Method of Payment
        E.      Types of Available Export Financing and Insurance
        F.      Project Financing Available
        G.      List of Banks with Corresponding U.S. Banking 

IX.  Business Travel
        A.      Business Customs
        B.      Travel Advisory and Visas
        C.      Holidays
        D.      Business Infrastructure

X.      Appendices

A.      Country Data
                Population Growth Rate
                Government System
                Work Week
B.      Domestic Economy
                Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 
                GDP Growth Rate
                GDP Per Capita
                Government Spending As A Percent of GDP
                Foreign Exchange Reserves
                Average Exchange Rate for USD 1.00
                Debt Service Ratio
                U.S. Economic/Military Assistance
C.      Trade
                Total Country Exports
                Total Country Imports
                U.S. Exports.
                U.S. Imports
D.      Investment Statistics
E.      U.S. and Pakistan Contacts
                U.S. Embassy Trade Related Contacts
                Bilateral Business Councils
                Trade And Industry Associations
                Market Research Firms
                Commercial Banks
F.      Market Research
G.      Trade Event Schedule

                Country Commercial Guide FY'96 - Pakistan

I.      Executive Summary

Pakistan, the world's ninth most populous country, is well into a 
successful program of market-oriented reform and offers a promising, 
although challenging, market for U.S. exporters.

Pakistan's critical need for additional electrical generating capacity 
and improved infrastructure afford major opportunities for U.S. exports 
and investment.  The development of substantial coal reserves recently 
found in the Tharparkar Desert of Sindh with the technical assistance of 
the U.S. Agency for International Development and construction of power 
plants fueled by that coal are additional promising ventures, along with 
privatization and upgrading of the telecommunications sector.  Pakistan 
will also require sophisticated machinery, notably in textile 
production, as it upgrades low value-added sectors and develops export 

Pakistan's overall and business attitude toward the United States is 
quite positive, and bilateral trade and investment are poised to expand 
strongly, despite the suspension of U.S. economic and military 
assistance because of differences over nuclear policy.  Pakistan and the 
United States share a long history of close bilateral relations and 
linkages through immigration, travel, education, and close collaboration 
in the opposition to the decade-long Soviet occupation of Afghanistan.  
Pakistanis sometimes note that U.S. goods are a bit pricey relative to 
those of some competitors, and occasionally express surprise that the 
United States and U.S. firms do not do more to develop their presence in 
the Pakistani market.
Observers offer several explanations for the incomplete development of 
the Pakistan market by U.S. firms.  U.S. exports are generally perceived 
as quite competitive on the basis of quality, but somewhat less so on 
financing terms, and there is a sense that U.S. firms generally do not 
move as quickly as some competitors.  Seemingly paradoxically, U.S. 
firms may not be as patient as some competitors in pursuing bids and 
projects that take long periods of time to develop.  As in many 
developing countries, corruption is often a fact of business life, and 
U.S. legislation, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, precludes 
U.S. firms from playing on the same terms as some competitors.

Nonetheless, many U.S. firms which have taken the time to familiarize 
themselves with the country and the market have found Pakistan a 
profitable place to do business.  Pakistan is a different and distinct 
market, requiring adaptability and persistence.  However, increased 
investment by U.S. firms already in Pakistan, expanded sales by existing 
exporters, and multiplying inquiries from new-to-market firms are a 
strong endorsement of this market for U.S. firms willing to take a 
carefully prepared plunge.  
The best prospects for U.S. exports to Pakistan are analyzed in detail 
in Section V.  The United States has been, after Japan, the second 
largest exporter to Pakistan and there are promising opportunities for 
increases in a variety of agricultural and industrial exports.

The following sub-sectors, in descending order of priority, are judged 
best prospects in the agricultural sector.  Details on these are 
available in Section V: wheat, cotton, feed grains, soybeans, non-fat 
dry milk, livestock by products, bovine hides & skins, and pulses.

The following sub-sectors are judged best prospects in the industrial 
sector.  They are grouped in three ranks: I (high), II (medium), and III 
(low).  Details on these subsectors may be found in Section V: Rank I: 
industrial chemicals, agricultural chemicals, electrical power systems, 
plastic materials and resins, telecommunications equipment, pollution 
control equipment; Rank II: Oil and gasfield machinery and supplies, 
iron and steel, computers and peripherals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, 
transportation equipment and parts; Rank III:  Pumps, valves, and 
compressors, paper and paperboard, security & safety equipment.

In general, principal competitors for U.S. businesses in Pakistan are 
European, Japanese, and South Korean firms.  Japan, France, the United 
Kingdom and others offer mixed credits and tied aid credits which often 
make it difficult for U.S. suppliers to compete. Country Commercial 
Guides (CCG's) were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion 
Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force. CCG's are 
prepared annually through the combined efforts of several U.S. 
Government agencies at U.S. Embassies.

II.  Economic Trends and Outlook

A.  Major Trends and Outlook

Since the late 1980s Pakistan has pursued a program of market-oriented 
economic adjustment, reform and development, including strong 
encouragement of foreign direct investment.  Supported by the 
international financial institutions and bilateral donors, this program 
has aimed at enhancing macroeconomic stability, instituting structural 
reforms to promote private sector- and export-led industrial 
development, and reversing past neglect of key social sectors such as 
health, education and population planning.

Pakistan has made considerable progress under this program, but the 
process has not been entirely even, and key challenges remain for its 
$60 billion economy.  On the plus side, Pakistani governments have 
adopted generally sound policies that should lay the basis for sustained 
growth and increased exchange with the international economy.  
Specifically, governments have sought to reduce fiscal and external 
imbalances, reduce trade barriers, modernize the financial sector, 
privatize state-owned industries, reform the tax system, encourage 
private investment in the critical energy sector, and offer specific 
incentives to attract foreign investment, which is considered critical 
to the overall development effort.  Moreover, governments from all the 
main political parties support these reformist, market-oriented 
policies.  This program has enjoyed generous support from the IMF, in 
the form of an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility approved in 
February 1994, and both adjustment and project loans from the World 

At the same time, various problems have kept Pakistan's progress below 
its potential.  Floods, drought and pests hurt agricultural output in 
the early 1990s; given the importance of cotton, these problems have 
held back overall economic growth.  Domestic political instability has 
continued even after the free, democratic elections that brought the 
current government of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto to office in October 
1993.  Ethnic and sectarian violence has worsened in Karachi, the 
country's business and finance capital.  Policy implementation has 
sometimes lagged pronouncement, and reports of improper official 
influence in business and economic decisions have become common.

Mixed recent economic performance reflects the interplay of these 
positive and negative trends.  Real economic growth depicts a rising 
trend, but has been below government targets: output grew 2.3 percent in 
1992-93, 3.8 percent in 1993-94, and an estimated 4.7 percent in 1994-
95.  Recent annual consumer inflation of 9-15 percent has been above 
historically modest rates.  Fiscal slippages have led to difficulties in 
completing the IMF program.  On the other hand, solid progress has been 
made in improving external balance, and Pakistan has maintained its 
historically excellent record with foreign creditors.  New investment 
inflows, both portfolio and direct, are at an all-time high, and the 
government is considering trying to replicate the success it has had 
attracting private, including foreign, investment in the energy field in 
other infrastructure sectors.  The State Bank of Pakistan has evolved 
into a largely autonomous central bank.

Poverty remains a serious problem in Pakistan.  Average per capita 
income was about $450 in 1994-95, and income and wealth are not 
equitably distributed.  The population of about 130 million is growing 
at almost 3 percent per year.  Economic fortunes are closely linked to 
cotton and the textile products made from it.  Pakistani governments, 
however, have made some progress in diversifying the economy, and have 
committed to improving the quality of life for poorer citizens through 
the Social Action Program, a multiyear effort to raise education, health 
and sanitation standards and reduce the population growth rate.

There are significant opportunities for U.S. and other foreign suppliers 
and investors in Pakistan.  Realizing these opportunities will require 
sound economic policies by the government--a critical factor in 
Pakistan's access to foreign financing--as well as actions to improve 
political stability and better develop human resources.

        B.      Principal Growth Sectors

- Economic Growth

After growing at an average rate of over 6 percent per year from 1980 to 
1991, real GDP increased by only 2.3 percent in PFY 1992-93, in the 
context of an external payments crisis and severe political instability.  
Growth rebounded to 3.8 percent in 1993-94, despite a poor cotton crop 
(damaged by a virus and other pests) and related setbacks in the textile 
industry, but fell short of the government's target of 6.5 percent.  The 
rising trend continued in 1994-95 with growth estimated at 4.7 percent 
(target: 6.9 percent).  The government's growth target for 1995- 96 is 
6.5 percent.

The Pakistani economy is almost evenly divided between the commodity 
sector (51 percent of GDP) and the services sector (49 percent), shares 
that have held constant for about a decade.  Sectoral shares in 1994-95 
GDP were estimated by the Federal Bureau of Statistics as follows:

Commodity sector                               51.0 percent

of which:
        Agriculture                            24.0
        Manufacturing                          18.5
        Construction                            4.1
        Electricity & gas distribution          3.9    
        Mining                                  0.5

Services sector                                49.0

of which:
        Wholesale and retail trade                     16.1
        Transport, storage & communication             10.2
        Public administration & defense                 6.5
        Ownership of dwellings                          5.6
        Finance and insurance                           2.3
        Other services                                  8.2

- Agriculture

Pakistan has one of largest irrigation systems in the world and its 
increasing agricultural production is being tested in meeting the 
country's rapidly expanding food requirements.  Despite some recent 
diversification, agriculture remains the dominant sector of the 
Pakistani economy, accounting for about 24 percent of GDP, half the 
employed labor force, and a large share of foreign exchange earnings, as 
well as providing the base for key industries such as textiles and 
sugar.  Pakistan is a net exporter of agricultural commodities, despite 
annual imports of more than one billion dollars worth of wheat and 
edible oils.

Agricultural production recovered somewhat and grew by approximately 5.0 
percent in the 1994/95 fiscal year.  Record production of wheat, good 
output of sugarcane and rice and a better cotton crop boosted the 
agricultural sector.  The cotton crop for the third consecutive year was 
plagued with uncontrolled pests and leaf curl virus.  As a result 
production did not reach target levels and prices were much higher than 
in previous years.  1994/95 cotton production was 8.7 million 375-pound 
bales, 8% higher than the previous year (Pakistan measures cotton in 375 
pound bales, while the U.S. uses 480-pound bales).  Minor crops, 
livestock, fisheries, and forestry showed strong growth in 1994-95.

Pakistan has two principal crop seasons:  the "kharif", which begins in 
April-June and ends October-December; and the "rabi", which begins in 
November-December and ends April- May.  Wheat, cotton, sugarcane, and 
rice continue to be the major crops, accounting for nearly 90 percent of 
value added in the agricultural crop sector.  On a much smaller scale 
Pakistan also grows barley, bajra (millet), jowar (sorghum), maize, gram 
(pulses), sunflowerseed, rapeseed, mustard, sesamum, and tobacco.

Agriculture's share in GDP has declined from 53 percent in 1949-50 to 
just about 24 percent in 1994-95, despite an average 3.4 percent annual 
growth in agricultural output over the last four decades.  
Industrialization, in particular the development of the textile sector, 
has been the major factor in reducing agriculture's share of GDP.  
During 1994/95 the agriculture sector  grow by 4.94 percent against 2.86 
percent in 1993/94.  There have been encouraging increases in the 
production of wheat, sunflowerseed, rice and gram.

In an effort to boost rural incomes the GOP has increased the support 
prices of many commodities over the last two years.  The government has 
removed the price subsidies  on fertilizers, increased the availability 
of agricultural credit, and provided incentives for the import of 
agricultural machinery.  An imported tractor scheme was launched for 
providing 120,000 tractors on concessional rates.  Programs to fight the 
menace of water logging and salinity and cotton leaf curl virus were 
also continued.   GOP agricultural priorities include:  integrated 
development of agriculture and irrigation facilities; better land and 
water management practices; improvements in fertilizer use, pest 
management, and research; diversification to higher-value crops and 
development of agro-industries.  

Wheat - Wheat accounts for about 37 percent of Pakistan■s cropland.   
During 1994-95 the GOP made consistent efforts to increase acreage under 
wheat cultivation.  Wheat acreage  increased by 1.47 percent and 
production increased by 9.8 percent over the previous year.   The 
favorable weather conditions at sowing time and timely rains throughout  
growing season helped in attaining the targeted acreage and also 
resulted in higher yields.  High yielding varieties, and timely 
application of fertilizer have considerably increased the crop yields.  
Wheat is a key element in the staple diet of a majority of the 
population, its availability at a reasonable price is an important 
socio-political objective for the government.  The GOP imported more 
than two million tons of wheat during 1994-95 to supplement domestic 
reserves and to assure a regular supply at stable prices.

Cotton - The cotton crop, which was nearly 13 million bales in 1991-92, 
declined to 8.7 million bales in 1994-95.  In 1994-95, high infestation 
of Helioithis armigera (American bollworm) substantially damaged the 
crop.  However,  the leaf curl virus had less impact than in the 
previous two years.  These problems have seriously engaged the attention 
of the GOP and many control efforts resulted in improvement in cotton 
production.  In addition to providing raw material to the local textile 
industry, lint cotton is a major export item.  In the peak period of 
1985-86 through 1991-92, Pakistan earned an annual average of $550 
million from cotton exports.  However, exports decreased to a value of 
$76 million in 1994/95, the lowest level in the last decade, due to 
disease damaged small crops for three years in a row.

Rice - Rice is the second largest staple food crop in Pakistan and is a 
major export item.  Pakistan is the third largest rice-exporting country 
in the world, after the U.S. and Thailand.  The principal export 
varieties are long-grained non-glutinous aromatic "Basmati" rice grown 
in the Punjab and similar, but non-aromatic Irri-6 rice planted in Sindh 
province.  Rice exports were valued at to $390 million in 1994-95.

Sugar Cane - Pakistan's sugar production depends almost entirely on 
sugar cane, although there is some production of sugar beets in the 
NWFP.   The 1994/95  sugarcane acreage was  5 percent more than in 
1993/94 as land went from cotton to sugarcane and production increased 
by 3 percent to 45.7 million tons.   Attractive support prices of cane 
and favorable weather conditions in Punjab resulted in higher 
production.  The crop in Sindh was damaged due to heavy rains and the 
yield gone down by 1.9 percent.

Tobacco - Pakistan grows tobacco and produces tobacco products, but the 
market for domestic products is substantially undercut by smuggled 
goods.  Despite these major leakages, the cigarette industry is a 
significant contributor to excise and sales tax revenues.  Acreage 
planted in tobacco has increased gradually over the past decade and 
1994/95 production totaled 106,837 tons, with about half delivered to 
cigarette manufacturers and the remainder sold for rural home use (in 
hand-rolled cigarettes called birris in water pipes, and as snuff).  The 
major tobacco growing region is in the NWFP.

Minor crops  - Minor crops account for only 2.2 percent of total 
cultivated area; these include oilseeds (sunflower, soybean, safflower) 
chilies, pulses, potatoes, and onions.

Fisheries - Pakistan's fishing industry is relatively modest, but has 
shown strong growth in recent years.  The domestic market is quite 
small, with per capita annual consumption approximately 2.0 kilograms.  
About 80 percent of production comes from marine fisheries from two main 
areas, the Sindh coast east from Karachi to the Indian border, and the 
Makran coast of Baluchistan.  Although 90 percent of the total marine 
catch is fish, the shrimp which constitute the remainder are prized 
because of their greater relative value and demand in foreign markets.  
Inland fisheries are quite rudimentary.

The annual catch is about 550-600 thousand tons.  About one third of the 
edible catch is consumed fresh, nine percent is frozen, eight percent 
canned, and about 43 percent used as fish meal for animal food.  
Pakistan's exports of fish and fish products have grown rapidly, from 
$94.4 million in 1989-90 to $125 million in 1993/94.  The largest 
markets for Pakistan's fish are Japan, Singapore, the UK, and the US.   
The GOP is promoting the marine culture of shrimp in ponds, focusing on 
the Keti Bundar area of the Thatta district of Sindh in an attempt to 
boost production and foreign exchange earnings.   GOP is also 
strengthening infrastructure facilities, introducing aquaculture 
techniques.  Packaging and processing technologies are quite basic; 
improvements could reduce perishability and increase the attractiveness 
and profitability of Pakistani fish exports.

Livestock - Livestock contributes about 34 percent of the value produced 
by the agricultural sector.  Principal products are milk, beef, mutton, 
poultry, and wool.  The most notable recent growth has been in poultry 
production, following a series of government concessions and incentives.  
In an effort to enhance milk and meat production, the GOP recently 
launched a comprehensive livestock development project with Asian 
Development Bank assistance.  In addition, the GOP is broadening 
extension and artificial breeding services, rationalizing animal health 
services, and introducing high-yielding fodder varieties. 

Forestry -  Forests cover only 4.8 percent of Pakistan's area.  The 
principal forest products are timber, principally for house construction 
and furniture, and firewood.  The growing population and rising 
standards of living have led to an accelerating demand for timber, which 
is partially met by increasing imports.    

- Industry

Pakistan, which had almost no large industrial units at the time of 
Partition in 1947, now has a fairly broad industrial base, and 
manufacturing accounts for about 18.6 percent of GDP.  Industrial policy 
in Pakistan has undergone several distinct phases.  During the 1950s, it 
followed a policy of import substitution backed by high tariffs and 
import controls.  In the 1960s, Pakistan adopted an export promotion 
strategy but did not dismantle the structure of protection for domestic 
industry.  In 1972, Pakistan made a major policy shift and nationalized 
many large industrial establishments and agricultural processing units, 
based on the Z.A. Bhutto government's concern about concentrated 
ownership.  Since the 1970s, Pakistan has returned to its original 
policy emphasis on the private sector, although many industrial units 
remained under government ownership until the privatization initiatives 
which began in the late 1980s.  A 1984 industrial policy statement by 
the government of General Zia-ul-Haq stated its commitment to a mixed 
economy in which the private sector was the engine of growth and the 
public sector served as an investor of last resort, preferably in joint 
ventures with the private sector.  The privatization effort which began 
in the late 1980s under the first Benazir Bhutto administration 
represents the current phase of industrial policy.

Cotton textile production is the single most important industry, 
accounting for about 20 percent of large-scale industrial employment.  
Cotton yarn, cotton cloth, made-up textiles, ready-made garments, and 
knitwear collectively accounted for over 57.0 percent of Pakistan's 
exports in 1993-94, and about 56.7 percent in 1994-95.  Other important 
industries are cement, vegetable oil, fertilizer, sugar, steel, 
machinery, tobacco, paper and paperboard, chemicals, and food 
processing.  The GOP is attempting to diversify the country's industrial 
base and to increase the emphasis on export industries.  Small-scale and 
cottage industries are numerically significant but account for a 
relatively small proportion of the GDP, about 6.0 percent.  (Small-scale 
industry includes facilities which employ fewer than 50 workers and 
cottage industries are industrial units in which the owner works and is 
aided by family members but employs no hired labor.)

The performance of the manufacturing sector somewhat slowed in 1994-95 
as a result of lower growth in large scale manufacturing (small scale 
manufacturing maintained last year's growth of 8.4 percent). The decline 
is attributed to inadequate production of cotton, and its downstream 
effects on cotton ginning, cotton yarn and fabrics; slower growth of 
sugar production due to delayed start of sugarcane crushing; and decline 
in the production of some major industries. Other factors include load-
shedding (blackouts to ration available electricity supply) and the law 
and order situation in Karachi in particular.  Manufacturing's share of 
GDP in 1994-95 was 18.5 percent, about the same as last year.

Public Industrial Sector - The public industrial sector, under the 
Production Wing of the Ministry of Industries and Production, comprises 
eight holding corporations which controlled 74 industrial units.  Out of 
these, 31 units have been privatized as of March, 1995. The GOP had 
announced plans to privatize additional units. The eight holding 
corporations include:  Pakistan Steel; the State Cement Corporation; the 
National Fertilizers Corporation; Pakistan Automobile Corporation 
(PACO); Federal Chemical and Ceramics Corporation (FCCC); State 
Petroleum Refining & Petrochemical Corporation (PERAC); State 
Engineering Corporation (SEC); and the Pakistan Industrial Development 
Corporation (PIDC). These public sector units will continue to play a 
key role in certain sectors, such as heavy engineering, steel, 
automobile, petroleum and defense production.  

Textiles - The textile industry is the single most important 
manufacturing sector, accounting for an average of 40 percent of 
manufacturing employment, 60 percent of manufacturing exports, and 30 
percent of manufacturing value added.  Pakistan's textile industry 
produces cotton yarn, cotton cloth, made-up textiles and apparel. In 
order to reduce pressure on the demand for raw cotton, the polyester 
fiber and yarn industry has also grown significantly in recent years. 
Pakistan also has 14 jute mills with an installed capacity of 42,000 
spindles and 2,198 looms. The industry produced 50,623 tons of jute 
products in 1994-95. 

Deregulation and various government incentives have raised the total 
installed capacity to 8.3 million spindles and 130,000 rotors from about 
6.9 million spindles and 97,000 rotors a year earlier.  Despite recent 
efforts to induct high speed spindles, automatic cone winders, 
electronic splicers and other high-tech equipment the industry still is 
concentrated in the preliminary stages of processing.  In general, large 
firms concentrate on spinning and weaving leaving garment-making to 
highly fragmented small to meium-scale producers.  The number of textile 
units increased from 342 in 1993-94 to 486 on December 31, 1994.  The 
textile industry needs to move to higher value-added production and to 
rationalize its operations in order to face the challenges and 
opportunities of the phased elimination of quotas as part of the Uruguay 
Round trade agreement.

In the late 1980s, the GOP focused its industrial development resources 
on increasing spinning capacity; cotton yarn production rose 
substantially.  Exports of cotton yarn in 1993-94 totalled 524 thousand 
tons, or $1.1 billion.  In 1994-95, cotton yarn exports are expected to 
total $1.4 billion. The dominant products are coarse and medium count 
yarn.  Concern about overcapacity led government-owned development 
finance institutions (DFIs) early in 1992 to suspend new loan 
commitments to the spinning sector.  The spinning industry has a 
powerful lobby in the All Pakistan Textile Mills Association (APTMA).

The weaving sector took a substantial time to recover from the impact of 
the government policies in the mid-1970s, when large mills were broken 
up into smaller entities generally capable of producing only low-quality 
goods.  In the late 1980s, boom times and easy government credit led to 
renewed investment in the weaving sector (2,000 high-quality shuttleless 
looms came on stream between 1988 and 1993).  The production of cloth 
and made-up articles of textiles (including towels, bedsheets, and 
similar items) grew rapidly.  Exports of cotton cloth totaled $950 
million in 1994-95, an increase of 30 percent over the previous year.  

Knitwear has been Pakistan's largest single segment of garment exports, 
but finished goods have generally lagged yarn and cloth production.  The 
GOP has proposed a series of measures to upgrade the garment sector, 
including modernization of facilities, and market research and sales 
promotion.  Ready-made garment exports in 1994-95 totaled $560 million.

Sugar - Pakistan is the world's 13th largest sugar producer.  Sugar 
production in 1993-94 totaled 2.9 mmt, which is expected to reach nearly 
3.0 mmt in 1994-95.  Installed crushing capacity in the sugar industry 
is about 224,000 metric tons per day and the crushing season runs for 
about six months.  There has been a rapid expansion in the sugar 
industry over the last five years; the number of mills has increased 
from 45 in 1988-89 to 66 in 1994-95 of which 34 were in the Punjab 
Province, 26 in Sindh, and six units in the North West Frontier Province 
(NWFP).  Sugar beets, grown in the NWFP, account for less than 0.5 
percent of sugar production.

The industry's principal product is refined sugar, although it also 
produces some liquid glucose, 90 percent of which is used by candy 
factories.  It also produces gur (cooled, boiled cane juice), which is 
popular in the NWFP and rural areas.  Annual per capita consumption of 
sugar is high, estimated at 20 kgs per annum.

The GOP announces support prices, minimum prices at which the sugar 
mills may purchase sugar cane from the growers.  China and Brazil have 
been major suppliers of sugar to Pakistan. Imports, however, declined 
significantly in 1994-95 to about 5,000 metric tons from nearly 47,000 
metric tons in 1993-94 as a result of increase in production.        

Food Processing and Consumer Products - Major segments include sugar, 
tea, aerated water, edible fats, dairy products, concentrates, juices, 
tobacco, detergents, and personal care products.  Nearly all of these 
items are produced for domestic consumption.  

Iron and Steel - Pakistan Steel, with an annual capacity of 1.1 million 
tons, is Pakistan's only integrated steel plant.  It is located near 
Port Bin Qasim, just east of Karachi, and its construction began in 1973 
with Soviet technical assistance.  The plant currently employs about 
20,000 workers.  Iron ore, manganese, and coking coal for the plant are 
all imported.  Pakistan Steel produces coke, pig iron, billets, hot and 
cold rolled coils and sheets, and galvanized sheets.  The facility 
notched record production of over one million tons in 1993-94.  That 
resulted in significant pre-tax profits for Pakistan Steel, which had 
been a chronic loss-maker for most of its history.  Pakistan Steel has 
announced an ambitious expansion program, which would increase 
production capacity to three million tons by mid-1999.

Fertilizer - Pakistan has 10 fertilizer units, of which four are in the 
private sector.  At the end of 1994, they had a total annual capacity of 
4,143 thousand tons.  In 1994-95, production of nitrogenous fertilizer 
remained about the same as in the previous year to 2,583 thousand tons; 
by contrast, phosphate fertilizer output dropped by about nine percent 
to 218 thousand tons.  There is no domestic production of potassic 

Cement - Pakistan has 20 operating cement units, of which 15 in the 
private sector.  The total annual capacity of the industry is 8,883 
thousand tons.  Cement production in 1994-95 was about 2.7 percent lower 
than the previous year.  Pakistan has large quantities of both limestone 
and gypsum and a large domestic market.  Cement was one of the few 
industries with an established base in Pakistan at the time of 
independence in 1947, when there were five cement factories.  Pakistan 
currently produces five types of cement:  Portland grey, Portland slag, 
Sulphate resistant, Super Sulphate resistant, and White.  Since 
Partition, demand has outstripped production and Pakistan has become a 
regular importer of cement.  In 1972, the government of Prime Minister 
Z.A. Bhutto nationalized cement factories and consolidated them under 
the State Cement Corporation of Pakistan.  The current privatization 
process has reversed that initiative and by mid-1994 only about one 
quarter of capacity remained in the public sector. In order to promote 
growth in the cement sector, the GOP has allowed duty-free import of 
plant and machinery not manufactured locally.  Demand is expected to 
remain strong with the continuation of major infrastructural projects.  

Chemicals - Pakistan produces some basic chemicals, such as soda ash, 
caustic soda, and sulfuric acid.  Production of soda ash in 1993-94 was 
187,000 tons, and caustic soda 89,000 tons.  Caustic soda is used in the 
textile, hydrocarbon refining, and soap industries; sulfuric acid is 
used in the textile, paper, fertilizer, and steel industries. 

Leather - Leather is a major and rapidly expanding export sector; 
exports grew at an annual compound rate of 21 percent over a recent 
five-year period, boosted by a range of government incentives.  The 
leather and leather products industry is labor-intensive (directly 
employing more than 200,000 workers) and there are over 400 tanneries in 
Pakistan.  The recent growth of the industry is due in large part to its 
successful progression from the export of raw hides and skins and semi-
processed leather towards high value-added finished leathers and leather 
products (including leather jackets, gloves, footwear, and sporting 
goods).  The tanning sector is concentrated in the Punjab, where units 
process primarily buffalo and cow hides; tanneries in the Sindh process 
primarily goat and sheep skins.  The local market for leather is 
limited, and about 80 percent of production is exported. Exports of 
leather products totaled $354.7 million in 1993-94. More sophisticated 
machinery and productivity increases can be expected to further boost 
exports.  Pollution is a serious problem for this industry.  

Electronics and Electrical Goods Industry - The electronics and 
electrical goods industry is basically a consumer products industry, 
making light bulbs and tubes, air conditioners, fans, refrigerators, 
freezers, televisions, radios, and other electrical appliances.  The 
industry depends heavily on imported parts and components, although 
there have been somewhat successful efforts to increase the percentage 
of domestic components.

Vegetable Ghee/Cooking Oil - Vegetable ghee, hydrogenated vegetable oil, 
is the principal cooking medium in Pakistan.  After the market 
outstripped the supply of milk-produced ghee, the vegetable ghee 
industry has grown rapidly (from two units in 1947 to more than 40 in 
1994).  The principal raw material is edible oil, the majority of which 
is imported palm oil.  The GOP nationalized most of the industry in 1973 
and consolidated its operations under the Ghee Corporation of Pakistan.  
In the 1980s, the GOP permitted the establishment of private sector 
units.  Through end-1994, 16 of the 26 units of the Ghee Corporation of 
Pakistan (with a total installed capacity of 504 thousand tons) had been 
privatized and others were slated for sale.  Pakistan suffers from a 
large and chronic gap between demand and domestic production of edible 
oils.  Initiatives for the use of other, preferably domestically 
produced, edible oils, have been difficult to implement because of the 
large price advantage of imported palm oil.  The GOP has tried to 
promote non- traditional oilseed production; sunflowers, soybeans, and 
safflower are grown for edible oils, but their current production 
remains minuscule.  

Pharmaceuticals - The more than 30 multinational pharmaceutical 
companies producing in Pakistan (of which twelve are U.S. firms) command 
over three quarters of the domestic market.  

Jute Goods - Pakistan's 14 jute mills produced 58.6 thousand tons of 
jute products in 1993- 94, a decline of over 20 percent from the prior 
year.  The principal product is sacking, which is used for packing a 
variety of products, such as cotton, yarn, rice, and carpets.  Pakistan 
was the largest producer of raw jute in the world before the loss of 
Bangladesh in 1971; at that time, all but four of its jute mills were in 
East Pakistan.  In the 1970s, the GOP made an effort to continue the 
industry by establishing additional jute mills, which have always been 
largely dependent on imported jute, and which form the basis for a 
chronically troubled industry.  

Engineering Industry - Major engineering goods facilities include a 
heavy foundry and forge at Taxila in the Punjab (which produces castings 
and forgings for the railway, heavy machinery, and automobile 
industries); the Heavy Mechanical Complex at Taxila (which produces 
industrial machinery); the Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works (which 
builds and repairs ships as well as produces boilers); and the Pakistan 
Machine Tool Factory, established at Karachi in 1968 in collaboration 
with a Swiss firm (which produces precision machines, tools and 
automotive parts).

- Energy

Pakistan's primary energy supply mix in 1994-95 consisted of oil (42.3 
percent), gas (37.9 percent), electricity (12.9 percent) coal (6.6 
percent), liquified petroleum gas (0.2 percent) and nuclear (0.1 
percent).  The average oil production during July 94 - March 95 was 
53,665 bpd. The production of natural gas during the same period was 
1,709 mmcfd.  Development of the energy sector is a high priority.  
Pakistan has increased installed power generating capacity, but still 
faces chronic energy shortages as domestic energy demand continues to 
outstrip supply.  The shortfall is particularly acute in electricity 
generation, resulting in regular rotating power outages ("load 
shedding") and forcing many industries to develop their own alternative 
(and more expensive) power sources.  Pakistan's installed generating 
capacity stood at 11,346 megawatts on March 31, 1994, a 7 percent 
increase over the previous year.  A series of new petroleum policies, 
announced in late 1991, September 1993, and February 1994, have promised 
to boost investment in the oil and gas sector.

The demand for power in Pakistan has been growing at the rate of 10 
percent per annum during the past two decades. The supply has not been 
able to keep pace with the demand due to paucity of development funds in 
the public sector.  

Pakistan's electricity is supplied by two large state-owned utilities -- 
the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), with 86.1 percent of 
total electricity generated, and the Karachi Electric Supply Corporation 
(KESC), with 12.6 percent.  WAPDA, headquartered in Lahore, has an 
installed capacity of 10,879 MW, consisting of 49.9 percent hydropower 
and 50.1 percent thermal.  KESC, which generates and distributes 
electricity to Karachi, its suburbs, and adjacent parts of Baluchistan, 
has 1700 MW of installed generating capacity, all of it thermal.

Hydroelectric Power - WAPDA, the sole operator of hydro projects, has 
three large hydroelectric projects:  Tarbela, whose units 13 and 14 came 
on stream in 1993, adding 864 MW, for a total generating capacity of 
3478 MWs; Mangla, with total capacity of 1,000 MW; and Warsak, with 240 
MW.  Together with 108 MW from scattered small hydro projects, the three 
major projects give WAPDA 4,826 MW of hydro power.  Hydropower's 
drawback is its seasonal fluctuation.  There is little rain from October 
to May, when the demand for irrigation water is high, reducing the 
effective capability of hydroelectric units.  Reservoirs can register up 
to a 45 percent difference between wet and dry season water levels.  
Nonetheless, Pakistan has vast untapped hydro potential suitable for 
development in coordination with other generating sources.  

Thermal Power - WAPDA had 4,714 MW of thermal generating capacity on 
June 26, 1995.  Three-quarters of WAPDA's thermal generating capacity 
comes from three large complexes:  Guddu (1655 MW of steam and combined 
cycle units), Kot Addu (1479 MW of gas turbine and combined cycle 
units), and Jamshoro (880 MW of oil-fired units).   KESC's generating 
capacity is concentrated in the five-unit Bin Qasim Power Station (1050 
MW) and the Korangi Thermal Power Station (382 MW).  Ongoing KESC 
projects include additional units at Bin Qasim (210 MW).

Nuclear Power - Pakistan obtains 0.7 percent of its energy supply from 
its one operating nuclear power plant, the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant 
(KANUPP).  KANUPP, which was constructed in the 1970s, uses Canadian 
technology, and has a gross generating capacity of 137 MW. A second 
nuclear plant at Chashma in the Punjab is under construction with 
Chinese technical assistance (gross generating capacity is 325 MW). 
Connection to the grid is expected by October 1998.

Demand for Electricity - WAPDA's customer-base has expanded from 311,596 
in 1959-60 to nearly 9.0 million in June 1995, an average annual rate of 
growth of 10.3 percent.  KESC had 1.3 million customers in June 1995.    

In 1994, WAPDA electrified a total of 7,552 villages as part of its 
village electrification program. By May 1995, 56,353 villages had been 
electrified, a significant increase from the 11,350 villages which 
received electricity in 1981. The GOP planned to extend its electricity 
grid to an additional 5,000 villages during the 1995-96 fiscal year.    

Policy Package to Stimulate Private Sector Power Projects - 

Pakistan has made the energy sector its highest near-term development 
priority.  The GOP has decided to confine new WAPDA projects to the 
hydro generating sector and has determined that all new thermal power 
projects will be developed in the private sector.  In February 1994, the 
GOP promulgated a policy package intended to attract investment for 
private sector power projects.  The objectives of the policy are to 
offer internationally competitive terms, reduce local currency 
investment requirements, simplify procedures, and establish a domestic 
market for corporate debt securities.  

Specifically, the package provides for:

(1)     a bulk power tariff of 6.5 cents/kilowatt hour as an average 
over the first ten years;

(2)     an additional premium of 0.25 cents/kwh for projects over 100 MW 
that are commissioned by the end of calendar 1997;

(3)     one-window operation for necessary approvals through the Private 
Power Board;

(4)     a series of standardized agreements for power purchase, 
implementation, and performance guarantees;

(5)     exemptions from import duties and taxes and from corporate 
income tax;

(6)     a guarantee by the Government of Pakistan for payment of WAPDA 
and KESC power purchase obligations and for the fuel supply obligations 
of public sector entities;

(7)     provision of foreign exchange risk insurance by the State Bank 
and a guarantee of free repatriation of equity and dividends;     

(8)     the availability of debt financing through the Private Sector 
Energy Development Fund (PSEDF), a World Bank-supported facility; and

(9)     permission for private sector import of fuel for power 
generation purposes. 

Major Energy Projects - Private Sector:

1)  Hub Power Plant, Pakistan's first thermal project in the private 
sector at Hub River in Baluchistan northwest of Karachi. The project is 
a 1292 MW oil-fired five-unit complex sponsored by a group of foreign 
investors led by Xenel Corporation of Saudi Arabia.  The project, which 
is a showcase World Bank project, is scheduled to be commissioned in 
late 1996.  

2)  Uch Power Project, at Dera Murad Jamali, Baluchistan Province. This 
586-MW combined cycle project will utilize medium heating value natural 
gas for the nearby Uch gas field. It is scheduled to be commissioned in 

3)  AES Lal Pir, is a 362 MW oil-fired single steam turbine plant under 
construction at Lal Pir in the Punjab province. It is expected to be 
commissioned in 1997.

4)  Kohinoor Power project near Lahore will have eight diesel engines. 
Four are scheduled to be on line by June 1996.

5)  Hongpak United Power Generation, which is proposed to consist of two 
coal-based power plants of 660 MW each located in the Thar area of Sindh 

Public sector:

The top priority public sector energy project is the Ghazi-Barotha 
Hydroelectric project, a 1450 MW run-of-the-river project diverting the 
water of the Indus River from below Tarbela Dam through a 52-km long 
power channel to a generating station, from which the water will be 
returned to the Indus.

Additional units are being added to a number of thermal sites.   

Coal - Pakistan's coal reserves received a substantial boost from the 
recent discovery, thanks to assistance from the U.S. Agency for 
International Development (USAID), of deposits estimated at 100 billion 
tons in the Thar desert.  Although, studies on the physical 
characteristics of this coal and its mineability are continuing, initial 
data suggest that the coal is minable and suitable for power generation.  
As an underground mineral resource, coal (and its extraction) falls 
within the jurisdiction of the provincial governments.  The Sindh Coal 
Authority has taken a leading role in devising a development strategy, 
working in conjunction with WAPDA and the relevant federal ministries 
(Water and Power, Petroleum and Natural Resources).  The policy for 
development of Thar coal provides that its primary use will be to fuel 
large electric power plants built in tandem with coal mines, and that 
development, ownership and operation of both mines and power plants will 
be in the private sector.  The Thar coal field has enormous economic 
potential for Pakistan and its development and exploitation will be a 
major infrastructural project in the coming decade.

Pakistan has one operational coal-fired power plant, located near 
Quetta, Baluchistan.  The Lakhra Coal Development Company (LCDC), a 
joint venture of the GOP, WAPDA, and the Government of Sindh, has been 
formed to develop large-scale mining of the Lakhra deposit to supply a 
proposed WAPDA power plant nearby at Khanote.  The LCDC has engaged a 
Chinese firm to prepare a study on mine design and in  May 1994, the 
Sindh Coal Authority signed a Memorandum of Understanding with a U.S. 
firm to develop a coal mine and a 200-MW coal-fired power plant fueled 
by Lakhra coal.

- Minerals

The mining sector grew 4.6 percent in 1993-94, up from three percent 
growth in 1992-93.  In 1994-95, however, the sector recorded a decline 
of 4.2 percent due mainly to a drop in output of crude oil (8.3 
percent), and coal (6.4 percent).  In addition to coal, natural gas, and 
crude oil, Pakistan produces marble, china clay, chromite, dolomite, 
gypsum, limestone, magnetite, sulfur, and rock salt.

In line with the GOP's policy of promoting the privatization of state-
owned assets, recent public sector investment in mining has been 
restricted to large projects with high cost and high risk.  The 
principal example is the Saindak Copper and Gold Project in the Chagai 
district of northwestern Baluchistan.  The $200 million Saindak Project, 
the first large-scale metal mining project in Pakistan, is being 
developed on a turnkey basis by the Metallurgical Construction 
Corporation of China and is currently scheduled to begin commercial 
production in August 1995.  Saindak is expected to yield an average 
annual production of 15,000 tons of copper, 1.47 tons of gold, and 2.76 
tons of silver over its 20- year life.

     The GOP is presently revising the existing regulatory and mineral 
concessions regime to attract domestic and foreign private investment 
and formulating a National Mineral Policy to promote the sector.  GOP 
entities involved in the mineral sector include the Pakistan Mineral 
Development Corporation (PMDC), which operates four coal mines in 
Baluchistan and Sindh, three salt mines in the Punjab, two salt quarries 
in the NWFP, and a silica quarry in Sindh.  The Geological Survey of 
Pakistan (GSP) is engaged in geological surveys and mapping.  The GSP is 
currently formulating a ten-year mineral exploration program with the 
assistance of the Asian Development Bank.  The Gemstone Corporation of 
Pakistan, a joint venture of the GOP and the government of the NWFP, is 
principally engaged in mining emeralds at Gujar Killi.

     Other significant non-metallic mineral deposits include:  gypsum in 
the Salt Range of the northern Punjab; sulphur in Baluchistan; marble in 
the NWFP; and china clay (kaolin) in the NWFP.  Among metallic ores, 
chromite is produced on a commercial scale in Baluchistan.  The Saindak 
project will produce copper and gold.  Iron ore deposits are known, but 
their small size, the low grade of the ore, and the inaccessibility of 
the sites have precluded commercial exploitation.

        C.  Government Role in the Economy

Since the late 1980s, the GOP has been pursuing a gradual strategy of 
deregulation, reduction of the public sector role in the economy, and 
opening the economy to international competition.  The government has 
sought to reduce its direct productive or controlling role, and instead 
focus on creating the conditions to foster private sector investment and 
activity.  While it has made much progress in this effort, the state 
remains an important player in the Pakistani economy, especially in the 
financial sector.  Government-owned industrial enterprises employ almost 
46,000 workers and remain important in such key sectors as steel, 
engineering and agro-processing.  Four state-owned commercial banks 
account for over 70 percent of all commercial bank assets.  Although 
reforms are underway, the state retains near or full monopoly positions 
in telecommunications, the power sector and rail and air transport.

-  Monetary policy

Recent monetary policy has been reasonably disciplined and has aimed at 
encouraging strong growth in the context of price stability.  The GOP 
and State Bank of Pakistan (SBP, the central bank) are also adopting 
structural reforms in an effort to move toward more indirect, market-
based methods of monetary control.

Money supply (M2) growth exceeded the 1994-95 target of 11.9 percent, 
largely because of the need to finance the government's higher-than-
forecast budget deficit (see below), and contributed to inflation of 
about twice the targeted rate of 7 percent.  While the government's bank 
borrowing was thus far above target, the GOP also raised interest rates 
on its various national deposit schemes in an effort to cover the 
deficit partly through less- inflationary non-bank financing.  The M2 
growth target for 1995-96 is 12.5 percent.

An important reform announced in March 1995 was the elimination of the 
ceiling on interest rates.  This key step toward market-determined 
interest rates will help banks play their financial intermediation role.  
Industrialists were less pleased with the move, of course, as their 
lending rates jumped to over 20 percent.  There were also concerns that 
the step would shift funds from the already weak stock market to less 
productive savings schemes used largely to finance government deficits.

Other GOP monetary reforms have included efforts to reduce concessional 
and government-directed credit schemes, enhance competition in the 
banking sector, and improve prudential regulation and supervision.  
State-owned development finance institutions, however, continue to make 
politically influenced lending decisions and, partly as a result, have 
weak balance sheets.  Prudential regulations have occasionally been 
relaxed in ad hoc fashion to prop up loss-making public or private 
industries.  The State Bank of Pakistan enjoys considerable autonomy, 
and its respected Governor regularly attends meetings of the Federal 
Cabinet's Economic Coordination Committee.

-  Fiscal Policy

A central element of Pakistan's economic reforms has been the effort to 
reduce persistent  government budget deficits.  But the 1994-95 fiscal 
year saw little overall progress, and there is evidence of slackening 
commitment to the goal.  After reducing the federal deficit from 7.9 
percent of GDP in 1992-93 to 5.8 percent in 1993-94, the GOP targeted 
further reduction to 4.0  percent in 1994-95.  Despite encouraging 
increases in tax revenues, these nonetheless fell short of ambitious 
targets, and the GOP again registered a deficit of 5.8 percent of GDP.  
The 1995-96 budget announced a deficit target of 5.0 percent of GDP, 
whereas the GOP had earlier promised international creditors to aim for 
steeper fiscal adjustment.

Deficit reduction is constrained by rigidities in spending patterns and 
a weak tax base. Defense spending and debt repayments absorb 63 percent 
of total federal spending, leaving little for other basic government 
functions and improving the long-neglected social sectors.  Meanwhile, 
the country has a very narrow tax base;  perhaps one in one hundred 
Pakistanis pays income tax.  The country has had to rely on import and 
excise taxes for a very high share of revenues, thus protecting 
inefficient industries and encouraging smuggling, and on official 
transfers from external creditors, primarily the World Bank, the Asian 
Development Bank and the Government of Japan.  Government bank borrowing 
to finance current spending crowds out needed private investment.

The GOP's medium-term adjustment program has aimed to broaden the tax 
base through extension to under-taxed sectors and reduction of 
exemptions; to shift from taxation of international trade to taxation of 
consumption; to move to market determination of administered prices; and 
to improve the productivity of public spending.  Progress has been 
mixed.  Agriculture remains very lightly taxed.  A sales tax has been 
instituted but exemptions, often secured through political influence, 
remain common.  Maximum import tariffs were reduced from 92 percent in 
1993-94 to 70 percent in 1994-95.  They were to be reduced to 45 percent 
in 1995-96 but, because sales tax revenues have not met expectations, 
were reduced only to 65 percent, thus slowing down a key element of the 
GOP's structural reform program.  Increases in utility charges have 
attempted to keep pace with actual costs, but fee collection remains a 
serious problem.

The 1995-96 budget has led to difficulties with the international 
financial institutions, which had counted on more aggressive deficit 
reduction efforts and better adherence to the tariff reduction program. 
Disbursements under the IMF's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility 
have been suspended, and future World Bank adjustment lending could also 
be affected if a sounder macroeconomic framework is not re-established.  
The GOP insists it remains committed to macro stability and structural 
reform but, for political reasons, has had to moderate the pace of 
reform.  The government and the international financial institutions 
remain in contact on these challenging fiscal issues.

-  Privatization

Privatization of many state-owned enterprises is another key element of 
Pakistan's reform program, and both major political parties support 
reducing the state's role in the economy via this process.  In the early 
1990s the GOP identified a group of 118 state-owned industrial units for 
privatization.  Almost 70 of these have so far been sold off, and bids 
have been solicited on more than 25 others.  The GOP has gradually 
improved terms in an effort to sell off less desirable units.  
Industrial units, including factories producing cement, chemicals, 
automobiles, food products, etc., have mainly attracted domestic private 

Meanwhile the GOP is continuing preparations for at least partial 
privatization of a few state-owned banks, several energy utilities, and 
- the largest item of all - Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation 
(PTC), the state monopoly phone company.  In most cases, the GOP aims to 
find "strategic investors" to buy 26 percent of these firms and gain 
management control.  These privatizations are very complex undertakings, 
since new regimes for regulation of private sector entities in these 
sectors must be established, and implementation has been running behind 
original schedules.  The GOP's implementing agency, the Privatization 
Commission, says it is proceeding carefully to ensure a transparent 
process.  The government is benefiting from World Bank technical 
assistance in this effort and has hired several foreign financial 
advisors to help with preparation.  Foreign investors are expected to 
show interest in acquiring stakes in these firms.

The main non-industrial organizations to be privatized include United 
Bank Ltd., Bankers Equity Ltd., the Sui Northern and Sui Southern 
natural gas pipeline companies, the Kot Adhu and Jamshoro thermal power 
plants, Karachi Electric Supply Corporation, and PTC.  In September 1994 
the GOP made a highly successful sale of vouchers worth 12 percent of 
PTC's total equity, raising about $1 billion.  The GOP also plans to 
corporatize, and perhaps eventually privatize, the Water and Power 
Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan's main electric utility.

The GOP and public-sector unions have agreed on a generous relief 
package for employees of divested state-owned enterprises.  Labor 
opposition to the privatization program has thus been fairly rare, 
though there has been some resistance in the case of the Kot Adhu power 

Besides privatizing existing state-owned enterprises, the GOP has sought 
to attract new private, including foreign, investment in formerly state-
monopoly sectors, especially energy.  Newly developed private power 
plants are expected to supply approximately 3000 megawatts of additional 
power by the end of 1997.

        D. Balance of Payments Situation

Following the external payments crisis of mid-1993, adjustment efforts 
in 1993-94 focused on improving the external balance.  This effort was 
very successful, largely thanks to sharp constriction of imports, and 
the 1993-94 current account deficit was halved as a share of GDP.  In 
1994-95, Pakistan returned to a situation of strong growth in both 
exports and imports.  The resulting trade deficit of $2.2. billion was 
10 percent up on 1993-94, while the current account deficit is also 
estimated to have widened slightly.

Strong export growth in 1994-95 was largely the result of favorable 
international price trends for Pakistan.  Exports of cotton manufactures 
grew 18 percent, rice by 89 percent, sporting goods by 31 percent, and 
carpets by 27 percent.  Import growth was led by edible oil, 19 percent, 
and machinery, 22 percent, the latter portending future increases in 
productive capacity.

Despite the success achieved in improvng the balance of payments and 
increasing reserves (see below), the external position remains tight.  
Foreign currency liabilities of the banking system are substantial, and 
Pakistan's foreign debt has risen to 43 percent of GDP.  While debt 
servicing remains manageable, continued stability requires improvement 
in the fiscal balance and sustained high export growth.

-  Foreign Exchange Policies and Reserves

The improvement in Pakistan's balance of payments is most vividly 
illustrated in the growth of foreign exchange reserves.  After dipping 
to under $200 million in July 1993 (one week of imports), reserves 
peaked in December 1994 at $3.1 billion.  At the end of June 1995, 
reserves stood  at the still-comfortable level of $2.7 billion (17 weeks 
of imports).  The sale of PTC vouchers was an important source of new 

The GOP has continued policies to liberalize and deregulate the exchange 
and payments regime.  The Pakistani rupee has been on a managed float 
since 1982.  The U.S. dollar serves as intervention currency for fixing 
the exchange rate against a trade-weighted basket of currencies.  The 
central bank sets the daily rate at which it will purchase and sell U.S. 
dollars in its dealings with authorized dealers.  The rupee was made 
convertible on current account in July 1994.

One U.S. dollar was equal to 31 rupees in July 1995.  The rupee has 
depreciated only 3.3 percent against the dollar since 1993-94, implying, 
given a domestic inflation rate at least 10 percentage points higher 
than that of America's, real appreciation.  With the dollar's 
depreciation against other major currencies, the rupee has nominally 
depreciated more steeply against them.

- Remittances from Overseas Workers

Remittances from overseas workers have been a major source of foreign 
exchange earnings for Pakistan.  They peaked at $2.89 billion in 1982-
83, then dropped to $1.45 billion in 1993-94.  Workers' remittances 
trended upward to $1.56 billion in 1994-95, due to increased economic 
activities in the oil-producing countries of the Middle East.  The 
relative importance of workers' remittances, however, continues to 
decline.  In the past ten years they have fallen from 10 percent of GDP 
to about 5 percent.  One contributing factor has been the recent 
emergence of resident foreign currency accounts as a partial substitute 
for workers' remittances.  In mid-1994, assets in these accounts totaled 
$3.0 billion, a 51 percent increase from one year earlier; by April 30, 
1995, they had risen to $3.2 billion.

- Foreign Trade

Pakistan's foreign trade increased in the first eleven months of the 
1994-95 fiscal year.  However, a sharper rise in imports led to a higher 
trade deficit.  

Both exports and imports increased over the corresponding period of the 
previous year.  Exports for 1994-95 are now expected to total 
approximately $7.8 billion compared to $6.7 billion in 1993-94. Imports 
in 1994-95 are estimated at $10.1 billion versus 8.5 billion in the 
previous year. 

Exports, which reached a record level in 1994-95, are attributed mainly 
to higher prices of cotton products and growth in exports of non-
traditional items.  In 1993-94, the following countries were the largest 
recipients of Pakistani exports:  the U.S. (14.4 percent); Germany (8.0 
percent); Japan (8.0 percent); the UK (7.8 percent); Hong Kong (7.3 
percent); United Arab Emirates (6.3 percent); France (4.1 percent); 
Saudi Arabia (3.5 percent); The Netherlands (3.1 percent); and Italy 
(2.7 percent).

Imports, which are projected at 10.1 billion in 1994-95, increased by 
about 18.5 percent over the previous year.  Imports of machinery 
(excluding transport equipment), petroleum, edible oils, wheat, iron and 
steel, synthetic fiber increased, while automotive vehicles, tea, 
fertilizer, medical products, milk and milk food for infants, and 
synthetic and artificial silk declined.  In 1993-94, the following 
countries were the major sources of Pakistan's imports:  Japan (11.8 
percent); the U.S. (10.6 percent), Germany (7.7 percent), Malaysia (5.5 
percent); Saudi Arabia (5.4 percent), Kuwait (5.3 percent); China (5.1 
percent); UK (4.9 percent), France (4.0 percent), and South Korea (3.7 
  E.      Infrastructure Situation        

Ports - Pakistan has two significant seaports - Karachi and Port Qasim -  
and two sites for future facilities - Gwadar and Pasni, both on 
Baluchistan's Makran Coast.  Karachi is the main port, handling the 
majority of all dry and liquid cargo.  Port Qasim, located 50 kilometers 
southeast of Karachi, is Pakistan's second deep sea port and was built 
for overflow from Karachi Port and to handle raw material imports for 
Pakistan Steel Mills.  Pakistan's dry and liquid cargo is projected to 
increase from 25.2 million tons in 1992-93 to 30.1 million tons in 1997-
98, requiring expansion and upgrade of the country's port facilities.  
Containerized traffic is projected to increase from 74 percent to 85 
percent of general traffic over the same time period, totaling 623,000 
TEUs (twenty-foot equivalent units) by 1997-98.  

The GOP plans to improve container handling berths at both Karachi and 
Port Qasim by constructing specialized container terminals at Port Qasim 
and on Karachi's West and East Wharfs.  The Port Qasim container 
terminal and a new oil terminal are to be constructed by the private 
sector.  The GOP also plans acquisition of a bucket dredger, and 
deepening of the navigational channel and development of a modern 
warehousing complex in Karachi and construction of grain and fertilizer 
terminals at Port Qasim.  In addition, the GOP proposes private sector 
development of an entirely new deep-water port at Gwadar on the western 
Makran Coast; this port would be suitable for vessels up to 100,000 
deadweight tons and would require considerable onshore infrastructural 
Railroads - Pakistan Railways, an autonomous agency under the Ministry 
of Railways, operates the railroad system.  The system is primarily 
broad-gauge, but there are also segments of meter-gauge and narrow-gauge 
track.  Over the past fifteen years, there has been a marked shift in 
freight traffic from rail to highways, a trend which the GOP hopes to 
stabilize and reverse.  Railways carries about 15 percent of freight 
traffic and road vehicles 85 percent.  The rail system comprises over 
800 stations and 46 halts.  Rolling stock includes about 650 
locomotives, 2,250 passenger coaches, and 28,500 freight cars.

Pakistan Railways will receive nearly $50 million in 1995-96 to improve 
railroad's share of long-haul freight traffic, to upgrade track to 
permit trains to operate at higher speeds, and to rehabilitate 
infrastructure in order to improve capacity utilization.  Specific 
priorities include double-tracking; rehabilitating 150 traction motors; 
manufacturing 25 air- conditioned cars and 50 diesel-electric 
locomotives at a newly opened factory at Risalpur in the NWFP, as well 
as upgrading telecommunications and signalling systems.

Highways - The World Bank reports that Pakistan's road network is 
notable for its poor condition. Fifty-six percent of the road network is 
unpaved and over two-thirds of paved arterial roads do not have enough 
carriageway width for two lanes.  The majority of paved and unpaved 
roads are in poor condition.  According to the World Bank, on average, 
poorly maintained roads can cause 30-40 percent higher transportation 
costs.  At both federal and provincial levels, Pakistan provides 
insufficient funding for road maintenance.

Over 80 percent of Pakistan's freight and passenger traffic travels by 
road.  In March 1995, Pakistan had 205,304 kilometers of roads.  The 
major north-south link is Lahore and Rawalpindi to Peshawar and carries 
over half of Pakistan's goods and passenger traffic.  The road density 
of Pakistan is only 0.23 km/    

The National Highway Authority (NHA), established in 1991, has the major 
responsibility to plan, promote, organize and implement programs for 
construction, development, operation, repairs and maintenance of 
national highways and strategic roads. Plans, policies and budget of the 
NHA are approved by the National Highway Council headed by the Prime 
Minister. The Council controls, directs and regulates the affairs of the 

The GOP's key development priority in the highway sector is to upgrade 
and fill in gaps in the existing road network so the system can be more 
efficiently utilized.  Proper maintenance of the network is a newly 
emphasized priority.  Additional construction projects include 
completion of the Indus Highway, completion of the dualization of the 
principal route (the N-5 National Highway), construction of several 
inter-city expressways and by-passes, and the Lahore-Islamabad motorway.

Air Transport - The GOP has opened the domestic aviation market to 
private sector competition.  To date, five private carriers have 
conducted commercial flights and two of them continue to fly (as of June 
1995).  The national carrier, PIA, has a fleet of 47 planes (eight 
Boeing 747s, nine Airbus 300s, six Airbus 310s, seven Boeing 737s, 
fourteen Fokker-27s, two DeHavilland Twin Otters, and two Boeing 707 
freighters).  PIA serves 36 domestic and 49 international destinations.   

The current private sector competition consists of Shaheen Airlines, a 
unit of the Shaheen Foundation (a foundation for retired air force 
officers), and Aero Asia, part of the Karachi- based Tabani group of 

The GOP plans to continue modernizing and upgrading its civil aviation 
facilities.  This includes putting the finishing touches on the world-
class Jinnah Terminal Complex at Karachi and the eventual construction 
of new international airports at Lahore, Islamabad, and Peshawar (by the 
private sector on a build, operate, and transfer basis).  The GOP, 
through its Civil Aviation Authority, also plans runway improvements at 
Islamabad, Karachi, Peshawar, and Multan, and the establishment of four 
small regional airports.  PIA also projects that it will replace its 
early-generation 747s with newer widebodies and its Fokker fleet with 
approximately 15 turbo-prop aircraft. 

Utilities - Two public utilities, the Water and Power Development 
Administration (WAPDA) and the Karachi Electric Supply Corporation 
(KESC) are responsible for electric power generation and distribution.  
However, the GOP has a policy to bring private firms into the generation 
of power (for purchase and distribution by the public utilities). (See 
sections on Energy, and Privatization.)

Telecommunications - In December 1990, Pakistan converted Pakistan 
Telephone and Telegraph (PTT) Department, which was directly controlled 
by the Ministry of Communications, into Pakistan Telecommunications 
Corporation, (PTC), an autonomous public company.  The GOP plans to 
privatize PTC, by first selling 26 percent ownership to a "strategic 
investor", and then selling the rest after the firm is on a solid 
footing.  In June 1993, Pakistan had three "international gateway 
exchanges" - two in Karachi and one in Islamabad - with a total of 2,400 
international and 3,500 national circuits and direct connections with 
125 countries.  Several major cities have been connected by an optical 
fibre network.  Three private companies, Pak-Tel Pak-Com and Mobilink, 
provide mobile telephone services in large cities.  The GOP has invited 
proposals for a communications satellite, to be launched into one of 
Pakistan's two geosynchronous orbital slots and supplied on a build-own-
operate (BOO) basis.   


A.      Nature of Political Relationship with the United States

Pakistan and the United States have had bilateral diplomatic relations 
since Pakistan's independence in 1947.  Pakistan is a member of the 
United Nations, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, and the 
Economic Cooperation Organization, among other international 
organizations.  Pakistan is currently a member of the UN Security 
Council where it has worked effectively to promote and support peace-
keeping operations in Somalia, Bosnia, and elsewhere.  In 1990, U.S. 
economic and military assistance to Pakistan was suspended as required 
by U.S. legislation (the so-called Pressler Amendment to the Foreign 
Assistance Act) when the U.S. President could no longer certify to 
Congress that Pakistan did not possess a nuclear explosive device.  
Despite the cutoff of U.S. assistance, the tenor of bilateral relations 
has remained good and the U.S. and Pakistan cooperate in many areas, 
including joint military exercises and anti-narcotics efforts.  The 
United States has traditionally been Pakistan's leading trading partner 
and largest source of private foreign capital.

B.      Major Political Issues Affecting Business Climate

Since 1988, a broad consensus on a liberalizing, market-oriented 
economic policy has emerged between the two principal political parties.  
At the same time, Pakistan has moved toward a two-party system, 
dominated by the PPP and the PML (Nawaz Group).  This has  resulted in a 
continuity of economic policy, even during the six-month period in 1993 
when Pakistan had five Prime Ministers.  The consensus on economic 
policy, together with the macro-economic discipline imposed by the 
structural economic adjustment programs adopted with the full support of 
the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, has had a 
positive impact on the business climate.  

Periodic political and civil unrest in the Sindh province has the 
potential to dampen foreign investment and trade, although the overall 
political climate (i.e., the perception of ineffectual or revolving-door 
governments) has a greater ultimate impact.  

As in many developing countries, corruption is an unwelcome, but 
ubiquitous, part of the business milieu in Pakistan.  Recent anecdotal 
reports suggest that this problem continues and that, rather than 
serving to facilitate transactions, the phenomenon may be having a 
sclerotic impact on the economy.  Efforts to reduce opportunities for 
corruption by improving management systems in, for example, the customs 
and tax services are under way.  Also, important business organizations, 
including the nation-wide Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce 
and Industry (FPCCI), have made curbing corruption a principal plank of 
their policy agendas, recognizing that corruption not only tarnishes 
Pakistan's image, but discourages potential business.

C.      Political System

Pakistan is a parliamentary democracy.  The parliament consists of two 
houses, a National Assembly elected directly through universal suffrage, 
and a Senate elected by the provincial legislatures.  The Prime Minister 
is the head of government and is elected by and from the National 
Assembly.  The Head of State is the President, who is chosen by an 
electoral college consisting of the National Assembly, the Senate, and 
the Provincial Assemblies.  The Constitution requires that the President 
be a Muslim and provides for a five-year term.  Pakistan is divided into 
four provinces:  Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, and the Northwest Frontier 
Province.  Each province has its own directly elected Provincial 
Assembly, as well as a government headed by a Chief Minister and a 
Governor appointed by the President. 
There are two federal legislative houses - a 217-member National 
Assembly elected for five-year terms and an 87-member Senate elected for 
six-year terms by the appropriate provincial legislature.  National 
Assembly seats are currently apportioned 115 to the Punjab, 46 to Sindh, 
26 to the NWFP, 11 to Baluchistan, 8 to the Federally-Administered 
Tribal Areas (FATA) and one to the Federal Capital District of 
Islamabad, with ten additional seats reserved for religious minorities.  
Each of the four provinces has 19 senators and there are eight senators 
from the FATA and three from the federal capital area.  Indirect 
elections for half the members of the Senate are held at three-year 

The Constitution of Pakistan guarantees an independent judiciary.  The 
Supreme Court is the highest court in the country; High Courts in the 
provincial capitals of Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta stand at 
the head of the provincial judicial systems.  

Pakistan came into existence on August 14, 1947 with the Partition and 
independence of British India.  The creation of a separate Muslim nation 
was accomplished largely through the efforts of Mohammed Ali Jinnah 
(known as the Quaid-i-Azam or "great leader").  Jinnah served as 
Pakistan's first Governor-General until his death in 1948; his picture 
graces virtually every official Pakistani office.  Pakistan initially 
consisted of two areas, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated by 
1,000 miles of Indian territory.  In 1947-48, Pakistan and India fought 
the first of their three wars over the Muslim-majority territory of 
Kashmir, which both claimed and whose Hindu maharajah opted for India at 
Partition.  The conflict ended in stalemate and Kashmir remains disputed 
territory divided by a heavily-defended Line of Control watched since 
1948 by UN observers.  

A Constituent Assembly met in 1955 and produced a parliamentary, 
federal, and largely democratic constitution which became effective in 
March 1956 and proclaimed Pakistan an Islamic Republic.  By this time, 
the provinces of West Pakistan had been combined into a single unit and 
West and East Pakistan made up the two units of the country.  

General elections held in December 1970 resulted in a potential rupture 
between the eastern and western sections of Pakistan.  The Awami League, 
which advocated autonomy for the more populous East Pakistan, swept the 
East Pakistan seats to gain a majority in Pakistan as a whole.  The 
Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), founded and led by Ayub Khan's former 
Foreign Minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, won a majority of the seats in 
West Pakistan, but the country was completely split with neither major 
party having any support in the other area.  Negotiations to form a 
coalition government broke down and a civil war ensued.   India attacked 
East Pakistan and captured Dhaka in December 1971, when the eastern 
section declared itself the independent nation of Bangladesh.  Yahya 
Khan then resigned the presidency and handed over leadership of the 
western part of Pakistan to Bhutto, who became President and the first 
civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator.  

A new constitution, Pakistan's third, came into effect in August 1973 
and Bhutto became Prime Minister.  His government implemented portions 
of the PPP's socialist manifesto, restructuring the economy, increasing 
the prominence of the public sector, and nationalizing many industries.  
Bhutto's centralizing policies and autocratic ways galvanized the 
opposition, which challenged Bhutto's sweeping victory in the March 1977 
national elections.  Bhutto was deposed by his Chief of Army Staff, 
General Zia-ul-Haq, in July 1977.  General Zia became president in 1978 
and a provisional constitution, which retained substantial parts of the 
1973 constitution, was imposed in March 1981.  In the interim, Bhutto 
was executed by hanging in April 1979.  Under Zia, the Government of 
Pakistan became increasingly Islamicized and benefitted from lending 
logistical support to U.S. and mujahideen efforts to counter the Soviet 
invasion of Afghanistan.  In February 1985, non-party elections were 
held for the National Assembly and the four provincial assemblies.  In 
August 1988, General Zia died in an air crash.

General elections were held in November 1988 and the PPP, headed by 
Benazir Bhutto, daughter of the late Prime Minister, won a plurality of 
seats and formed a coalition government.  In August 1990, President 
Ghulam Ishaq Khan exercised his right under the constitution to dissolve 
the National Assembly, dismiss the Prime Minister, and call new 
elections.  In the general election held in October 1990, the Islamic 
Democratic Alliance won the largest number of seats and Mian Nawaz 
Sharif, leader of its largest component party, the Pakistan Muslim 
League (PML), became Prime Minister.  Nawaz Sharif, the first 
industrialist to lead Pakistan, continued the trend toward 
liberalization of the economy and promotion of private sector growth.

In April 1993, President Ghulam Ishaq Khan again dissolved the National 
Assembly and dismissed the Prime Minister, but the following month the 
Pakistan Supreme Court reinstated the National Assembly and the Nawaz 
Sharif government.  Continued tensions between the reinstated Prime 
Minister and the President resulted in governmental gridlock and the 
Chief of Army Staff brokered an arrangement under which both the 
President and Prime Minister resigned their offices in July 1993.  
Elections in October 1993 overseen by the reformist interim government 
of Moeen Qureshi resulted in a plurality for Benazir Bhutto's PPP and 
she secured sufficient additional support to be elected Prime Minister 
by the National Assembly.  Prime Minister Bhutto's hold on power 
received a further boost in November 1993, when her PPP ally, Farooq 
Ahmad Khan Leghari, was elected President.

        1.      Schedule for Elections - The most recent elections for 
the national and provincial assemblies took place in October 1993, and 
national elections are scheduled to be held again in October 1998.  
Indirect elections for half of the members of the Senate were held in 
March 1994.  Indirect elections for the other half of the Senate are 
scheduled for March 1997.  The indirect election of the President was 
held in November 1993 and the next Presidential election is scheduled 
for November 1998.

        2. Major Political Parties - The two largest political parties 
are the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), led by the current Prime Minister 
Benazir Bhutto, and the Nawaz Sharif group of the Pakistan Muslim League 
(PML/N), led by former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.  Both parties have a 
centrist orientation and support private enterprise and the free market.  
The PPP espouses a somewhat more activist view of government, especially 
in the social sector.  It also has a more secular view of Islam in 
politics.  The PML/N is slightly to the right of the PPP and has a more 
traditional view of Islam.

There are several other smaller, but significant, parties.  The Mohajir 
Qaumi Mahaz (Mohajir National Movement - MQM) is a party that represents 
the interests of Pakistan's mohajirs (Urdu-speaking Muslims who migrated 
from India following the creation of Pakistan in 1947).  The Junejo 
group of the Pakistan Muslim League (PML/J) is a breakaway faction of 
the larger Muslim League and is a member of the current PPP-led national 
government coalition.  The Jamaat-i-Islami (JI) is a conservative 
Islamic political party that has enjoyed electoral success only when 
allied with a larger party.  In the 1993 National Assembly elections, 
the JI won only three of 217 seats (all other Islamic parties combined 
won only an additional six seats).  


A.      Distribution and Sales Channels

There are approximately 100,000 retail outlets in Pakistan, of which 
nearly 20,000 are located in the major cities.  About 40,000 of the 
total are classified as universal stores/outlets.  These are further 
subdivided into the following categories:

Category        Size          No. of Outlets

A       Very Large     300-500
B       Upscale      3,000-4,000       
C       Medium      10,000-11,000
D       Very Small     25,000+
Stores in the latter three categories are usually owned by a sole 
proprietor.  Large supermarkets or chain stores for general consumer 
items still do not exist in Pakistan.  However, the concept of chain 
stores for fashion apparel has lately begun to emerge in the larger 
cities, where several such chains carrying  predominantly locally 
manufactured merchandise are currently operating.  In addition, hundreds 
of government-owned Utility Stores sell food and household items and 
serve as a mechanism for restraining inflationary price increases by 
following the government line on pricing.

Many consumer retail stores stock general merchandise for everyday use.  
There are also large numbers of stores which sell a single commodity, 
for example, tires, cooking utensils, textiles, or jewelry.  Such stores 
are generally located in bazaar areas and tend to be  situated near many 
other shops carrying similar goods. There are as yet no shopping malls 
or large department stores in Pakistan; however, the government has 
built a multi- storied shopping plaza in Islamabad with several stores 
rented out to retailers. If this concept succeeds, other complexes will 
be established in various cities.

Foreign companies considering marketing their products in Pakistan may 
choose to use the services of local distributors or may develop their 
own distribution chain.  Distributors in the urban areas generally deal 
on an exclusive basis.  Some market consultants estimate that the 
services of 100-300 distributors would be required for nationwide 
coverage.    One very large multinational company selling consumer 
products employs 500 distributors to reach a significant portion of 
Pakistan's small towns and villages.

As a matter of policy, most companies do not provide credit to 
distributors, and distributors in turn generally sell on a strictly cash 
basis to retailers.  Smaller distributors often do provide credit to 
retailers, but the volume of such transactions is relatively 

Pakistan's wholesale market is fairly well-developed, with about 1,000 - 
1,500 wholesalers constituting this segment of the distribution network.  
Karachi is the major distribution center and wholesale terms there are 
representative.  Approximately one-fifth of the wholesalers in Karachi 
sell on a consignment basis.  Fewer than one-third of the wholesalers 
allow discounts to their customers, but the granting of 30- to 90-day 
credit is common.  Because of limited financial resources, retailers 
generally sell on a cash-only basis.  Consumer credit in Pakistan 
remains an insignificant portion of the total commercial credit.         

Foreign companies selling industrial or capital goods often sell 
directly to the end-user or, if the market is fairly large, they appoint 
one major distributor, who then sells either to sub-distributors or 
directly to end-users.  

B.      Use of Agents/Distributors:  Finding a Partner

Many foreign firms in Pakistan appoint local agents to provide market 
intelligence and to facilitate distribution.  These agents typically 
work on a fixed commission, which can range from two to 10 percent for 
plant and equipment purchases and from 15 to 20 percent for spare parts.  
Commissions may be computed on f.o.b., ex-factory, or c.i.f. basis, as 
mutually agreed.  Some agents prefer to have suppliers quote net prices 
to them and they, in turn, add the commission to arrive at their selling 
price.  Other agents operate as consultants on a fixed-fee basis, 
receiving their fee regardless of the volume of total sales. 

Probably the most common arrangement is the exclusive agency agreement, 
under which the supplier agrees to neither appoint another 
dealer/distributor, nor to negotiate sales through any other party.  In 
return, the agent is barred from handling similar items produced by 
other companies.  Under this arrangement, the agent receives commissions 
on all sales of the product regardless of the channels through which the 
order is placed.  He often imports and stocks the spares most frequently 
required by the end-users.  Agency agreements typically extend for a 
term of one to three years and generally require 30 to 90 days notice by 
either party for termination.

Overseas suppliers may look after the interests of their local agents in 
various ways.  For example, the principal may arrange separate payments 
to the local agent for provision of after-sales service during and 
beyond the warranty period.  The principal often compensates the local 
agent for providing technical and administrative support services not 
directly related to any specific sales transaction.

The U.S. Department of Commerce (USDOC) can provide assistance in 
locating potential agents and representatives abroad through its  
Agent/Distributor (ADS) and Gold Key services available through USDOC 
district offices in the United States.  The USDOC "Foreign Company 
Background Report" (FCBR) can provide information on individual

C.      Franchising

The concept of franchising is gradually gaining acceptance in Pakistan, 
especially in the hospitality sector.  Several major U.S. hotel chains, 
a U.S. pizza outlet, and a U.S. car rental company are currently 
represented in Pakistan through franchisees.  

Franchising provides U.S. companies with a fairly swift way to enter the 
market without a major capital commitment.  By operating through local 
franchisees, U.S. firms can gain access to local expertise and 
significantly reduce the problems of adjusting to an unfamiliar business 

However, franchising is not without drawbacks.  Potential areas of 
tension between franchisor and franchisee include quality control, 
intensity of marketing efforts by the local franchisee, and possible 
conflict of interest on part of the franchisee.  The local affiliate may 
end up as a competitor once the franchise agreement expires or is 
A key consideration in establishing a franchise operation in Pakistan is 
quality control, particularly if the enterprise proposes to use locally 
produced items.  The quality of local items is often inconsistent and 
must be closely monitored.  Some U.S. franchisors in Pakistan have run 
into quality-control problems and have either terminated operations or 
allowed the operation to blend into the local economy and let the image 
of an international franchise lapse.  Importing inputs, especially food 
ingredients, also poses problems for franchises.  Import regulations are 
often vague and interpretations can change with little or no prior 
notice.  In Pakistan, all imported food items, particularly meat items 
must be certifiably "Halal", (killed in the proper ritual Islamic 

Selection of a franchisee is critical because usually it involves a 
long-term relationship.  Prior to entering an agreement with a local 
company, U.S. firms may commission a FCBR on the local company, by 
paying the appropriate fee to their local district office of the U.S. 
Department of Commerce.  U.S. firms are, of course, advised to identify 
a number of candidates and evaluate each carefully.  

The franchise agreement must be carefully drafted to protect the 
interests of the parties.  The franchisor must be able to retain some 
direct control over operations, even after transfer of business and 
technical know-how.  Crucial elements of the franchise agreement include 
territorial coverage, duration, franchise rate, protection of trade 
secrets, quality control, and minimum performance clauses.  The U.S. 
firm should assure that its patents and trademarks will be registered in 
its own name rather than that of the franchisee. 

Major U.S. companies with franchise operations in Pakistan include 
Marriott, Ramada Inc., Sheraton, Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Best Western, 
Pizza Hut, and Avis.

D.      Direct Marketing

Direct marketing in Pakistan until recently was limited to direct mail 
advertising, with leading pharmaceutical firms and large publishing 
groups as major users.  The pharmaceutical companies were reaching out 
to doctors, hospitals, and other medical professionals, and the 
publishers were using direct mail to reach out to their existing 
subscribers of magazines and publications for repeat business.  However, 
the inception of telemarketing and greater use of courier services have 
recently broadened the scope of direct marketing.

The concept of direct marketing is gradually gaining acceptance in the 
Pakistani marketplace, driven by the efforts of several multinational 
companies.  Low costs for domestic mail and local telephone calls make 
this a potentially cost-effective sales medium.  The major drawbacks to 
direct marketing in Pakistan are the lack of readily available mailing 
lists and the paucity of reports on consumer preferences, making it 
difficult to target and reach the intended audience.  Efficient mail, 
courier, and telephone services are generally limited to major urban 
areas, confining the current reach of direct marketing to the cities of 
Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi/Islamabad and Peshawar.

U.S. companies considering direct marketing in Pakistan should take 
local customs and cultural values into consideration before launching a 
campaign.  The use of a local advertising agency is advisable in 
implementing the direct marketing option. A few advertising agencies 
have separate direct marketing departments.

E.      Joint Ventures/Licensing

The three principal routes to entering the Pakistan market are:  (1) 
formation of a wholly- owned private company; (2) formation of a public 
limited company (foreign firm retains majority control, but seeks public 
participation through stock flotation); and (3) establishment of a 
company in cooperation with joint venture partners, who supply local 
expertise, management, and capital. 

The joint venture may be either a private or a public company.  Joint 
ventures can be an attractive option in Pakistan today because there are 
many local entrepreneurs who have built a substantial base in their 
industrial enterprises and are seeking to combine their knowledge of 
local markets with foreign capital and technological know-how.  The 
foreign joint venture partner limits its initial country exposure while 
enjoying the support of a local partner in a new market and Prominent 
joint ventures have been established in the automobile, fertilizer, 
electronic, financial services, food, and consumer product sectors.

Firms wanting to delay direct entry into the Pakistan market should 
consider licensing arrangements with Pakistani firms, an option that 
permits them to enter the market in stages if the initial response is 

F.      Steps to Establishing an Office

A business in Pakistan may be organized as a sole proprietorship, a 
partnership, or as a public or private limited company.  Foreign 
investors generally establish limited companies as required under the 
Companies Ordinance, 1984.  They must register with the Registrar of 
Companies.  Company registration offices are located in each of the 
provincial capitals and also in Islamabad and Multan.  A company making 
any public offer of securities for sale or intending to issue capital 
beyond Rs. 100 million is required to obtain approval from the 
Controller of Capital Issues (CCI).

After completion of the required formalities, firms should apply for 
necessary utilities to the authorities below:

Electric Power:  Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC), for the 
Karachi area, and Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for the 
rest of the country.

Natural Gas:  Sui Northern Gas (for Punjab and NWFP) and Sui Southern 
Gas Company (for Sindh and Baluchistan).

Telephone, Fax:  Pakistan Telecommunications Corporation (and private 
cellular phone companies).

Water:  Local governmental authorities.

All manufacturing concerns employing more than 10 persons are required 
to register with the appropriate provincial Chief Inspector of 
Industries under the Factories Ordinance, 1984.  

Within 30 days of establishment, foreign companies must file the 
following documents with the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies, 
Ministry of Finance:

        --      a certified copy of the charter, statutes, or 
memorandum, and articles of association of the company;

        --      the full address of the registered or principal overseas 
office of the company;

        --      the names of the chief executive and directors of the 

        --      the names and addresses of persons resident in Pakistan 
who are authorized to accept any legal notice served on the company.

U.S. firms may find it advantageous to use the services of a local 
attorney in complying with these formalities.

G.      Selling Factors/Techniques

Imports - Imports of goods into Pakistan require a Compulsory Letter of 
Credit (L/C), unless a special exemption is obtained in advance.  
Revolving, transferable, and packing letters of credit are not 
permissible.  Letters of credit should provide for negotiation of 
documents within a period not exceeding 30 days from the date of 

Payment to the beneficiary (stipulated in the L/C) may be made either in 
the country of origin or in the country of shipment of goods.  Other 
payment terms are subject to approval by the State Bank of Pakistan 
(SBP).  Remittances may be made soon after goods have been cleared by 

Pakistan Customs authorities require a commercial invoice and a bill of 
lading (or air waybill).  Exporters should forward documents separately 
if shipment is by sea, but should include them with air shipments.  
Certificates of origin are not legally required but may be requested by 
the consignee or consignee's bank.  When a certificate of origin is not 
requested, a statement of country of origin should appear on the 
invoice.  Consular invoices are not required.

The exporter should also be sure to ascertain from the importer the 
precise number of copies of each document which will be required.  Other 
documents, such as insurance certificates and packing lists, also may be 
requested by importers, depending on the specific circumstances.  
Customs authorities require special certificates for imports of plants 
and plant products and used clothing (e.g. a U.S. Food and Drug 
Administration certificate for foods and pharmaceuticals).  In order to 
expedite the process and to avoid potential delays and penalties, 
exporters should request detailed instructions from the Pakistani 
importer prior to shipping.

In 1995 Pakistan initiated a system of preshipment inspections (PSI) to 
value imports. The inspection, which takes place in the country of 
origin, is based on market price, not invoice value. Further 
complicating matters, Pakistan Customs is not bound to accept the PSI 

H.      Advertising and Trade Promotion

Pakistan has over a dozen major advertising agencies, some with foreign 
affiliation.  Advertising agency commissions are usually 15 percent of 
the cost of the advertisement.  Information concerning advertising 
agencies may be obtained from the Pakistan Advertising Association, 232 
Hotel Metropole, Abdullah Haroon Road, Karachi.

Newspaper advertising is the most widely used method of advertising.  
Other advertising vehicles include radio, television, billboards, 
periodicals and trade journals, direct response advertising, and slides 
and commercial film shorts in movie theaters.

Pakistan has over 115 daily newspapers.  The Daily Jang, published in 
Urdu, is the single largest newspaper, with an estimated national 
circulation of almost 750,000.  Combined circulation for the roughly 13 
English-language newspapers is approximately 200,000.  The principal 
English-language daily newspapers are Dawn (published in Karachi), The 
News (Islamabad, Lahore, Karachi), The Pakistan Times (Islamabad, 
Lahore), The Nation (Lahore), The Muslim (Islamabad), The Frontier Post 
(Peshawar, Lahore), and The Business Recorder (Karachi).  Although the 
English-language press reaches only a small fraction of the population, 
it is influential in political, business, academic, and professional 
circles.  The immediate past editor of The News is the current Pakistani 
ambassador to the United States.  The two major English-language general 
magazines are the monthlies, The Herald and Newsline.  The principal 
English-language weekly economic magazine is the Pakistan & Gulf 
Economist, published in Karachi, and there is also a widely-read english 
weekly Friday Times published from Lahore.

Broadcasting outlets in Pakistan are government-owned and operated, but 
accept private advertising.  Television is broadcast in color on three 
channels, using the PAL system.  English language programs are broadcast 
for about two hours a day on the larger Pakistan Television Corporation 
(PTV) and for eight to ten hours a day on the Shalimar Television 
Network (STN).  A 30-second commercial in prime time currently costs 
$3,245 on PTV and $1,670 on STN.

Satellite television broadcasts have also made inroads in Pakistan and 
it is estimated that more than 100,000 dish antennas are presently 
installed in the country. About a dozen channels are received through 
satellites reaching about 2 million viewers.

Radio broadcasting time lasts approximately 17 hours a day.  The 
standard advertising rate on Pakistani radio for commercial firms and 
products is approximately $70 for a 30-second spot.

Pakistan currently allows trade advertising material other than 
commercial catalogues to enter duty-free, but levies a 15 percent sales 
tax on those items.  Samples may be admitted duty free only if they are 
representative parts of a complete shipment or are unsuitable for sale.  
The duties applicable to commercial shipments apply to samples having a 
commercial value. 

Trade Shows - The textile and leather industries and the Computer 
Society of Pakistan hold annual events for export promotion purposes and 
for the local industry, respectively.  U.S. Department of Commerce-
sponsored  catalogue shows and video catalogue exhibitions can be useful 
vehicles for generating sales leads and for locating suitable agents and 
distributors.  Trade and seminar missions can also provide valuable 
first-hand insights into the Pakistani market, as well as serving to 
introduce U.S. equipment and technology.  Trade missions can educate 
government and other end-users about product availability, technical 
characteristics, quality, and price, and can establish contacts with key 
organizations to promote product awareness.

U.S. firms should also consider participation in regional events 
(focusing on either South Asia or the Middle East) in order to reach 
potential Pakistani purchasers, agents, and distributors.

I.      Pricing Products

Product pricing is often difficult for new entrants to the Pakistan 
market, principally due to the country's complex tax structure.  Foreign 
companies represented by a local agent, distributor, licensee, or other 
intermediary generally work closely with their local affiliates in 
determining prices.

Relatively high shelf prices frequently include a substantial tax 
component, which can add nearly 50 percent to the retailer's purchase 
price.  High prices for imported consumer items have created a large 
market for goods coming into Pakistan through the "informal channel."  
Large quantities of goods are brought in by expatriate Pakistanis and 
professional couriers from the Gulf region in their personal baggage.  
In some segments of the market, goods brought through this channel have 
market shares ranging from 50 to 95 percent.

As an illustration of the scale and complexity of various taxes and 
duties imposed on imported consumer items, marketers of products in 
early 1994 had to build into their final sales price the following 
factors:  loading charges (approximately 6.0 percent of initial price); 
customs duty; sales tax; iqra education tax; flood relief surcharge; 
income tax; octroi (a municipal tax); import license fees; bank charges; 
and insurance.
Pricing of non-consumer items is based on different parameters.  Most 
foreign companies in this market segment are also represented by 
agent/distributors and give their local affiliates significant latitude 
in pricing decisions.  Agents often opt for higher sales turnover by 
reducing their margins, allowing them to generate more revenue through a 
higher volume of sales.  In other cases, local agent/distributors may 
add up to 30 percent to the list price as their commission, depending on 
the nature of the product.  For duty and tariff purposes, they quote the 
principal's list prices only.  On average, retailers mark up imported 
machinery and equipment 10 to 15 percent and imported general 
merchandise 20 to 30 percent.

Many local agent/distributors now quote their prices in U.S. dollars 
because of the gradual but steady depreciation of the Pakistani rupee.

J.      Sales Service/Customer Support

In Pakistan, the end-user generally requires comprehensive and reliable 
after-sales support on all durable and non-consumer items, accompanied 
by good documentation and instructions for product installation, 
operation, and repair.  Many purchasers choose a complete turnkey 
package, which often includes employee training.

Foreign sellers generally require local agent/distributors to maintain a 
certain minimum inventory of spare parts.  Most agents provide a 
warranty and "free maintenance" for one year, building the cost of 
maintenance into their overall price.

It is a common practice for end-users to demand a guarantee that the 
supplier will respond to questions or rectify faults in the equipment 
within a specified period of time.  The time period may vary from a few 
hours to several days, depending on the nature of the product and the 
fault in the equipment.
K.      Selling to the Government

Pakistani government agencies and public sector companies allow only 
exclusive agents to submit bids for tenders as an assurance that they 
receive only one quotation from each supplier.  Many firms (especially 
Japanese) add a clause on direct negotiation which allows them to deal 
directly with the end-user, should the firm believe that the agent may 
have difficulty in concluding a sale.  On such sales, the commission 
payable to the agent, if any, is determined by the principals and is 
based on the proportion of services rendered by the agent.

Pakistani law does not prohibit payment of commissions on commercial 
procurement of large amounts of military equipment, but it is the policy 
of the Pakistan Ministry of Defense that no commission be paid.  Parties 
to such transactions have adopted creative approaches to ensure 
compensation to the agent without payment of "commissions". 

Commercial procurement of small to medium amounts of military equipment 
is generally made through local agents of overseas manufacturers and 
suppliers.  The supplier must certify that no agency commission is 
included in the quoted prices.  The Ministry of Defense then pays the 
commission in rupees as follows:

             For a Single Order            Rate of Commission (%)

Up to Rs. 5,000                                        7.0
From Rs. 5,000 to 50,000                               3.5
From Rs. 50,000 to 100,000                             3.0
From Rs. 100,000 to 50,000                             2.0
From Rs. 500,000 to 1,000,000                          1.5
From Rs. 1,000,000 to 2,500,000                        1.0
Over Rs. 2,500,000                                     0.5

L.      Protecting Your Product from IPR Infringement

Pakistan is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization 
(WIPO), the Universal Copyright Convention, and the Bern Copyright 
Union, but not of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial 
Property.  U.S. citizens receive national treatment on patent, 
copyright, and trademark matters, but enforcement of the law is weak.  
The United States and Pakistan have held a series of official 
discussions on intellectual property protection aimed at strengthening 
the rights of U.S. companies and individuals.

Pakistan's patent law provides for process but not product patent 
protection for pharmaceuticals and agrichemicals.  Proving infringement 
of a process patent is relatively more difficult and such patents are 
more easily circumvented than product patents.  Copyright infringement 
is an area of great concern.  Although Pakistan is a member of the 
Universal Copyright Convention, U.S. companies (e.g. book publishers, 
video film producers, and computer software companies) have complained 
that Pakistan's copyright law enforcement is ineffective and that 
penalties for violation are extremely weak.  In September 1992, a 
statutory amendment, which generally strengthens penalties against 
copyright infringement, became law.

In the past, foreign investors had experienced difficulties in obtaining 
government approval for royalty and technical fee agreements, but 
revised laws and regulations have largely eliminated this problem.  
Limits on royalty and technical fee payments have also been abolished.  
The United States has proposed a bilateral agreement on protection of 
intellectual property rights; the GOP is now considering that proposal.

M.      Need for a Local Attorney

For multinational corporations considering capital or industrial 
investments in Pakistan, local legal counsel may provide useful insights 
into the local laws and business environment, identification of the 
appropriate business structure (such as a liaison office, a branch 
office or a wholly-owned subsidiary), and advice and assistance in 
drafting appropriate agreements and complying with local regulatory 

After the decision to invest has been made, local legal assistance may 
be required to obtain operating licenses, incorporate legal entities, 
comply with appropriate corporate formalities,  obtain work permits for 
expatriate personnel, and negotiate employment contracts for local 
staff.  For ongoing operations, local counsel can update investing firms 
on statutory and regulatory developments and provide day-to-day advice 
on matters such as tax compliance and protection of intellectual 
property rights.


This Section lists six sub-sectors in the agricultural sector, and 14 in 
the industrial sector.  The agricultural sub-sectors are listed in 
descending order of importance.  The industrial sub-sectors are grouped 
into three ranks, beginning with the most promising (Rank I).  Data are 
in millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise noted.

        A.      Best Prospects for Non-Agricultural Goods and Services

Industrial Export Prospects            

Rank:  Industrial (I)
Name of Sector:  Pollution Control Equipment
ITA or PS&D Code: POL

Comments: The Pakistan market for pollution control equipment is 
expected to grow rapidly over the next 3-5 years.  The government's 
Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (PEPA) estimates that with the 
introduction of the EPA Act emission standards will be enforced, 
creating a market for catalytic convertors, marine pollution control 
equipment, solid waste disposal systems and pollution control equipment 
for leather tanneries.

                                1993/94        1994/95         1995/96

A.      Total market size          6.5         10.0            18.0
B.      Total local production      -            -               -
C.      Total exports               -            -               -
D.      Total imports              6.5         10.0            18.0
E.      Total imports from U.S.    3.7          4.5             5.5

        Exchange rate (rupees/$) 30.16        30.81            32.0

Note: The above statistics are unofficial estimates.



Rank:  Industrial (I)
Name of Sector:  Agricultural Chemicals
ITA or PS&D Code: AGC
Comments: Improved government policies and support have spurred 
agricultural production during the past ten years.  Cotton, rice, wheat, 
and tobacco are the major crops.  The U.S. is a leading supplier of Di-
Ammonium Phosphate (DAP) and also has a major share of the market for 
Malathion.  Other major suppliers of insecticides are Germany, 
Switzerland, France, and the Netherlands.  

The most promising subsectors and estimated market size for 1996 are:  
Di-Ammonium Phosphate ($130 million); Pesticides, Herbicides, and 
Fungicides (80 million). 

                                1993/94        1994/95         1995/96

A.      Total market size         839.0          898.0           951.5
B.      Total local production    555.0          605.0           648.4
C.      Total exports               1.0            1.5             2.0
D.      Total imports             285.0          295.0           305.0        
E.      Total imports from U.S.   130.0          132.0           134.0

        Exchange rate (rupees/$)  30.16          30.81            32.0                        


Rank:  Industrial (I)
Name of Sector:  Industrial Chemicals
ITA or PS&D Code: ICH

Comments:  Demand for industrial chemicals continues to expand. Although 
imports account for most of the market, local production is expected to 
increase as new plants come on stream in the next two to three years.  
U.S. share of imports has averaged between 8 and 10 percent during the 
last several years.  Major competitors are Switzerland, the UK, Germany, 
China, and Japan.

Most promising sub-sectors and estimated market size for 1996 are: 
Organic Chemicals ($140 million); Inorganic Chemicals ($70 million); 
Dyeing, Tanning, and Coloring materials ($130 million); Oils, Perfumes, 
and Flavors ($30 million); Resins and Plastic Materials ($280 million).

                                1993/94        1994/95         1995/96

A.      Total market size         1,156          1,207           1,263
B.      Total local production      167            172             189
C.      Total exports                33             36              39
D.      Total imports             1,022          1,071           1,113
E.      Total imports from U.S.      77             80              83

        Exchange rate (rupees/$)                 30.16           30.81           


Rank:  Industrial (I)
Name of Sector:  Telecommunications Equipment
ITA or PS&D Code: TEL

Comments: The telecommunications sector has significant potential for 
growth.  The private sector now actively participates in its expansion 
and development, supplying cellular telephones, paging services, and 
card-operated telephones.  Despite strong competition from foreign 
suppliers (Siemens of Germany, Alcatel of France, and Ericsson of 
Sweden), all of whom have had a strong presence in Pakistan for several 
years, U.S. firms can increase their market share as Pakistan invests in 
fiber optics, digital switching systems, and data-communications 
networks.  The anticipated privatization of the Pakistan 
Telecommunications Corporation (PTC) will offer additional 

Most promising sub-sectors and estimated market size for 1996 are:  
Telephone Sets ($13 million); Telephone Switching Apparatus ($38 
million); Parts for Telecommunications Equipment ($170 million); 
Electric Telephone Cables ($75 million).

                                      1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size               218.4        326.0        372.0
B.     Total local production           72.0         83.0         94.3
C.     Total exports                     0.6          1.0          1.5
D.     Total imports                   210.0        244.0        279.2
E.     Total imports from U.S.           4.5          6.0          7.5

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)        30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (I)
Name of Sector:  Electrical Power Systems
ITA or PS&D Code: ELP

Comments:  The government has accorded this sector the highest priority.  
Demand has outstripped supply, and the shortage is currently approx. 
2,000-MW during peak load hours, resulting in an estimated annual loss 
of approx. USD one billion to the economy.  The average annual increase 
in demand is conservatively estimated at 8-10 pct. per annum over the 
next 25 years.  The government has thus permitted the construction of 
new thermal power generation projects in the private sector, and is 
currently finalizing a new policy encouraging private sector 
participation in hydel projects as well.  Several private sector 
projects are under negotiation, and a few are currently being 
implemented.  In addition, the government-owned Water & Power 
Development Authority (WAPDA) has plans to construct several large 
hydro-electric generating facilities.  The GOP has announced a new 
transmission policy opening extra high voltage lines and substations to 
private sector investors.  Projects, as packages, are offered on a 
build, own and operate (BOO) basis.  The two government-owned utilities, 
WAPDA and KESC, will purchase power generated by the private sector and 
distribute it through their grids.  WAPDA and KESC are to be privatized 
in phases.  Major competitors in this market are Germany, Japan, U.K., 
China, Italy and France.  While U.S. products are considered 
technologically superior, prices and the source of financing will 
determine purchase decisions.

Most promising subsectors with estimated market size for 1996:  Power 
Generation Equipment ($437 million); Transmission Equipment ($173 

                                     1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size               742.0        802.0      1,136.0  
B.     Total local production          447.0        483.0        516.0  
C.     Total exports                     2.0          2.0          2.0 
D.     Total imports                   297.0        321.0        622.0
E.     Total imports from U.S.          26.5         28.5         30.5

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)        30.16        30.81         32.0    


Rank:  Industrial (I)
Name of Sector:  Plastic Materials and Resins
ITA or PS&D Code: PMR

Comments:  With little domestic production, Pakistan depends largely on 
imported raw materials to produce a wide variety of plastic products for 
consumer and industrial uses.  The import of plastic materials and 
resins in both primary and non-primary forms has grown by more than 10 
percent annually during the last several years.  Some domestic 
manufacturing facilities are in the planning stages, but until these 
plants come on stream Pakistan will continue to depend largely on 
imported raw materials.

Most promising sub-sector and estimated market size for 1996 are:  
Polyethylene, gravity less than 0.94 ($23 million); Polyethylene, 
gravity above 0.94 ($26 million); Polypropylene ($45 million); 
Polystyrene ($10 million); Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) ($35 million); 
Polyesters in primary form ($12 million); Silicones in primary forms ($6 

                                     1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size              250.5        268.0        283.0
B.     Total local production           6.5          7.0          7.5 
C.     Total exports                     -           0.5          1.0  
D.     Total imports                  244.0        261.5        276.5
E.     Total imports from U.S.         25.5         27.5         29.5

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)       30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (II)
Name of Sector:  Iron and Steel
ITA or PS&D Code: IRN

Comments:  Pakistan both produces and imports iron and steel products.  
A large state-owned steel manufacturing facility, Pakistan Steel Mills 
Limited, and other manufacturers produce pig-iron, hot and cold-rolled 
products, ingots, and galvanized items.  Although domestic production 
will rise with the expansion of capacity at Pakistan Steel, imports are 
also projected to increase due to growth in infrastructural and 
industrial development.  Major foreign suppliers are the United States, 
Japan, Germany, U.K., France, China, Belgium, and Brazil.

Most promising sub-sectors and estimated market size for 1996 are:  Pig 
Iron and Ferro-alloys ($65 million), Ingots, etc. ($120 million); Flat-
rolled Products ($85 million); Coated Flat-rolled Products ($130 
million); Flat-rolled Products of Alloy Steel ($50 million); Iron and 
Steel Tubes and Pipes ($60 million); Stainless Steel sheets ($6 
million); Iron and Steel Bars, Rods, and Angles ($20 million); Iron and 
Steel Wire ($12 million).

                                   1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size           1,302        1,438        1,535 
B.     Total local production        960        1,059      1,121.5
C.     Total exports                  -            -         -
D.     Total imports                 342          379        413.5
E.     Total imports from U.S.      32.5         33.5         34.0  

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)    30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (II)
Name of Sector:  Computers and Peripherals
ITA or PS&D Code: CPT

Comments:  With virtually no domestic production, Pakistan offers a 
highly promising and rapidly expanding market for computers and related 
equipment.  Growth in the personal computer (PC) market is expected to 
continue very strongly.  Several U.S. brands are already in the market 
and others are being introduced despite strong competition from Japan, 
South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong brands.  The GOP encourages use of 
computer technology in both public and private institutions and 
organizations, and has initiated a "Computer Literacy Program" in 
several underdeveloped areas of the country.

Most promising sub-sectors and estimated market size for 1996 are:  
Analog-hybrid Data Processing Machines ($3.5 million); Digital Data 
Processing Machines ($22 million); Printers ($9.0 million); Off-line 
Data Processing Equipment ($13 million); Parts ($10 million); 
Input/output Units ($11 million).

                                      1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size               73.0         78.0         82.0
B.     Total local production           -            -            -
C.     Total exports                    -            -            -
D.     Total imports                   73.0         78.0         82.0
E.     Total imports from U.S.         15.5         18.0         20.0

       Exchange rate (Rupees/$)       30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (II)
Name of Sector:  Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
ITA or PS&D Code: DRG

Comments:  Pakistan has over 200 licensed pharmaceutical manufacturing 
companies; approximately 32 multinational firms account for about 80 
percent of the market.  Imports are about one-half of local production.  
The Government recently lifted some price controls, an action which may 
increase demand for imported raw materials for local production.

Most promising sub-sectors and estimated market size for 1996 are: 
Antibiotics, not medicaments ($30 million); Antibiotics, NS ($70 
million); Medicines Containing Antibiotic Derivatives ($25 million); 
Anti-cera Vaccines ($13.5 million); Medicines Containing Hormones ($25 
million); Hormones and Derivatives ($8 million); Medicines for retail 
sale ($80 million); Vegetable Alkaloids, Natural and Synthetic ($6.5 
million); Medicaments, NS ($55 million).

                                  1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size            638.3        688.3        728.0
B.     Total local production       437.0        462.3        477.0 
C.     Total exports                 19.5         21.2         22.0
D.     Total imports                220.8        247.2        273.0
E.     Total imports from U.S.       23.2         25.0         26.5

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)      30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (II)
Name of Sector:  Oil and Gasfield Machinery and Supplies
ITA or PS&D Code: OGMS

Comments:  The government has recently announced new petroleum and 
hydrocarbon policies to attract foreign investors and is encouraging 
additional oil and gas exploration activities.  Several U.S. companies 
are actively involved in oil and gas exploration in Pakistan.  

Although itemized statistics for sub-sectors are not available, good 
prospects exist for drilling machinery, casing, line pipes, and coating 
and tubing materials.

                                   1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size             110.0        129.0        148.0
B.     Total local production         16.0         19.0         21.0
C.     Total exports                    -            -            -
D.     Total imports                  94.0        110.0        127.0 
E.     Total imports from U.S.        32.0         38.5         42.0

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)      30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (II)
Name of Sector:  Transportation Equipment and Parts
ITA or PS&D Code: TRN

Comments:  With growing Pakistani interest in U.S.-made vehicles, 
engines, and components, the U.S. is expected to increase market share 
considerably.  Good prospects exist for increased sales of aircraft (new 
and used), aircraft engines, and parts.  The national flag carrier, 
Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) plans to upgrade its fleet and 
three private sector carriers plan to expand their operations.  The 
Karachi Mass Transit Project and other projects to improve and expand 
port facilities offer additional export opportunities for U.S. suppliers 
of transportation equipment.

Most promising sub-sectors and estimated market size for 1996 are:  
Aircraft and Parts ($400 million); Buses and their Chassis with Engines 
($320 million); Trucks, Trailers, and Engines ($350 million); Ships and 
Boats ($95 million); Railway Vehicles ($40 million).

                                 1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size           2,089.0      2,315.2      2,553.2
B.     Total local production      1,262.3      1,414.0      1,633.0
C.     Total exports                   7.3          7.3          7.3
D.     Total imports                 834.0        908.5        927.5
E.     Total imports from U.S.       112.0        118.0        129.8

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)       30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (III)
Name of Sector:  Pumps, Valves, and Compressors
ITA or PS&D Code: PVC

Comments:  The U.S. is one of the leading suppliers of imported pumps, 
valves, and compressors.  Others are Japan, China, Germany, France, the 
U.K., and Italy.  Growth in industrial activity and investment should 
continue to result in increased demand for pumps, valves, and 

Most promising sub-sectors and estimated market size for 1996 are:  
Centrifugal Pumps ($10 million); Rotary Positive Displacement Pumps ($5 
million); Vacuum Pumps ($5 million); Parts for Pumps ($6 million); 
Compressors for Refrigeration Equipment ($17 million); Air Pumps, Other 
Compressors ($8 million); Parts for Compressors ($3 million); Pressure-
reducing Valves ($1.5 million); Check Valves ($5 million); Taps, Cocks, 
Other Valves ($8 million).

                                    1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size             119.5        124.5        131.0
B.     Total local production         47.5         50.0         52.5
C.     Total exports                      -         0.5          1.0
D.     Total imports                  72.0         75.0         79.5
E.     Total imports from U.S.        13.4         14.5         15.5

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)      30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (III)
Name of Sector:  Paper and Paperboard
ITA or PS&D Code: PAP

Comments:  Newsprint and long-fiber pulp requirements are met entirely 
through imports.  The U.S. is now a major supplier of pulp, and has 
recently developed a market for waste paper as well.  Local production 
meets most of the requirements for writing, printing and drafting paper.   
Major competitors in pulp are Sweden, Indonesia and Brazil; and in waste 
paper Saudi Arabia and Singapore.

Most promising subsectors and estimated market size for 1996 are:  Pulp 
and Waste Paper ($85 million); Newsprint ($46 million); Kraft Paper 
($115 million); Coated and Specialty Paper and Paperboard ($125 

                                  1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size           175.0        293.0        364.0
B.     Total local production      110.0        180.0        242.0
C.     Total exports                  -           3.0          3.0
D.     Total imports                75.0        116.0        125.0
E.     Total imports from U.S       12.0         15.0         17.0

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)    30.16        30.81         32.0


Rank:  Industrial (III)
Name of Sector:  Security & Safety Equipment
ITA or PS&D Code: SEC

Comments:  Pakistan market for security and safety equipment, although 
small, promises rapid expansion in the next 2-3 years.  All major items 
other than badges and I.D's, and some protective clothing, are imported.  
Civil unrest, armed robberies and banditry have spurred market growth in 
this sector.  

Itemized statistics are not available.  However, reconnaissance and 
surveillance equipment; fire and burglar alarm systems; protective 
clothing; fire-fighting equipment; chemicals, armored vehicles; riot-
control equipment; closed-circuit systems; plastic security seals; and 
communication equipment provide good sales opportunities.

                                1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

A.     Total market size          16.0         18.5         30.0
B.     Total local production      2.0          2.2          2.5
C.     Total exports                -            -           0.5
D.     Total imports              14.0         16.3         28.0
E.     Total imports from U.S.     4.0          4.2          4.3

       Exchange rate (rupees/$)  30.16        30.81         32.0

       B.    Best Prospects for Agricultural Products

Agricultural Export Prospects


I.      Agricultural Export Prospects

A.      Agriculture 
B.      Name of Sector: Wheat
C.      ITA or PS&D Code: 0410000

                                1993/94        1994/95         1995/96  
D.      Total market size         1976          2306              2438
E.      Total local production    1735          1960             2088
F.      Total exports                0             0                0
G.      Total imports              241           346              350
H.      Total imports from U.S.    226            233             240
I.      Exchange rate (rupees/$)  30.16         30.81           32.00

Comments:  Pakistan is a large and expanding market for imported wheat, 
the bulk of which is supplied by the United States.  During the period 
from 1988/89 to 1994/95, annual wheat imports averaged two million tons. 
Other suppliers are Australia, Canada and, to a lesser extent, the 
European Union.  U.S. wheat exports to Pakistan are currently eligible 
for the USDA's Export Enhancement Program (EEP) and GSM-102.  Wheat is 
the staple food and its supply is politically sensitive.  Wheat imports 
are free of all duties and customs.  The GOP is the major buyer of 
imported wheat.  Private traders may import wheat, but are not currently 
doing so due to various price and financial factors.  Imported wheat is 
bagged at Port Qasim upon arrival.


A.      Agriculture 
B.      Name of Sector: Cotton
C.      ITA or PS&D Code: 2631000

                                 1993/94       1994/95       1995/96

D.      Total market size         1446            3025              3088
E.      Total local production    1398            2773              2988
F.      Total exports               79              72               370
G.      Total imports               68             252                12
H.      Total Imports from U.S.    9.7             135                10
I.      Exchange rate (rupees/$)  30.16          30.81             32.00

Comments: In Pakistan the cotton crop has suffered with unfavorable 
weather conditions and attack of CLCV.  As a result its production has 
declined from a record level of 12.8 million bales in 1991/92.  In 
1994/95 Pakistan  imported record quantities of lint cotton from the 
United States and Russian Federation.  Imports of U.S. cotton in 1994-95 
were  about 168,000 bales, or roughly 28 percent of the import market.  
During the period of imports, all import duties and customs fees were 
waived.  In the 1995/96 budget year, lint cotton imports will remain 
duty free.  All cotton imported must be fumigated at export locations.  
Pakistan's large textile industry and the country's economic dependence 
upon that industry require that cotton supplies be assured through 
imports if domestic production is insufficient.  Significant imports are 
expected only if domestic cotton production falls short of local 

A.      Agriculture 
B.      Name of Sector: Feed Grains
C.      ITA or PS&D Code: 0440000

                                    1993/94     1994/95        1995/96

D.      Total market size             367         355            360
E.      Total local production        367         355            350
F.      Total exports                   0           0              0
G.      Total imports                   0           0             10 
        Total imports from U.S.         0           0             10
I.      Exchange rate (rupees/$)    30.16       30.81          32.00

Comments:  Independent studies of the livestock sector and Pakistan's 
future animal feed needs have predicted that, as poultry and beef 
consumption increase, Pakistan will face a critical feed supply deficit 
and will need to import feed grains.  In the next several years, 
Pakistan may be forced to begin feed grain imports to maintain its 
current level of per capita meat consumption.  During 1995-96 Pakistan 
may import corn from USA worth $10 million under PL-480.  The GOP has 
allowed import of corn under this program.                        


A.      Agriculture 
B.      Name of Sector: Soybeans
C.      ITA PS&D Code:

                                       1993/94   1994/95    1995/96

D.      Total Market Size(000 mt)       6.64      31.0         57.0
E.      Total Local Production(000 mt)  6.64       7.0          7.0
F.      Total exports                      0         0            0
G.      Total imports                      0       6.8         15.0
H.      Total imports from U.S.            0       6.8         15.0
I.      Exchange rate (rupees /$)      30.16     30.81        32.00

Comments:  Pakistan is the third largest importer of vegetable oil.  
Domestic production of soybeans ranges from 6-7 thousand mt.  The 
installation of modern solvent extraction plants in Pakistan creates a 
potential buyer of U.S. soybeans and Pakistan has imported 25,000 mt of 
U.S. soybeans in 1994-95. Importing soybeans offers an excellent means 
of fulfilling part of Pakistan■s large demand for vegetable oil and 
protein meal.

The GOP initially allowed the duty free import of soybeans for one year.  
This facility is expected to be extended for another 3 years. 

A.      Agriculture 
B.      Name of Sector: Non-Fat Dry Milk
C.      ITA PS&D Code:

                                      1993/94    1994/95      1995/96

D.      Total Market Size               37.4      40.5        42.0
E.      Total Local Production          21.0      26.5        27.0
F.      Total exports                   0.05       0.5         0.6
G.      Total imports                   16.4      14.0        15.0
H.      Total imports from U.S.            0         0           0
I.      Exchange rate (rupees /$)      30.16     30.81        32.0

Comments:  Pakistan imports about 10,000 metric tons of nonfat dry milk 
every year, the bulk of which was provided by East and European 
countries. A market opportunity is emerging.  U.S. nonfat dry milk 
exports are becoming competitive in Pakistan's price conscious market.  
Pakistan has established different Import Tariff Prices (ITP) for a 
number of qualities of dry milk powder based on the origins.  There is a 
wide gap between the ITP■s for Eastern Europe and other origin■s.  The 
new import regulation of the pre- shipment inspection have provided a 
better opportunity for US NFDM to complete with European products.  All 
imports are by private sector.  They are importing off-grade as well as 
to ADMI standard specifications from Lithuania, Poland and other 

A.      Agriculture 
B.      Name of Sector: Hides & Skins, Bovine
C.      ITA PS&D Code: 2111102

                                     1993/94     1994/95     1995/96

D.      Total Market Size             321            359       397
E.      Total Local Production:       289            320       357
F.      Total exports                0.03           0.03      0.03
G.      Total imports                  32             39        40
H.      Total imports from U.S.       0.3             0.6      1.0
I.      Exchange rate (rupees /$)   30.16         30.81       32.0

Comments: In Pakistan market size for hides skins and leather is 
increasing and is expected to be about $400 million in 1995/96.   
Pakistan imported fine quality leather worth $39 million in 1994/95.  
Although the share of U.S. hide and skins exports to Pakistan is very 
nominal there is a market opportunity here in Pakistan.  

A.      Agriculture 
B.      Name of Sector: Livestock By-Products: Tallow & Grease
C.      ITA PS&D Code: 4113200

                                     1993/94     1994/95      1995/96

D.      Total Market Size (mt)        199,539    215,000     235,000
E.      Total Local Production (mt)   141,354    150,000     150,000
F.      Total exports                       0          0           0
G.      Total imports                      29         22          25
H.      Total imports from U.S.       $65,517          0      50,000
I.           Exchange rate (rupees /$)  30.16      30.81       32.00

Comments:  Pakistan is a large market for imported inedible tallow 
(animal fats) because it has an extensive soapmaking industry and has a 
shortage of animal by-products rendering from domestic slaughtering.  
Domestic tallow production is virtually nil, and animal fats are almost 
all consumed with cooked meat.  The compound-feed industry presently 
uses very little animal fat, foregoing an excellent energy source for 
poultry feed.  The shortage of animal fats and dependence on imports are 
expected to continue.  In July-June 1993/94, Pakistan's tallow imports 
valued at an estimated $29 million.  Australia supplied 70 percent of 
the market; New Zealand and Netherlands were also significant sellers.  
Presently imported tallow is subject to custom duty of  approximately 55 
percent ad valorem, and sales tax 15 percent of value.  The imports 
during 1994/95 are about $22 million and are forecast to be $25 million 
in 1995/96.

A.      Agriculture 
B.      Name of Sector: Pulses
C.      ITA PS&D Code: 0542400

                                    1993/94      1994/95      1995/96

D.      Total Market Size            474           570          575
E.      Total Local Production:      431           506          510
F.      Total exports                  0             0            0 
G.      Total imports                 43            64           65 
H.      Total imports from U.S.      0.1             3          0.2 
I.      Exchange rate (rupees /$)  30.16         30.81        32.00

Comments:  Pulses are one of Pakistan's top five  agricultural imports.  
Domestic production of pulses, lentils, and peas was an estimated 
796,000 metric tons in 1994-95.  Imports of all pulses increased about 
50 percent in 1994-95, over 1993-94.  Production has been fairly static 
and Pakistan has occasionally suffered crop shortfalls.  Australia, 
Burma, Iran, and China are the major suppliers.  U.S. dry peas have not 
been competitive in this market because of higher freight costs and FOB 
prices, fluctuations in the availability of TYSON chickpeas, and the 
foreign exchange risk involved with GSM-102 sales.  Normally the private 
sector imports pulses, but this past year the government ordered the 
Trading Corporation of Pakistan to import pulses as the supply was 
short.  Pulses are one of the basic foods in the Pakistani diet, and the 
government takes measures to assure their supply at fair prices.


A.  Trade Barriers

Pakistan has traditionally maintained a complex system of indirect taxes 
in the trade sector. High basic tarrifs, additional surcharges, a 
variety of excise taxes and sales tax with different applicability on 
domestic and foreign goods combined to distort prices in domestic 
markets. The tarrifs, which were established for both protectionist 
motives and revenue raising , had become generally counter-productive. 
Many tariff rates were too high and stimulated smuggling and corruption. 
Revenue collections are also undermined by many exemptions and 
concessions. The GOP has since liberalized its trade regime, reduced 
tariff levels, and streamlined procedures for imports and exports. 

Pakistan uses the Harmonized System to classify and describe goods.  
Customs duties are levied on ad valorem basis. During 1994-95 previously 
existing tariffs (import license fee at a rate of 6.0 percent ad 
valorem, and a 5 percent education tax on all imports) have been merged 
into statutory rates of customs duties, and maximum effective tariff 
rates have been reduced from 92 percent to 65 percent in the 1995-96 
budget announced in June 1995.  The government also levies a 1.0 percent 
flood relief surcharge and a sales tax of 15 percent on the duty-paid 
value of a wide variety of goods produced in or imported into Pakistan.  
Customs duty and other charges are payable in Pakistani currency.

The GOP, encouraged by the World Bank and the IMF, has decided to lower 
the maximum tariff rate in a phased manner to 35 percent by PFY 1997/98.  
The GOP hopes to make up a portion of the revenue loss from lower tariff 
levels by broadening the tariff base to include some currently exempted 

Export subsidies - Pakistan seeks to encourage exports through rebates 
of import duties, sales taxes, and income taxes, as well as through 
concessional export financing.  

B.  Customs Valuation

Valuation - The current import regulations require that all goods (with 
few exemptions) imported into Pakistan will be subject to pre-shipment 
inspection (PSI) in the country of origin/supply. The GOP has designated 
two PSI companies to provide the pre- shipment inspection service; SGS, 
for exports from Asia-Pacific region and North America; and Cotecna for 
exports from other countries/regions. PSI applies to all importations 
exceeding $3,000, and includes physical identification in the country of 
supply, as well as price comparison for customs valuation. PSI companies 
verify that the price invoiced by the seller corresponds with the export 
price levels prevailing in the country of supply or in the international 
market. Once the pricing determination has taken place, the PSI 
companies calculate the "dutiable value" of the merchandise for customs 
purposes. To comply with the PSI requirements, all importers must 
complete the Pre-shipment Inspection form available with the PSI 
companies' offices in Karachi/Lahore. The Controller of Valuation 
(customs), however, chairs the valuation committee which is empowered to 
review the recommendations of the PSI companies. Based on the 
committee's review and decision, the dutiable value may be revised.

Customs Clearance and Warehousing - Ample public and bonded warehouse 
facilities, most of which are owned by the port trust organizations, 
exist for the storage of goods.  Pakistan has no free-port facilities, 
but regulations permit similar privileges while goods are warehoused.  
Goods must be landed within the period specified on the bill of lading 
or within 15 days after entry of the vessel into port.  Once the goods 
have entered and duties have been assessed, the importer must clear them 
for consumption (by paying the duties) or warehouse them.

C.  Import Licenses

All importing firms in the private sector must register as importers 
with the Government of Pakistan's Export Promotion Bureau and must have 
valid registration at the time of importing.  The GOP permits imports 
from all countries except Israel or goods originating in Israel.  
However, in the case of loans, credits or US PL-480, imports shall be 
made subject to availability from the specified source only.  Importers 
must also:

        -             Obtain special authorization of the Ministry of
                      Commerce for importing items from the
                      "negative/restricted" list;

        -             Ensure that correct Harmonized Schedule code 
                      number of every imported item is mentioned in the 
                      import documents;

        -             Ensure that the supplier of cigarettes and cigars
                      prints warning "Smoking is injurious to health" in
                      both Urdu and English on every packet.

Imports from India are a special case.  Only items on a list issued by 
the Ministry of Commerce may be imported;  that list included over 500 
individual items, classified by Harmonized System numbers.  Pakistan's 
imports from India in 1993-94 totaled $70.5 million and have registered 
steady annual increases from the $31.8 million imported in 1988-89.

D.  Export Controls

Export of goods from Pakistan is allowed generally.  However, export of 
some items is banned/restricted or is subject to certain 
conditionalities for reasons of short supply and to ensure their 
availability in the home market.  (E.g.,  export of live animals and 
meat shall be in accordance with the procedure notified by the Export 
Promotion Bureau from time to time.)  Other items banned/restricted for 
export purpose include:  arms, edible oils, hides and skins, timber, 
milk and milk products, and antiques.  The customs authorities will, 
however, inspect outbound baggage to  ensure that no banned/restricted 
item is taken out of the country as accompanied personal baggage. 

E.  Import/Export Documentation

The following documents are required for imports and exports:  bills of 
lading; invoices; packing lists; certificates of origin; copies of 
letters of credit; an import or export license; and insurance 

F.  Temporary Entry

GOP import regulations permit temporary import of legally importable 
items by foreign companies (e.g. as commercial samples) provided that a 
bank guarantee or indemnity bond equivalent to the value of the item is 
provided to the Customs authorities to ensure that the items will be re-
exported.  Applicable import fees must be paid, but will be refunded on 
re- export.  Similarly, domestic industrial firms may import items for 
test, trial, and re-export, subject only to the payment of a refundable 
import fee.  

G.  Labeling, Marking Requirements

Pakistan has no uniform or universal system of imposing labeling and 
marking requirements on products.  However, individual industries or 
sectors are subject to the regulations of specific bodies.  For example, 
the Ministry of Health sets requirements for the pharmaceutical 

H.  Prohibited Imports

Pakistan controls certain imports through the negative list. Goods not 
on the negative list may be freely imported.  The negative list is made 
up of (a) items banned for religious, security or luxury consumption 
reasons; (b) capital and consumer goods banned to protect domestic 
industry; and (c) intermediate goods used in producing protected goods.  
The restricted list includes items that may be imported only, for 
example, by certain parties (the government or other specified users) or 
by certain special arrangements (such as imports against credit).    

Major items on the negative list are listed above in "Trade Barriers".  

I.  Standards

The Pakistan Standards Institution (PSI) is the national standards body.  
The various activities of PSI include preparation and implementation of 
standards, introduction of standards inspections systems, collaboration 
with international organizations such as the International Standards 
Organization (ISO), and dissemination of information on standardization 
and quality control.  PSI has so far established some 3,500 national 
standards for agriculture and food, chemicals, civil and mechanical 
engineering, electronics, weights and measures, and textile products.  

The GOP has recently started free advisory service on ISO 9000 
standardization. The Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) highlights the 
importance of ISO in eye-catching newspaper ads and invite company 
representatives to seminars and free expert advice on the subject.  The 
advisory service covers planning, documentation, interpretation into 
local environment, implementation and certification processes for ISO 
9000.  The GOP plans to introduce ISO 9000 standards in the services 

J.  Free Trade Zones/Warehouses

With a view to promoting foreign investment and a greater export surplus 
for the country, the GOP established a free trade zone at Karachi in 
1980.  The Karachi Export Processing Zone (KEPZ) Authority has so far 
sanctioned over 140 industrial units with foreign equity.  However, 
about 50 units are in production and the rest are at different stages of 
development.  The KEPZ has fully- developed infrastructure facilities 
and offers the following incentives to investors:

        -             Complete exemption from income tax up to the year
                      2000 and imposition of only 25 percent of
                      applicable tax thereafter;

        -             Salary of foreign personnel is exempted from 
                      income tax for five years from the date of arrival 
                      in Pakistan;

        -             Import of machinery, spares, and raw materials is
                      free from all federal and provincial taxes;

        -             The right to export from the KEPZ to Pakistan;

        -             No tax on capital gains;

        -             Unrestricted repatriation of capital, profits, and
                      dividends allowed;

        -             Exemption from certain Pakistani labor laws. 
                      (However, withdrawal of this exemption is under
                      consideration because of concerns over potential
                      abuses or workers' rights).

In addition to the KEPZ, the GOP has planned Special Industrial Zones 
(SIZs) at different locations in the country.  Of the 12 proposed zones, 
three each will be in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh, two each in the 
provinces of NWFP and Baluchistan and one each in the Northern Areas and 
Azad Kashmir.  According to the criteria set for establishing an 
industry in the SIZ, any SIZ project must export at least 60 percent of 
its weighted production capacity.  Minimum foreign equity in an SIZ unit 
must be 40 percent.  If the foreign equity in a project is 51 percent or 
more, its export target is only 50 percent of the weighted production 
capacity.  Foreign investors must bring their own foreign exchange for 
financing foreign currency requirements of their projects.  However, 
local currency financing requirements may be met from local banks.  

The SIZ package of incentives/concessions includes:

        -             Five-year tax holiday for industries set up to 
                      June 30, 1997;

        -             Exemption of customs duty (including import fee 
                      and education surcharge), and sales tax on import
                      of plant and machinery not manufactured locally;

        -             Capital gains to the extent of foreign equity 
                      share would be exempted from taxation for a period 
                      of 5 years from the inception of the project;

        -             Pakistani labor laws will not be applicable to
                      industries in the SIZ  (Also under review because
                      of concerns about potential abuses of workers'

K.  Special Import Provisions

Only an insignificant portion of total imports are subject to 
quantitative restrictions (QRs).  Until January 1994, the GOP maintained 
two categories of QRs: the "restricted" list, which included only two 
items and was abolished in January 1994; and the "negative" list.  The 
"negative" list consists of items whose import is prohibited on 
religious, health, or national security grounds.  Items on the 
"negative" list include:  translations of the Holy Koran without Arabic 
text; goods bearing words or inscriptions of a religious connotation; 
obscene pictures, writings, or inscriptions; horror comics; obscene, 
subversive and anti-Islamic literature; products and by-products of 
pigs, hogs, boars, or swine; fireworks; tanks and armored vehicles; 
artillery weapons; revolvers and pistols of prohibited bores; parlor 
games; gambling equipment; sculptures, worked ivory, and antiques 
exceeding one hundred years in age.

The GOP also maintains certain export prohibitions and export licensing 
requirements.  The GOP has imposed certain procedures for the export of 
"essential" commodities.  These include live animals, beef and mutton, 
animal fat, milk and milk products, timber, ferrous and non-ferrous 
metal, antiquities, and "human skeletons".  Commodities exportable only 
through public sector agencies include petroleum products, coke, caustic 
soda, and rock salt.  In addition, all foreign exchange earned through 
exports is presently surrendered to the State Bank of Pakistan.

L.  Membership in Free Trade Arrangements

Pakistan is not a member of any free trade arrangement, but is party to 
two arrangements which are seeking progress toward regional trade 
liberalization.  The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), whose 
founding members are Pakistan, Turkey, and Iran, has reached basic 
agreement to grant a 10 percent tariff preference on statutory rates for 
some goods.  (ECO membership was expanded to 10 in 1993, when 
Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, and the five formerly Soviet Muslim republics 
of central Asia were admitted.)

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is 
comprised of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and 
the Maldive Islands. SAARC has proposed a South Asian Preferential 
Trading Agreement (SAPTA), which will be reviewed for ratification in 
1995.  Because the SAPTA provides for product-by-product negotiation,  
and because several members have similar production structures and 
therefore limited complementarities, a SAPTA is not likely to have a 
large immediate impact on regional trade flows.

Pakistan's leading regional trading partner is Bangladesh (its former 
eastern wing), very closely followed by India and Sri Lanka.  Pakistan's 
two-way trade with each in 1993-94-93 totalled about $350 million.

Pakistan is also a member (along with Indian and Nepal) of the Asian 
Clearing Union, which was founded in 1976 and aims at facilitating 
multilateral payments through the use of currencies of participating 
countries in regional transactions in order to expand intra-regional 
trade and save convertible foreign exchange.


A.  Openness to Foreign Investment

The Government of Pakistan declares that it is open to foreign 
investment and offers a package of incentives to attract foreign 

Considering the openness of the investment regime, foreign investment 
activity to date has been relatively modest.  Possible reasons for this 
include inadequate infrastructure, perceptions of political instability, 
concerns about corruption, and (diminishing) resistance to the new 
policies by some elements of the bureaucracy who have not yet fully 
adjusted to the new, open economic environment.  A succession of 
investment promotion agencies, most recently the Pakistan Investment 
Board and its successor, the Board of Investment, have lacked the 
continuity of leadership to be very effective.  However, the courting of 
foreign investment in the power generating sector appears to mark a 
turnabout in practice.   The GOP and its bureaucracy appear to be 
following through aggressively on the announced policies of encouraging 
foreign investment because new power generating capacity is desperately 
important to the country's economic and political well-being.

Pakistan's legal framework and economic strategy do not discriminate 
against potential foreign investors, but rather establish an even-handed 
approach.  Foreign investment is generally subject to the same rules as 
domestic investment, with the exception of certain sensitive areas such 
as defense production, banking, and broadcasting.  The structured and 
formal screening of investments, conducted in the past by the Ministries 
of Production and Industries, has been swept aside in the wave of 
economic liberalization that began in the late 1980s.  

There is little apparent denial of national treatment for foreign firms.  
There is also no evidence of statutory derogation of national treatment.  
In fact, the Foreign Private Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act, 
1976, specifically provides that foreign investment shall not be subject 
to more taxation on income than investment made in similar circumstances 
by Pakistani citizens.  In practice, the issue of extension of national 
treatment is tested on a case-by-case basis, but apart from sensitive 
industries, national treatment appears to be the norm.

Specific Incentives for Foreign Investment - Specific incentives for 
foreign investment include:

        -             Relaxation of foreign exchange controls, and a
                      general policy of permitting foreign investors to
                      participate in Pakistani ventures on a 100-percent
                      equity basis;

        -             Abolition of the ceiling on payments of royalties
                      and technical fees;

        -             Withdrawal of work permit restrictions on
                      expatriate managers and easing of remittance

        -             Elimination of the requirement of obtaining a "No
                      Objection Certificate" (NOC) from the appropriate
                      provincial government, except for areas which are
                      classified as negative areas (for reasons of
                      environmental degradation, over-congestion, etc.).

In addition, the GOP provides certain area-specific incentives,

        -             A three-year tax holiday for all industries set up
                      anywhere in the country between December 1, 1990
                      and June 30, 1995;

        -             An income tax holiday of eight years for new
                      industries to be located in so-called backward
                      areas (i.e., the NWFP, Baluchistan - except Hub
                      Chowki area; the Federally Administered Tribal
                      Areas (FATA); the Northern Areas; Azad Kashmir; 
                      the divisions of Sukkur and Larkana in Sindh 
                      province; and the divisions of Bahawalpur and Dera 
                      Ghazi Khan, in Punjab Province) between December 
                      1, 1990 and June 30, 1995;

        -             A five-year tax holiday on income from all
                      industries set up in rural areas between December
                      1, 1990 and June 30, 1995.  Rural areas are those
                      areas outside the limits of any municipal
                      corporation or committee or cantonment board or 
                      the Islamabad Capital Territory, and at least 30
                      kilometers from the municipal limits of Karachi or
                      Lahore and at least 10 kilometers from the 
                      existing limits of any other municipal corporation 
                      or cantonment board.   

The Government of Pakistan is committed to providing full protection to 
foreign investment.  The principal statutory vehicle for such safeguards 
is the Foreign Private Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act, 1976.  

Institutional Promotion of Investment -  One hurdle to investment in 
Pakistan had been a bewildering series of approvals, permits, and 
licenses required from various levels of government in order to launch a 
project.  The successive institutional entities have attempted to ease 
that process for prospective investors by functioning as a "one-window" 
interface between the investors and the relevant Pakistani authorities.  
Most recently, the GOP merged the three existing investment promotion 
institutions into a single Board of Investment (BOI).  The BOI's mandate 
is to carry out investment promotion activities and to help new foreign 
investors navigate the bureaucratic maze to obtain the permits and 
licenses they need to operate.

B.  Conversion and Transfer Policies

Pakistan has a liberal foreign exchange regime with few restrictions on 
holding foreign exchange and bringing it in or out of the country.  
There are no limits on the inflow or outflow of funds for remittances of 
profits, debt service, capital, capital gains, returns on intellectual 
property, imported inputs, etc.

The average delay period currently in effect for remitting investment 
returns such as dividends, return of capital, interest and principal on 
private foreign debt, lease payments, royalties and management fees 
through normal, legal channels is only a week to ten days.  The delay 
for remittances by shipping companies is approximately one to three 
weeks and airlines generally experience delays of one to two months.  It 
is also possible to remit funds through a legal parallel market by using 
Foreign Exchange Bearer Certificates (FEBCs), which may be purchased in 
the secondary market.

C.  Expropriation and Compensation

Direct foreign investments are protected against expropriation by the 
Foreign Private Investment (Promotion and Protection) Act of 1976 and by 
an investment and guarantee agreement.  The Government's record with 
respect to expropriation of foreign investment has generally been good.  
Although a number of nationalizations of private concerns took place 
between 1972 and 1975 under the populist government of the late Prime 
Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, they primarily affected domestic Pakistani 
companies.  The current government of Benazir Bhutto (and its 
predecessors back through the first Benazir Bhutto government in 1988-
90) have credibly emphasized the great importance they attach to the 
inflow of direct foreign investment and pledged to facilitate such 
investment.  This implicit pro-foreign investment consensus among recent 
governments and the two major political parties makes nationalization or 
expropriations an extremely unlikely course in the foreseeable future.  
A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is under negotiation with the United 
States to afford investors additional protections.  

D.  Dispute Settlement

Legal System - Pakistan's legal system is based on that of its former 
colonial power, Britain, with a more recent overlay of Islamic law.  The 
1956 Constitution established Islamic principles to serve as a guide to 
state authorities.  Article 198 provides that no law shall be repugnant 
to Islam.  Statutes are a mixture of laws carried over from British rule 
and updating amendments and laws enacted since Partition.

The tiers of civil and criminal courts begin at the tehsil (sub- 
district) level and range up to the Supreme Court.  The Supreme Court, 
based in Islamabad hears:  appeals from the four provincial High Courts 
and the Federal Shariat (i.e. Islamic) Court; references from the 
federal government; and cases involving disputes between provinces or 
between provinces and the federal government.  Each province has a High 
Court (the Islamabad Capital Territory falls within the jurisdiction of 
the Punjab High Court at Lahore).  The High Courts hear appeals from 
judgments and orders of the District Courts (for civil cases) and 
Sessions Courts (for criminal cases) and have original jurisdiction in 
certain other matters.  District and Sessions judges sit at the district 
level; often the same individual sits as both a district and sessions 
judge, depending on whether the matter at hand is civil or criminal.  
There are also a number of special courts and tribunals to deal with 
specific types of cases (Customs, Banking, Labor, etc.).

All of Pakistan's constitutions have provided that all laws should 
conform to the injunctions of Islam, but there was little focused effort 
on this subject until General Zia ul-Haq made Islamization of Pakistan's 
laws a priority.  In 1979, Zia reactivated the Council of Islamic 
Ideology (CII), which vets legislation for compatibility with Islam, and 
codified the four Hadood Ordinances in an attempt to make the Penal Code 
more Islamic.  These Ordinances provide for harsh "hadd" punishments for 
violations such as intoxication, theft, and "zina" (unlawful sexual 
intercourse).  The potential penalties are severe:  stoning to death for 
unlawful sexual relations and amputation of limbs for other crimes; 
however, to date, none of these penalties has been carried out.  The Zia 
regime also established a Federal Shariat Court in 1980 to hear appeals 
of judgments in cases tried under the Hadood laws and to determine 
whether laws or statutory provisions are repugnant to Islam. 

Pakistan established an Ombudsman in 1983 to deal with public complaints 
against the Federal Government.  The Ombudsman is a non-partisan 
individual appointed by the President for a four- year non-renewable 
term and may not be removed for any reason.  The ombudsman's purpose is 
to deal with cases of maladministration and to enforce some bureaucratic 

Commercial law follows British and British Indian precedents.  The 
Contract Act is, in effect, a codification of the English law of 
contract; Pakistan adopted the Indian Companies Act of 1913 at 
independence and has built on it since.  Pakistan does have a concept of 
bankruptcy law, again using the British model.  Bankruptcy petitions 
involve corporations and businesses; personal bankruptcy is not 
currently a widespread concept.  In general, the court appoints a 
liquidator to sell off and account for the property of the bankrupt.  

Security Interests in Property - The establishment of a market- oriented 
housing finance system in Pakistan's private sector is in its infancy.  
Until recently, private firms were not permitted to lend for housing, 
and the sole source of formal sector housing loans was a highly-
subsidized and unsustainable public lender.  Recent regulatory reforms 
have led to the establishment of a legal framework for licensing and 
regulating private housing lenders.  At present, four private housing 
lenders are operating in a regulated environment and offering a variety 
of loan instruments. 

The system of recordation of land ownership in Pakistan is notoriously 
unreliable, adding to the difficulty of land transfer and securitizing 

Membership in ICSID/ Domestic Arbitration Statute - Pakistan is a member 
of the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes 
(ICSID).  The Center provides facilities for conciliation and 
arbitration of investment disputes between contracting states and 
nationals of other states under a Convention for the settlement of 
investment disputes.  The Pakistan Arbitration Act, 1940, also provides 
a mechanism for the arbitration of commercial disputes under which the 
parties either jointly appoint a single arbitrator or each appoint an 
arbitrator who join a neutral arbitrator on a three-person panel.

Pakistan became a member of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency 
(MIGA), an arm of the World Bank, in April 1992, and MIGA's first local 
initiative was to provide coverage for several banking projects.  

GOP record on investment disputes - There have been no significant 
recent investment disputes involving U.S. investors or contractors.  

E.  Political Violence

Sectarian violence, usually between adherents of the Sunni and Shia 
sects of Islam, occurs from time to time in Pakistan.  The cities of 
Jhang (Punjab) and Gilgit (Northern Areas) have been the site of the 
most persistent sectarian clashes.

In Sindh, clashes between members of the Mohajir community (Urdu- 
speaking migrants from India) and the government/military have broken 
out in recent years, especially in the Mohajir neighborhoods of Karachi 
and Hyderabad.  Government efforts to control the violence have not been 
long lasting, or effective. Political strikes are common.

Political assassinations, usually of Pakistani political figures, have 
occurred in the past, including during the 1993 general election 

There have been several cases of minor damage to foreign- affiliated 
projects in remote areas.  A Japanese road-building team temporarily 
withdrew from one of its sites in one case;  in another case, several 
Chinese engineers in Baluchistan were kidnapped by an Afghan commander 
with a cross-border grudge against the Pakistani authorities.   In the 
latter case, the Chinese were the indirect victims of this "old enmity".   
Several hydrocarbon companies have invoked force majeure clauses when 
tribal tensions precluded their drilling on exploration blocks in 
Baluchistan.  The present Minister of Petroleum and Natural Resources 
has made resolution of tribal objections and opening the region to 
exploratory work a personal priority.

F.  Performance Requirements/Incentives

Government policies strongly favor investment proposals that have large 
export and local content components, but amounts are negotiable.  The 
local content policy, known as the "deletion policy", requires that all 
investments based on local assembly of imported parts, and that wish to 
enjoy favorable tax rates accorded to new investments, have a "deletion 
program" to raise local content.  The Ministry of Industries monitors 
the deletion schedule closely and must approve any deviation.  

Some projects that have been sanctioned and are operating in Pakistan 
have had considerable difficulty meeting their deletion program 
timetables, which often prove too tight for investors to organize a 
system of dependable, quality-conscious local suppliers.  Relatively 
high duties discourage the import of finished products, although the 
Government is reducing duties across the board to force the Pakistani 
economy to become more internationally competitive.  

The Government's investment policy provides that all incentives, 
concessions, and facilities provided to domestic investors for 
industrial investment are also available to foreign investors without 
discrimination.  A number of concessions, such as exemption from customs 
duties, sales tax concessions, a super tax rebate, and a tax exemption 
on investment, as well as guaranteed repatriation facilities, have been 
introduced to accelerate industrial development in the country.

G.  Right to Private Ownership and Establishment

Foreign and domestic private entities are free to establish and
own business enterprises in virtually all sectors of the economy, with 
the exception of certain sensitive sectors.  Private entities are 
similarly free to acquire and dispose of interests in business 
enterprises.    The issue of the equity of private competition with 
public enterprises is complicated by the fact that many of the entities 
that remain in the public sector are chronic loss-makers and not 
particularly lean or competitive.  The GOP has not adopted visibly 
unfair competitive practices in these public-private matchups, but the 
situation varies from industry to industry.  For example, in civil 
aviation, although several start-up airlines have ceased operations, two 
private airlines remain in competition with state-owned PIA at the end 
of May 1995; the GOP permits them to fly choice trunk routes and to 
undercut PIA on fares.  In retail food sales, the GOP has deliberately 
used pricing in its several hundred-unit Utility Stores Corporation 
chain to inhibit rapid escalation in the prices of essential foodstuffs.  
Pakistan Steel, a flagship in the fleet of public companies, has 
traditionally been heavily subsidized and this has probably put its 
small scrap-melting competitors at a disadvantage.  However, the 
Government is rapidly moving out of productive activities through an 
aggressive privatization program.  

H.  Protection of Property Rights

Pakistan's legal system protects and facilitates the acquisition and 
disposition of property rights.   Intellectual Property Rights - 
Pakistan is a member of the Universal Copyright and Bern Conventions.  
The copyright office is a department of the Ministry of Education.  
Copyright on a registered design is initially granted for a five-year 
period and may be extended for two additional five-year periods.  
Registration of patents and designs is administered by the Patents 
Office, a department of the Ministry of Industries.  Patents are granted 
for up to 16 years from the date of application and may generally be 
extended for a five-year period and, under some circumstances, for an 
additional five years.  Legal remedies such as injunctions are available 
in cases of patent infringement.  Trade marks are registered under the 
Trade Marks Act, 1940, through the Trade Mark Registry, a department in 
the Ministry of Commerce.  Trade marks are registered for seven years 
from the date of application and the registration may be renewed for an 
additional fifteen years.  

The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative has had Pakistan on the 
Special Section 301 Watch List under the Trade Act of 1988 because of 
inadequate intellectual property rights protection.  Areas of specific 
concern have included video piracy, unauthorized reproduction of U.S. 
printed works, and textile design piracy.  Tens of thousands of video 
outlets in Pakistan deal almost exclusively in pirated products - and do 
so quite openly.  U.S. pharmaceutical firms in particular have 
criticized Pakistan's patent law for providing process rather than 
product patent protection.  Other firms have noted the absence of 
provisions for registering service marks.  A more general complaint has 
been that, even where Pakistan's laws appear to provide adequate 
protection, enforcement is slow, sporadic, and ineffective.   

The U.S. and Pakistan have opened discussions on a comprehensive 
bilateral intellectual property rights agreement proposed by the United 
States, with the U.S. arguing that an IPR agreement would improve the 
investment climate in Pakistan.  

I.  Regulatory System:  Laws and Procedures

Enforcement of competition law in Pakistan is under the jurisdiction of 
the Monopoly Control Authority, an independent regulatory authority 
which lacks enforcement muscle.  The Authority had its heyday during the 
populist period of Z.A. Bhutto in the 1970s, but even then it was 
notable more for its good research than its enforcement efforts.  
Pakistan formerly had a relatively high degree of industrial 
concentration, with the formerly widespread licensing procedures 
restricting entry and serving as vehicles for creating monopolies and 
oligopolies.  The end of the licensing regimes, the decline in 
bureaucratic controls, and the liberalizing trend of the last five years 
have reduced industrial concentration by bringing down barriers to 
entry.  Certain industries remain relatively concentrated, but for 
industry-specific rather than systemic reasons.   

One fledgling form of regulation seeks to enforce compliance with 
environmental protection statutes.  The Pakistan Environmental 
Protection Agency (PEPA), which is located within the Environment and 
Urban Affairs Division of the Ministry of Housing and Works, is 
responsible for enforcing the laws related to the protection of the 
environment.  PEPA is responsible for national environmental policy, 
development and implementation of environmental standards, and 
monitoring compliance with those standards.  To date, PEPA has developed 
standards for municipal and liquid industrial effluents, industrial 
gaseous emissions, and motor vehicle exhaust and noise.

Public sector projects that are likely to adversely affect the 
environment are required to file with PEPA a detailed Environmental 
Impact Statement when the project is in the planning stage; other 
projects may be required to file short descriptions of their effects on 
the environment.  Potential investors should contact PEPA at an early 
stage of the planning process to ensure compliance with environmental 
standards.  The review process for Environmental Impact Statements 
should take 90 days and may lead to approval, rejection, or request for 
modification.  Each province also has its own environmental protection 
agency; provincial Directorates of Industry may refer a project to the 
provincial agency when there are concerns about environmental impact. 

The Corporate Law Authority and the Registrar of Companies share 
responsibility for outside regulation of securities markets. They and 
the members of the exchanges have cooperated in streamlining  processes 
for registration and listing of securities.  The equity market is 
regulated by the Securities and Exchange Ordinance 1969 and the 
Securities and Exchange Rules 1981.  The Companies Ordinance 1984 
regulates stock exchanges by setting out the provisions under which 
listed companies must operate.  The government has proposed to amend the 
Securities and Exchange Ordinance to curb insider trading as well as to 
protect against fictitious and multiple applications for floatation of 
new issues. There is also a proposal to repeal the Control of Capital 
Issues Act (which regulates floatation of public issues) to reduce 
bureaucratic controls and to further develop the capital market.      

J.  Bilateral Investment Agreements

Pakistan has bilateral investment treaties with the Peoples Republic of 
China, France, Germany, the Republic of Korea, Kuwait, the Netherlands, 
Romania, and Sweden.  A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is under 
negotiation with the United States.

K.  OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs

As a result of a legal interpretation of the Pressler Amendment to the 
Foreign Assistance Act (which resulted in the suspension of new  U.S. 
economic and military assistance to Pakistan as of October 1, 1990), 
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) insurance and financing 
has been unavailable for commercial transactions involving Pakistan.
L.  Labor
The GOP estimates that Pakistan's total labor force totalled 
approximately 35.7 million at the start of 1995.  It reports an open 
unemployment rate of 4.7 percent of the labor force, comprised of 5.9 
percent unemployment in urban areas and 4.3 percent in rural areas.  
(This figure, however, is almost certainly understated, and does not 
capture the substantial amount of under-employment.)

Overall labor force participation rates are relatively low -- 28 percent 
in 1992-93, the last year for which data are available.  Participation 
rates for women are exceptionally low, 8.6 percent in 1992-93.  In 1994-
95, 47.5 percent of the employed labor force worked in agriculture (down 
from 60 percent in 1963-64); 13.9 percent in community, social, and 
personal services; 13.3 percent in wholesale and retail trade; 10.9 
percent in manufacturing and mining; 6.9 percent in construction; and 
5.5 percent in transportation.

Rapid population growth (2.9 percent per year) adds over one million new 
workers to the labor force each year, and additions to the workforce 
have outstripped job creation.  Population growth, use of more capital-
intensive technology in agriculture and industry, and a decline in the 
number of overseas workers have contributed to the rising actual 

Trade unions are numerous but generally small, weak, and divided.  
Although union members make up only eight percent of the workforce, 
there are over 7,000 registered unions and 1,000 registered federations 
of unions.  Most are plant unions, and collective bargaining, if it 
occurs at all, occurs at the plant, not the industry, level.  There are 
national unions in a few state-owned industries, such as Pakistan 
Railways and the electric utility (WAPDA).

The GOP has recently adopted a comprehensive view of the issue of 
unemployment in relation to the high population growth rate, recognizing 
that there are limits on the economy's capacity to absorb manpower.  
Besides general pro-growth policies, GOP initiatives include programs to 
encourage self-employment through government credit to create small-
scale productive schemes, efforts to identify job opportunities abroad 
for unemployed labor, expansion of technical and vocational facilities, 
efforts to limit population growth, and efforts to promote 
infrastructure building.  In addition, the Social Action Program, which 
is co- funded and promoted by the World Bank and other international 
donors, includes job creation as an important objective.

Pakistan is a member of the International Labor Organization (ILO).  The 
AFL-CIO and other U.S. organizations concerned with workers' rights have 
alleged violations by Pakistan of worker rights guaranteed under ILO 
conventions that the GOP has signed, and have filed petitions urging the 
U.S. Government to withdraw concessions on import duties accorded 
Pakistan under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP).  The 
petitions are under review by an interagency group of the U.S. 

M.  Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports

The GOP has established twelve Special Industrial Zones (SIZs),
with the intention of accelerating industrial investment, generating 
exports, facilitating technology transfer, and creating additional 
employment opportunities.  The GOP hopes to attract the manufacture of 
high-tech export-oriented products utilizing Pakistani raw materials and 
inexpensive labor and outside technical expertise.  Three SIZs are 
located each in the Punjab and Sindh, two each in NWFP and Baluchistan, 
and one each in Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas.  

Fiscal incentives for SIZ units include a five to ten-year income tax 
holiday from the beginning of commercial production; a five- year 
exemption on capital gains taxes to the extent of the foreign equity 
share; generous tax carry forwards for losses; exemption from all import 
duties and charges on plant and equipment not manufactured locally.  The 
GOP would also provide a special bonding facility for duty-free raw 
material on the pattern of the export processing unit scheme.  

The GOP has also established an Export Processing Zone (EPZ) in Karachi, 
where special fiscal and institutional incentives are available to 
encourage the establishment of exclusively export- oriented industries.  

N.  Capital Outflow Policy

Pakistan has no restrictions on capital outflow.  Those seeking to 
transfer funds out of the country need only comply with the procedures 
administered by the State Bank.  This liberalized approach to capital 
outflow is part of Pakistan's effort to integrate itself into global 
capital markets.  Although specific statistics are not available, there 
is very little outgoing foreign direct investment (FDI).  "Capital 
flight" has not been a serious issue in recent years, although it was a 
concern in the 1970s.  

O.  Major Foreign Investors

The United States is the single largest direct foreign investor in 
Pakistan.  According to the GOP Ministry of Finance, cumulative direct 
foreign investment from the U.S. now total $916.5 million.  The American 
Business Council, whose membership is drawn from U.S. capital firms, has 
nearly sixty two members.  After dropping off somewhat in 1992-93, 
probably as a result of the political uncertainty which gripped the 
country during much of that year, investment from the U.S. appeared to 
be on the upswing. However, the government's inability to maintain order 
in Sindh has again cast a pall on Pakistan's investment climate.


A.  Brief Description of Banking System

Recent financial reforms have liberalized Pakistan's banking sector, 
which had long been dominated by state-owned banks, and private banks 
are gradually playing a more significant role.  The government of 
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto nationalized all Pakistani banks on January 1, 1974 
(two foreign, but non-U.S. banks, in operation at the time escaped 
nationalization).  In December 1990, the GOP announced plans to 
privatize state-owned banks and to allow the establishment of private 
domestic banks.  So far the government has privatized two formerly 
nationalized banks, Allied Bank Limited and Muslim Commercial Bank, and 
the State Bank of Pakistan has granted licenses to 14 new private banks.  
The GOP is proceeding with plans to privatize United Bank Limited, a 
commercial bank, and Bankers' Equity Ltd., an investment bank, and says 
it plans eventually to privatize Habib Bank, the country's largest 
commercial bank in terms of assets. 

There are 20 Pakistani commercial banks, with over 7,600 branches 
nationwide.  However, the four remaining state-owned banks account for 
over 70 percent of total commercial bank assets.

Nineteen foreign commercial banks--of which three are American-- with 
more than 70 branches, also do business in Pakistan.  Foreign banks are 
permitted to engage in a full range of banking activities.  Foreign 
banks are subject to higher withholding taxes than Pakistani banks, but 
this gap is gradually being closed.  Most foreign banks may not 
establish more than four branches, though at least one exception has 
been granted to this general rule.  Otherwise foreign banks are accorded 
essentially the same treatment as Pakistani banks.

Bank Assets - U.S. Presence - The three U.S. banks operating in 
Pakistan--Citibank, American Express Bank, and Bank of America-- 
accounted for six percent of all commercial bank assets in 1992.  Chase 
Manhattan Bank, which had been operating in Pakistan as a branch, sold 
its retail banking operations in 1994, and is carrying out investment, 
trade, and cross-border banking activity through its Karachi 
representative office.  

All three U.S. commercial banks currently operating in the retail market 
(and all other foreign banks in Pakistan) are branches rather than 
wholly-owned subsidiaries.  (Although there is no requirement that 
foreign banks operate as branches, the wholly- owned subsidiary format 
would require them to offer shares for sale to the public at prices 
below the true market value).  Citibank is the largest foreign bank 
operating in Pakistan.  The U.S. banks have, in general, been selective 
in their choice of customers, and as a result have what most observers 
would agree is a quality client base.  Like all other commercial banks 
in Pakistan, their major activity is business lending; the U.S. banks 
have a relatively high percentage of multinational corporations as 
clients.  Citibank, however, also pioneered the development of consumer 
banking in Pakistan and in 1993 became the first commercial bank to 
offer a comprehensive program for automobile loans and individual 
mortgages.  Citibank also plans to introduce a limited number of 
automated teller machines in 1995.

Commercial banks are engaged predominantly in corporate lending, with 
the state-owned and newly privatized banks involved in various forms of 
concessionary lending.  The commercial banks are the main sources of 
short- and medium-term credit for domestic investment. 

Consumer banking in Pakistan is largely undeveloped.  There is no 
tradition of lending to small individual consumers, and purchases of 
automobiles, housing, and consumer goods are generally made on a cash 
basis.  Foreign banks generally have sufficient lucrative business in 
the corporate sector to absorb their limited credit reserves.  High 
interest rates combine with high start-up costs to discourage 
initiatives in the consumer sector.  

The State Bank of Pakistan, the central bank, controls the money supply 
and credit, supervises the operations of banks, administers the 
country's international reserves, and acts as banker to the federal and 
provincial governments.  The SBP formerly set maximum lending rates for 
commercial banks.  As part of its move toward more indirect methods of 
control, however, the central bank in March 1995 eliminated this 

The GOP has pursued a policy of prescribing target levels of lending to 
certain sectors of the economy, to ensure that priority sectors receive 
adequate credit.  The credit targets apply only to state-owned banks.  
Most years the GOP sets targets for agriculture, small-scale 
agriculture, small business and industry, and tobacco marketing.  The 
GOP has also mandated a program of concessionary credit to the private 
sector through state-owned commercial banks.  It provides concessionary 
credit for export finance, locally manufactured machinery, and 
agricultural production loans to small farmers.  The export finance 
scheme is available to all commercial banks.  However, private banks 
generally make little use of this program and lending under the export 
finance scheme is dominated by the state-owned and newly privatized 

In November 1993, the Governor of the State Bank estimated that the 
total volume of overdue loans from the commercial banking sector was 47 
billion rupees (about $1.52 billion, at mid- 1995 exchange rates).  Non-
bank financial institutions had an additional 17 billion rupees in 
overdue loans.  Some observers believe the level of bad loans is even 
higher.  The defaulted loans are held almost exclusively by the three 
largest state-owned banks, and by the two newly-privatized Pakistani 
banks; according to the State Bank Governor, bad loans make up from 10 
to 30 percent of these banks' loan portfolios.  In contrast, foreign 
banks, including U.S. banks, have had few defaults and have enjoyed 
profitable operations.

There is no system of deposit insurance in Pakistan, although the State 
Bank and the Pakistan Banking Council have considered instituting such a 
system.  Foreign banks have reacted cautiously to proposals to establish 
a system of deposit insurance, because they fear having, in effect, to 
subsidize the state-owned and newly-privatized banks that hold far 
weaker portfolios.  If a deposit insurance system is proposed in which 
each bank is required to contribute in proportion to its assets, foreign 
banks can be expected to oppose such a system vigorously.

In 1979, Pakistan began a program of bringing its financial sector into 
conformity with Islamic economic principles by taking steps to eliminate 
interest.  The two cornerstones of this policy are the use of the "mark 
up" system in bank lending and "profit and loss sharing" (PLS) for bank 
depositors.  These two systems are now used for all rupee accounts in 
commercial banks; foreign currency accounts are still based on interest-
bearing precepts.

Under the mark up system, the lending institution in effect purchases a 
share of the borrower's assets, with an agreement to sell back the 
assets when the loan falls due, at a fixed price, including the "mark 
up".  If the borrower is unable to pay when the loan falls due, the loan 
can be "rolled over", by extending a new loan for the amount of the 
original loan plus the previously agreed mark up amount.  One 
shortcoming of this system is that non- performing loans can be "rolled 
over" indefinitely, so that a bank's balance sheet may not accurately 
reflect the viability of its outstanding loans.  

Under the profit and loss sharing system, banks declare a return on 
deposits periodically, based on the profits actually earned on PLS 
deposits.  Because banks could theoretically suffer a loss, this means 
that depositors' principal as well as return are both at risk under the 
PLS system.  In practice, banks announce expected PLS rates in advance, 
so depositors have a good estimate of their rate of return before making 
a deposit.  The range of rates paid on PLS deposits is quite wide.

The Islamic Shariat Court in 1990 struck down 22 banking and financial 
laws because they condoned the payment of interest, which is expressly 
forbidden under Islamic law.  The government, along with foreign and 
some Pakistani banks, has appealed the Shariat Court's decision to the 
Pakistan Supreme Court, where the case is pending.  A decision is not 
expected in the near future.  While the appeal is pending, the 
legislation in question remains effective.

A decision by the Supreme Court to uphold the Shariat Court ruling and 
insist on the elimination of all forms of interest would have a 
significant impact on the banking system.  A ruling altering the current 
mark up system or making foreign currency accounts subject to the mark 
up system would force U.S. banks to reassess their operations in 
Pakistan.  U.S. bankers suggest that any system requiring the lending 
party to take an equity stake in the borrower would cause problems for 
most foreign banks.  However, most observers expect that a workable 
compromise will be reached, permitting foreign banks to continue 
operating much as they do now.

Commercial banks face considerable competition in attracting deposits 
from individuals or small investors; the GOP's national saving scheme 
offers attractive rates of return (in the 14 to 16 percent range) on 
small accounts, which banks find difficult to match.  The corporate bond 
market is still in its infancy in Pakistan; if this form of financial 
instrument becomes better developed, banks may also face more 
difficulties in attracting deposits from businesses.  With increasing 
competition from more efficient private banks, portfolios with a 
significant volume of bad loans, and the prospect of lowered mark up 
ceilings, the state-owned banks will face particular difficulties in 
attracting new deposits.

Other financial institutions operate in specialized areas.  For example, 
the Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan (ADBP) provides credit 
facilities to farmers and cottage industries in rural areas.  The 
Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDB) provides loans to small 
and medium-sized industrial enterprises in the private sector.  The 
Investment Corporation of Pakistan (ICP) was established to encourage 
and broaden the base of investments and to develop the capital market.  
The Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation Limited 
(PICIC) is concerned with financing new industries and providing funds 
for the modernization of existing industries in the private sector.  

B.  Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trading

Pakistan's exchange rate policy is presently based on a managed float, 
with the State Bank of Pakistan regularly adjusting the value of the 
rupee against a basket of major currencies and using the U.S. dollar as 
the intervention currency.

In recent years, the GOP has significantly liberalized foreign exchange 
controls.  Individuals and firms in Pakistan may now hold foreign 
currency bank accounts and may freely import and export currency. 
Foreign firms (other than banks) with investments in Pakistan may remit 
profits and capital without prior SBP approval. 

The government in 1994 made the Pakistan rupee fully convertible for 
current account transactions.  However, exporters must still sell their 
foreign exchange earnings to the State Bank of Pakistan.

C.  General Financing Availability

Pakistan's banking sector offers a full range of services, including 
foreign trade and working capital financing, term finance facilities, 
and retail banking.  Letters of credit can be routed through the local 
banks having overseas networks (foreign exchange transactions are 
conducted by the bank with overseas affiliates).  Since credit targets 
are controlled by the central bank, it sometimes is desirable to work 
with several banks in order to satisfy borrowing requirements.  All 
borrowing from the commercial banks is, in theory, conducted on a 
secured basis, since unsecured borrowing is not permitted. 

In addition to the commercial banks, Pakistan has about 16 specialized 
banks and development financial institutions.  The National Development 
Finance Corporation (NFDC), the Pakistan Industrial Credit & Investment 
Corporation (PICIC), and Bankers Equity Limited (BEL) are the leading 
development finance institutions (DFIs) providing medium and long-term 
loans in both rupees and foreign currency to the industrial sector.  
Their services include participation in equity through ownership of 
shares and debentures, underwriting public issues of shares and 
securities, assisting Pakistani investors to obtain foreign investment, 
assisting foreign investors to locate suitable investment opportunities 
in Pakistan, and providing technical and managerial advice and 

There also are about 12 investment banks, over 50 modaraba companies 
(see description below), and 24 leasing firms, all of which have lately 
filled a major gap in the country's financial services sector through 
the provision of a wide range of investment banking services.  Through 
affiliation with major international financial institutions, investment 
banks, in particular, have been able to transfer financial "know-how" 
and technology to the local markets.

The specialized banks include Saudi Pak Investment Company, Pak Kuwait 
Investment Company and Pak Libya Holding Company, all of which are joint 
ventures providing term financing and equity support facilities.

In addition, there are the National Investment Trust (NIT), an open-
ended mutual fund, and the Investment Corporation of Pakistan (ICP).  
Both are large investors in the stock market and provide financing for 
major projects.

Foreign investors may also utilize the stock market to raise capital.  
There are more than 700 companies listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange.

Islamic Modes of Financing - Some of the Islamic modes of financing 
available to both domestic and foreign investors (in accordance with 
regulatory requirements) are: 

Working Capital Finance - "Morabaha": Under Morabaha the banks provide 
working capital finance which may be drawn (by checks) and credited on a 
daily basis with the facility of an overdraft account.

The pricing (of debit balances) is calculated on a daily basis at a rate 
agreed between the borrower and the bank according to financial market 
conditions.  Essentially, the bank and borrower effect a sale and 
purchase (in respect of the assets which form the bank's security), and 
the difference between the purchase and sale price establishes the mark 

"Musharika" is another form of working capital finance by way of a 
"partnership" between the borrower and lender based on a profit and loss 
sharing agreement.  Working capital finance may also be provided through 
discount of bills of exchange.

Term Financing - Term financing is available through a mechanism known 
as a Term Finance Certificate (TFC).  TFCs are typically used to meet 
the medium and long-term financing requirements of new projects when the 
borrower actually sells his project assets to the financing institution.  
Each certificate represents a definite sum of money, and is transferable 
in the same way as a bond.

The borrower's purchase consideration is a fixed installment of payment 
over the financing period represented by the TFCs. The rate of return to 
the financial institution is derived from the marked-up amount of the 
resale price to the borrower.  The mark up rate is determined in 
accordance with financial market conditions, and is agreed between the 
bank and the borrower when the facility is negotiated.

Modaraba - A "Modaraba" is similar to a closed-end mutual fund with 
certificates listed on the stock market. It is managed by a modaraba 
management company which must subscribe to, and maintain at least 10 
percent of the modaraba.  The concept is that the "manager" and the 
subscribers to the modaraba's certificates pool their respective 
resources of skill and capital in profitable partnership.  The manager 
receives a fee amounting to 10 percent of net profits of the modaraba 
together with reimbursement of costs.  The remaining profit is allocated 
pro rata to all certificate holders including the manager in his 
capacity as a subscriber. 

Modarabas may be general purpose (for various forms of financing 
activity) or for a specific purpose (floated as a source of finance for 
a specified type of activity or project). Of the 50- some modarabas 
floated to date, several are engaged in leasing.

D.  How to Finance Exports/Method of Payment

Payment for imports of goods into Pakistan is generally made through a 
letter of credit.  Imports are also allowed on a consignment basis, 
under which the importer registers the purchase order or contract with 
his bank for payment to the seller. However, imports on a consignment 
basis require prior approval from the central bank, which determines 
entitlement to this facility on the basis of the specific transaction as 
well as on the importer's past performance.

Methods of payment generally used by the public sector include direct 
disbursements (from lines of credit) and/or letters of credit.

E.  Types of Available Export Financing and Insurance

The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Eximbank), a federal 
institution located in Washington, D.C., offers financing for U.S. 
exports.  Financing for exports to Pakistan is available in the form of 
direct loans, financial guarantees, or export credit insurance; it is 
offered on short, medium, and long-term bases, depending on the nature 
of the underlying transaction.  Export sales to public or private 
Pakistani buyers are eligible for Eximbank financing.  U.S. suppliers 
considering exporting to Pakistan who either need financing or want 
insurance coverage against various forms of market risk, should contact 
the Eximbank or their own banks to assist them in arranging Eximbank 

The USDA Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM-102) is also available to 
Pakistan. This program provides commercial loans of 90 days to 36 
months, and has been used entirely for GOP wheat purchases.  The program 
is nominally available for other U.S. agricultural commodities, but will 
likely continue to be used predominantly for wheat.   

Pakistan has a modest export financing scheme, managed by the State Bank 
and channeled through commercial banks.  It provides special credit 
facilities to certain exporters who have irrevocable proof of orders.

F.  Project Financing Available

Project financing by the public sector in Pakistan is generally through 
a combination of local currency and foreign exchange credits provided by 
various donors such as the International Bank for Reconstruction & 
Development (IBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ABD), and other 
multilateral sources.  Government loans and grants are also used to 
finance various projects.  Each public sector agency and corporation has 
an annual budget and foreign exchange allocation.  Most purchases are by 
international tender according to the rules of the loan-giving agency or 
type of credit.

Most funding is for government-sponsored and supported infrastructure 
development projects, such as power generation and communications, as 
well as projects in the environmental and social sectors.

In its project financing role, the International Finance Corporation 
(IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, both provides loans and makes 
equity investments.  Unlike most multilateral institutions, the IFC does 
not accept government guarantees for its financing; it attempts to price 
its finance and service in line with the market, shares full project 
risks with its partners, and seeks profitable returns.  IFC is very 
active in Pakistan.  

G.  List of Banks with Corresponding U.S. Banking Arrangements

All major nationalized, foreign, and newly established  private banks 
have correspondent banking arrangements with major U.S. banks.  Major 
foreign and domestic banks operating in Pakistan include:

PAKISTANI BANKS                                    FOREIGN BANKS

--  Allied Bank of Pakistan,Ltd              --  ABN AMRO Bank N.V.

--  Askari Commercial Bank, Ltd.             --  American Express Bank 

--  Bank Al Habib Limited                    --  ANZ Grindlays Bank

--  Bolan Bank Limited                       --  Bank of America 

--  First Women Bank Limited                 --  Banque Indosuez

--  Habib Bank Limited                       --  Bank of Oman, Limited

--  Habib Credit & Exchange Bank Ltd.        --  Citibank

--  Indus Bank Limited                       --  Deutsche Bank A.G.

--  Mashreq Bank PSC                         --  Doha Bank Limited

--  Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd.         --  Emirates Bank International

--  National Bank of Pakistan                --  Hong Kong & Shanghai
                                                   Banking Corp.

--  Prime Commercial Bank Limited            --  Societe Generale

--  Rupali Bank Limited                      --  Standard Chartered Bank

--  Soneri Bank Limited                      --  Bank of Tokyo, Limited

--  United Bank Limited

--  Union Bank Limited


A.  Business Customs

Effective June 3, 1994, Pakistan officially shifted to a formal five-day 
(Sunday through Thursday) work week, with government offices scheduled 
to function from 9 to 5.  The GOP announced that it made this change as 
an energy-conservation measure and there has been significant opposition 
to the it.  Prior to that date, a six-day work week (Saturday through 
Thursday) prevailed, with mid-afternoon closings throughout the work 
week.  Friday is the official religious holiday and all government 
offices and most commercial establishments are closed.  

Pakistan is an Islamic Republic and imports of alcohol are not 
permitted.  Liquor is, however, available for non-Muslim foreigners at 
many four- and five-star hotels, but generally only in their rooms.  
Both men and women should dress modestly in public in deference to local 

B.  Travel Advisory and Visas

Travel Advisory - Violent demonstrations, rallies, and processions may 
occur on short notice and may make it advisable for foreigners to avoid 
particular regions or particular urban districts.  Since a local 
situation can change rapidly, U.S. travelers should exercise caution, 
read the local English-language newspapers, and check with the consular 
sections of the U.S. Embassy or nearest U.S. consulate to ascertain 
whether there is any situation to which they should be alert.

Visas - All U.S. citizens are required to have a valid passport and 
Pakistani visa for entry into Pakistani.  Visas are not available at 
airports on entry; they must be obtained at Pakistani missions abroad.  
In the United States, Pakistani visas may be obtained at the Embassy of 
Pakistan in Washington or at Pakistani Consulates in New York and Los 
Angeles; applications may be made by mail to the Pakistani Consulate in 
New York only. 

Business visitors, however, may be granted a 30-day visa on arrival at 
airports in Pakistan, according to a recent policy announcement. 

To obtain a Pakistani visa, an applicant must submit a completed visa 
application, a current passport photograph, a valid passport and proof 
of onward/return transportation.  Applicants for business visas are 
required to submit a letter from their company.  Visas in U.S. passports 
are issued gratis, but applications by mail must include a self-
addressed stamped envelope covering return of the passport by registered 
mail.  In general, tourist visas may not be modified or extended.  The 
period of validity may be extended for periods of up to 6 months by 
applying to the Ministry of Interior in Islamabad.   (Note: Visitors are 
advised to confirm current procedures by contacting the appropriate 
Pakistani diplomatic or consular post covering their jurisdiction prior 
to undertaking travel.)

Visitors are allowed to import the following items free of duty:  one 
camera and ten rolls of film; 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or one-half 
kilogram of manufactured tobacco; one personal computer along with 
accessories valued up to 50,000 rupees (approximately $1600 at June 1994 
exchange rate) if imported by professionals who require the use of the 
computer as a tool in their work; etc.  Personal effects, such as 
cameras, typewriters, tape recorders, binoculars, may be admitted duty-
free, provided they are accompanied by a document certifying that they 
will be re-exported on the owner's departure.  The import of alcohol is 
strictly prohibited; if alcohol is found, it will be seized by customs 
officials.  Export permits are not normally required, but any antiques 
purchased in Pakistan should be cleared with museum officials in Karachi 
or Lahore to ensure that their export is not prohibited.  

U.S. citizens resident in, or visiting Pakistan, are encouraged to 
register with the U.S. Embassy in Islamabad or the U.S. Consulates in 
Karachi, Lahore, or Peshawar (see Appendix C for addresses and telephone 
numbers).  Foreigners planning to remain in Pakistan for more than 30 
days must register at the nearest district Foreigners'  Registration 

Visitors entering or leaving the country are limited to holding 100 
rupees.  There is no restriction on the amount of foreign currency which 
may be brought into the country if it is declared on a customs receipt 
upon arrival; absent declaration on arrival, the limitation on foreign 
currency which can be legally taken out of Pakistan is the equivalent of 
$500 per person or $2000 per family.  Travelers may exchange currency 
only at banks and hotels authorized by the State Bank of Pakistan.  
Reconversion facilities for unspent rupees are available.

Cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever immunizations are required for 
travelers arriving from infected areas.  An AIDS (HIV)-free certificate 
is also required for travelers intending to stay in Pakistan for more 
than one year.  Malaria prophylaxis is recommended by some physicians 
and various strains of hepatitis are prevalent in Pakistan.  Travelers 
to Pakistan should check with their physician or the local office of the 
U.S. Public Health Service for information on any unusual circumstances 
that might necessitate additional protection.  There are medical 
facilities in Karachi comparable in standard to those in the West, but 
good quality care is lacking in most other areas.

C.  Holidays

List of Pakistani holidays for 1995/1996:

Pakistan Day

Eid-ul Fitr

May Day


9th and 10th of Muharram

Independence Day


Defense of Pakistan Day

Death Anniversary of Quaid-i-Azam

Iqbal Day

Birthday of Quaid-i-Azam
March 23

March 3,4,5

May 1

May 12-13

June 10-11*

August 14

August 10*

Sept. 6

Sept. 11

November 9

December 25
March 23

Feb 22,23*

May 1

April 29-30

May 27-28*

August 14

July 29*

September 6

September 11

November 9

December 25
        *      (Based on the Islamic lunar calendar and may differ in
                the event by one or two days from the expected dates.)

During the Islamic month of Ramazan (Ramadan), observant Muslims do not 
eat, drink, or smoke between sunrise and sunset.  During this month, 
travel is more difficult, the pace of business activity slows (many 
offices close by mid-day), and it is therefore more difficult to 
accomplish business objectives.  Ramazan begins 29 or 30 days before the 
feast of Eid-ul-Fitr.

D.  Business Infrastructure

Transportation - Karachi's Quaid-i-Azam International Airport, whose new 
Jinnah Terminal opened in August 1992, is the principal international 
gateway to Pakistan, although Islamabad and Lahore also have a number of 
international flights.  An airport departure tax and a foreign travel 
tax are levied on international passengers. (As of June 30, 1995, the 
foreign travel tax is a flat 500 rupees; the departure tax ranges from 
200 to 400 rupees, depending on the class of travel).  State-owned 
Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is the main Pakistani carrier on 
international routes; Shaheen International has recently started flying 
on Peshawar- Dubai route. As of June 1995, the domestic market is shared 
by PIA and two small private sector carriers, Aero Asia and Shaheen Air 
International.  PIA and its domestic competitors serve 36 domestic 
destinations.  Karachi's Quaid-i-Azam International Airport is served by 
32 international carriers, and there is also limited international 
service by several international carriers from Islamabad and Lahore.  No 
U.S. carriers presently serve Pakistan.  

Pakistan's highway system is variable in quality.  Although there are 
fast and comfortable luxury coaches on some routes, flying or private or 
hired cars would be the preferred mode of inter-city travel.  Traffic 
drives on the left.  Metered yellow taxis are available in most large 
and small population centers.  Car rentals are available in major 
cities; rental of cars with drivers is recommended.  Private car 
ownership is recommended for long-term residents; visitors require an 
international driving license.

Language - The official language of Pakistan is Urdu.  However, almost 
all Pakistanis involved in business and commerce of a certain scale have 
an adequate command of English.

Communications - Internal mail delivery is inexpensive and fairly 
reliable.  Airmail letters take about six to eight days to reach Europe 
and about eight to ten days to reach the U.S.  Delivery of private 
courier packages (i.e. DHL, Federal Express, TCS) is delayed due to 
customs clearance.  This normally takes 2 or 3 days.  Delivery times for 
sea freight are considerably longer and more variable.

Twenty-four hour telegram, facsimile, and telex services are available 
at post and telegraph offices and many larger hotels.  Cellular phones 
are available for visiting businessmen and are more reliable for 
international communications than the local conventional telephones.

Lodging - There are international-standard hotels in the major cities of 
Pakistan.  Four and five-star hotels in business centers include the 
Avari Towers, Sheraton, Pearl Continental and Marriott in Karachi; the 
Avari and Pearl Continental in Lahore; the Faisalabad Serena in 
Faisalabad; the Marriott and Holiday Inn in Islamabad; the Pearl 
Continental in Rawalpindi; the Pearl Continental in Peshawar; and the 
Quetta Serena in Quetta.  Quoted rates for Karachi hotels in July 1995 
ranged from 4,500 to 5,400 rupees for a single, and from 5,000 to 6,000 
rupees for a double; however various discounts may be available in 
competitive markets.

The general standard of rental housing is quite good.  Most houses and 
apartments are rented unfurnished and have three or more bedrooms with 
attached baths.  Leases typically are for two years and require one 
year's rent in advance.  In mid-1995, the average rental for an 
unfurnished three-bedroom house in Karachi ranged from 35,000 to 45,000 
rupees per month.

Utilities - Electric current in Pakistan is 220/240 volts AC.  Two and 
three-prong plugs are in common use.  Voltage fluctuations and power 
cuts are common; sensitive electric equipment, such as computers, 
televisions, and stereos, should be fitted with voltage regulators.  
Natural gas is used for cooking in larger cities.  The water supply is 
erratic in parts of Karachi, requiring delivery by water tanker to 
residences in some areas.  The Islamabad/Rawalpindi area also 
experiences serious water shortages.  

Office Rental - Prevailing monthly rents for prime ground floor office 
space (mid-1995) are approximately 30 to 45 rupees ($1.00 to $1.50) per 
square foot in Karachi, 30 to 40 rupees ($1.00 to $1.30) in Lahore, and 
20 to 30 rupees ($.75 to 1.00) in Islamabad. Rents for office space 
above ground level generally become progressively lower.  Tenants are 
generally responsible for utilities.  It is common practice for a one or 
two-year lease to require a security deposit of one year's rent.

Schools - Karachi, Islamabad, and Lahore have privately-run schools that 
follow the U.S. system of education.  The Karachi American School and 
the International School of Islamabad offer a high-quality academic 
program through the 12th grade.  The significantly smaller Lahore 
American School, which has a majority Pakistani student body, also 
offers K-12 classes.  There is also a K-Grade 6 school in Peshawar.  
Annual tuition fees (for the 1994-95 academic year) are approximately 
$7,100 at the Karachi American School, plus a one-time registration fee 
of $1,800 for new students.  Annual tuition fees at the International 
School of Islamabad are $7350.

Food and Drink - Pakistani food combines elements of Mughal Indian and 
Middle East cuisines and tends to be spicy.  Specialties include kababs, 
tikka (barbecued spiced chicken, mutton, or beef), korma (meat curry), 
koftas (meat balls), and pulao (spicy fried rice).  The staples are nan, 
chapatti, and paratha (unleavened breads).  Some Western dishes are 
available in major hotels and in restaurants in larger cities; the most 
common international restaurants are Chinese.  Alcohol is served only to 
non-Muslim tourists in their hotel rooms and is expensive.


A.  Country Data

Population - The Government of Pakistan (GOP) estimated that Pakistan's 
population was 128 million on January 1, 1995, equating to a population 
density of about 156 people per square kilometer.  It further estimated 
that this population was 31.5 percent urban and 68.5 percent rural.  
This estimate does not include approximately 1,761,000 Afghan refugees 
living in Pakistan.  The most recent official census was conducted in 
1981 and reported a population of 84,253,000.  At that time,  56.1 
percent of the population lived in the Punjab, 22.6 percent in Sindh, 
13.1 percent in the NWFP, 5.1 percent in Baluchistan, 2.6 percent in the 
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and 0.6 percent in the 
Northern Areas and the federal capital of Islamabad.   The decennial 
census scheduled for 1991 has been delayed several times and has become 
a contentious political issue because of its potential to alter 
representation and power balances.  Although the current government has 
promised to hold a census before the end of calendar 1994, 
implementation procedures remain controversial and incomplete.

Pakistan's largest cities, and their urban populations (according to the 
1981 census) are:

        Karachi                5,208,132
        Lahore                 2,988,486
        Faisalabad             1,246,261
        Rawalpindi             1,014,855
        Hyderabad                911,239
        Multan                   871,276
        Gujranwala             1,060,333
        Peshawar                 717,239
        Sialkot                  565,795
        Sargodha                 503,254
        Quetta                   285,719
        Islamabad                206,364

        (Note: Because of high population growth rates and rural-to-
urban migration, the present populations of these cities are 
considerably larger.)

Population Growth Rate - The Government of Pakistan's 1994-95 Economic 
Survey estimates that Pakistan's current population growth rate is 2.9 
percent annually, a slight decrease from the 3.2 percent average for the 
1984-1989 period.  However, the 13-year hiatus since the last census 
makes current estimates increasingly speculative.  Nonetheless, 
estimates by development institutions, the GOP and independent observers 
tend to cluster around the 3.0 percent figure.  At the current rate of 
growth, Pakistan's population would double in less than 25 years.
Religions -  Pakistan's raison d'etre was to be the homeland for Muslims 
living in British India.  It is officially an "Islamic Republic", and 
96.7 percent of Pakistanis were Muslim at the time of the 1981 census.  
The majority of Muslims are Sunni, but a minority, variously estimated 
at 15 to 25 percent, are Shia; Ismailis, an offshoot Shia group led by 
Prince Karim Aga Khan, are prominent in some northern areas.  Shia-Sunni 
tensions have increased in recent years and there have been occasional 
clashes, particularly at the time of the Shia holy days of the 9th and 
10th of the Islamic month of Muharram.

The 3.3 percent non-Muslim minority consisted of Christians (1.6 percent 
of the total population), Hindus (1.5 percent), and smaller numbers of 
Ahmadis (a once-Muslim sect denounced as heretical by other Muslims and 
now declared non-Muslim by law), Parsees, Sikhs, Buddhists, and others.  
The largest concentration of Christians is in the northeastern Punjab; 
most of the Hindus live in eastern Sindh, in and around the Thar Desert.

Government System -  Pakistan is a democratic Islamic republic with a 
federal parliamentary system of government.  The system of government is 
described in detail in Section III (Political System).    

Languages -  There are twenty or more spoken languages in Pakistan, most 
of them Indo-Aryan.  The Constitution designates as the official 
language Urdu, which is not indigenous to the area and is the native 
language only of the mohajirs, immigrants who came from India at the 
time of Partition.  Urdu developed in north-central India and is 
linguistically very close to Hindi.  General Zia's government (1977-
1988) sought to promote further the use of Urdu in education and 
government, but encountered resistance from ethnic groups wedded to 
their regional languages and from well-to-do parents seeking to educate 
their children in English to enhance their upward mobility.  English is 
widely spoken among government officials and the middle and upper 
classes.  Punjabi is the regional language with the greatest number of 
native speakers, followed by Sindhi, and Pushtu (also known variously as 
Pashtu, Pashto, and Pushto), which is spoken by tribal groups in the 
NWFP and parts of Baluchistan.     

Work Week -  Until June 1994, Pakistan had a six-day work week extending 
from Saturday through Thursday.  In June 1994, the GOP adopted a Sunday-
through-Thursday work week as an energy conservation measure.  That 
change has aroused significant criticism, as did a similar, short-lived 
effort to adopt a five-day work week in 1984.  Friday is the Muslim holy 
day and stores and offices remain closed.  U.S. government facilities in 
Pakistan continue to maintain  a five-day, Sunday-through-Thursday work 

B.  Domestic Economy

            Year               1993/94         1994/95        1995/96

Population (in millions)       124.45          128.1          131.7

GDP (in current factor cost,
in billions of $)               47.82           54.71          58.2

GDP Growth Rate (%)              3.8             4.7            6.5

GDP Per Capita ($)               419             476            510

Budgetary Expenditures
as a % of GDP                   24.5            23.4           22.1

Inflation (% increase in
Consumer Price Index)           11.2            13.1            9.5

Unemployment (% of work force)   4.7             4.7            5.0

Foreign Exchange Reserves 
(in millions of US$, June 30)  2,304           2,750          2,500

Average Foreign Exchange Rate
(rupees per US $)               30.16           30.81          32.0

Foreign Debt (in US $, June 30)
(disbursed and outstanding debt,
in billions of $)               20.3            21.6           23.1

External Debt Service Ratio     25.7            23.1           20.6

C.  Trade

                                  PAKISTAN TRADE DATA
                (in millions of US $, unless otherwise noted)
            (1994/95 and 1995/96 data are preliminary/estimates)

Category                 1992/93     1993/94     1994/95    1995/96
Total Pakistan Exports   6813.0      6803.0      7830.0     9206.0
Total Pakistan Imports   9941.0      8564.0     10185.0    10940.0
Trade Balance           -3128.0     -1761.0     -2355.0     1734.0

Pakistan Exports to U.S.  945.3       978.1      1250.0     1280.0
Pakistan Imports from U.S.939.7       907.3       921.2      950.0
Pak/U.S. Trade Balance     +5.6       +70.8      +328.8      330.0
US % Share of Pak Imports   9.4        10.6          -          -

Source:  Government of Pakistan Federal Bureau of Statistics/Economic 
Advisors Wing 

       Pakistan Trade Balance with Leading Trade Partners, 1993-94
                         (in millions of US $)

        Country        Exports         Imports            Balance

1.      Japan          545.7           1008.1              (462.4)

2.      U.S.           978.1            907.3                 70.8

3.      Germany        544.6            662.1              (117.5)

4.      U.K.           531.5            419.6                111.9

  Principal U.S. Exports to Pakistan for Pakistan Fiscal Year 1993-94
                       (in millions of US $)

Rank            Description                                 Value

1               Wheat and meslim                             225.1  

2               Fertilizers, including other crude materials 157.7  

3               Machinery                                    143.6  

4               Transport equipment                          111.6  

5               Soybean Oil                                  44.75  

 Principal U.S. Imports from Pakistan for Pakistan Fiscal Year 1993-94
                        (in millions of US $)

Rank            Description                                  Value

1               Textiles, articles of apparel, made-ups
                and accessories                              664.1  

2               Apparel and clothing of leather               58.9  

3               Surgical instruments                          47.7

4               Carpets and floor coverings                   42.9

5               Sports goods                                  42.8

Source:  Government of Pakistan, Federal Bureau of Statistics

D.  Investment Statistics

GOP statistics on foreign direct investment are set forth in the 
following table:

         Inflow of Foreign Private Direct Investment in Pakistan
                        (in millions of US $)

Country    1988/89  89/90  90/91  91/92  92/93  93/94  94/95  Total  

USA        94.4     93.9   130.0  213.4  136.9  114.5  133.4  916.5

UK         22.6     22.8    33.8   20.8   25.7   32.0   37.2  194.9

UAE        12.9     15.9     9.0   10.5    9.5    7.5   31.2   96.5

Korea        -        -       -      -      -      -    30.6   30.6

Germany    10.0     11.2    12.5   21.4   36.2   92.6   13.7  197.6

France      7.7      6.0     7.1    8.5    5.7    9.1   10.4   54.5

Hong Kong   6.3      0.9     3.3     -    12.4   11.1    1.3   35.3

Italy       1.2      3.8     2.9    2.0    0.6    1.2    0.3   12.0

Japan      16.7     16.1    26.2   17.7   22.0    0.3   11.8  110.8

S. Arabia   0.5      1.1     0.9    0.1    8.2   29.7    0.8   41.3

Canada      0.9      0.9     1.9    3.0    0.3    1.9    0.4    9.3

Holland     1.7      5.3     2.3    0.8    5.6    1.2    4.4   21.3

Others     34.1     38.3    16.1   36.9   43.3   53.1   53.8  275.6

Total     209.0    216.2   246.0  335.1  306.4  354.1  329.3 1996.2

Source:  Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan. 1994/95 data is 
for the nine-month period July-March.
Germany is the second largest foreign investor in Pakistan, with $197.6 
million in foreign direct investment, followed by the United Kingdom 
($194.9 million), Japan ($110.8 million), and UAE ($96.5 million).  
Figures for Pakistani direct foreign investment abroad are unavailable.

E.  U.S. and Pakistan Contacts

                U.S. Embassy Trade Related Contacts 

        1. In Pakistan

United States Embassy
Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel:  92-51-826161
Fax:  92-51-214222
John C. Monjo, Ambassador
Rafael L. Marin, 
Economic Counselor
Robert E. Gianfranceschi,
Economic/Commercial Officer

U.S. Consulate-General and U.S. Foreign Commercial 
Service -  Karachi
8 Abdullah Haroon Road
Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Tel:   (21) 5685170
Fax:   (21) 5681381
Mary Gin Kennedy, Consul General
Senior Commercial Officer

U.S. Consulate General
50 Empress Road
Lahore, Pakistan
Tel:  92-42-6365530-9
Fax:  92-42-6365177
Eric Tunis, Consul-General

U.S. Consulate - Peshawar
11 Hospital Road
Peshawar, Pakistan
Tel:  92-521-279801-3
Fax:  92-521-276712
Richard H. Smyth, Principal Officer

    2.  In Washington

U.S. Foreign and Commercial
U.S. Department of Commerce
Washington, D.C.  20230
Tel: (202) 482-4836
Mr. Charles Kestenbaum
Regional Director

U.S. Foreign and Commercial Service
U.S. Department of Commerce
Washington, D.C.  20230
Tel: (202) 482-2954
Mr. Richard D. Harding

Export-Import Bank of the United States
811 Vermont Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20571
Tel:  (202) 566-8885
Fax:  (202) 566-7524
Terence J. Hulihan
Vice President - Asia
(also contact Country Loan Officer for Pakistan)

U.S. Department of State
Pakistan Desk Officer
Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh Affairs
Office of South Asian Affairs  (SA/PAB)
2201 C Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20520
Tel:   (202) 647-7593
Fax:   (202) 647-3001

U.S. Agency for International
Sidney Chernenkoff
Sup. Program Officer (ANE/ASIA/SA)
2201 C Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20523-001
Tel: (202) 647-6967
Fax: (202) 647-7368

Office of the U.S. Trade Representative
Winder Building
600 17th Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20506
Tel:   (202) 395-6813
Fax:   (202) 395-3512
Francis F. (Rick) Ruzicka
Director for Taiwan and South
Asian Affairs

U.S. Dept. of the Treasury
Office of Asian and Near East Nations
1500 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20220
Tel: (202) 622-0359

U.S. Foreign & Commercial Service
U.S. Department of Commerce
Washington, D.C.  20230
Tel: (202) 482-4836
Mr. Russell Smith

Overseas Private Investment Corporation
1100 New York Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20527
Tel:  (202) 336-8574
(N.B. No country coverage for Pakistan, as of June 30, 1994)

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Room # 608d
1301 New York, Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20005-4788
Tel: (202) 219-0610
Fax: (202) 219-0942
Dr. Anwarul Haque

Export Credits
Program Development Division
Ag. Box # 1034
Foreign Agricultural Service
Washington, D.C. 20250-1034
Tel: (202) 720-2623
Fax: (202) 690-3077

Foreign Agricultural Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Ag. Box #1080
14th & Independence Ave. SW
Washington, D.C. 20250-1080
Tel: (202) 720-7053
Fax: (202) 720-6063
Area /Officer/NESA&A/FAA

VII.    U.S. Based Multipliers

    1.  USDA Market Development Cooperators

U.S. Feed Grains Council
Dr. T. J. Vorachek
Regional Director
Yeni Asir Ishani 3/8
Gazi Osmanpasa Bulvari
35210 Izmir, Turkey
Tel: (232) 441-56 98
           441-55 19
Fax: (232) 232-411 52 97

U.S. Wheat Associates
Mr. Paul Dickerson
Vice President
541 Orchard Road # 15-02
Liat Towers, 
Singapore 0923
Tel: (065) 7374409 - 7374311
Fax: (065) 733-9359 

American Soybean Association
541 Orchard Road # 11-03
Liat Towers
Singapore 0923
Tel: (065) 7376233
Fax: (065) 737 5849
Mr. James W. Echle
Regional Director 

U.S. Hide, Skin & Leather Association
Jerome J. Breiter
1700 North Moore Street
Suite 1600
Arlington, Va. 22209
Tel: (703) 841-5485
Fax: (703) 841-9656

Central Board of Revenue
CDA Block #3
Tel: 92-51-820473
Fax: 92-51-811328       

Ministry of Commerce
Mr. Nazar Abbas Siddiqui
Additional Secretary (Trade)
Block A, Pakistan Secretariat
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel:  92-51-210852      

Civil Aviation Authority
19 Liaquat Barracks
Tel: 92-21-526315
Fax: 92-21-514101
Air Marshal Syed Masood Hatif
Director General

Corporate Law Authority
Ministry of Finance
State Life Bldg, 7-Blue Area
Tel: 92-51-825310
Fax: 92-51-824951
Mr. Shamim Ahmad Khan

Registrar Copyright Office
Ministry of Education
4th Floor, Hajira Mansion
Zaibun Nisa Street, Saddar
Tel: 92-21-515428
Mr. Shakeel Ahmad Abbasi

Registrar Trademark Registry
Ministry of Commerce
68-E, Market Block, P.E.C.H.S.
Tel: 92-21-411227
Mr. Abdul Ghaffar Qureshi

Controller Patents and Designs
Ministry of Industries
Asad Chamber, 146 A.M.
Shambunath Street, Saddar
Tel: 92-21-5685985
Mrs. Yasmin Abbasi

Directorate General Defense Purchase (DGDP)
Ministry of Defense
Defense Production Division
Pak Secretariat No.II
Tel: 92-51-563324

Export Promotion Bureau
Government of Pakistan
Finance and Trade Center
Tel: 92-21-516285
Fax: 92-21-516205
Mr. Abu Shamim Arif
Vice Chairman

Investment Promotion Bureau   
Ministry of Industries
Kandawala Building
M.A. Jinnah Road
Tel: 92-21-7216149
Fax: 92-21-7224261
Mr. M.H. Bhutto 
Vice Chairman

Board of Investment 
Prime Minister's Secretariat
Saudi Pak Tower, 12th Floor, Jinnah Avenue
Tel: 92-51-218439
Fax: 92-51-217665
Mr. Safdar Abbas Zaidi

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Constitution Ave.
Islamabad, Pakistan 
Mr. Hassan Sarmad

Director-General for the Americas
Tel:  92-51-820901, 82007443
Ms. Rana Mumtaz

Director for the Americas 
Tel:  92-51-821757, 82007342

Ministry of Industries
Mr. Viqar Rustam Bakhshi
Block A, Pakistan Secretariat
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel:  92-51-211709

Textile Quota Management Board
Trade and Finance Center
Tel: 92-21-522753, 523855
Mr. Sheikh Inom Ul Haque

Export Processing Zones Authority
8th Floor
Finance & Trade Center
Tel: 92-21-523524, 523541, 523156
Fax: 92-21-568650
Mr. Abrar Hussain Naqvi

Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works Ltd.
West Wharf
Dockyard Road
Tel: 92-21-202771-9, 202761-9
Fax: 92-21-2415952
Vice Admiral Syed Iqtidar Hussain
Managing Director

Karachi Port Trust
Eduljee Dinshaw Road
Tel: 92-21-2431534, 2427374
Fax: 92-21-2415567
Vice Admiral Ahmed Tasneem

Pakistan Customs
Custom House Karachi
Tel: 92-21-201155
Fax: 92-21-200492
Mr. Jehangir Khan

Collector Customs (Appraisement)
Pakistan Customs
Custom House
Tel: 92-21-201431
Fax: 92-21-201288
Mr. Falak Sher
Collector Customs

Pakistan Steel
Bin Qasim
Tel: 92-21-420161, 423155, 77694496
Fax: 92-21-422214
Lt. Gen. Sabeeh Qamar-uz-Zaman

Pakistan Int'l Airlines
PIA Building
Quaid-e-Azam Int'l Airport
Tel: 92-21-4872666
Fax: 92-21-480126, 4575250
Air Vice Marshal Farooq Umer
Managing Director

Port Qasim Authority
Bin Qasim
Tel: 92-21-7737640, 7737601-20
Fax: 92-21-7737639
Mohd. Nawaz Tiwana

Ports & Shipping Wing
Ministry of Communications
223 Sommerset House, E.I. Lines
Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan Road
Karachi 75530
Tel: 92-21-521656, 511270,513396
Fax: 92-21-521331
Mr. Shahid Aziz Siddiqui
Director General

State Bank of Pakistan
Central Directorate
State Bank Building
I.I. Chundrigar Road
Tel: 92-21-2417864, 2419036
Fax: 92-21-2417865, 2416608
Dr. Muhammad Yaqub

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Room #312, Block B
Pakistan Secretariat
Islamabad, Pakistan
Mr. Zafar Mian
Additional Secretary

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-51-823966
Fax: 92-51-812968
Dr. Zafar Altaf, Chairman

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Dr. Muhammad Shafi
Plant Protection Adviser and Director
Department of Plant Protection
Jinnah Ave., Mair Halt
Karachi-27, Pakistan

Ministry of Finance
Mr. Moeen Afzal 
Additional Secretary (External Finance)
Q Block, Pakistan Secretariat
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel:  92-51-211518

Pakistan Telecommunication
Corporation (PTC)
Head Quarters, Sector G-8/4
Tel: 92-51-251939 & 844463
Fax: 92-51-843991
Mr. Masood Ahmad

Pakistan Tourism Development
House No.2, Street 61, F-7/4
Tel: 92-51-826327
Fax: 92-51-824173
Mr. Hamid Ahmad Qureshi
Managing Director
Privatization Commission
Ministry of Finance & Economic
5-A, Constitution Avenue
Expert Advisory Cell Building
Tel: 92-51-818276
Fax: 92-51-823076

Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
44-E Office Tower, Ali Plaza, Blue Area
Tel: 92-51-217882 and 826817
Mr. Asif Shuja Khan

Monopoly Control Authority
Ministry of Finance
P.O. Box 1224
Union Plaza, Blue Area
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-51-813267
Fax: 92-51-824915
Mr. M.S. Khan

Pakistan Railways
Allama Iqbal Road
Tel: 92-42-6365460
Fax: 92-42-6367673
Mr. Zafar Ullah Qureshi
General Manager

Water & Power Development Authority
WAPDA House, The Mall
Tel: 92-42-6361230 and 6365432
Fax: 92-42-6279163 and 6369349
Mr. Shams-ul-Mulk

Bilateral Business Councils

American Soybean Association
Mr. Zahid Rasool
Room # 17, 2nd Floor
Taj Arcade, 73 Jail Road
Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: 92-42-7586570
Fax: 92-42-7586599

National Renderers Association
27e Kam Kin Mansion 123
Caine Road
Hong Kong
Tel: 5-490378
Fax: 852-895-5546
Mr. Phillip W. Laney
Asia Regional Director

American Business Council of
NIC Building (6th Floor)
Abbasi Shaheed Road
G.P.O. Box 1322
Karachi 74400
Tel:   92-21-526436, 520137-39
Fax:   92-21-5683935

Consulate-General of Pakistan
in New York
12 E. 65th Street
New York, New York, 10021
Tel:  (212) 879-5800
Fax:  (212) 517-6987

Pakistan Embassy 
2315 Massachusetts Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Tel:  (202) 939-6200
Fax:  (202) 387-0484

Consulate-General of Pakistan
in Los Angeles
10850 Wilshire Blvd.
Suite 1100
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: (310) 441-0167, 395-3921
Telex: (310) 441-9256

Trade & Industry Associations

Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce & Industry
Federation House, Main Clifton
P.O. Box 13875
Tel: 92-21-5873691-94, 5873640-41
Fax: 92-21-5874332
S.M. Munir, President

Overseas Investors Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Chamber of Commerce Building
Talpur Road, P.O. Box 4833
Karachi 74000
Tel: 92-21-2426076, 222557-8
Fax: 92-21-2427315
Nisar A. Memon 

Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry
ST-4/2, Sector 23
Korangi Industrial Area
Tel: 92-21-5061211-14
Fax: 92-21-5061215
Mr. Sheikh Manzar Alam

Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (SITE) Association
Karachi 75700
Tel: 92-21-2562884, 2560705
Fax: 92-21-2562884, 2563119
Mr. Siraj Kasim Teli

Islamabad Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Aiwan-e-Sanat-o-Tijarat Road, 
Mauve Area, Sector G-8/1
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-51-250526-253145
Fax: 92-51-252950

Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
Chamber House, 108-Adamjee Road
Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Tel: 92-51-584397,566238
Fax: 92-51-586849

Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry
P.O. Box 597, 11-Race Course Road
Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: 92-42-305538, 305538 Fax: 92-42-304639
Mr. Bashir Ahmad Bukhsh

Sialkot Chamber of Commerce &
Sialkot 51310, Pakistan
Tel: 92-432-561881, 561882 and 561883
Fax: 92-432-558835 and 557919

Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce
& Industry
Aiwan-e-Tijarat Road
Gujranwala, Pakistan
Tel: 92-431-256701-4 (four lines)
Fax: 92-431-254440

Faisalabad Chamber of Commerce
& Industry
2nd Floor, N.B.P. Building, Jail Road
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-411-615085

Gujrat Chamber of Commerce & Industry
P.O. Box 169, 26-A, S.I.E. 
G.T. Road
Gujrat, Pakistan
Tel: 92-4331-523012 and 523013
Fax: 92-4331-523011

Multan Chamber of Commerce & Industry
Kutchery Road
Multan, Pakistan
Tel: 92-61-43530 and 40087

Sarhard Chamber of Commerce & Industry
Sarhad Chamber House
G.T. Road
Peshawar, Pakistan
Tel: 92-521-215459 and 216398
Fax: 92-521-217412

Quetta Chamber of Commerce & Industry
P. O. Box 117, Zarghoon Road
Quetta (Baluchistan), Pakistan
Tel: 92-81-821943
Fax: 92-81-821948

V.      Pakistan Trade Associations

Pakistan Arms & Ammunition
Merchants & Manufacturers
Room 7, Metropole Cinema
11-Abbott Road
Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: 92-42-6364516
Fax: 92-42-6365555

Pakistan Flour Mills Assoc.
Sindh Circle
1st floor, Block c-3
Taj Complex, Line Development Area
M. A. Jinnah Road
Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-7780137-7780143

All Pakistan Solvent Extractor's Assoc.
2nd Floor, United Bank Building
I.I. Chundrigar Road
Karachi - 74000 

Pakistan Vanaspati Manufacturer's Assoc.
Suite no: 13, (2nd floor)
Auriga Complex
Main Boulevard
Gulberg, Lahore

Pakistan Soap Manufacturers' Association
148, Suny Plaza
Hasrat Mohani Road
Karachi - 74200, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-210773

Pakistan Carpet Manufacturers
& Exporters Association
40-A, Panorama Center, Fitima Jinnah Road
Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-512189
Fax: 92-21-528649

Pakistan Chemicals & Dyes
Manufacturers Association 
Chemical & Dyes House 
Rambharti Street 
Jodia Bazar
Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-7732486

Pakistan Readymade Garments Manufacturers Association
53, Idrees Chambers, 4th Floor
Talpur Road
Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-2416469
Fax: 92-21-4550699

Pakistan Sports Goods Manufacturers &
Exporters Association
Abbot Road
Sialkot, Pakistan
Tel: 92-432-87962 and 65502
Fax: 92-432-55441 and 53442

Pakistan Sugar Mills Association
24-D, Rashid Plaza, Jinnah Avenue
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-51-813722 and 812111
Fax: 92-51-217738

The Surgical Instruments Manufacturers
Association of Pakistan
Kutchery Road
Sialkot, Pakistan
Tel: 92-432-556240 and 563016
Fax: 92-432-85978

All Pakistan Textile Mills Association
H.O. 213 Main Soosan Road
near M.C.B.
Ibrahim Plaza, Madina Town
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-411-48894 and 49013
Fax: 92-411-47711

The Pakistan Yarn Merchants' Association
802-803, Business Center (8th Floor)
Dunolly Road
Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-2410320 and 2424896
Fax: 92-21-2425578 and 437843

Pakistan Woollen Mills Association
Republic Motor Building (2nd Floor)
87, Shahrah-e-Quaid-e-Azam
Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: 92-42-306879
Fax: 92-42-254704

Pakistan Poultry Association
47-Modern Housing Society
Block 7 & 8, Tipu Sultan Road
Karachi, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-438931

Pakistan Tanners Association
Mr. S. M. Muneer
Plot ST 7, Sector 7A
Korangi Industrial Area
Tel: 92-21-317409
Fax: 92-21-310323

Government Offices

Market Research Firms
Aftab Associates (Pvt.) Ltd. (Head office)
5-E/1 Commercial, Gulberg-III
Lahore 54660
Tel: 92-42-875910, 876196, 
Fax: 92-42-5711020, 485139

Aftab Associates (Pvt.) Ltd. (Branch office)
830-C Commercial Area
Allama Iqbal Road
Block 2 P.E.C.H.S.
Tel:  92-21-431011

Business Research Bureau
A-4 Shaheen Chambers
Block 7 & 8 Commercial Area
K.C.H.S., Karachi 
Fax: 92-21-445423

Economic Consultants Group
87 Darul Aman Housing Society
Tel: 92-21-443885, 434693
Fax: 92-21-443885

EIP Investors Service
Al-Masiha Building
47 Abdullah Haroon Road
P.O. Box 7843, Karachi
Tel: 92-21-7728963, 7728434, 7728957
Fax: 92-21-7727582, 7736324

Market Research Link
403 Faiyaz Center
3-A S.M.C.H.S.
Karachi 74400
Tel: 92-21-4540502
Fax: 92-21-4554120

Pace (Pvt.) Ltd.
F-50/A Blcok 7
Clifton, Karachi 75600
Tel: 92-21-578920, 578020, 5874214, 5874215
Fax: 92-21-570516       

Commercial Banks

Allied Bank of Pakistan Ltd.
14th Floor, NIC Building
Abbasi Shaheed Road
Off Shahra-e-Faisal
Tel: 92-21-519273, 519436
Fax: 92-21-5682568
Mr. Khalid Latif, Chairman     

First Women Bank
7th Floor, Mehdi Towers
Tel: 92-21-4553110, 4556093, 4553149
Fax: 92-21-4556983
Ms. Akram Khatoon, President

Habib Bank Limited 
Habib Bank Plaza
I.I. Chundrigar Road
Tel: 92-21-219112, 219111-50
Fax: 92-21-241566
Mr. M. Shafi Arshad, President

Muslim Commercial Bank
Adamjee House
I.I. Chundrigar Road
P.O. Box 4976
Tel: 92-21-2414099, 2414090, 2415354
Fax: 92-21-2416982
Mr. Hussain Lawai, President

National Bank of Pakistan
NBP Building
I.I. Chundrigar Road
P.O. Box 4937
Tel: 92-21-2416789, 2416780, 2416612
Fax: 92-21-2410202
Mr. Inam Elahi, President

Commercial Banks        
United Bank Limited
State Life Building No. 1
I.I. Chundrigar Road
Tel: 92-21-2417021, 2147022
Fax: 92-21-2413492
Mr. Azizullah Memon, President
American Express Bank Ltd.
Shaheen Commercial Complex
Dr. Ziauddin Ahmad Road
Tel: 92-21-2630349, 2630343
Fax: 92-21-2631803

ANZ Grindlays Bank
Grindlays Bank Building
I.I. Chundrigar Road
Karachi 74000
Tel: 92-21-2412671
Fax: 92-21-2414914

Bank of America
Jubilee Insurance House
I.I. Chundrigar Road
Tel: 92-21-2412528, 2412520
Fax: 92-21-2415371

Bank of Oman Limited
1st Floor, Bahria Complex
M.T. Khan Road
Tel: 92-21-551179, 551149
Fax: 92-21-552369

Banque Indosuez
Mohammadi House
I.I. Chudrigar Road
Karachi 74000
Tel: 92-21-2417146, 2417155
Fax: 92-21-2417503

Chartered Bank
I.I. Chudrigar Road
P.O. Box 4896
Tel: 92-21-2433545, 2428541

State Life Building 1
I.I. Chudrigar Road
Karachi 74000
Tel: 92-21-2412882, 2412883
Fax: 92-21-2424474

Deutsche Bank AG
I.I. Chudrigar Road
Tel: 92-21-2419619
Fax: 92-21-2416970

Doha Bank Limited
36/A-2, Lalazar Drive
Off: M.T. Khan Road
Tel: 92-21-551854, 551851
Fax: 92-21-5687105

Emirates Bank International Ltd.
Emirates Bank House
I.I. Chundrigar Road
Tel: 92-21-2414003, 2414002

First International Investment Bank Ltd.
7th Floor, Shaheen Complex
Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed Road
Tel: 92-21-2639046, 2639042
Fax: 92-21-2630678

Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank
Shaheen Commercial Complex
M.R. Kayani Road
Tel: 92-21-2630387, 2630386
Fax: 92-21-2635126
Societe Generale The French & Int'l Bank
3rd Floor, PNSC Building
M.T. Khan Road
Tel: 92-21-551846, 551134
Fax: 92-21-551672

The Bank of Tokyo Ltd.
Shaheen Complex, 1st Floor
M.R. Kayani Road
Karachi 74200
Tel: 92-21-2630171, 2630175
Fax: 92-21-2631368

The Chase Manhattan Bank
N.A.  Shaheen Commercial Complex
M.R. Kayani Road
Karachi 74200
Tel: 92-21-2633073, 2633079
Fax: 92-21-2631393


2.  In Washington

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Room # 608d
1301 New York, Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20005-4788
Tel: (202) 219-0610
Fax: (202) 219-0942
Dr. Anwarul Haque

Export Credits
Program Development Division
Ag. Box # 1034
Foreign Agricultural Service
Washington, D.C. 20250-1034
Tel: (202) 720-2623
Fax: (202) 690-3077

Foreign Agricultural Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Ag. Box #1080
14th & Independence Ave. SW
Washington, D.C. 20250-1080
Tel: (202) 720-7053
Fax: (202) 720-6063
Area Officer/SAP/FAA

VII.    U.S. Based Multipliers

    1.  USDA Market Development Cooperators

U.S. Feed Grains Council
Dr. T. J. Vorachek
Regional Director
P. O. Box # 5285
Dubai, United Arab Emirates 
Tel: (9714) 243-880
Fax: (9714) 243-882

U.S. Wheat Associates
Mr. Paul Dickerson
Vice President
541 Orchard Road # 15-02
Liat Towers, 
Singapore 0923
Tel: (065) 7374409 - 7374311
Fax: (065) 733-9359 

American Soybean Association
541 Orchard Road # 11-03
Liat Towers
Singapore 0923
Tel: (065) 737 6233
Fax: (065) 737 5849
Mr. James W. Echle
Regional Director 

U.S. Hide, Skin & Leather Association
Jerome J. Breiter
1700 North Moore Street
Suite 1600
Arlington, Va. 22209
Tel: (703) 841-5485
Fax: (703) 841-9656

American Soybean Association
Mr. Zahid Rasool
Room # 17, 2nd Floor
Taj Arcade, 73 Jail Road
Lahore, Pakistan
Tel: 92-42-7586570
Fax: 92-42-7586599

Appendix C:   U.S. and Pakistan Contacts

I.  Pakistan Government 

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Room # 307, Block B
Pakistan Secretariat
Islamabad, Pakistan
Dr. Zafar Altaf, Secretary
Tel: 92-51-210351
Fax: 92-51-221246

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-51-823966
Fax: 92-51-812968
Dr.C.M. Anwar, Chairman

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Dr. Muhammad Shafi
Plant Protection Adviser and Director
Department of Plant Protection
Jinnah Ave., Mair Halt
Karachi-27, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-4577382
Fax: 92-21-480115

Ministry of Finance
Mr. Javed Masud
Additional Secretary (External Finance)
Block ■Q■, Room # 212
Pakistan Secretariat
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel:  92-51-211518
Fax: 92-51-821941

2.  In Washington

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Room # 608d
1301 New York, Ave. N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20005-4788
Tel: (202) 219-0610
Fax: (202) 219-0942
Dr. Anwarul Haque

Export Credits
Program Development Division
Ag. Box # 1034
Foreign Agricultural Service
Washington, D.C. 20250-1034
Tel: (202) 720-2623
Fax: (202) 690-3077

Foreign Agricultural Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Ag. Box #1080
14th & Independence Ave. SW
Washington, D.C. 20250-1080
Tel: (202) 720-7053
Fax: (202) 720-6063
Area Officer/SAP/FAA

VII.    U.S. Based Multipliers

    1.  USDA Market Development Cooperators

U.S. Feed Grains Council
Dr. T. J. Vorachek
Regional Director
P. O. Box # 5285
Dubai, United Arab Emirates 
Tel: (9714) 243-880
Fax: (9714) 243-882

U.S. Wheat Associates
Mr. Paul Dickerson
Vice President
541 Orchard Road # 15-02
Liat Towers, 
Singapore 0923
Tel: (065) 7374409 - 7374311
Fax: (065) 733-9359 

American Soybean Association
541 Orchard Road # 11-03
Liat Towers
Singapore 0923
Tel: (065) 737 6233
Fax: (065) 737 5849
Mr. James W. Echle
Regional Director 

U.S. Hide, Skin & Leather Association
Jerome J. Breiter
1700 North Moore Street
Suite 1600
Arlington, Va. 22209
Tel: (703) 841-5485
Fax: (703) 841-9656

Note: From AGATT entered 6/22/95

2.  In Washington

Appendix C:   U.S. and Pakistan Contacts

I.  Pakistan Government 

Central Board of Revenue
CDA Block#3
Tel: 92-51-820473
Fax: 92-51-811328

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Room # 307, Block B
Pakistan Secretariat
Islamabad, Pakistan
Dr. Zafar Altaf, Secretary
Tel: 92-51-210351
Fax: 92-51-221246

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-51-823966
Fax: 92-51-812968
Dr.C.M. Anwar, Chairman

Ministry of Food, Agriculture 
& Cooperatives
Dr. Muhammad Shafi
Plant Protection Adviser and Director
Department of Plant Protection
Jinnah Ave., Mair Halt
Karachi-27, Pakistan
Tel: 92-21-4577382
Fax: 92-21-480115

Ministry of Finance
Mr. Javed Masud
Additional Secretary (External Finance)
Block ■Q■, Room # 212
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel:  92-51-211518
Fax:  92-51-821941

F. Market Research     

I.  Industry Sector/subsector Analyses

1.      The following industry sub-sector analyses (ISAs) are scheduled 
for U.S. fiscal year 1995 by the Foreign Commercial Service in Pakistan:

        - Electrical Power Distribution Systems

        - Computers and Peripherals

        - Telecommunications Equipment

        - Agricultural Chemicals

        - Pollution Control Equipment

        - Drugs & Pharmaceuticals      

        - Oil and Gasfield Machinery

        - Transportation Equipment

        - Agricultural Equipment (incl. grain handling & storage)

        - Food Processing & Packaging Machinery

2.      The following ISAs are proposed for fiscal year 1996:

        - Pulp and Paper

        - Inorganic Chemicals:  Industrial

        - Compressors
        - Measuring, Checking Instruments
        - Safety & Security Equipment

        - Electrical Power Transmission Equipment

        - Pumps and Parts

        - Hospital & Medical Equipment

        - Waste and Scrap: Iron and Steel
        - Flat Rolled Products: Iron and Steel

II.  Agriculture Reports

Pakistan: US Embassy Foreign Agricultural Service Reporting Schedule

January 1995           Wheat Trade Estimates Reviewed
                       Outlook for Cotton Area & Production
                       Cotton Production and Trade Reviewed
                       Oilseeds and Prod. Estimates Reviewed and
                       Rice Production and Trade Reviewed
                       Review of Cotton Outlook

February 1995          Buyer Interest in U.S. Soybean Planting Seed
                       CEC to announce GSM-102 Tender
                       Tobacco Production Estimate Increased
                       Grain and Feed Annual

March 1995             Cotton Update
                       Oilseeds & Products Annual

April 1995             Sugar Annual 
                       Oilseeds Update
                       1995 Wheat Crop Outlook
                       Tobacco Annual 

    Date Completed/ Due               Title of Report

        May 1995               Cotton Exports Reviewed
                               Wheat Prices for 1995/96 Marketing Year
                               Increased Vegetable Oil Imports
                               Wheat Update

        June 1995              Vegetable Oil Imports Reviewed
                               Ice Cream Statistics
                               Rice Update
                               Cotton Annual

        July 1995              Annual Marketing Plan (Budget and 
                               information Report).
        September 1995         Agricultural Situation Annual Report
                               Post Accomplishment Report

        October 1995           Sugarcane Semi Annual Report
                               Foreign Buyers list
                               Trade Lead Annual Report

G.  Trade Events Schedule

  There are no Approved USG-Sponsored Events in Fiscal Year 1996 for 

                  Events Proposed for Fiscal Year 1997
        Product                                        Event

 - Pumps, Valves, and Compressors               - Regular Catalog Show

 - Telecommunications Equipment                 - Trade Mission

 - Oil and Gasfield Equipment                   - Regular Catalog Show

 - Safety & Security Equipment                  - Regular Catalog Show

 - Environmental Systems/Pollution              - Video Catalog 
                                                  Exhibition Control 
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