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U.S. Department of State 
1996 Jamaica Country Commercial Guide 
Office of the Coordinator for Business Affairs 
 
 
 
                   1996 COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE 
                                JAMAICA 
 
This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at 
Jamaica's commercial environment through economic, political and market 
analyses.   
 
The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion 
Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate 
various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community.  
Country Commercial Guides are prepared annualy at U.S. Embassies through 
the combined efforts of several U.S. governement agencies.   
 
 
                   TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 
Chapter I:     Executive Summary 
Chapter II:    Economic Trends and Outlook 
Chapter III:   Political Environment 
Chapter IV:    Marketing US Products and Services 
Chapter V:     Leading Sectors for U.S. Exports and Investment 
Chapter VI:    Trade Regulations and Standards 
Chapter VII:   Investment Climate 
Chapter VIII:  Trade and Project Financing 
Chapter IX:    Business Travel 
Chapter X:     Appendices 
 
Appendix A:    Country Data 
Appendix B:    Domestic Economy 
Appendix C:    Trade 
Appendix D:    Investment Statistics 
Appendix E:    US and Country Contacts 
Appendix F:    Market Research 
Appendix G:    Trade Event Schedule 
 
 
CHAPTER I:  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
 
Jamaica is the largest English-speaking island in the Caribbean (area - 
4,411 sq. miles), with a small but diversified economy and natural 
resources.  Although the island's small population (2.5 million) and low 
per capita income of roughly USD 1,560 limits investment for the 
domestic market, it offers good potential for export-oriented 
activities. 
 
The U.S. continues to be Jamaica's primary trading partner.  In 1994, 
total imports to Jamaica from the U.S. grew to USD 1.15 billion, 
representing 52.6 percent of Jamaica's total imports (USD 2.2 billion).  
By the same token, the U.S. has been Jamaica's principal export market 
over the last two decades.  Major U.S. imports from Jamaica in 1994 were 
bauxite and alumina (USD 146.9 million), food (USD 36 million), and 
garments under the 807 and Cut, Made and Trim (CMT) provisions.  
Exporters should find good opportunities in Jamaica's expanding tourism 
sector, the bauxite/alumina industry, textile assembly operations, 
agribusiness, and telecommunications.  The principal barriers for 
exporting to Jamaica are occasional foreign exchange shortages, poor 
internal transport infrastructure, and declining real incomes for the 
majority of the population. 
 
The Jamaican government welcomes foreign investment and offers a variety 
of incentives for investments that facilitate foreign exchange earnings 
and savings, offer employment opportunities for Jamaican labor, or use 
local raw materials.  The government hopes that a larger number of 
foreign investors will take  
 
advantage of pro-investment policies and the liberalized foreign 
exchange regime implemented in September 1991.  In addition, other major 
attractions include low wage rates, proximity to the U.S. market, and 
preferential market access to the U.S. (through CBI), Canada (CARIBCAN), 
and the countries of CARICOM.  Disincentives include high local interest 
rates, high utility costs, and periodic delays in foreign exchange 
conversion. 
 
Country Commercial Guides are available on the National Trade Data Bank 
on CD-ROM or through the INTERNET.  Please contact STAT-USA at 1-800-
STAT-USA for more information.  To locate country commercial guides via 
the INTERNET, please use the following world wide web address: WWW.STAT-
USA.GOV.  CCGs can also be ordered in hard copy or on diskette from the 
National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at 1-800-553-NTIS. 
 
 
 
                CHAPTER II:  ECONOMIC TRENDS AND OUTLOOK 
 
Major Trends and Outlook 
------------------------ 
The Jamaican economy grew by 0.8 percent in 1994 following a modest 
growth of 1.2 percent in 1993.  This resulted from growth in the 
agricultural sector, mining, tourism, financing and insurance and other 
service sectors.  The pace of economic growth in 1994 slowed somewhat 
due to tight monetary and fiscal policies, high inflation, and declining 
real incomes for the majority of the population.  In addition, the 
servicing of a heavy debt burden, the deterioration in earnings from the 
bauxite/alumina industry (soft international market), and high interest 
rates have further constrained economic growth. 
 
The mixed economic outlook is expected to continue into 1996.  While 
agricultural exports and tourism are expected to remain sound, growth 
prospects are likely to be constrained by an uncertain international 
market for aluminum, and the impact of the government's restrictive 
fiscal and monetary policies. 
 
Principal Growth Sectors 
------------------------ 
Tourism has been Jamaica's primary foreign exchange earning industry 
since 1983.  Total visitor arrivals have remained well over one million 
annually.  Stopover visitors (visitors staying one night or more) 
average 65 percent of total arrivals, two-thirds of which come from the 
U.S.  Hotel room capacity on the island is 19,760 and is expanding.  The 
tourism infrastructure will benefit from the North Coast Development 
project which will improve the roads leading from the port of entry to 
Montego Bay to major resort areas, such as Negril to the west and Ocho 
Rios and Port Antonio to the east.
 
   Jamaica has large commercial deposits of mineral resources such as 
limestone (two-thirds of the island), bauxite, gypsum, marble, silica 
sand and clays.  The mining and processing of bauxite continues to be 
the major economic activity. 
 
The agricultural sector generates about 8 percent of GDP and employs 
over one quarter of Jamaica's employed work force.  Jamaica has a 
favorable climate and varied soil types.  Major traditional export crops 
are sugar, spices, bananas, coffee, citrus, allspice, and pimento.  
Other crops of growing importance include yams, tropical fruits and 
vegetables, legumes, and horticulture. 
 
Government Role in the Economy 
------------------------------ 
The dependency of the Jamaican economy on tourism and bauxite makes 
economic growth sensitive to regional and global economic conditions.  
Major policy initiatives include downward revision of the CARICOM trade 
area's Common External Tariff (CET), a revision of general consumption 
tax (value-added tax), the acceleration of privatization of government 
companies, and banking and securities industry regulation.  The 
government has announced macroeconomic policies aimed at achieving a one 
percent per month rate of inflation by the end of fiscal year 1995/96 
(i.e., March 1996), although this goal is widely viewed as unrealistic. 
 
Balance of Payments Situation 
----------------------------- 
Jamaica's balance of payments improved appreciably from a surplus of USD 
98.1 million in January-December 1993 to a surplus of USD 385.4 million 
during January-December 1994.  This was due mainly to notable 
improvement in the current account from a deficit of USD 212.2 million 
during 1993 to a surplus of USD 116.6 million at the end of 1994.  
Improvements in the current account included 14 percent growth in the 
merchandise account, and 53.7 percent growth in net transfer payments.  
The capital account posted a surplus of USD 268.8 million during the 
review period (mainly from private capital inflows, including net errors 
and omissions), but remained lower by 13.3 percent over 1993 due mainly 
to net outflow of official loans.  
 
Further, despite reduction in Jamaica's external debt to USD 3.65 
billion over the last three years (resulting mainly from debt 
forgiveness), debt servicing accounts for about 40 percent of the fiscal 
budget, limiting economic expansion.  Jamaica passed the December 1994 
IMF test under the Standby Agreement; the current program, ending on 
September 30, 1995, could be its last.  Privatization of public entities 
has been one of the strategies used by the government to strengthen the 
private sector and to reduce the budget deficit. 
 
Infrastructure Situation 
------------------------ 
Jamaica's infrastructure rates highly among developing countries.  
Islandwide transport is facilitated by 9,000 miles of primary and 
secondary roads and scheduled domestic flights.  There is a railway 
system comprising 242 miles of track but it has not been operative since 
October 1992.  The government is attempting to privatize the railway and 
thereby restore rail service. 
 
Transportation:  There are two major international sea ports - Port of 
Kingston and Port of Montego Bay - servicing over 20 international 
shipping lines.  Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston and 
Sangster International Airport in Montego Bay are the two major 
airports.  The inland transportation system is underdeveloped, and 
transportation of goods within Jamaica and to ports is problematic.  As 
mentioned above, there is a nonfunctioning railway system across the 
island.  Public transportation is inadequate and is an impediment to 
optimal business siting. 
 
Cargo and passenger transportation are carried through modern and well-
equipped international air and seaports.  Ten major airlines and over 
thirty international shipping lines link Jamaica with worldwide 
destinations. 
 
Electricity:  The government-owned Jamaica Public Service Company 
(JPSCO) is the sole producer and distributor of electricity in Jamaica.  
Over 90 percent of electrical power is generated from imported fuel oil.  
Due to an explosion in June 1994, JPSCO has a current capacity of 526 MW 
slightly lower than last year.  The present peak demand is about 403 MW.  
Government divestment of JPSCO is in an advanced stage. 
 
Water:  Jamaica has an adequate water supply from sources above and 
below ground.  However, occasional droughts can reduce the levels of 
water supplies in the Kingston metropolitan area. 
 
Energy:  Jamaica depends on imported energy for about 94 percent of its 
needs.  Petroleum consumption is about 20 million barrels per annum. 
 
Banking:  Jamaica has a well developed - and expanding -  financial 
system, including a central bank, commercial banks, and various other 
financial intermediaries.  Due to recent financial irregularities of the 
Blaise Trust Merchant Bank, the government is now considering measures 
to safe guard depositors.  A new regulatory system for finance companies 
is being formulated. 
 
Telecommunications:  Jamaica has a complete digital network offering a 
wide range of telecommunication services locally and internationally, 
including direct dialing to most international locations. 
 
 
 
                   CHAPTER III:  POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT 
 
Nature of Political Relationship with the United States 
------------------------------------------------------- 
Bilateral relations between Jamaica and the United States are good.  The 
two countries occasionally disagree over issues such as Cuba, but on 
most other important issues such as the return of democracy to Haiti, 
Jamaica has agreed with our own objectives and supported them. 
 
 
Major Political Issues Affecting the Business Climate 
----------------------------------------------------- 
There are no major political issues affecting the business climate in 
Jamaica.  Both political parties are in favor of attracting foreign 
investment.  There may be sporadic political violence surrounding the 
next general elections which must be held by 1998. 
 
The Political System in Jamaica 
------------------------------- 
Jamaica is a member of the British Commonwealth and follows the 
Westminster Parliamentary model.  The head of state is the Governor 
General, representative of the Queen.  The Prime Minister, leader of the 
majority in the elected House of Representatives, is the head of 
government.  The Prime Minister may call general elections at any time, 
but in no case later than five years after the previous election.  There 
are two major political parties, the People's National Party (PNP) and 
the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), which have alternated in power since 
independence in 1962.  Differences in orientation between the two 
parties have declined steadily since the 1970's, and ideologically they 
are now virtually indistinguishable. 
 
 
 
              CHAPTER IV:  MARKETING U.S. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 
 
Distribution and Sales Channels 
------------------------------- 
Distribution sales of imported merchandise in Jamaica are done 
principally through importers, distributors, and agent representatives.  
In addition, a large share of materials and supplies including machinery 
and equipment is imported directly by end-user firms.  It is essential 
to maintain close contact with end-users and provide excellent quality, 
after-sales service, and competitive prices. 
 
Use of Agents/Distributors: Finding a Partner 
--------------------------------------------- 
There are no specific laws in Jamaica which dictate contract terms for 
agents/distributors.  The parties involved formulate their own terms and 
conditions of agreement with or without the assistance of an attorney.  
However, irrespective of the terms of the contract, every 
agent/distributor is required to observe the Fair Competition Act (FCA).  
The FCA, passed in September 1993, was designed to have the effect of 
invalidating contract clauses designed to restrict competition.  Once an 
agreement is  
 
reached and signed, it becomes a legally binding document, breaches of 
which may be contestable in a court of law (generally in the country 
where the agreement was signed, or as per the contract agreement). 
 
Requests for agents/distributors can be made through the district office 
of the Department of Commerce.  To find a business partner, it is 
advisable to go through the local government investment agency, Jamaica 
Promotions Corporation (JAMPRO), or the American Chamber of Commerce of 
Jamaica. 
 
Franchising 
----------- 
Franchising ventures have been moderately successful in certain service-
oriented sectors such as hotels and fast food.  JAMPRO should be the 
first point of contact for assistance in terms of registration, 
trademark, and other requirements. 
 
Direct Marketing 
---------------- 
Liberalization of exchange controls and further easing of licenses and 
price controls over the last two years have made the Jamaican market 
much more approachable for U.S. exporters.  However, it should be noted 
that the market is fairly small, with a population of only 2.5 million, 
weak purchasing power, and wide income disparity.  Market statistics are 
often not easily available; hence, special surveys must be conducted to 
obtain information.  Personal contacts are very important in the 
development of a close working relationship between the Jamaican sales 
representative and the U.S. exporter. 
 
Joint Ventures/Licensing 
------------------------ 
Nonresident partners, including corporate partners, are subject to 
Jamaican tax on their share of the partnership profits that accrue in or 
are derived from Jamaica.  Nonresident foreign corporations pay tax on 
their share of profits at the same rates as resident corporations.  
Double taxation relief is available under the Convention for the 
Avoidance of Double Taxation which entered into force in December 1991. 
 
Steps to Establishing an Office 
------------------------------- 
JAMPRO is responsible for facilitating the establishment of businesses 
in both the productive and service sectors of the Jamaican economy.  A 
potential investor should present the project proposal to JAMPRO for 
assessment and guidance.  The information should include costings, 
financial projections, and production levels.  Registration or 
incorporation of the business (e.g. sole proprietorship, partnership or 
company limited by shares) should be made with the Registrar of 
Companies.  JAMPRO will assist with obtaining applications to the income 
tax department (for an income tax number) and for a business/trade 
number, to the trade board for import licences, identification of 
business location (factory space or land),  
 
applications for concessions under incentive legislation, applications 
to the revenue board for a Business Enterprise Number (BENO), work 
permits for nonresident personnel, and registration under the 
consumption duty and/or excise duty acts. 
 
To form a private limited liability company, there must be at least two 
and a maximum of twenty shareholders.  There are no restrictions 
regarding the nationality of the subscribers.  Two legal documents must 
be prepared in order to complete incorporation of a company in Jamaica: 
a memorandum of association and articles of association. 
 
Selling Factors/Techniques 
-------------------------- 
Setting up local representatives of the firm for government purchases of 
a particular product line could boost business opportunities. 
 
Advertising and Trade Promotion 
------------------------------- 
Advertising is primarily done through radio, television, the press and 
billboards.  There are a number of advertising agencies with national 
coverage.  Radio is the most wide-reaching mass communication with seven 
authorized radio stations.  The two local TV networks are the 
government-owned Jamaica Broadcasting Commission (JBC) and the private 
Communication Videomax Mediamix (CVM).  Jamaica is contemplating the 
implementation of cable television.  Jamaica has three morning dailies 
and one afternoon tabloid.  There are several weekly and bi-weekly 
periodicals and magazines. 
 
Some of the major newspapers and business periodicals are: 
 
The Gleaner Newspaper 
7 North St. 
Kingston 
Tel: (809) 922-3400 
 
The Jamaica Herald Newspaper 
29 Molynes Rd. 
Kingston 10 
Tel: (809) 968-7721 
 
The Jamaica Observer Newspaper 
2 Fagan Ave. 
Kingston 8 
Tel: (809) 969-6245 
 
The Star Newspaper 
7 North St. 
Kingston 
Tel: (809) 922-3400 
 
Investor's Choice Magazine 
12 Merrick Ave. 
Kingston 10 
Tel: (809) 929-2993 
 
Trade missions and catalogue shows are excellent means of assisting U.S. 
suppliers in selling their products. 
 
Pricing Product 
--------------- 
Prices are freely determined by the market forces of demand and supply 
for all products and services except domestic kerosene, and bus fares.  
Prices for these items can be changed only after ministerial approval.  
The government is presently considering the removal of subsidy on 
kerosene oil. 
 
Sales Service/Customer Support 
------------------------------ 
After-sales service is an important competitive advantage in the 
Jamaican market.  If it is difficult/not feasable for the U.S. firm to 
set up its own distribution system, a local agent or distributor should 
be required to maintain a trained service staff with a reasonable stock 
of spare parts.  Alternatively, the supplier could offer the customer 
quick service from the United States. 
 
Selling to the Government 
------------------------- 
Government procurement is generally effected through open tenders, 
direct advertising, or by invitation to registered suppliers.  U.S. 
firms are eligible to bid.  The range of manufactured goods produced 
locally is relatively small, so instances of foreign goods competing 
with domestic manufactures are very limited.  Companies interested in 
supplying office supplies to the government must register with the 
central supply secretariat, a unit of the inspectorate division of the 
Ministry of Finance.  Companies interested in supplying other kinds of 
equipment or materials should contact: the National Water Commission 
(water), Jamaica Public Service (electricity), the Jamaica Commodity 
Trading Company (for the purchase of certain basic food items and 
fertilizer under concessionary loan programs), and the pharmaceutical 
division of the Ministry of Health (medicines and medical supplies). 
 
Protecting Your Product from IPR Infringement 
--------------------------------------------- 
The Jamaican Constitution recognizes property rights.  There are laws to 
protect property rights, including intellectual property.  In order to 
obtain patent rights, the individual will have to apply to the Ministry 
of Industry, Investments and Commerce.  Trademark rights are granted by 
the Registrar of Companies.  Copyright is monitored and administered by 
the Prime Minister's office. 
 
Need for a Local Attorney 
------------------------- 
It is advisable to retain professional advice at an early stage of a 
business venture to ensure smooth start-up and compliance with local 
laws.  The Jamaica Bar Association has a membership of over 550 
attorneys.  The association is located at 78-80 Harbour St, Kingston 
(phone: 809-922-2319).  A list of members can be obtained from the 
association. 
 
 
 
               CHAPTER V:  LEADING SECTORS FOR U.S. EXPORTS 
                             AND INVESTMENT 
 
Geographic proximity, mutual commitment to democratic systems, and 
significant trade and investment relationships have led to a close and 
extensive relationship between the U.S. and Jamaica.  Over the last 
several years the U.S. government, through the U.S. Agency for 
International Development, has supported Jamaica with significant aid to 
strengthen the private sector and to encourage export-oriented economic 
activities.  The U.S. continues to be the major bilateral source of aid 
for Jamaica.  In FY94 Jamaica received USD 47.8 million in loans and 
grants for food aid and project support. 
 
Best Prospects for Non-Agricultural Goods and Services 
------------------------------------------------------ 
The United States continues to be Jamaica's primary trading partner.  In 
1994 total imports from the U.S. grew to USD 1.15 billion, representing 
52.6 percent of Jamaica's total imports.  Some of the major import 
categories include petroleum, grains, machinery and transport equipment, 
chemicals, cut and formed fabric (for assembly and export), and poultry 
parts.  Although foreign exchange shortages and the high cost of 
borrowing will defer some larger projects, there is potential for 
exports of a wide variety of raw materials, capital goods, spare parts, 
low-cost housing material, and other intermediate inputs for the 
development of hotels, agriculture, telecommunications, and 
manufacturing. 
 
Most raw materials and capital goods (except cement, steel, and food 
items) are imported into Jamaica; hence, prospects for these items are 
good.  Proximity, quality and service have led Jamaican businessmen to 
purchase from the U.S.  The Jamaican market is limited by the small 
population and the availability of foreign exchange.  Imports of the 
following US products are high in demand and face virtually no local nor 
third country competition: 
 
--  Chemicals and related products: inorganic chemicals; medicinal and 
pharmaceutical products; essential oils and perfume materials; toilet, 
polishing and cleansing preparations. 
 
--  Machinery and transport equipment: power generating machinery and 
equipment; general industrial machinery and equipment; road vehicles and 
parts. 
 
 
--  Manufactured goods and raw materials: textiles; iron and steel; 
paper and paper products; furnishings; toys and gifts; 
telecommunications; sound recording and reproducing apparatus and 
equipment. 
 
Strong growth is also anticipated in the areas of environmental 
management and pollution control.  The Natural Resources Conservation 
Authority was set up in 1991.  It is the government agency responsible 
for the management, conservation and protection of Jamaica's natural 
resources.  Solid waste management is one of Jamaica's most troubling 
environmental problems.  The government has initiated several programs 
to address this issue.  The Inter-American Development Bank and the 
Ministry of Local Government and Works are implementing a Solid Waste 
Management Projet aimed at developing a strategy for short, medium and 
long-term solutions.  Size and scope of the market for pollution control 
equipment are not yet available.  For solid waste, some experts estimate 
that the country generates 2,500 to 3,500 tons of solid waste per day. 
 
 
Best Prospects for Non-Agricultural Products 
-------------------------------------------- 
 
Autos/Light Trucks/Vans (AUT) 
 
US$ (000)                    1994      1995        1996 
 
TOTAL MARKET SIZE          183372    190000      200000 
TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION          0        50         200 
TOTAL EXPORTS                 821       800         800 
TOTAL IMPORTS              184193    190750      200600 
IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.       27106     32000       35000 
(IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.      20451 1/) 
 
Market information is extracted or inferred from external trade figures 
obtained from the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. 
 
1/ Data from the NTDB. 
 
Comments:  Over the past several years, demand for motor vehicles in 
Jamaica has been met largely by growth in imports from Japan and Korea.  
Motor cars from these countries are aggressively marketed in Jamaica.  
This, coupled with the fact that Jamaican motorists show a preference 
for right-hand drive motor vehicles (one drives on the left-hand side of 
the road in Jamaica) has resulted in American cars suffering a drastic 
fall in market share.  More recently, there has been a surge in the 
large-scale importation of used motor vehicles, primarily from Japan.  
In early 1995, the government put policies in place to regulate the 
importation of used motor vehicles.  With the relative strength of Asian 
and European currencies compared to the U.S. dollar, industry experts 
expect that the demand for American vehicles could increase. 
 
 
 
Drugs/Pharmaceuticals (DRG) 
 
US$ (000)                    1994      1995        1996 
 
TOTAL MARKET SIZE           32000     36000       40000 
TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION       1122      2000        3000 
TOTAL EXPORTS                2000      2500        3000 
TOTAL IMPORTS               32878     36500       40000 
IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.        7722     10000       15000 
(IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.       5082 1/) 
 
Market information is extracted or inferred from external trade figures 
obtained from the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. 
 
1/ Data from the NTDB. 
 
Comments: The Common External Tariff (CET) on certain categories of 
drugs and pharmaceuticals has been removed.  In addition, the General 
Consuption Tax (GCT) is no longer applicable for most items.  The 
government has announced that it intends to ensure that there is 
competition in this category.  The free availability of generic drugs is 
also being encouraged.  In terms of products for therapeutic and 
prophylactic use, imports are primarily from the U.K., Canada and the 
U.S.  In addition, Trindidad and Tobago made significant gains in market 
share in 1994. 
 
 
Automotive Parts and Service Equipment (APS) 
 
US$ (000)                    1994      1995        1996 
 
TOTAL MARKET SIZE           12438     14500       17000 
TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION        143       150         150 
TOTAL EXPORTS                 318       300         300 
TOTAL IMPORTS               12613     14650       17150 
IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.        4185      5000        6000 
(IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.       2042 1/) 
 
Market information is extracted or inferred from external trade figures 
obtained from the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. 
 
1/ Data from the NTDB. 
 
Comments: Car imports to Jamaica increased by 36% in 1994 over 1993.  
However, the percentage of new cars dropped in 1994 in preference to 
cheaper used car imports.  In 1993, approximately 12,000 of the 19,000 
vehicles imported were new.  in 1994, only 6,000 of the 26,000 motor 
vehicles imported were new.  With the large-scale importation of used 
vehicles, a problem has developed regarding the availability of spare 
parts.  Importing spare parts from Asia is expensive and slow.  In early 
1995 the government required registered used car dealers to maintain 
inventory consisting of at least 10% spare parts. 
 
 
Food Processing/Packaging Equipment (FPP) 
 
US$ (000)                    1994      1995        1996 
 
TOTAL MARKET SIZE            8850      9500       10000 
TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION          0         0           0 
TOTAL EXPORTS                   0         0           0 
TOTAL IMPORTS                8858      9500       10000 
IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.        4796      5000        7000 
 
Market information is extracted or inferred from external trade figures 
obtained from the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. 
 
Comments: The Jamaica Manufacturers Association (JMA) is optimistic 
about prospects for growth in the food and agro-industry sectors.  
Especially important is the introduction of new technologies in food 
processing and packaging.  Significant imports of specialized packing 
and wrapping machinery are coming from Europe. 
 
 
Paper/Paperboard (PAP) 
 
US$ (000)                    1994      1995        1996 
 
TOTAL MARKET SIZE           65985     68000       70000 
TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION       2000      2000        2000 
TOTAL EXPORTS                8000      8000        8000 
TOTAL IMPORTS               71985     74000       76000 
IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.       37874     40000       44000 
(IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.      28834 1/) 
 
Market information is extracted or inferred from external trade figures 
obtained from the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. 
 
1/ Data from the NTDB. 
 
Comments: This is a big market category which has been showing steady 
growth over the past few years.  The U.S. already has good market share 
in some subsections such as paper and paperboard covered with plastics, 
craft paper, uncoated paper and paperboard in rolls and sheets.  There 
is strong competition from Canada in other areas such as corrugated 
paper and paperboard, newsprint, and paper for the printing industry.  A 
significant quantity of toilet paper, paper towels and sanitary napkins 
is imported from Trinidad and Tobago. 
 
 
Telecommunications Equipment (TEL) 
 
US$ (000)                    1994      1995        1996 
 
TOTAL MARKET SIZE           52479     55000       60000 
TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION          0         0           0 
TOTAL EXPORTS                   0         0           0 
TOTAL IMPORTS               52479     55000       60000 
IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.       23495     26000       30000 
 
Market information is extracted or inferred from external trade figures 
obtained from the Statistical Institute of Jamaica. 
 
Comments: Telecommunications of Jamaica Limited (TOJ) is the monopoly 
telephone company.  In early 1995, TOJ altered its connection policy to 
allow for a less highly restricted telephone and telecommunications 
equipment market.  Among the products that should do well are telephone 
handsets, cordless phones, modems and credit authorization machines.  
TOJ currently has approximately 230,000 customers.  There is a drive to 
bring on more customers. 
 
 
Best Prospects for Agricultural Products 
---------------------------------------- 
 
The United States continues to be a major supplier of agricultural 
products to Jamaica accounting for 47 percent of total agricultural 
imports in 1994.  Traditionally Jamaica fills its domestic need for 
corn, soybeans, sugar and products, hatching eggs, poultry parts and 
rice with imports from U.S. suppliers.  The liberalization of the 
Jamaican market has led to increased interest in high value consumer 
food products and this has resulted in increased imports from both the 
Caribbean Common Market as well as third party countries.  Some U.S. 
companies have already become players in the market and have established 
exclusive distributorships with Jamaican companies as their market entry 
strategy.  Brands such as Ocean Spray, Green Giant and Goya are now 
prominently displayed on Jamaican store shelves.  Given the ease in 
foreign exchange availability and the reputation of the United States 
for quality and reliability, the Jamaican market is ready for further 
exploration by U.S. companies interested in exporting to the Caribbean.  
Although no market research data is currently available, indications are 
that opportunities exist for increased U.S. imports of items such as 
snack foods, cereals, canned fruits and vegetables, canned fruit and 
vegetable juices, and fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables.  Jamaica 
maintains high import duties on agricultural commodities in order to 
protect local production.  Current USG assistance to Jamaica includes a 
$10 million P.L. 480 program and a $30 million GSM 102 program. 
 
 
Pineapple Juice Concentrate  (1000 liters) 
 
                         1994      1995    1996 
 
Total market size         399       490     600 
Total local production      0         0       0 
Total exports               0         0       0 
Total imports             399       490     600 
Total imports from U.S.    20        40      42 
 
Comment: Pineapple juice concentrate is imported primarily from 
Thailand.  It is used by food processing companies as a base for 
blending fruit juices for local and export markets.  With local 
processing moving toward the production of ready-to-drink products, 
imports of pineapple juice concentrate should increase in the long run.  
Pineapple juice concentrate receives preferential duty rates when 
imported as a raw material. 
 
Wheat     (1000 metric tons) 
 
                         1994      1995    1996 
 
Total market size         215       215     218 
Total local production      0         0       0 
Total exports               0         0       0 
Total imports             192       200     203 
Total imports from U.S.    65        50      45 
 
Comment: Jamaica has traditionally been a good market for U.S. wheat.  
Consumption of wheat-based products - particularly bread and flour - is 
high.  There is no local production of wheat.  The United States 
position as the dominant supplier of wheat to the Jamaican market has 
been successfully challenged by European Union suppliers who have used 
extremely attractive (subsidized) prices to attract the Jamaican 
importer.  With aggressive marketing and competitive pricing the U.S. 
could easily reclaim this market. 
 
 
Wines         (1000 liters) 
 
                         1994      1995    1996 
 
Total market size        1850      2000    2200 
Total local production    540       600     650 
Total exports             311       330     350 
Total imports            1621      1730    1900 
Total imports from U.S.   123       200     250 
 
Comment: The market for wines in Jamaica continues to be dominated by 
imports from France, Germany, Italy and more recently Chile.  The 
primary market segments are the hotel and restaurant trade and 
households.  Imports from the U.S. are mainly of California wines, which 
are perceived to be the best quality American wine.  Wine imports into 
Jamaica face a rigid tariff system designed to afford some protection to 
local production as well as provide revenue to the government. 
 
Carrots        (1000 Kilos) 
 
                         1994      1995    1996 
 
Total market size         507       520     530 
Total local production     61        70      75 
Total exports               0         0       0 
Total imports             446       450     455 
Total imports from U.S.   121       125     130 
 
Comment: Canada and the Netherlands are the main competitors in the 
market.  Locally produced carrots, though often cheaper, are often 
overlooked because of the nicer appearance of the imported carrots.  The 
Government of Jamaica imposes a ninety percent duty on imports of fresh 
or chilled carrots. 
 
Potatoes        (1000 Kilos) 
 
                         1994      1995    1996 
 
Total market size        14765    16500   18800 
Total local production   12211    13400   14500 
Total exports               0         0       0 
Total imports             2554     3100    4300 
Total imports from U.S.    596      775    1075 
 
Comment:  With the expansion that is currently taking place in the fast 
food industry, the demand for potatoes should increase to meet the need 
for fries and potato salads.  The latest addition to the fast food 
chains on the island is McDonald's which will start operations in 
September 1995.  The import duty on fresh or chilled potatoes is 40 
percent. 
 
Significant Investment Opportunities 
------------------------------------ 
-- North Coast Development Project.  This USAID/Japanese co-financed 
project consists of the design, construction and start-up of five 
infrastructure projects targeted to overcome major constraints to 
tourism development, e.g., upgrading roads, water supply, and sewage 
treatment.  Project financing includes a Japanese loan of USD 63 
million, a USAID grant of USD 5 million, and approximately USD 15 
million in counterpart funding from the GOJ.  
 
-- Expansion of Sangster International Airport in Montego Bay.  The 
design phase is well advanced, but the process of finalizing a finance 
package is still underway.  Assistance in this effort is being provided 
by Citibank N.A. 
 
 
The Government of the United States acknowledges the contribution that 
outward foreign direct investment makes to the U.S. economy.  U.S. 
foreign direct investment is increasingly viewed as a complement or even 
a necessary component of trade.  For example, roughly 60 percent of U.S. 
exports are sold by American firms that have operations abroad.  
Recognizing the benefits that U.S. outward investment brings to the U.S. 
economy, the Government of the United States undertakes initiatives, 
such as the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) programs, 
investment treaty negotiations and business facilitation programs, that 
support U.S. investors. 
 
 
 
              CHAPTER VI:  TRADE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 
 
Trade Barriers 
-------------- 
The principal barriers for exporting to Jamaica are occasional foreign 
exchange shortages, poor internal transport infrastructure, and 
declining real incomes for the majority of the population.  There are no 
trade or investment barriers, except certain areas of 
telecommunications, and the proposed licensing on cable T.V.  As part of 
the continuing process of reform of the trade regime, the government 
embarked upon a tariff reform program in 1986 whereby the duty rates 
were gradually reduced from as high as 200 percent to the present 
maximum duty rates of 30 percent and 40 percent for agricultural items. 
   There have been some improvements as a result of the Government of 
Jamaica's efforts to streamline customs procedures.  In order to 
facilitate the movement of goods, the government simplified the 
documentation and clearance requirements for exporters. Computerization 
of the entire system is in progress.   
 
Tariffs and Import Taxes 
------------------------ 
Customs taxes represent government's third largest source of taxable 
revenue.  In February 1991, the government implemented the new CARICOM 
Common External Tariff (CET), the first customs union in the Caribbean.  
Goods originating in a Caricom member state are not subject to the CET 
in other member countries.  Presently, the CET ranges between 0 - 30 
percent (an additional 5 percent in the case of agricultural produce).  
In addition to CET, all items carry a 15 percent general consumption 
tax.  Alcoholic beverages and tobacco imports carry an additional stamp 
duty of 25-56 percent and special consumption tax of 5-39.9 percent.  
Non-basic, finished goods, and goods competing with those produced in 
Caricom states carry higher duty rates.  Duty rates will be gradually 
reduced to a maximum of 20 percent by 1998. 
 
Customs Valuation 
----------------- 
Valuation is based on the cif value of the item imported. 
 
Import Licenses 
--------------- 
There are about 97 items that now require an import licence.  These 
items include milk powder, refined sugar, plants and parts of plants for 
perfume or pharmaceutical purposes, gum-resins, vegetable saps and 
extracts, certain chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, arms and 
ammunition, certain toys such as water pistols, and gaming machines.  
The Trade Board, under the Ministry of Investments, Industry and 
Commerce, is responsible for granting licenses. 
  
Export Controls 
--------------- 
Certain items are subject to export licensing.  These include 
ammunition, crocodiles, crocodile eggs, eggs, antique furniture, gold 
bullion and fully or semi-manufactured gold, minerals and metals 
including bauxite, alumina, gypsum, antique paintings, pimento, sugar, 
plasma, lignum vitae and log wood, petroleum products, live animals, 
motor vehicles including bodies and auto parts, and shells subject to 
convention of International Trade for Endangered species administered by 
NRCA. 
 
Import/Export Documentation 
--------------------------- 
If an item requires a license, it must be obtained from the Trade Board 
before effecting the sale.  While export licenses are free, import 
license carry an application fee of jdols 103.50 for commercial items 
and jdols 34.50 for personal effects.  In addition, a fee of jdols 
776.25 is charged for imports valued over jdols 100,000 and jdols 345 
for imports valued below jdols 100,000.  For customs purposes, required 
documents other than the import license include a tax compliance 
certificate, invoice, Business Enterprise Number (BENO), bill of lading 
or airway bill.  In the case of meat imports, a phytosanitary 
certificate is required.  Imports below USD 1000 do not require a formal 
entry certificate. 
 
Temporary Entry 
--------------- 
Importers may obtain authorization for temporary admission for a period 
of three or four months.  To claim temporary admission of merchandise, 
regular import documentation and the C25 form with customs authorization 
must be presented by the importer upon the arrival of the merchandise.  
In addition, the importer is required to deposit either full or one and 
half times its duty, which is refunded on exit of the merchandise. 
 
Labeling, Marketing Requirements 
-------------------------------- 
The Bureau of Standards administers the Standards Act, Processed Food 
Act and Weights and Measures Act.  Product imported into Jamaica must 
meet the requirements of these Acts.  These include requirements for 
labelling.  Items sold in Jamaica must conform to international quality 
specifications. 
 
Prohibited Imports 
------------------ 
The following items are prohibited for import into Jamaica: amusement 
machines known as "one arm bandits"; dogs for racing; dog racing 
equipment; tablets containing a combination of methaqualone and 
diphenhydraine hydrochloride; certain brands of crayons from China and 
Thailand; all items banned under the Customs Act and the Plants 
Protection from Disease Act; all goods prohibited entry into the United 
Kingdom under the Anthrax Prevention Act 1919; animals and carcasses of 
animals prohibited under the Animals Diseases and Importation Act; arms 
and ammunition, except with the permission of the Commissioner; brandy 
of a lower strength than thiry degrees per centum under proof, unless it 
is proved that it has been matured for a period not less than ten years; 
base or counterfeit imitation coin of any country; coin, silver, or any 
money not of the established standard in weight and fineness; opium and 
dangerous drugs; essence of brandy or whisky or flavoring essences 
except as approved by the minister; indecent or obscene prints, 
paintings, photographs, books, films, etc.; oil of gin or cognac, except 
as approved by the minister; rum coloring solutions; spirits and wine, 
unless specifically reported with casks or other vessels of at least 
nine gallons content or in glass or stone bottles with each case 
containing not less than one gallon; fictitious stamps and instruments; 
and sugar, except under licence. 
 
Standards 
--------- 
There are many mandatory standards to which products must conform before 
they can be exported to Jamaica.  Copies of these can be purchased from 
the Bureau of Standards.  Jamaica generally follows U.S. standards in 
most cases.  The quarantine division inspects and determines standards 
in the case of live animals.  Meat imports may be inspected by the 
Ministry of Health. 
 
Free Trade Zones/Warehouses 
--------------------------- 
Jamaica is a member of the Export Processing Zone Association (EPZA).  
Under the Jamaican Free Zones Act, investors are allowed to operate 
solely with foreign exchange in certain activities such as warehousing 
and storing, manufacturing, redistribution, processing, refining, 
assembling, packaging, and service operations such as insurance, 
banking, and professional services.  Incentives offered include a 100-
percent tax holiday in perpetuity, no import licensing requirements, and 
exemption from customs duties on capital goods, raw materials, 
construction materials, and office equipment.  Free zone companies that 
wish to sell a part of their production on the local market are required 
to send their request through the Free Zone Administration for approval. 
 
Jamaica has four active industrial park/free trade zones -- the Kingston 
Export Free Zone, the Montego Bay Export Free Zone, Hayes and Garmex in 
Kingston.  These free zones are government-owned and -managed.  Kingston 
Free Zone has a total of 790,470 sq. ft of factory space.  About 60,000 
sq. ft is still available to investors.  Factory space is made available 
in modules of 6,000 sq. ft. at a cost of USD 49.51 per sq. meter per 
annum, including services (security, external lighting, maintenance of 
common areas, and garbage collection and disposal).  Montego Bay Free 
Zone has a total of 397,000 sq. ft. of office and factory space.  About 
7,000 square feet of vacant space for offices is still available.  
Factory space is rented to investors in varying sizes but an average-
sized unit is 24,000 sq. ft. and rental cost is USD 72.22 per sq. meter 
per annum, including services for office space and USD 47.22 per meter 
for factory space.  Garmex Free Zone has a total building area of 
697,000 sq. ft.  Factory space is rented at USD 38.88 per sq. meter per 
annum, including services.  Another free zone, "Hayes Free Zone," built 
in 1989, has factory space of 120,000 sq. ft.  It is located in the 
parish of Clarendon, 38 miles from Kingston.  The cost is USD 3.50 per 
sq. ft (negotiable).  Hayes Free zones has an unused capacity of 80 
percent. 
 
The government in its 1995/96 budget indicated that final preparations 
were in place for according Free Zone status to a company not located in 
any of the existing Free Zones.  Hence, individual companies satisfying 
certain criteria will be able to apply either to the Kingston Free Zone 
or the Montego Bay Free Zone for a single entity free zone status. 
 
Special Import Provisions 
------------------------- 
 
Samples of commercial value brought into the country are dutiable at 
normal rates.  However, the importer is entitled to reimbursement when 
taking the sample back or out of the country.  This is effected on 
completion of a Revenue Deposit Receipt (RDR form) at customs at the 
point of entry. 
 
Membership in Free Trade Arrangements 
------------------------------------- 
Preferential Tariff Arrangements:  Jamaica has preferential tariff 
arrangements with the U.S. under the Caribbean Basin Inititative (CBI), 
with the countries of the European Union under the LOME Convention, with 
Canada under CARIBCAN, and with other English-speaking Caribbean states 
under CARICOM. 
 
CBI provides indefinite customs-duty-free entry to qualifying products 
of Jamaican origin to the United States (excepting textiles, footwear, 
handbags, luggage, work gloves, leather apparel, tuna fish, petroleum 
and petroleum products, and watches and watch parts from countries which 
do not enjoy Most Favored Nation status).  An amendment was made to CBI 
provisions in 1990 (CBI II) allowing duty reduction on certain leather-
related products, including handbags, luggage, flat goods, work gloves, 
and wearing apparel.  To meet CBI eligibility standards, products must 
contain 35 percent value added in Jamaica, of which U.S. materials may 
comprise 15 percent of the value of the finished product.  Articles 
assembled in Jamaica from 100 percent U.S. components are also given 
duty-free treatment (with certain exceptions including textiles/apparel 
for which the US duty is levied only on the value-addedin Jamaica).  
Under the Caribbean Basin Economic Security Act currently being 
considered by the US Congress, Jamaica could be eligible for additional 
benefits for textile trade. 
 
Because Jamaica has signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement (TIEA) 
with the United States, U.S. taxpayers are allowed to deduct legitimate 
business expenses incurred in attending business meetings and 
conventions in Jamaica.  By signing the TIEA with the U.S., Jamaica also 
has access to 936 funding for development projects.  Under this program, 
qualifying investors have the opportunity to borrow tax-deferred funds 
belonging to U.S. corporations which are on deposit with Puerto Rican 
financial intermediaries and which are generally lendable at below-
market rates. 
 
Goods of Jamaican origin or those partially produced from extra-regional 
materials and sufficiently transformed can enter CARICOM markets duty-
free.  Efforts are being made to boost trade within the region through 
integration and regional cooperation.  The first step was taken in 
February 1991 when the Common External Tariff was implemented; cross-
trading of securities among Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Barbados 
started in April 1991.  Efforts at integration are being made by the 
Community in areas such as travel within the region, free movement of 
skilled persons, common currency, enlarging investment, and coordination 
for international negotiations. 
 
Jamaica exports certain duty-free items to Canada under CARIBCAN.  
Eligible items must meet a national-origin standard of 60 percent of the 
factory price originating in Jamaica, Commonwealth Caribbean countries, 
or Canada.  Textiles, garments, lubricating oils, clothing, footwear, 
luggage, handbags, and leather garments are excluded from CARIBCAN.  
Processed and fresh vegetables have provided most of the trade under 
CARIBCAN.  Alumina is the largest export to Canada (approximately 80 
percent), but was already admitted duty-free prior to the establishment 
of CARIBCAN. 
 
Jamaican exports also benefit from either zeroor reduced-duty treatment 
of several products sent to the European Union under the LOME 
Convention.  The system is not a simple one as there are special 
arrangements for certain agricultural products, and the value-added 
component varies depending on the type of product.  The unification of 
the single European Market has caused some concern in Jamaica, 
particularly for Jamaican exports of sugar and bananas.  Thus, efforts 
are being made by private-sector and government representatives to 
explore and understand the dimensions of future trade into this market. 
 
 
 
                     CHAPTER VII:  INVESTMENT CLIMATE 
 
Openness to Foreign Investment 
------------------------------ 
The Government of Jamaica welcomes foreign investment and there are no 
policies or regulations reserving areas exclusively to Jamaicans.  While 
foreigners are not excluded from participation in 
privatization/divestment activities, the government appears to favor 
sale of these assets to national investor(s). 
 
Each investment proposal is assessed on its own merit.  However, 
investments in areas which may increase productive output, use domestic 
raw materials, earn or save foreign exchange, develop linkage 
industries, generate employment, or introduce new technology are greatly 
favored.  The government's initiative in opening up the economy, 
increasing reliance on the private sector, divesting most of the 
government-owned enterprises, and offering an attractive package of 
incentives has generated increased capital investments over the last few 
years.  Foreign investors are now encouraged to invest in almost any 
area of the economy except insurance, where the ownership is limited to 
49 percent; however, individual cases with investors who are interested 
in investing over 49 percent are assessed on their merit.  The 
government is considering the lifting of this limited ownership in the 
insurance sector.  Telecommunications of Jamaica company, a subsidiary 
of the British firm Cable and Wireless, enjoys monopoly rights.  The 
government has a debt/equity swap program under which government debt 
paper, purchased at a discounted rate, may be applied to local 
investment.  Under the new cable T.V. policy licences will be granted 
companies that are incorporated in Jamaica and in which majority 
ownership and controlling interest are held by Jamaica/Caricom 
nationals.  Post is not aware of any economic or industrial strategy 
that has discriminatory effects on foreign-owned investments. 
 
The screening mechanisms are standard and nondiscriminatory.  The main 
criterion for screening is creditworthiness of the company.  
Environmental impact assessments are required for new developments.  All 
foreign investors are treated the same as domestic investors before and 
after the investment is made.  Businesses operating in Jamaica, both 
local and foreign, are required to adhere to a regulatory framework to 
promote better quality goods, practices and processes.  There are no 
constraints involving foreign investment with regard to acquisitions and 
mergers except where there will not be an expansion of capacity.  The 
sole exception is the insurance industry.  Where negotiations, mergers 
and takeovers are concerned, the Companies Act and rule of the Jamaica 
Stock Exchange (if entity is listed) would apply.  A new Securities Act 
was passed in March 1993. 
 
 
Generally, investors are required to establish a local company or 
register a branch office of a foreign-owned enterprise under the Jamaica 
Companies Act.  However, for those seeking incentives, applications have 
to be made to JAMPRO, the main Jamaican government agency responsible 
for promoting and processing investment proposals. 
 
Conversion and Transfer Policies 
-------------------------------- 
 
The legislation regulating exchange control, the Exchange Control Act 
1954, was repealed in July 1992.  Since that event, there are no 
restrictions on transferring funds associated with an investment.  
However, dealings such as buying and selling of foreign currency must be 
done only through an authorized dealer.  Although foreign exchange is 
freely available under the new, liberalized regime, there is generally a 
waiting period of two to six weeks depending upon the sum demanded, as 
demand usually exceeds the availability of foreign exchange.  However, 
some of the U.S. companies recently surveyed indicated that since the 
recent increase in number of cambios, the sourcing of foreign exchange 
has noticeably improved and has facilitated the accessing of funds 
within a week.  During the tourist winter season (from December to 
April) the inflow of foreign exchange -- and hence its availability -- 
is generally greater than during the rest of the year. 
 
There is no limitation on the inflow or outflow of funds for any 
transaction including remittances of profits, debt service, capital, 
capital gains, returns on intellectual property, or imported inputs. 
 
Expropriation and Compensation 
------------------------------ 
 
Property rights are protected under Section 18 of the Jamaican 
Constitution, which allows no expropriation except for public purpose.  
The law states that the purpose of any expropriation must be transparent 
and requires that principles be established regarding compensation for 
any expropriated property.  Where private negotiation fails, the 
investor has recourse to the courts to establish his right to the 
property and to determine the amount of compensation.  The Embassy is 
not aware of any serious litigation between the government and a private 
individual/company on expropriation or on compensation. 
 
Dispute Settlement 
------------------ 
 
The Embassy is not aware of any major investment dispute handled by the 
government since 1990.  Disputes between two enterprises are generally 
dealt with in local courts.  Arbitration of investment disputes between 
Jamaica and nonresident investors may be referred to the International 
Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes, of which Jamaica is a 
member.  Its award is enforceable in the Supreme Court of Jamaica. 
 
Political Violence 
------------------ 
 
There have been no recent incidents involving politically-motivated 
damage to projects and/or installations.  Any civil disturbances which 
might damage foreign investment would be caused by general economic 
unrest, and would not be politically motivated, i.e., directed against 
foreign investment. 
 
Violent crime is a concern to the whole society, and the government has 
not been able to curb it.  Crime is fed by poverty, hard economic times, 
and the drug trade.  Other major political issues primarily relate to 
the economy.  These issues include how to bring down the high rate of 
inflation and how to ensure stability in the exchange rate.  While the 
government has been fairly successful with the latter, inflation was 
26.8 percent for calendar year 1994.  In addition, the government is 
struggling with a high debt burden which is pulling scarce resources 
away from badly needed social services. 
 
Performance Requirements/Incentives 
----------------------------------- 
 
There are no specific performance requirements imposed as a condition 
for investing in Jamaica.  However, investments bringing in foreign 
exchange and expanding employment are favorably considered in granting 
incentives. 
 
The Government of Jamaica offers a wide variety of fiscal and nonfiscal 
incentives to attract investments which have the potential to develop 
industry, save/earn foreign exchange, and provide employment.  The 
principal fiscal incentive instruments currently in operation follow:   
 
(a) The Export Industry Encouragement Act (EIEA):  An approved company 
that manufactures products exclusively for export to countries other 
than the Caribbean Common Market is entitled to benefits which include 
exemption from income and dividends taxes for up to ten years and 
exemption from import duties on raw material and machinery during the 
incentive period.  Since 1990, service industries have also been 
included for incentives.  
 
(b) The Hotel Incentives Act (HIA):  The owner, tenant, or operator of 
an approved hotel enterprise is entitled to relief from income and 
dividend tax for a period of up to 10 years.  The owner may also benefit 
from a duty exemption on imports for constructing or expanding hotels.  
To be eligible for benefits, hotels must have at least ten rooms as well 
as facilities for other activities.  Relief from income tax for 15 years 
is granted for approved hotels with 10 - 350 bedrooms, facilities for 
holding conferences, and those operated by a qualified general manager 
and which maintain adequate security, among other requirements. 
 
 
(c) The Resort Cottages Incentives Act (RCIA):  This act allows for 
income and dividends tax relief and duty-free importation of articles 
required for the construction and equipping of resort cottages for a 
period of up to 7 years. 
 
(d) The Motion Picture Industry Encouragement Law:  An approved motion 
picture producer benefits from duty relief on imported goods and 
equipment for use in motion picture production and income tax exemption 
from the date of the first release or exhibition of each motion picture 
produced in Jamaica for a period of 9 years.  The incentives are granted 
for six-month intervals and are renewable.  In addition, a producer is 
granted an investment tax deduction of 70 percent of the capital 
expenditure incurred in acquiring facilities either in the year in which 
the cost is incurred or in any subsequent year at the option of the 
producer. 
 
(e) Approved farmer status under the Income Tax Act:  Any certified 
person or company engaged in growing food or seed crops, trees for 
timber, tobacco, horticulture, fish farming, and animal husbandry is 
eligible for income tax relief for a period up to 10 years and is 
renewable.  Approved farmers are granted reduced duty rate of 20 percent 
on farm vehicles and concessionary duty rates on tractors. 
 
(f) The Factory Construction Law:  Companies which construct factories 
and lease them to approved manufacturers operating under the EIEA may be 
provided relief from import duties (for items that are not locally 
available) and income tax on income from factory leasing or gains made 
on sales. 
 
(g) The International Finance Company Act:  To be eligible for benefits 
under the Act, the finance company should be a corporate entity carrying 
on business only with foreigners.  It may deal with Jamaican residents 
only in relation to domestic operations, and at least 95 percent of loan 
capital must be held by nonresidents.  Profits made by an approved 
corporate body are taxed at a rate of only 2.5 percent. 
 
(h) Venture Capital:  Investment activities including loan financing in 
new or developing enterprises (with a high risk element) that benefit 
the economic development of Jamaica are subject to special tax 
treatment. 
 
(i) The Shipping Incentives Act:  Under this act, approved shipping 
corporations are granted import duty and income tax concessions for a 
period of ten years. 
 
(j) The Foreign Sales Corporation Act:  This act provides exemption from 
income tax for qualified income arising from foreign trade transactions.  
This Jamaican incentive is reinforced by U.S. law in that it is one of 
the benefits provided under the Tax Information Exchange Agreement which 
the United States has signed with Jamaica.  American companies  
 
seeking to protect some of their export income from U.S. taxes may 
consider forming a Foreign Sales Corporation (FSC) outside the U.S. 
customs zone.  An FSC is a foreign corporation that is allowed to earn 
some exempt and nontaxable income on its exports from the United States. 
 
(k) The Industry Modernization Program:  This program was instituted to 
assist some manufacturing firms to adopt productivity-oriented 
techniques.  It provides exemptions from general consumption duty for 
capital goods acquired in relation to the modernization program. 
 
(l) Moratorium on Duties:  The Minister of Finance may award a period of 
moratorium on the payment of import duties on capital items for a period 
of up to three years. 
 
(m) Nonfiscal Incentives:  Several organizations have been established 
in Jamaica to assist the process of industrial development.  The 
National Development Bank, the Agricultural Credit Bank, and the 
National Export-Import Bank provide different types of concessionary 
financing to investment projects.  Investment projects engaged in 
exports are greatly favored in terms of loan financing.  In order to 
facilitate greater investment, the interest rate rebate scheme, started 
last fiscal year to reduce the cost of investment financing was revised 
from 30 percent in 1994 to 17 percent in April 1995.  Loans of up to 
J$3.2 million for each qualifying project could be financed for new and 
expanding enterprises in agriculture, manufacturing, and industrial 
sectors. 
 
Right to Private Ownership and Establishment 
-------------------------------------------- 
 
Both foreign and domestic private entities have the right to establish 
and own business enterprises and to engage in all forms of remunerative 
activity.  Private entities are free to establish, acquire and dispose 
of interest in business enterprises.  All companies are required to 
register with the Registrar of Companies. 
 
Public and private enterprises have equal access to markets, credit, and 
other business operations, such as licenses and supplies.  However, 
according to recent proposed operation of cable T.V., licences will be 
granted to companies that are incorporated in Jamaica and in which 
majority ownership and controlling interest are held by Jamaica/Caricom 
nationals. 
 
Protection of Property Rights 
----------------------------- 
 
Jamaica is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization 
(WIPO) and respects intellectual property rights.  The constitution 
guarantees property rights and has laws to protect and facilitate 
acquisition and disposition of all property rights, including 
intellectual property.  Jamaica and the United States signed an 
Intellectual Property Rights Agreement in March, 1994. 
 
Patents:  Patent laws in Jamaica are based on old English laws (1857 
Act).  There are plans to modernize the patents legislation.  However, 
under the present regulations, patents are available for all areas of 
technology for a duration of 14 years and can be further extended by 
seven years.  The periods of examination are generally long and it can 
take years for a patent to be issued. 
 
Copyrights:  The Senate passed a new copyright act in February 1993, and 
it came into force September 1, 1993.  The new Act adheres to the 
principles of the Bern Convention and covers a wide range of works, 
including books, music, broadcasts, computer programs, and databases. 
 
Trademarks:  Protection under trademarks law is granted to distinctive 
marks.  Users are required to register with the Registrar of Companies 
in Jamaica.  Trademark rights are initially granted for seven years and 
may be renewed from time to time for an extended period of 14 years. 
 
Trade Secrets/Semiconductor Chip Layout Design:  There is no statute 
with regard to trade secrets or semiconductor chip layout design.  
Jamaica follows common law principles as established in the U.K.  
Breaches of such laws may be dealt with either by court order or through 
filing damages. 
 
Regulatory System: Laws and Procedures 
-------------------------------------- 
 
In order to foster competition, Jamaica's Parliament passed the Fair 
Competition Act in September 1993.  It deals with consumer protection, 
misleading advertisements, price-fixing, collusion, unfair trading 
practices, and interlocking directorships. 
 
There are tax, labor, health and safety, and other laws and policies to 
avoid distortions or impediments to the efficient mobilization and 
allocation of investment.   
 
Bilateral Investment Agreements 
------------------------------- 
 
Jamaica has treaties with eight countries - the United States (Feb. 
1994), Argentina (Feb. 1994), France (Jan. 1993), Italy (Sep. 1993), 
Germany (Sep. 1992), Netherlands (Apr. 1991), Switzerland (Dec. 1990), 
and the United Kingdom (Jan. 1987), and is presently in negotiations 
with five other nations - China, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Spain, and 
Russia. 
 
OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs 
-------------------------------------------- 
 
OPIC has insured a variety of manufacturing, services, and hospitality 
industry projects in Jamaica.  OPIC insurance of investment projects is 
subject to a USD 50 million cap.  OPIC insurance of Section 936-funded 
projects is subject to a USD 20 million cap.  As of December 1993, 13 
projects (telecommunications, metal and related products, tourism, low-
income housing, food, and other services) with 936 funding of USD 278.8 
million were being implemented in Jamaica (latest figures available). 
 
Labor 
----- 
 
Jamaica's labor force in 1994 was estimated at 1,090,000, of which 15.4 
percent were officially unemployed.  Jamaica's unemployment is heavily 
concentrated among youth and women.  Labor is generally available at 
relatively low cost.  However, there is a shortage of technically-
skilled labor.  Although the general education system (including 
vocational education) has improved local job placements in most sectors, 
top managers are almost exclusively educated overseas. 
 
Jamaica has an active trade union movement with membership of an 
estimated 15-20 percent of the employed workforce.  The Government of 
Jamaica adheres to ILO conventions, which protect workers rights, and 
encourage the private sector to follow suit.  The minimum wage was 
increased from jdols 300 to jdols 500, effective July 1994.  Further, 
the government also raised the income tax threshold from jdols 18,408 to 
jdols 22,464, effective January 1994.  It will be raised to jdols 50,544 
effective January 1996.  Wages and salaries have not kept up with 
increases in inflation (26.8 percent in 1994) and high interest rates, 
which has resulted in increased strikes and work stoppages. 
 
The availability of low-cost, semi-skilled labor has tended to attract 
lower-technology firms such as garment assembly and keypuch/data entry 
operations.  Proximity to the United States and an English-speaking 
labor force are perceived as advantages by investors. 
 
While the size of Jamaica's labor force has remained fairly constant 
over the past few years, the overall stability of the numbers has 
disguised two divergent trends: older, more skilled workers are retiring 
and being replaced by younger, less skilled workers.  The nation's 
education system, geared in the British mold to produce a few well-
trained university students each year, is a major cause for concern 
about the future face of Jamaican labor.  The thousands who are 
graduated each year from "new secondary" (i.e. non-academic) schools are 
essentially unemployable.  Meanwhile, efforts to establish meaningful 
technical training at the secondary and post-secondary levels have 
lagged due to resource constraints.  Jamaica's per-capita foreign debt 
load remains among the highest in the hemisphere. 
 
In the agricultural sector, the increasing average age of the sugar 
worker is sparking concerns that producers here will be forced to 
mechanize harvesting operations over the next 4-5 years, despite strong 
resistance from organized labor.  Other agricultural workers 
(principally banana and citrus) are in many cases small farmers as well 
as wage employees of agricultural concerns.  Commonly, neither source of 
income constitutes a living wage by itself. 
 
 
Employees in the bauxite industry are among the best-trained and best-
compensated in Jamaica.  The industry has an admirable health and safety 
record over the past five years.  Growth prospects are limited, however, 
given the continued perception of soft international demand for 
aluminum.  The tourist industry, which encompasses large resorts, medium 
and small hotels, and private villas, offers workers access to foreign 
exchange wages in the form of tips.  Competition for positions at the 
top establishments is fierce.  A perception exists that the Jamaican 
hospitality worker is not trained to the same standard of customer 
service as his or her counterpart in many other resort locations around 
the Caribbean littoral. 
 
One bright spot for employment has been the garment assembly sector.  
This industry has provided thousands of workers, usually single, 
unskilled heads of household, with the opportunity to receive industry-
specific training from producers.  Wages allow these employees to 
support an average of 4.5 persons per household.  Over the past two 
years, however, inflation has reduced the average wage offered in 
Jamaica's export zones to a level at or below the poverty line.  As a 
result, hundreds of entry-level jobs now go begging at garment-assembly 
plants. 
 
Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports 
------------------------------ 
 
Jamaica is a member of the Export Processing Zone Association (EPZA).  
Under the Jamaican Free Zones Act, investors are allowed to operate 
solely with foreign exchange in certain activities such as warehousing 
and storing, manufacturing, redistribution, processing, refining, 
assembling, packaging, and service operations such as insurance, 
banking, and professional services.  Incentives offered include a 100-
percent tax holiday in perpetuity, no import licensing requirements, and 
exemption from customs duties on capital goods, raw materials, 
construction materials, and office equipment.  Free zone companies that 
wish to sell a part of their production on the local market are required 
to send their request through the Free Zone Administration for approval. 
 
Capital Outflow Policy 
---------------------- 
 
The Exchange Control Act (amended in September 1991) contains no 
restrictions pertaining to capital outflow.  The present policy does not 
include particular measures designed to encourage outward investment by 
Jamaican residents.  However, financial service agencies have opened 
branches/subsidiaries in the Caribbean region and some developed 
countries with large ethnic Jamaican populations with a view to earning 
foreign exchange.  Financial institutions, insurance companies, etc., 
have to obtain prior approval from either the Bank of Jamaica or the 
Superintendent of Insurance before diversifying their investments 
overseas. 
 
Major Foreign Investors 
----------------------- 
Jamaica has a record of partnership with various foreign investors in 
the development of a wide range of productive industries.  Some of these 
are: 
 
COMPANY NAME                      OWNERSHIP         SECTOR 
 
Air Canada                        Canada            Transportation 
ALPART                            US/Norway         Bauxite mining 
Aluminium Co. of America          US/GOJ            Bauxite mining 
Aluminium Co. of Canada           Canada            Bauxite mining 
American Airlines                 US                Transportation 
American Life Ins. Co.            US                Insurance 
Americana                         US                Tourism 
Addis                             UK                Manufacturing 
Arnold Otto Mayer                 Germany           Manufacturing 
Berec                             UK                Manufacturing 
Berger                            UK                Manufacturing 
Bike Athletic                     US                Apparel 
Bush, Boake, Allen                UK                Manufacturing 
Burger King                       US                Food 
British Insulated                 UK                Manufacturing 
Bank of Nova Scotia               Canada            Banking 
Beecham Products                  UK                Manufacturing 
British Airways                   UK                Transportation 
British West Indies Airline       Trinidad          Transportation 
Cable & wireless                  UK                Communications 
Carreras                          UK                Manufacturing 
Canadian Imperial Bank            Canada            Banking 
CITIBANK                          US                Banking 
Coates Bros.                      UK                Manufacturing 
Colgate Palmolive                 US                Manufacturing 
Coopers & Lybrand                 US                Consultancy 
Daemyoung                         S. Korea          Apparel 
Diversey-Wyandotte                US                Manufacturing 
Econ Industries                   US                Manufacturing 
Esso Standard Oil                 US                Petroleum 
Evergreen Line                    Taiwan            Shipping 
Goodyear                          US                Manufacturing 
Heinemann Publishers              UK                Publishing 
Henkel                            Germany           Chemicals 
Hofman & Leavy                    US                Apparel 
Holiday Inn                       US                Tourism 
International Computers Ltd       UK                Computers 
International Bus. Machine        US                Computers 
Int'l Telephone & Telegraph       US                Communications 
Johnson & Johnson                 US                Manufacturing 
Kajima Corp                       Japan             Construction 
Kaiser                            US                Bauxite mining 
Kier International                UK                Construction 
Kentucky Fried Chicken            US                Food 
Liquid Carbonics Corp             US                Manufacturing 
Lipton                            UK                Beverages 
Landell Mills                     UK                Consultancy 
McCann-Erickson                   US                Advertising 
Mead-Johnson                      US                Manufacturing 
Metal Box                         UK                Manufacturing 
National Employers Mutual         UK                Insurance 
Neal & Massey                     Trinidad          Manufacturing 
Norsk Hydro                       Norway            Bauxite Mining 
Ononda Engineering                Japan             Construction 
Peat, Marwick, Mitchell           US                Consultancy 
Price Waterhouse                  US                Consultancy 
Proctor & Gamble                  US                Manufacturing 
Reckitt & Coleman                 UK                Manufacturing 
Sea Land Services                 US                Shipping 
Sherwin Williams                  US                Manufacturing 
Shell                             UK                Petroleum 
Texaco                            US                Petroleum 
3-M Inter-Americas                US                Manufacturing 
Touche, Ross                      US                Consultancy 
Trust House Forte                 UK                Tourism 
Wyndham Hotels & Resorts          US                Tourism 
Woolworths                        UK                Retailers 
Xerox Corp.                       US                Computers 
 
 
CHAPTER VIII.  TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCING 
 
The Banking System 
------------------ 
The banking system in Jamaica is well-developed and capable of 
delivering a range of services.  The industry presently consists of 11 
commercial banks, 19 merchant banks, 7 merchant and trust companies, 4 
finance companies, 30 building societies, 3 development banks, and 9 
life insurance companies.  Collectively, the financial sector accounts 
for about 9 percent of GDP.  The private sector also has acess to credit 
from the National Export/Import (Ex-Im) Bank, a subsidiary of the Bank 
of Jamaica.  Foreign investors can utilize the loan facilities of banks 
for investments in Jamaica on the same basis and terms as a Jamaican 
investor. 
 
 
Total assets of the country's five largest banks (National Commercial 
Bank, Bank of Nova Scotia, Mutual Security Bank, Citizens Bank, and 
Century National Bank) amounted to jdols 87.8 billion (about USD 2.6 
billion) in March 1995.  The banking system is sound.  According to the 
Bank of Jamaica, about 2.5 percent of the total asset base is estimated 
as nonperforming. 
 
Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trading 
------------------------------------------- 
Residents and nonresidents of Jamaica can access foreign exchange 
through a network of authorized dealers.  There are no foreign exchange 
controls. 
 
General Financing Availability 
------------------------------ 
There is no restriction on the free flow of financial resources to 
support product and input markets.  However, over the last two years the 
government has used the tight monetary measures of increasing liquid 
asset and cash reserve ratios (total of 50 percent) and issues of 
certificates of deposits and treasury bills in order to reduce the 
demand for foreign exchange. 
 
Credit is generally allocated on market terms with equal access to both 
local and foreign companies.  However, high rates of interest, ranging 
between 35-64 percent, limit borrowing. 
 
The House of Representatives passed several important pieces of 
financial legislation during 1992: the new Bank of Jamaica Act, the 
Banking Act, and the Financial Institution Act (replaces Protection of 
Depositors Act).  Jamaica is a member of the Basel Group of Supervisory 
Authority, as well as the Latin American and Caribbean Supervisory 
Institution. 
 
There is an effective regulatory system which governs the conduct of 
brokers and companies.  The Securities Act was passed and implemented in 
1993 to legalize the overall regulation of securities.  All foreign 
companies other than Caricom are required to be incorporated in Caricom 
and registered in Jamaica in order to enter the Jamaican Stock Exchange 
market.  However, to be consistent with the exchange control 
liberalization, the Jamaica Stock Exchange is contemplating opening up 
to all foreign companies with only a registration requirement. 
 
 
How to Finance Exports/Methods of Payment 
----------------------------------------- 
Payment is generally made in the form of Letter of Credit or Bills for 
collection.  Local banking commissions vary from 1.15 - 3.45 percent. 
 
Project Financing 
----------------- 
There are three development banks in Jamaica: 
 
--  the Agricultural Credit Bank of Jamaica (ACB) and the People's Co-
Operative Bank (PCB), which assist the agricultural sector. 
 
--  the National Development Bank (NDB) which works particularly with 
industries earning hard currency, such as the tourism sector. 
 
--  Trafalgar Development Bank, Jamaica's first private sector 
development bank.  TDB offers mediumto long-term loans, lease financing 
and project development and technical services in the areas of 
agriculture, manufacturing, tourism and related industries. 
 
Another source of financing for companies investing in Jamaica is the 
Government Development Bank of Puerto Rico under the Section 936 
program. 
 
Multilateral organizations working in Jamaica with potential funding for 
development projects include the World Bank, the International Monetary 
Fund, the Organization of American States via the InterAmerican 
Development Bank, and the United Nations Development Program. 
 
Banks with Correspondent U.S. Banking Arrangement 
------------------------------------------------- 
Jamaican banks with branches in the U.S. are: 
 
Citibank (U.S. parent) 
Citizens Commercial Bank 
Eagle Commercial Bank 
Victoria Mutual Building Society 
Jamaica National Bank 
 
All Jamaican commercial banks have correspondent U.S. banking 
arrangements. 
 
CHAPTER IX:  BUSINESS TRAVEL 
 
The normal working day for government offices and factories is 8:00 a.m. 
to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Friday.  Government is closed Saturday and 
Sunday.  Almost all commercial businesses are open on Saturday, but few 
open on Sunday.  Jamaica is on Eastern Standard Time (EST) and does not 
observe daylight saving time. 
 
 
Holidays observed in Jamaica are the following: 
 
New Year's Day......................January 1 
Ash Wednesday........................Variable 
Good Friday..........................Variable 
Easter Monday........................Variable 
National Labor Day.....................May 23 
Independence Day.....................August 5 
National Heroes Day................October 21 
Christmas Day.....................December 25 
Boxing Day........................December 26 
 
U.S. citizens can enter the country with proof of citizenship (birth 
certificate or passport) and a photo I.D. (valid driver's license).  No 
visa is required. 
 
The Jamaican dollar is the unit of currency and is composed of 100 
cents.  The Jamaican dollar is traded freely against major international 
currencies.  The currency underwent significant devaluation in 1993.  It 
is currently valued at about one USD = 34 JDOLS.  Jamaican dollars and 
foreign exchange can be traded through the commercial banking system and 
authorized foreign exchange dealers.  There are no restrictions on 
repatriating profits. 
 
Jamaicans are a little more formal than North Americans.  On first 
meeting, a friendly "Good Morning/Afternoon/Evening" will bring more 
response and respect than a casual "Hi."  Generally, Jamaican business 
acquaintances, after a courteous and friendly first greeting, will 
respond quickly to informality. 
 
 
CHAPTER X:  APPENDICES 
 
APPENDIX A:  COUNTRY DATA 
 
Population: 2.47 million 
Population Growth Rate: (1983-94): 1% 
Religions: Anglican, Baptist and other Protestant, 
  Roman Catholic 
Government System: Constitutional monarchy. 
Language: English 
Work Week: Monday thru Friday.   
Most commercial businesses are open on Saturday. 
 
 
APPENDIX B:  Domestic Economy 
 
Data Sources: Statistical Institute of Jamaica 
                          Bank of Jamaica 
                          Planning Institute of Jamaica 
 
 
                                          1994      1995        1996  
 
GDP      (USD Millions):              3,899.00    4,714.4     5,657.3 
GDP Growth Rate                           0.80        1.5         2.0 
GDP Per Capita:                   USD 1,560.00    1,862.5     2,263.0 
Government Spending 
 (as percent of GDP)                     52.00       52.0        52.0 
Inflation (percent)                      27.00       20.0          18 
Foreign Exchange Reserves:              408.30        n.a         n.a 
Average Exchange Rate 
  for USD:                         JDOLS 33.34       34.0        34.5 
Foreign Debt (USD billions):              3.65        3.5         3.4 
Debt Service Ratio (actual):             20.00       18.0        16.0 
U.S. Economic/Military             
      Assistance (USD Millions FY94)     34.56       22.0          - 
 
 
APPENDIX C:  Trade                          (USD Millions) 
 
Total Country Exports:             1,220        1281        1345 
Total Country Imports:             2,177        2221        2276 
U.S. Exports:                      1,145        1166        1195 
U.S. Imports:                        440         461         484 
U.S. Share of (percent) 
       Host Country Imports:        52.6          53          53 
 
Imports of Agricultural Goods   
Total (from world):                288.9     294.7       300.6 
From the U.S.:                     137.1     141.5       144.3 
U.S. Share of 
  Ag Imports (percent)              47.5      48.0        48 
Agricultural Goods 
      Trade Balance with U.S.:     -84.7     -86.0       -88 
Trade balance with  Three 
      Leading Partners  
        U.S.                      -705.4     -705       -711 
        U.K.                        68.2       70         73 
        Canada                      64.8       66         68 
 
 
Principal U.S. Exports (1994) 
 
Harmonized    Commodity                                  US Dollar Value 
Schedule                                                    (Millions) 
 
2710          Heavy Fuel Oils                                       84.9 
6109          T-shirts, singlets, tank tops, etc. (components)      75.7 
6115          Pantyhose, socks and other hosiery (components)       74.2 
1201          Soybeans                                              15.7 
1005          Yellow Dent Corn (Maize)                              15.2 
 
 
Principal U.S. Imports (1994) 
 
Harmonized    Commodity                                  US Dollar Value 
Schedule                                                    (Millions) 
 
6115          Pantyhose, socks and other hosiery               102.7 
2606          Aluminum ores and concentrates                    95.8 
6109          T-shirts, singlets, tank tops, etc.               81.6 
2818          Aluminum oxide                                    47.0 
6108          Women's briefs and panties of cotton, knit        26.7 
 
APPENDIX D:  INVESTMENT STATISTICS 
 
According to JAMPRO (the Jamaica Promotions Corporation), foreign direct 
investment for the period January 1992 - December 1994 amounted to about 
USD 46.6 million.  Of the total foreign capital investments assisted by 
JAMPRO, 35.4 percent was in films, 31.4 percent in the textiles and 
garment industry, information processing 11 percent, tourism 8.1 
percent, manufacturing 5.1 percent, services and contracts 3.8 percent, 
2.7 percent in agriculture, and minerals and chemicals 2.3 percent. 
 
According to Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis 
surveys, the US direct investment position abroad (historical cost 
basis) in 1993 was USD 1,077 million, up from USD 892 million in 1992, 
USD 763 million in 1991, and USD 625 million in 1990. 
 
The following table provides data on the approximate value of major 
foreign investment by country of origin promoted by JAMPRO during the 
period CY 1991 - 1994: 
 
 
COUNTRY        Year         Capital Investment 
-------        ----         ------------------ 
                               USD MILLIONS 
 
Australia      1994               0.002 
France         1994               0.02 
Holland        1994               0.07 
Hong Kong      1994               0.13 
Hungary        1994               0.05 
Italy          1994               0.07 
Japan          1994               0.03 
Korea          1993               5.57 
               1994               4.33 
Trinidad       1994               0.002 
Spain          1993               0.07 
Switzerland    1992               0.91 
U.K.           1991               0.11 
               1992               0.32 
               1993               0.31 
               1994               0.38 
U.S.           1991               8.99 
               1992              14.34 
               1993               9.70 
               1994               3.65 
Canada         1993               0.38 
               1994               0.24 
Germany        1993               0.76 
               1994               0.63 
China          1993               0.80 
 
 
APPENDIX E:  U.S. AND COUNTRY CONTACTS 
 
U.S. Embassy Trade Personnel 
---------------------------- 
 
Robert Bucalo, Regional FCS Office 
U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service 
American Embassy 
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 
TEL: (809) 221-2171;  FAX: (809) 688-4838 
 
Emile Finlay 
Commercial Section 
American Embassy 
Jamaica Mutual Life Center 
2 Oxford Rd. 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 929-4850;  FAX: (809) 926-6743 
 
Susan Schayes 
Regional Agricultural Attache 
Foreign Agricultural Service 
United States Department of Agriculture 
American Embassy 
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 
TEL: (809) 221-2171, 688-8090; FAX: (809) 685-4743 
 
George T. Boutin 
Counselor for Economic and Political Affairs 
American Embassy 
Jamaica Mutual Life Center 
2 Oxford Rd. 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 935-6087;  FAX:  (809) 926-6743 
 
Frank J. Kerber 
Economic Officer 
American Embassy 
Jamaica Mutual Life Center 
2 Oxford Rd. 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 935-6087;  FAX: (809) 926-6743 
 
Chambers of Commerce 
-------------------- 
 
American Chamber of Commerce of Jamaica 
Dr. Ofe Dudley 
Executive Director 
77 Knutsford Boulevard 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 929-7866/7;  FAX: (809) 929-8597 
 
Jamaica Chamber of Commerce 
Philip Ogle 
President 
7E Parade 
Kingston 
TEL: (809) 922-0150/1 
 
Jamaican Trade or Industry Associations 
--------------------------------------- 
 
Jamaica Exporters Association 
13 Dominica Drive 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 929-1292; 926-0586 or 926-7158 
 
Jamaica Hotel & Tourist Association 
2 Ardenne Rd 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 926-3635/6 or 926-2796 
 
Jamaica Manufacturers Association Ltd 
85a Duke St 
Kingston 
TEL:  (809) 922-8880/8881/0787/2365 
 
Private Sector Organization of Jamaica 
39 Hope Road 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 927-6238/6958/6957/6786 
 
Jamaica Promotions Corporation (JAMPRO) 
35 Trafalgar Rd. 
Kingston 10, Jamaica (W.I.) 
TEL: (809) 929-7190/9;      FAX: (809) 924-9650 
 
Bank of Jamaica 
Nethersole Place 
Kingston 
Jamaica (W.I.) 
TEL: (809) 922-0750 
 
Government of Jamaica Ministries 
-------------------------------- 
 
Governor-General: 
Right Honorable Sir Howard Cooke 
King's House 
Hope Road 
Kingston 10 
TEL:  (809) 927-6424 
 
Prime Minister and Minister of Defense: 
Right Honorable P. J. Patterson, P.C., Q.C., M.P. 
Devon Rd., P.O. Box 272 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 927-9941;  Fax: (809) 929-0005 
 
Deputy Prime Minister/Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade: 
Honorable Seymour Mullings 
85 Knutsford Blvd. 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 926-4220;  Fax: (809) 929-6733 
 
Minister of Tourism 
Honorable John Junor 
Office of the Prime Minister 
Devon Rd., P.O. Box 272 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 927-9941;  Fax: (809) 929-0005 
 
Minister of Agriculture and Mining 
Honorable Horace Clarke 
Hope Gardens 
Kingston 6 
TEL: (809) 926-4220/8 
 
Minister of Construction: 
Honorable O.D. Ramtallie 
2 Hagley Park Rd. 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 926-1590 
 
Minister of Education, Youth and Culture: 
Honorable Burchell Whiteman 
2 National Heroes Circle 
Kingston 4 
TEL: (809) 922-1400 
 
Minister of Finance and Planning: 
Honorable Dr. Omar Davies 
30 National Heroes Circle 
Kingston 4 
TEL: (809) 922-9600 
 
Minister of Health: 
Honorable Dr. Peter Phillips 
10 Caldeonia Ave. 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 926-9191 
 
Minister of Labour, Social Security and Sports: 
Honorable Portia Simpson 
14 National Heroes Circle, P.O. Box 10 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 922-8000 
 
Minister of Legal Affairs and Attorney General: 
Honorable David Coore, Q.C. 
12 Ocean Blvd. 
Kingston 
TEL: (809) 922-5460;  FAX: (809) 922-6028 
 
Minister of Local Government and Works 
Honorable Roger Clarke 
12 Ocean Blvd., P.O. Box 635 
Kingston Mall, Kingston 
TEL: (809) 922-1670;  FAX: (809) 924-9191 
 
Minister of National Security and Justice: 
Honorable K.D. Knight 
12 Ocean Blvd. 
Kingston Mall, Kingston 
TEL: (809) 922-0080 
 
Minister of Environment and Housing: 
Honorable Easton Douglas 
Citibank Bldg. 
63-67 Knutsford Blvd 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 926-3235;  FAX: (809) 929-6616 
 
Minister of Public Utilities and Transport: 
Honorable Robert Pickersgill 
PCJ Building 
36 Trafalgar Rd. 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 926-8130;  FAX: (809) 929-3375 
 
Minister of Industry, Investment and Commerce: 
Honorable Dr. Paul Robertson 
PCJ Bldg 
36 Travalgar Rd. 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 926-9170 
 
Market Research Firms 
--------------------- 
 
Business Research and Agricultural Consultants Ltd. 
14B Cargill Ave. 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 929-5736 
 
Market Research Services Ltd. 
75 Knutsford Blvd.  
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 9296311 
 
Caricom Consultants (Ja) Ltd. 
30 Grenada crescent 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 9262731 
 
Chen-Young Roache and Associates Ltd. 
7 Trinidad Terrace 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 9688501 
 
Hamilton Trevor and Associates 
10 Kensington Crescent 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 926-8596 
 
Peat Marwick 
6 Duke St 
Kingston 
TEL: (809) 922-6640 
 
Project Development Services and Associates Ltd. 
11 1/2 Ardenne Road 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 927-8907 
 
Commercial Banks 
---------------- 
 
Mr. Peter Moses 
Vice President 
Citibank N.A. 
63-67 Knutsford Boulevard 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 926-3270/3285 
 
Mr. William E. Clarke 
Managing Director 
Bank of Nova Scotia Jamaica Ltd. 
Scotia Center 
Port Royal Street 
Kingston 
TEL: (809) 922-1000 
 
Mr. Donovan Crawford 
Managing Director 
Century National Bank Limited 
14-16 Port Royal Street 
Kingston 
TEL: (809) 922-3105/6/8/10 
 
Mr. Ron Sasso 
Managing Director 
Island Victoria Bank Limited 
6 St. Lucia Avenue 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 968-5800-5 
 
Mr. G.S. Niesen 
Managing Director 
Trafalgar Commercial Bank Limited 
60 Knutsford Boulevard 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 929-3383-6 
 
Mr. Lloyd Wiggan 
Managing Director 
Citizens Bank Limited 
4 King Street 
Kingston 
TEL: (809) 922-5950 
 
Mr. A. W. Webb 
Managing Director 
CIBC Jamaica Limited 
23-27 Knutsford Boulevard 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 929-9310-6 
 
Mr. D. R. Folkes 
Managing Director 
Mutual Security Bank Limited 
18 Trafalgar Road 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 929-8950 
 
Mr. Rex James 
Managing Director 
National Commercial Bank Jamaica Limited 
The Atrium 
32 Trafalgar Road 
Kingston 10 
TEL: (809) 929-9050-89 
 
Mr. Delroy Lindsay 
Executive Chairman 
Workers Savings & Loan Bank 
76 Knutsford Boulevard 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 968-5119 
 
Dr. Paul Chen-Young 
Executive Chairman 
Eagle Commercial Bank Limited 
6 Grenada Way 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 929-9355 
 
For divestment of public enterprises: 
 
National Investment Bank of Jamaica  
Duke and Port Royal Sts. 
Jamaica (W.I.) 
TEL: (809) 922-0915/9 
 
Multilateral Development Banks 
------------------------------ 
 
The World Bank 
Country Representative: Van Pulley 
6 St. Lucia Ave. 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 960-0459 
 
Inter-American Development Bank 
Country Representative: Robert Castel 
40 Knutsford Blvd. 
Kingston 5 
TEL: (809) 926-2342 
 
Washington-Based USG Country Contacts 
------------------------------------- 
 
U.S. Department of Commerce 
Mark Siegelman 
Jamaica Desk 
Washington, D.C. 
Telephone: (202) 482-2527 
 
U.S. Department of State 
Jamaica Desk - Dennis Imwold 
ARA/CAR, Room 3248 M.S. 
Washington, D.C. 
Telephone: (202) 647-3210 
 
Agency for International Development 
Jamaica Desk 
LAC/CAR, Room 8242 M.S. 
Washington, D.C. 
Telephone: (202) 647-4105 
 
The Multilateral Development Bank Office 
Director: Brenda Ebeling 
14th St. and Constitution Ave., N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 
TEL: (202) 482-3399  FAX: (202) 482-5179 
 
TPCC Trade Information Center 
U.S. Department of Commerce 
Washington, D.C. 
TEL: 1-800-USA-TRADE 
 
U.S. Department of Agriculture 
Foreign Agricultural Service 
Trade Assistance and Promotion Office 
Washington, D.C. 
TEL: (202) 720-7420 
 
 
APPENDIX F:  MARKET RESEARCH 
 
ISA's will be completed on the following categories in FY96: 
 
--  Autos/Light Trucks/Vans (AUT) 
--  Drugs/Pharmaceuticals (DRG) 
--  Automotive Parts and Service Equipment (APS) 
 
A complete list of market research is available on the NTDB. 
 
 
APPENDIX: G:               TRADE EVENT SCHEDULE 
 
September 27-28, 1995      AMCHAM Franchise Expo 
                           Wyndham Hotel, Kingston, Jamaica 
November 7-11, 1995        World Energy Engineering Congress 
                           Georgia World Congress Center 
                           Atlanta, Georgia 
March 27-31, 1996          EXPO 96, National Arena 
                           Kingston, Jamaica 
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