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U.S. Department of State 
France Country Commercial Guide for FY 95-96
Office of the Coordinator for Business Affairs 


                  Country Commercial Guide for FY 95-96
                           France


                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
CHAPTER II.    ECONOMIC TRENDS AND OUTLOOK
CHAPTER III.   POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
CHAPTER IV.   MARKETING U.S. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
CHAPTER V.    LEADING SECTORS FOR U.S. EXPORTS AND INVESTMENT
CHAPTER VI.   TRADE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS
CHAPTER VII.  INVESTMENT CLIMATE
CHAPTER VIII. TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCING
CHAPTER IX.   BUSINESS TRAVEL
APPENDICES:
APPENDIX A:  COUNTRY DATA
APPENDIX B:  DOMESTIC ECONOMY
APPENDIX C:  TRADE
APPENDIX D:  INVESTMENT STATISTICS
APPENDIX E:  U.S. AND COUNTRY CONTACTS
APPENDIX F:  MARKET RESEARCH
APPENDIX G:  TRADE EVENT SCHEDULE


This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look
at France's commercial environment through economic, political and 
market analyses.  

The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade
Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task
force, to consolidate various reporting documents prepared for
the U.S. business community.  Country Commercial Guides are
prepared annually at U.S. Embassies through the combined efforts
of several U.S. government agencies. 



                     CHAPTER I.  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The market in France has long been and will continue to be of major 
importance to U.S. suppliers across a wide range of industrial and 
consumer goods, food & agricultural products, and services.  France is 
the eighth-largest trading partner of the United States worldwide and 
the third-largest in Europe (after the United Kingdom and Germany).  
Overall, the United States and France share many trade similarities, 
particularly their global status as leading high technology innovators 
and exporters, as well as the world's top two exporters of defense 
products, agricultural goods, and services.  Statistics on U.S. 
merchandise trade show that U.S. exports to France grew by 9 percent a 
year between 1987 and 1993, while U.S. imports went up by an average of 
6 percent annually.  U.S. merchandise exports increased slightly in 1994 
to $13.6 billion, but with $16.8 billion in U.S. imports of French goods 
the U.S. trade deficit with France climbed to over $3 billion.  Based on 
first quarter figures, U.S. exports are expected to reach $14.8 billion 
in 1995, and imports from France will remain at the 1994 level.  The 
attractive pricing of U.S. goods resulting from the weak dollar should 
account (or be blamed) for part of the turnaround.

Although unemployment still stands at a politically unacceptable level 
(above 11 percent) and consumer spending has not yet returned to pre-
recession levels, the French economy is firmly on the path to economic 
recovery, brightening the outlook for the close commercial relationship 
between France and the United States.

The new government of recently-elected French President Jacques Chirac 
has committed to making inroads in reducing the 3.3 million unemployed 
workers in France through increased spending on job creation measures, 
including retraining and employer subsidies, to be funded in part by 
raising the VAT to 20.4 percent.  Seeking to carry out Chirac's campaign 
promises, Prime Minister Juppe's first major policy address to the 
National Assembly had one overriding theme -- reducing unemployment.  
This forms the backdrop for a seemingly impossible fiscal balancing act 
between financing the new government's job creation programs and its 
pledge to reduce the general government deficit to the level prescribed 
under the EU Maastricht Treaty (3 percent of GDP) by the year 1997.   

Driven by a surge in manufacturing activity due to strong exports, the 
French economy rebounded from a negative rate of growth in 1993 to post 
a 2.8 percent jump in GDP during 1994.  Economic growth is expected to 
continue at around 3 percent in 1995 and 1996, buoyed by rising levels 
of private domestic business investment.  Inflation is running at an 
annual rate of less than 2 percent in France -- the lowest in the 15-
country European Union.  The medium term growth prospects of the French 
economy, combined with a current account surplus, low inflation and some 
recent employment gains to stoke consumer spending, present a relatively 
upbeat economic and commercial setting.  

In general, the dynamic French commercial environment is favorable for 
sales of U. S. goods and services.  Owing to the complementary of the 
types of goods and services that the two countries export to each other, 
marketing products and services in France is much like marketing them in 
the U.S., but with significant differences in cultural factors and the 
legal framework.  Concerning French marketing and distribution channels, 
the most noteworthy trends include the explosive growth of super-markets 
and hyper-markets (at the expense of small- and medium-sized family 
enterprises), mail order marketing, and franchising, where U.S.-owned 
franchises achieved EU-high sales of $9.2 billion in 1994 and are 
enjoying average growth rates of 12 percent per year. 

There remain, however, isolated cases involving the regulation and 
reform of such sectors as air transport, broadcasting & radio, and 
telecommunications in which French government action (or inaction) is 
heavily influenced by strong domestic interest groups and serves to 
limit the market access of U.S. firms.  Nevertheless, taken in the 
aggregate, these and other French or EU commercial obstacles do not 
begin to compare in scale with the many market opportunities in France.

Among the top non-agricultural sectors considered to offer "best 
prospects" for U.S. business in France are (in order of market size): 
computer software, industrial chemicals, electronic components, 
computers & peripherals, security & safety equipment, electrical power 
systems, aircraft & parts, films/videos & other recordings, avionics, 
medical equipment, defense industry equipment, automobiles & parts, 
pollution control equipment and telecommunications.  On the services 
side, the huge French markets for travel & tourism, employment services, 
and insurance hold the most potential for American suppliers. 

French imports of U.S. food & agricultural products (including 
manufactured tobacco, spirits, and wood & products) during 1994 were 
valued at $881 million, a 9.2 percent decrease compared to 1993.  French 
agricultural imports are trending toward consumer-ready foodstuffs and 
away from bulk commodities for animal feeds.  In 1994, fresh, frozen 
and/or dried fruits were the leading U.S. agricultural export to the 
French market in terms of value, accounting for 14 percent of total U.S. 
agricultural exports to France.  Wood & products and fish & seafood 
followed as numbers two and three by value, making up 13 and 11 percent, 
respectively, of 1994 U.S. agricultural exports to France.   

The French market for food products is mature, sophisticated and well-
served by suppliers from around the world.  For U.S. agricultural 
products, therefore, it is unlikely that major business breakthroughs 
will occur, but, rather, that business opportunities will be created in 
such niche markets as regional U. S. foodstuffs (Tex-Mex, Cajun and 
California cuisine).  U. S. agricultural products are perceived as being 
of high quality, although at times landed prices appear high.    

The French government is actively striving to attract foreign 
investment, recognizing its importance as a source of new jobs.  The 
recent announcement by the new government of its intention to eliminate 
of restrictions on investments by non-EU investors is a positive 
indication of the improving investment climate.  The continuation of a 
major privatization program is creating a variety of new investment 
opportunities in business sectors that were previously state-controlled.

France offers a variety of financial incentives to American and other 
foreign investors, and its investment promotion agency, DATAR, provides 
extensive assistance to potential investors both in France and through 
its agencies around the world.  Financial subsidies and tax incentives 
are offered at the local, regional and national government level to 
attract investment to the country's economically depressed areas.  Such 
incentives are available equally to French and foreign investors.  
Furthermore, foreign companies registered in France receive the same 
treatment with respect to participation in technology development 
programs sponsored by the French government and have equal access to R & 
D funding. In 1993, sales by U.S. affiliates in France totaled $100 
billion, while French affiliate sales in the United States hit $102 
billion.

In support of U.S. commercial interests in France, the U.S. Embassy in 
Paris is pursuing a "Strategic Commercial Plan" using the combined 
resources of the various Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee member 
agencies within the Embassy.  Key objectives of this post commercial 
strategy are to promote increased exports of U.S. goods and services 
(including tourism), to monitor and supply information on areas of 
opportunity (e.g. the French government's privatization program), and to 
advocate effectively on behalf of U.S. firms.

Country Commercial Guides are available on the National Trade Data Bank 
on CD-ROM or through the Internet.  Please contact STAT-USA at 1-800-
STAT-USA for more information.  To locate country commercial guides via 
the Internet, please use the following World Wide Web address: WWW.STAT-
USA.GOV.  CCGs can also be ordered in hard copy or on diskette from the 
National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at 1-800-553-NTIS.



            CHAPTER II.  ECONOMIC TRENDS AND OUTLOOK  

A.  Major Trends and Outlook 

The French economy continues its cyclical upturn, after a sharp 
turnaround in 1994, when real GDP grew by 2.8 percent from a 1.5 percent 
decline in 1993.  All indications are that this recovery will be 
sustained.  Real GDP growth during the first quarter of this year was 
0.7 percent.  Our current forecast calls for real GDP to grow by 3 
percent this year and 2.9 percent in 1996.  Economic growth over the 
next eighteen months will continue to be led by  investment and export 
demand, and starting from the second half of this year, households will 
play a more active role. These rates of growth should mean some 
improvement in both the jobs outlook and the budget deficit, the twin 
headaches of the French government. 

Economic growth at the end of 1994 was led by the manufacturing sector 
which was in turn due to strong exports and a faster upturn in business 
investment.  Recent indicators confirm that investment demand remains 
strong. For example, the most recent survey of investment intentions 
shows that industrialists plan to increase business investment by 13 
percent this year, which translates into an 11 percent increase in 
volume, assuming an inflation rate of 2 percent.  The increase in 
business investment is primarily due to improved demand (principally 
industrial demand) and profits.  Over the near-term, our forecast calls 
for business investment to expand by a 7-8 percent annual rate, somewhat 
lower than figures indicated in the surveys but still a substantial 
jump.  Overall investment should grow by around 5 percent this year 
taking into account slower public sector growth and household 
investment.  

Unlike business investment, household consumption has not performed as 
well as expected, falling by 0.2 percent during the fourth quarter of 
1994, after an increase of 0.8 percent in the third quarter and 1.2 
percent in the second quarter.  Household consumption had been sustained 
during the first three quarters of last year by a decline in the savings 
rate, from 13.9 percent in the third quarter of 1993 to 12.9 percent in 
the third quarter of 1994.  Thereafter, however, the savings rate 
climbed up again, which most analysts attribute to uncertainties 
associated with the just-concluded presidential elections. Indeed, 
current indicators, such as household consumption of manufactured 
products, show that consumption continued to be relatively flat through 
the first quarter and perhaps into the early months of the second 
quarter of 1995.  However, with the decreasing uncertainty associated 
with the conclusion of the presidential election, household consumption 
should show more strength in the second half of this year and next year.  
Our forecast calls for overall consumption to grow by 2.1 percent this 
year and 2.7 percent in 1996.

Perhaps the most significant uncertainty associated with the current 
economic outlook is the macroeconomic policy stance of the new French 
government.  President Chirac won the election promising changes, in 
particular to reduce unemployment, now numbering 3.3 million workers or 
11.6 percent of the labor force.  This "jobs first"  approach was echoed 
by his newly-named prime minister, Alain Juppe, and by his Minister of 
Economics and Finance, Alain Madelin.  Emphasis on jobs has created 
uncertainties as to whether control of inflation and the budget deficit 
will now take a back seat, which in turn raises questions on the future 
of the strong franc policy and the French government's commitment to 
meeting the Maastricht fiscal criteria by 1999.    The new government's 
supplemental budget, announced June 22, contains a variety of new 
measures aimed at job creation.  These new measures will cost an 
estimated FRF 14.6 billion for the remainder of 1995.  In order to pay 
for this program and a sizable overshoot of the budget deficit inherited 
from the previous government, the GOF has announced tax hikes (VAT, 
corporate tax, and wealth tax) and expenditure cuts. 

The projected real GDP growth rates -- 3 percent this year and 2.9 
percent in 1996 -- are probably enough to create around 200,000 jobs 
each year, or around a 1.5 percent increase  a year.  However, the 
corresponding decrease in unemployment will be less, mostly due to 
increasing labor force participation.  Our projection calls for the 
unemployment rate to average around 12 percent this year and 11.5 
percent in 1996.

B. Principal Growth Sectors

Between 1990 and 1994 the fastest growing sectors, as measured by 
nominal value-added were Energy (27 percent increase), Food Processing 
(25 percent increase), Consumer Goods (20 percent increase), 
Miscellaneous Services -- excluding retail trade, transportation, 
telecommunications, and financial services (19 percent increase), 
Transportation and Telecommunications Services (16 percent increase).

C.  Government Role in the Economy

France has a centuries-old tradition of highly centralized 
administrative and governmental control of its essentially market 
economy.  In 1994 French general government total outlays were 54.9 
percent of nominal GDP, compared to 33.5 percent in the United States 
and 42.9 percent in the United Kingdom.  For more than a decade, both 
Socialist and Center-Right governments have accepted that reducing 
government involvement is the best way to spur economic growth and 
reduce the high unemployment rate.  The privatization process initiated 
in late 1993 by the prime minister Balladur will continue under current 
Prime Minister Juppe.  In late June, the new government successfully 
privatized Using Sacilor, Europe's largest steel producer.  This sale 
marked the seventh company to be privatized in a program involving 21 of 
France's flagship companies, such as Rhone-Poulenc, Elf-Aquitaine and 
Banque Nationale de Paris.  Further privatization's, including Pechiney 
and Renault, are in the works.

D.  Balance of Payments Situation

On the external side, French exports remain strong.  In February, French 
exports were up 2.6 percent from January.  French exports (customs 
clearance basis) have maintained an annualized growth rate of well over 
10 percent since the middle of last year.  This strength is mainly 
explained by strong world demand, with firm growth both in Europe and 
North America.   French imports have also been strong due to vigorous 
domestic demand, especially gains in the industrial sector.  Over the 
next eighteen months, we expect further gains in exports and imports, 
with both increasing by close to 7 percent in volume terms this year, 
and slightly  less in 1996.  These increased rates translate into 
sizable current account surpluses, around USD10 billion in 1995 and USD9 
billion in 1996.

Among third country markets and suppliers, the United States is the 
leading supplier of food and agricultural products to France, as well as 
the largest export market for French agricultural products.  According 
to French Customs, the value of French agricultural exports (including 
spirits, manufactured tobacco, and wood and products) to the U.S. in 
1994 was $ 1,229 million, while the value of French agricultural imports 
(including spirits, manufactured tobacco and wood and products) from the 
U.S. during the same period was $ 881 million, leading to a positive 
agricultural trade surplus for France with the U.S. of $ 348 million.

E.  Trade Barriers

U.S. companies sometimes complain of France's complex technical 
standards and of unduly long testing procedures.  Testing requirements 
(which must usually be done in France) and standards sometimes appear to 
exceed reasonable requirement levels needed to assure proper performance 
and safety.  Most of the complaints have involved electronics, 
telecommunications equipment and agriculture phytosanitary standards. 

The 1989 EU Broadcast Directive requiring a "majority proportion" of 
programming to be of European origin was incorporated into French 
legislation on January 21, 1992.  France, however, specifies a 
percentage of European programming (60 percent) and French programming 
(40 percent).  These broadcast quotas were approved by the EU Commission 
and became effective on July 1, 1992.  They are less stringent than 
France's previous quota provisions which required that 60 percent of all 
broadcasts be of EU origin and that 50 percent be originally produced in 
French.  The 60 percent European/40 percent French quotas are applicable 
throughout the day, as well as during prime time slots.  The prime time 
rules go beyond the requirements of the EU Broadcast Directive and limit 
the access of U.S. programs to the French market.  Nevertheless, the 
market share of U.S. films and television shows remains high.  Despite a 
recent push for tighter television quotas, the situation has not changed 
much since 1992.  In June 1995,  France shelved its demand for more 
restrictive quotas for the time being.  Instead, the latest campaign is 
for new financial and other subsidies for film and television program 
makers. 
  
The French government has recently revised its legal services system.  
Non-EClawyers may no longer practice as legal consultants and are 
required to qualify as "avocats," on the basis of full-fledged 
membership in the French bar.  Under the implementing legislation which 
went into effect on January 29, 1993, this means that non-EU lawyers 
will have to pass either a "short-form" exam or the full French bar 
exam.  The French government has accepted that the General Agreement on 
Trade in Services (GATS) precludes reciprocity requirements which should 
allow non-EU lawyers to qualify for the short-form exam.  There are 
other aspects of the process, however, which could disadvantage foreign 
candidates unfairly.   For example, the arbitrary choice of subject 
areas makes studying for the test extremely difficult, and examiners 
have considerable discretion on deciding whether a candidate passes or 
fails.  Due to EU regulations, France is required to recognize law 
degrees for EU nationals but not third country nationals.  Nevertheless, 
non-French EU lawyers, who are also required to qualify as "avocats," 
may do so via exams less stringent than those for non-EU lawyers.  
Meaningful access will now hinge on how implementing regulations are 
administered, including the interpretation of what is meant by granting 
access on a "reciprocal basis" and the nature of the exam to be imposed 
on non-EU lawyers.

F. Investment Barriers

Screening

See section VII, Investment Climate.

Privatization

The 1993 privatization law prevents the French government from selling 
more than 20 percent of a firm's capital to non-EU investors at the time 
the government sells its shares.  Thereafter, however, the provision 
does not prohibit private EU-investors from selling their shares to non-
EU investors.  Shares already held by non-EU investors are not affected 
by the 20 percent limit.  In addition, through "golden shares" in key 
companies, the government retains the right to block the sale of any 
assets "essential to the national interest," to prevent certain 
investors from purchasing additional shares in a company, and to exert 
significant control over company management, even after privatization is 
completed.  Finally, any investor seeking to own more than five percent 
of outstanding shares of a privatized company in the health, security or 
defense sectors must receive approval from the Economics Ministry. 
In October 1993, the Balladur government announced 21 companies would be 
privatized.  The Juppe government is committed to continuing this 
privatization campaign.  Of the 21 major enterprises included in the 
program, 7 companies have been privatized - Usinor Sacilor, Elf 
Aquitaine, Banque Nationale de Paris, Rhone-Poulenc, Seita, and 
Compagnie General Maritime.  Two additional companies, Bull and Renault, 
have seen their French government share reduced.  Part one of a three 
part privatization of Bull is complete.  In early 1995, the French 
government reduced its share in Renault to 51%.
  
Sectoral Investment Restrictions

The recent announcement by Finance Minister Alain Madelin that France 
will ease the ownership rules for foreigners means that the list of 
areas where foreigners have to seek government approval will be the same 
as for foreign investors from other EU countries.  Under EU rules, 
foreigners can be prevented from taking full control of companies deemed 
essential to national defense, public safety, health or security.  

Firms controlled by non-EU nationals could heretofore be denied national 
treatment in the following sectors:  agriculture, financial services, 
accounting, legal services, air transport, maritime transport, road 
transport, publishing, telecommunications, defense and tourism.    

G. Labor Force

The French labor force is one of the country's strongest points in 
attracting foreign investment, combining high quality with competitive 
unit wage costs.  In a recent survey of U.S. investors in France, 
management was unanimous in agreeing that the quality of local personnel 
was adequate and 90 percent found labor costs to be competitive.

The Labor Code sets out minimum standards for working conditions 
including the work week, overtime, vacation and personal leave.  Other 
labor standards are contained in collective agreements, which are 
usually negotiated on a national or regional basis by the various unions 
and employers' associations.  The French minimum hourly wage is FRF 
36.22 (approx. $7.3).  The legal work week is 39 hours and average time 
worked hovers around this figure.  When the work week exceeds 39 hours, 
non-executive employees are entitled to overtime payment and/or 
compensatory time off.  Employees are entitled to 2.5 workdays of 
vacation per full month worked.

The average private sector compensation per employee increased by 1.2 
percent in 1994, which meant that the real labor cost fell, as the 
inflation rate was 1.7 percent in 1994.

French absenteeism is relatively modest by European standards while the 
hours lost to strikes is at an all-time post World War II low. Despite 
highly visible nuisance strikes in the public sector, relatively 
peaceful labor relations have been the order of the day, particularly in 
the private sector.  

H. Major Third Country Competitors

As the world's fourth largest economy, centrally located within the 
European Union, there is strong competition for market share in all 
French industry sectors. Major French organizations, e.g. Aerospatiale, 
Alcatel, Michelin, and Thompson, have manufacturing and marketing 
expertise which matches major U.S. multinationals.  The government of 
France is also a major competitor and has an industrial policy which 
considers the development of certain domestic industries as critical to 
national security. At the beginning of 1993, 70 state-owned enterprises 
accounted for approximately 30 percent of French GDP.  This situation is 
gradually changing in light of the current government's efforts to 
privatize many of these state-owned industries; however, the government 
still  plays a far more interventionist role in industrial affairs than 
is the case in many other industrialized nations.
 
American exporters to France face more competition from European 
countries than Asian; however, the Japanese have been successful in 
developing a foothold in the French market, with substantial investments 
in the Alsace region.  German manufacturers are the most serious 
competitors in Europe, relying on the many Franco-German joint ventures 
that have been established.  Each industry has its own principal 
competitors and should be carefully analyzed before beginning an effort 
to capture a share of the French market.

I. Infrastructure Situation

The French transportation infrastructure is among the most sophisticated 
in the world, benefiting from technological advances such as the Train à 
Grande Vitesse (TGV) and from extraordinary investment by the 
government. The three main entry points for air freight are the Paris 
airports of Orly and Charles de Gaul, and Lyon's Satolas airport.  
France has 12 major maritime ports, many of which are equipped for 
container ships.  The state-owned French rail system is one of the most 
comprehensive and technologically advanced in the world.  For example 
the Roissy Charles de Gaul Airport began an intermodal link in 1995 with 
the north TGV line for passenger traffic. 

The French highway system is excellent and has become an increasingly 
important part of Europe's overall transportation network.  France 
currently invests more funds in its highway and road network than any 
other European country.  In 1995, the government inaugurated the longest 
spanned bridge in the world, Le Pont de Normandie, linking Le Havre with 
Honfleur over the Seine. 

J.  Major Infrastructure Projects Underway in France

1.  Transportation Projects
--  Roissy/Charles de Gaul Airport Expansion

2.  Defense Trade
     a.  Nuclear Aircraft
     b.  MEADS (Medium Extended Air Defense System)
     c.  Horizon Frigate Propulsion System

3.  Construction Projects
     a.  "La Tour Sans Fin" - La Defense
     b.  Cite Internationale de Lyon
     c.  Georges Pompadour European Hospital
     d.  St. Denis Stadium
     e.  Europort-Vatry

4.  Environmental and Urban Development Project
     --  Eco-Normandie Regional Technological Park


          CHAPTER III.  POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT

A. Bilateral Relationship

France and the U.S. are close allies.  Despite occasional differences of 
view, the U.S. and France work together on a broad range of trade, 
security and geopolitical issues.

B. Political System

France is a democratic republic whose political system is based on a 
written constitution approved by referendum in 1958.  According to the 
French Constitution, the President of the Republic is elected by direct 
suffrage every seven years.  The President names the Prime Minister, 
presides over the cabinet, commands the armed forces and concludes 
treaties.  He is also empowered to dissolve the National Assembly and, 
in certain emergency situations, may assume full power.  France's 
political system is a hybrid of presidential and parliamentary systems, 
resulting occasionally in the President and Prime Minister being of 
opposing parties.  Since March 1993, for example, the Socialist 
President has had a Prime Minister from the conservative party.

The Constitution provides for a bicameral parliament consisting of a 
National Assembly and a Senate.  National Assembly deputies are directly 
elected by universal suffrage for five-year terms.  Senators are 
indirectly elected for nine-year terms; one-third of the Senate is 
renewed every three years.

The French political spectrum includes five distinct political groups.  
From right to left, these are:  the extreme right National Front (FN); 
the neo-Gaullist Rally for the Republic (RPR); the moderate Union for 
French Democracy (UDF); the Socialist Party (PS); and the Communists 
(PCF).  Numerous smaller parties have variable national political 
impact.

C.  Political Events Affecting Business Climate

Gaullist RPR President Jacques Chirac took office as French President in 
May 1995.  He replaces socialist Francois Mitterrand, who held France's 
top office for 14 years.  Chirac is under great pressure to reduce 
France's more than eleven percent unemployment rate, and his government 
hopes to create more than one million new jobs between 1995 and 1998.  
Chirac will also continue the pace of privatization.  He may, however, 
come under pressure from his electorate to adopt more protectionist 
trade pressures.



              CHAPTER IV.  MARKETING U.S. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

The United States and France produce many of the same goods and services 
and export them to each other.  Therefore, marketing products and 
services in France is much like marketing in the U.S., with several 
significant differences.  Following is a general overview of marketing 
in France.  Specific counseling sessions with United States Department 
of Agriculture/Foreign Agriculture Service & Commercial Service trade 
specialists are recommended for those wishing more details as they plan 
their specific marketing campaigns in France.

A.  Distribution & Sales Channels

The Retail Network

France possesses a diverse and comprehensive retail network which 
increasingly resembles that of the United States.  From the largest 
department store chains to the smallest individual proprietorships, 
French distribution channels are exhibiting several important trends.  

Small- and medium-sized family-owned firms, which traditionally 
accounted for a majority of French wholesale and retail trade, are 
rapidly losing ground to hypermarkets - large retail outlets carrying a 
wide variety of products at discounted prices.  At the same time, mail 
order marketing and specialized chain stores have shown strong growth, 
further demonstrating the changing needs and preferences of consumers.

Primary Retail Channels:

• Grands magazines - Department Stores
• Hypermarches - Hypermarkets
• Supermarches - Supermarkets
• Magasins populaires - Convenience Stores
• Vente par catalogue - Mail-order Marketing
• Grandes surfaces specialisees - Large Specialized Stores
• Multi-Channel Retail Groups
• Centrales d'achats - Central Buying Offices


Department Stores:  In 1994, there were some 218 department stores, 
employing 46,000 people and totaling $4.5 billion in sales.  Paris has 
the highest number of department stores of any French city, and nine of 
the ten top-selling stores are located there.  Department stores have 
lost some market share in all areas except in the medium-to-high price 
range.  A unique feature of the French department store is that many 
non-food products are sold by the manufacturer's own sales staff, which 
can account for up to 20 percent of the store's total sales force.  

Hypermarkets:  Hypermarkets are self-service retail stores carrying 
20,000-35,000 food articles and 3,000-5,000 non-food articles at 
competitive prices.  They are generally located in suburbs, and cover at 
least 22,500 square feet each.  In 1994, there were 945 hypermarkets, 
employing 196,000 people.  They generated a total of $66.3 billion in 
sales.  

Supermarkets:  Also self-service retail stores, supermarkets are smaller 
versions of hypermarkets.  They usually carry 3,500-4,500 food articles 
and 500-1,500 non-food articles.  They generally cover 3,600-22,500 
square feet.  In 1994 there were 7,138 supermarkets, employing 170,000 
people.  They generated a total of $61.4 billion in sales.  

Convenience Stores:  Convenience stores are generally self-service and 
carry a varied assortment (7,000-10,000) of food and non-food articles.  
In 1994, there were 483 convenience stores, employing close to 21,400.  
They generated a total of $3.6 billion in sales.

Mail Order Marketing:  The French market for mail-order consumer 
products is the fourth largest in the world.  This market has tripled in 
the last ten years, reaching $9.4 billion in 1994.  One out of two 
French households buys through mail order.  Textile products make up 
46.1 percent of mail-order sales, books and records 13.8 percent, and 
furniture and home decoration 10.7 percent.

Large Specialized Stores:  Large specialized stores offer an extensive 
choice of goods in a specific category at a competitive price and with 
an emphasis on customer service.  With over 10,000 stores of this type, 
this dynamic sector generates $18 billion in sales and represents 56.3 
percent of non-food retail sales.  Furniture stores are the most 
numerous (2,500), followed by do-it-yourself equipment stores (1,500).  

Multi-Channel Retail Groups:  The distinctions made above between 
hypermarket chains, supermarket chains, etc. are becoming blurred.  In 
the last several years, major multi-channel retail groups have emerged, 
which own chains of different types of stores.  Pinault-Printemps and 
Nouvelles Galleries Reunies fall into this category, because they own 
chains of specialty and convenience stores. 

Central Buying Offices:  In addition to contacting the largest store 
chains listed above, introducing products via central buying agencies is 
an excellent distribution method.  A complete list of French central 
buying agencies, the Annuaire des Supermarches, Hypermarches, Centrales 
d'Achat et Groupements d'Achats, is available at about $130 (freight 
included) from:

m L.S.A
Mrs. Majean
B.P. 142
92304 Levallois Perret cedex, France
Tel: (33-1) 47 58 20 00
Fax: (33-1) 47 59 07 64

Distribution Systems for Food Products in France 

France has one of the most highly developed distribution systems for 
agricultural and food products in the world. There is an extensive 
network of transportation and distribution channels that assure 
consumers will receive the final product in good quality and at the 
proper time.

Normally, French imports of agricultural and food products are brought 
in from the west Atlantic via the northern French port of Le Havre, or 
via the ports of Antwerp and Rotterdam in the Netherlands.  Imports from 
the Mediterranean and African countries come through the southern port 
of Marseilles.  Imports from other EU and European countries are often 
brought in by trucks through the world's largest wholesale food market 
at Rungis, which is located south of Paris.  Since much of the processed 
food products in France are of domestic origin, there are well developed 
regional markets throughout the country.

Despite the fact that France has a very modern and relatively efficient 
distribution and transport system, frequent disruptions occur in product 
movement, due to unexpected strikes by port dockers or truck drivers, or 
some other labor disputes.  Fortunately, the availability of alternative 
entry ports minimizes the magnitude of this problem for U.S. exporters.

Wholesale Distribution

There are about 27,000 wholesalers of food and agricultural products 
(including raw products) in France. The industry  continues to 
consolidate and diversify with individual firms adding new services to 
their basic wholesale activities.  Wholesalers now offer a whole 
"platform" of services for small and medium-size food retailers and 
processors.  Despite consolidation, many traditional French wholesale 
food companies continue to lose ground to large super and hypermarket 
chains, and most recently to the "hard discounts" who are increasingly 
expanding their own wholesale activities with "private labels".

Retail Food Distribution Channels

There are six principal categories of retail food outlets in France.  
The first five (hard-discounts, hypermarkets, supermarkets, city-center 
stores and department stores) represent the mass market and control 
about 56 percent of total food distribution. The sixth category, 
traditional outlets, includes neighborhood stores and specialized food 
stores.

It is expected that mass market outlets will control 75 percent of the 
market by the year 2000.  As of January 1, 1995, there were almost 8,083 
super and hypermarkets in France.  Hard-discounts have a total of 1,545 
stores all over France and represent 8.4 percent of food sales in France 
in volume.  It is expected that hard-discounts sales may reach $15 
billion within five years, and the next few years are expected to see a 
contest between the full-range super/hypermarkets concept and the 
greater savings cooperative/hard-discounts concept.

Restaurants, Hotels and Food Institutions

Last year, French consumers eat 5.8 billion meals valued at almost $28 
billion outside of the home in 131,000 restaurants, cafes, cafeterias 
and university dining halls.  This represents about 13 percent of all 
meals consumed in the country.  Out-of-home food is growing at the low 
rate of one percent a year.  Almost 40 percent of out-of-home meals are 
consumed at commercial facilities (restaurants, hotels, fast food, 
etc.), while 60 percent are consumed at schools, hospitals or 
workplaces.  French restaurants, hotels and institutions usually use the 
services of wholesalers or processed food buyers.  In these cases, the 
well developed distribution channels of the wholesalers/importers are 
often the key to getting a new food product into that sector. 

B. Use of Agents and Distributors

Considering the host of distribution options available in France, it is 
important for the would-be exporter to select the method best suited to 
his or her product.  French buyers generally prefer to purchase through 
an intermediary, making sales directly to the end-user a scarce 
practice.  However, sales of expensive, technically sophisticated goods 
are an exception to this rule.

Intermediaries may take one of three primary forms under French law:

• Distributor
• Agent
• Salaried Representative

Distributor

A distributor (concessionaire) is an individual or legal entity who  
purchases goods directly from a producer for the purpose of resale.  The 
distributor operates independently and is only bound by the written 
provisions of the distribution agreement.  These agreements, however, 
are subject to specific rules and regulations regarding exclusive 
distribution and price-fixing.  

The conditions of contract termination are an important concern, and 
vary with the type of distribution agreement.  A distribution agreement 
of specified duration may be terminated at the end of the contract 
period by either party without prior notification or indemnification.  
If the termination takes place before the end of the contract period, 
the terminating party may be sued for breach of contract.

A distribution agreement with an unspecified duration may be terminated 
by either party without indemnification after a fair notice period, 
usually six months.  The termination of such a contract by the producer 
without fair notice may be grounds for damage claims by the distributor.

Agent  

This category covers commercial agents as well as those persons acting 
as agents but not fulfilling the requisites for commercial agent status.  
Unlike distributors, agents do not actually purchase goods for resale; 
instead, they match up buyers and sellers on a commission basis.  All 
agents exercise their activities in an independent manner, and their 
principals are exempt from payment of payroll taxes.  Agents assume 
their own fiscal charges (business license tax and value-added tax) and 
social charges (health insurance, social security and retirement/pension 
benefits).

Commercial Agent:  Agents with a written contract have the status of 
commercial agents (agents commerciaux) if they exercise their activity 
as a sustained independent profession and fulfill the following 
conditions:

-- do not have a written employment contract;
-- negotiate sales and purchases on behalf of producers, manufacturers, 
or dealers;
-- are registered with the Tribunal of Commerce as commercial agents.

A commercial agent is independent and free to act on the behalf of any 
other firm.  However, in the case where the agent wishes to represent 
one of his or her principal's competitors, consent of the principal must 
first be secured.  

The principal may justifiably terminate the commercial agent contract 
only if the agent shows substantial deficiency in carrying out his or 
her obligations.  Otherwise, contract termination gives the agent a 
right to indemnification, often equal to two years' commission.

Other agents:  Persons who do not fulfill all the requirements for 
commercial agency, and who are not in a position of subordination to the 
company they represent, are considered agents.  Authorization of an 
agent can be effected by notarial act or private agreement.  Either 
party may terminate the agency agreement at will, but the non-
terminating party has a right to indemnification of losses.

Salaried Representatives  

Unlike agents, salaried representatives have employment contracts.  They 
and their employers share the burden of payroll taxes contributing to 
social security, unemployment compensation, and retirement/pension 
plans.  

Statutory Representatives:  Whatever their qualifications or title, 
persons are considered statutory representatives if they exercise their 
activity as a sustained independent profession and fulfill the following 
conditions:

--  engage in the activity of a sales representative for the account of 
one or more employers;
--  desist from executing commercial operations on their own behalf;
--  institute mutual commitments with employers regarding the nature of: 
the goods or services offered for sale, the region of activity or the 
category of clients, and the rate of  compensation.

Statutory representatives, like all employees, perform their work 
according to the instructions of their employers and benefit from the 
system of labor law protection.  However, they possess a special right 
to indemnification if their employment is unjustly terminated.  This 
indemnity is based on the size and importance of the clientele created 
by the statutory representative.

Nonstatutory Salaried Representatives:

Representatives who are subordinate to their employers and who do not 
fulfill the requisites for statutory representative status fall into a 
separate category and are considered regular employees.

Finding a Partner

The Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration offers 
several services to help the would-be exporter identify potential 
foreign representatives.   The three primary services available from the 
Commercial Service in France are the Gold Key Service, the Agent 
Distributor Service (ADS) and Industry Targeted Mailings.  To request 
any one of these services, firms should contact the nearest U.S. 
Department of Commerce District Office.   

Contacting and Evaluating Potential Representatives 

Once the U.S. company has identified several potential representatives, 
it should contact them directly in writing.  Just as the U.S. firm is 
seeking information on the French representative, the representative is 
interested in corporate and product information on the U.S. firm.  The 
U.S. firm should provide full information on its history, resources, 
personnel, the product line, previous export activity, and all other 
pertinent matters.

At the same time the firm is providing information on itself, it should 
also engage in a thorough investigation of the potential representative.  
Following is a list of important facts the firm should endeavor to find 
out:

--  Current status and history, including background on principal 
officers
--  Personnel and other resources
--  Sales territory covered
--  Current sales volume
--  Typical customer profiles
--  Methods of introducing new products into the sales territory
--  Names and nature of U.S. firms currently represented
--  Trade and bank references
--  Assessment of whether U.S. firm's special requirement can be met
--  View of in-country market potential for the U.S. firms products

The U.S. firm should not hesitate to ask potential representatives or 
distributors detailed questions; exporters have the right to explore the 
qualifications of those who propose to represent them overseas. 

In addition, the U.S. firm is advised to obtain at least two supporting 
business and credit reports to ensure that the distributor or 
representative is reputable.  

The French agency of Dun & Bradstreet offers this service.

Dun & Bradstreet France
Service Renseignements de Notoriete
Immeuble Defense Bergeres
345, av. G. Clemenceau
TSA 590003
92882 Nanterre
Tel: (33-1) 41 35 18 98
Fax: (33-1) 41 35 19 20

Negotiating an Agreement with a French Representative

Once the U.S. firm has selected a prospective representative, the next 
step is to negotiate a foreign sales agreement.  The content of this 
agreement is extremely important, as it will determine the legal basis 
for any relationship between the exporter and the representative.  
Although U.S. Department of Commerce District Offices can provide 
counseling to firms planning to negotiate agreements with French 
representatives, engaging a French lawyer is strongly advised.  

In drafting the agreement, special attention must be paid to 
safeguarding the exporter's interests in cases in which the 
representative proves less than satisfactory.  Procedures and conditions 
for terminating the relationship should be clearly defined.  
Furthermore, any right to indemnification on the part of the exporter or 
distributor should be specified.   

C. Franchising

France is the strongest market for U.S. franchise development within the 
EU.  Out of a total of 34 foreign franchises in France, 18 are American, 
accounting for 4.2 percent of the total franchise market.  The market 
size in 1994 was $38 billion. The estimated annual growth rate for 1995-
1997 is 10 percent. U.S. exports reached $9.2 billion in 1994; the 
estimated average annual growth rate for U.S.-owned firms is 12 percent.  
The franchising industry has stayed strong despite unfavorable economic 
conditions.  Fast-food has been the most successful sector, but is now 
very competitive.  The greatest potential for U.S. franchisors lies in 
sub-sectors yet to be fully exploited, such as computer education and  
renovation services.

D. Direct Marketing

Direct Marketing in France is a fast growing industry with sales 
evaluated at $6.7 billion in 1993.  This figure includes expenses for 
all Direct Marketing media: mailings, catalogs, telephone marketing, 
targeted and non-targeted fliers, press and television.

The market is expected to grow at the rate of 4.5 percent per year.  
Some media have experienced tremendous growth in volume and in value 
over the past 10 years.  For example, non-targeted fliers have increased 
in volume by 16 percent in 1993, while targeted fliers or catalogs only 
increased by 2 percent.  However, catalog sales remain a good 
opportunity for U.S. companies.  The French market for mail order 
consumer products reached $9.4 billion in 1994.  Catalog sales represent 
80 percent of this market.  U.S. companies rank second after Germany in 
mail order sales in France with $245 million in sales.  The best 
prospects in this sector remain apparel, followed by books and records 
as well as entertainment videos.

E.  Approaches to the French Market

American companies have prospered in the French market and will continue 
to do so if special attention is paid to their approach to the market 
and the products/services they offer. As outlined above, the best "first 
step" is to appoint an agent or distributor; however, expansion in the 
market can take various other forms, depending on the product/service. 

Joint Venture/Licensing

A joint venture with a French firm having similar commercial interests 
is one recommended approach. The French government encourages this type 
of investment and offers a wide range of incentives. In selecting a 
joint venture partner, the American company must carefully analyze its 
strengths and weaknesses and search for a firm that offers the 
appropriate support. Traditionally, a French joint venture partner 
strengthens the marketing activities of an American firm with its in-
place distribution system.  In certain industries, French manufacturers 
have skills that augment those of the American partner.  Financing is 
also of special concern.  Each joint venture proposal requires special 
analysis and conditions if it is to be successful. A joint venture with 
a French firm that has full French government support can be beneficial 
as long as manufacturing decisions can be made independently of 
government involvement. Recognizing the differences in each market is 
essential for success; consequently, it is recommended that companies 
interested in forming joint ventures consult with the Embassy in Paris 
before making any entangling alliances.

Steps to Establishing an Office

Establishing a subsidiary/branch office in France is also an advisable 
approach for some industries. The French government encourages the 
formation of new enterprises and, in conjunction with the Paris Chamber 
of Commerce and other Chambers throughout the country, offers extensive 
counseling and assistance to those wishing to set up an office in 
France. Detailed "how to" guides are available not only from the various 
chambers of commerce, but also from the Commercial Service and the 
numerous American consulting firms present in France. 

F.  Selling Factors/Techniques

Selling your product or service in France is similar to the United 
States. Buying decisions are made on the basis of quality, price and 
after-sales service. The principal difference in France is, in fact, the 
language. Since August 1994, the "Loi Toubon" requires that all 
advertising, labeling, instructions and promotional programs be in 
French.  Consequently, we strongly recommend  close contact with the 
Commercial and Agricultural sections in the Embassy and arranging for 
local legal representation. 

Advertising and Trade Promotion

There are far too many newspapers, magazines and technical journals to 
list; however, judicious use of the media is an important part of any 
and all promotional programs.  Below is a list of the most prominent 
French newspapers and magazines: 

Le Figaro
37, rue du Louvre
75081 Paris Cedex 02 France
Tel: (33-1) 42 21 62 00
Fax: (33-1) 42 21 64 05
President Director General (P.D.G.): Robert Hersant
Director de la redaction : Franz-Olivier Giesbert

Le Monde
15, rue Falguiere
75501 Paris Cedex 15 France
Tel: (33-1) 40 65 25 25
Fax: (33-1) 40 65 25 99
Director General: Jean Marie Colombani
Secretaire General: Alain Fourment

L'Express
61, avenue Hoche
75411 Paris Cedex 08 France
Tel: (33-1) 40 54 30 00
Fax: (33-1) 40 54 99 72
P.D.G.: Francoise Sampermans
Directrice de la redaction : Christine Ockrent

Liberation
11, rue Beranger
75154 Paris Cedex 03 France
Tel: (33-1) 42 76 17 89
Fax: (33-1) 42 72 94 93
P.D.G. : Serge July
Director de la publication: Serge July


France Soir
37 rue du Louvre
75002 Paris France
Tel: (33-1) 44 82 87 00
Fax: (33-1) 44 82 88 45
P.D.G.: Robert Hersant
Director de la redaction : Robert Hersant

Le Parisien
25, avenue Michelet
93400 Saint-Ouen France
Tel: (33-1) 40 10 30 30
Fax: (33-1) 40 12 90 90
P.D.G.: Philippe Amaury
Director General: Fabrice Nora

International Herald Tribune
181, avenue Charles de Gaul
92200 Neuilly Sur Seine France
Tel: (33-1) 41 43 93 00
Fax: (33-1) 41 43 93 38
Publisher: Richard McLean
Vice President: John Vinocur

Le Nouvel Observateur
8, rue Aboukir
75002 Paris France
Tel: (33-1) 44 88 34 34
Fax: (33-1) 44 88 34 28
P.D.G.: Claude Perdriel
Director de la redaction: Jean Daniel

Le Point
140, rue de Rennes
75006 Paris France
Tel: (33-1) 49 54 10 10
Fax: (33-1) 45 49 30 20
P.D.G.: Bernard Wouts
Director de la redaction: Denis Jeambar 

Les "Echos"
46, rue la Boetie
75381 Paris Cedex 08 France
Tel: (33-1) 49 53 65 65
Fax: (33-1) 45 61 48 92
P.D.G.: Eric Noblet
Dir. Gen. de la redaction: Nicolas Beytout

L'Expansion and La Vie Francaise
Groupe Expansion
25, rue Leblanc
75842 Paris Cedex 15 France
Tel: (33-1) 40 60 40 60
Fax: (33-1) 40 60 41 22
President: Christian Bregou
Dir. Gen. de la redaction: Jacques Barraux

La Tribune Desfosses
Cote-Desfosses
42-46, rue Notre Dame des Victoires
75002  Paris France
Tel: (33-1) 44 82 16 16
Fax: (33-1) 44 82 17 16
P.D.G.: Pierre-Antoine Gailly
Dir. Gen.de la redaction : Jacques Jublin

Le Nouvel Economiste
10 rue Guynemer
92130 Issy les Moulineaux France
Tel: (33-1) 41 09 30 00
Fax: (33-1) 41 09 30 98
P.D.G.: Philippe Berthin
Director de la redaction: Vincent Beaufils

G. Pricing Product 

The U.S. exporter can usually determine the export price of his/her 
manufactured product using 70% of the domestic price (after deduction of 
all local marketing costs).  This will allow the French importer to 
price his imports from the U.S. on the same price level as his American 
counterpart.  A simple way of comparing U.S. and French retail prices 
consists of taking the net U.S. retail price and comparing it with the 
French retail price without Value Added Tax (V.A.T.) currently 18.6%.  
French V.A.T. will increase to 20.6% on August 10, 1995. The French 
consumer is generally willing to pay a maximum of 10-15% over the 
American retail price.

When determining the export price, it is important to consider that if 
prices are FOB, the French importer will have to pay for transportation, 
insurance, customs duties, value-added tax and fixed fees per shipment.  

Terms of Payment

For U.S. exporters, what is called "the financing of export sales" is 
not basically different from financing domestic sales.  The fundamental 
concern in both cases is that one is paid in a timely manner for the 
goods and/or services delivered.

France's modern banking system offers a full range of payment means, the 
most significant of which are: 

--  commercial letters of credit 
--  sight and time drafts
--  bank transfers 
--  certified checks  

Although bank transfers and certified checks are fairly self-explanatory 
methods of payment, commercial letters of credit and sight and time 
drafts may be less familiar to the would-be exporter but are potentially 
attractive terms of payment.  

H. Sales service/Customer support

Although less developed than in the U.S., French businesses also provide 
all kinds of services such as after sale service, home delivery, 
maintenance contracts, warehousing facilities, hot lines or toll free 
numbers for any technical assistance.
For some products such as electrical appliances, e.g. T.V., replacement 
service is available.

I. Selling to the Government 

The French Government generally pursues procurement policies in 
accordance with EU regulations, which call for non-discrimination vis-a-
vis foreign firms.  In France, procurement regulations do not usually 
present barriers to entry for foreign firms. However, local political 
pressure and administrative procedures often said to favor French 
companies.

French Government procurement comes under the jurisdiction of Ministry 
of Economy and Finance.  The "Commission Centrale des Marches" (CCM), or 
Central Procurement Board, has overall responsibility for monitoring 
compliance with procurement regulations. 

France, as a member of the EU, is obliged to follow EU public works 
regulations which require government purchasing entities to publish 
tender notices for all public works projects valued at over 5 million 
ecus, or approximately $5.75 million.  Tender notices that exceed this 
threshold must be published in the Official Journal of the European 
Union, as well as in the French Bulletin Officiel des Annonces des 
Marches Publics.  In the case of telecommunications, transportation and 
water utilities, however, a European Community Utilities Directive 
(January 1, 1993) requires France to give EU bidders a three percent 
price preference and gives France the option to reject bids with more 
than 50 percent non-EU content.  This same preference has been waived 
for U.S. content with respect to electrical utilities as the result of 
U.S. - EU agreements on procurements.  Certain defense-related 
industries are also excluded from regular procurement rules.  In 
addition, public projects must conform to the following requirements:

--  a minimum of 52 days is required for bid submissions after an offer 
is announced.
--  the reason for a bid's rejection must be provided upon request.
--  the values of the winning bids must be publicly disclosed.

For information on French Government procurement regulations and 
procedures, contact:

CCM
Tour de Lyon
139, rue de Bercy
75012 Paris, France
Tel: (33-1) 44 87 17 17
Fax: (33-1) 53 17 87 04

Information on current and past French and EU procurement tenders and 
bids may be obtained through France's MINITEL service, an on-line 
information bank.  This service offers up-to-date information and 
immediate access.

MINITEL Services Company
888 Seventh Avenue, 28th Floor
New York, NY 10106
Tel: (212) 399-0080
Fax: (212) 399-0129

Access to procurement tenders and bids may also be obtained by 
subscribing to the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU), or the 
Bulletin Officiel des Annonces des Marches Publics (BOAMP).  However, 
these publications often do not arrive from overseas in a timely manner.  
OJEU can be ordered from:

UNIPUB
4611F Assembly Drive
Lanham, MD 20706-4391
Tel: (800) 274-4888
Fax: (301) 459-0056


For subscriptions to BOAMP, contact:

BOAMP
Direction des Journaux Officiels
26, rue Desaix, France
75727 Paris Cedex 15, France
Tel: (33-1) 40-58-77-58 
or   (33-1) 40-58-75-00


J.  Protecting your Product from IPR Infringement

Intellectual property consists of industrial property as well as 
literary/artistic property.  Under the French intellectual property 
rights regime, industrial property is protected by patents, trademarks, 
and designs and models, while literary/artistic property is protected by 
copyrights.

By virtue of the Paris Convention and the Washington Treaty regarding 
industrial property, U.S. nationals are entitled to receive the same 
protection of industrial property rights in France as French nationals.  
In addition, U.S. nationals have a "right of priority period" after 
filing a U.S. patent, trademark, design or model, in which to file a 
corresponding application in France.  This period is twelve months for 
patents and six months for trademarks, designs and models.

Patents

There are three types of patents: patents of invention (Brevets 
d'Invention), patents of addition (Brevets d'Addition), and certificates 
of utility (Certificats d'Utilite).  Patents of invention cover all 
inventions, whereas patents of addition cover supplements to those 
inventions.  Certificates of utility cover all inventions except those 
of a pharmaceutical nature.

In order to qualify for patent protection, the invention must:

     * Have an industrial or agricultural application
     * Imply a non-obvious procedure, and
     * Have absolute novelty.

Duration: Patents for inventions have a twenty-year life span, after 
which they become part of the public domain.  Patents of addition are 
only valid for the unexpired term of their parent patents.  Certificates 
of utility have a six-year, non-renewable life span.

Patent Registration: Applications for patent registration must be filed 
with the French National Institute for Industrial Property, the Institut 
National de la Propriete Industrielle (INPI), before the invention is 
publicly disclosed.  INPI receives applications, examines their 
validity, and registers the patents.  After the application for a patent 
is filed, INPI conducts a check for comparable inventions.  Upon 
approval and registration, a patented invention may be manufactured, 
operated, used or sold only with the authorization of the patent's 
owner.  The owner can transfer, or sell the patent, or grant a license 
for others to use it.  A patent must be used to be retained.  Applicants 
can consult INPI's library to check for the existence of similar 
inventions prior to filing.

INPI
Division des Brevets
26 bis, rue de Saint-Petersbourg
75800 Paris Cedex 08, France
Tel: (33-1) 42 94 52 52
Fax: (33-1) 42 93 59 30

Patent protection in France may also be obtained through ownership of a 
European Patent, which is filed through the European Patent office in 
Munich:

Office European des Brevets
Erhardtstrasse 27
8000 Munich 2, Germany
Tel: (49) 89 23 990
Fax: (49) 89 99 4465

Patent registration in France requires a French address, which may be 
obtained through a legal representative in France.  A list of patent 
advisors who can act as legal representatives can be obtained from the 
French Association of Patent Advisors, Compagnie Nationale des Conseils 
en Propriete Industrielle:

CNCPI
21, rue de Saint-Petersbourg
75800 Paris Cedex 08  France
Tel: (33-1) 45 22 55 11
Fax: (33-1) 40 08 07 97

Certificate of Utility Registration:

Certificates of Utility are also granted by INPI (see above).  However, 
in this case, INPI does not conduct a check for comparable inventions.

Fees:

     * Patents for Inventions
     - Application fee: $50, which includes the first year of annual 
renewal fees.
     - Documentation and research fee: $900. This amount is to be paid 
at the latest one month after the application.
     - The annual renewal fee is calculated each year on a sliding 
scale.
     * Patents for Additions
     - Registration fee: $500
     * Certificates of Utility
     - Registration fee: $50
     - Annual renewal fees are calculated on a sliding scale.

Trademarks

Trademark protection can apply to both goods and services.  In a general 
sense, trademarks recognize and protect indicators which serve to 
distinguish one product or service from similar products or services.  
In the French regime, trademarks:

     * Can be written or designed trademarks. 
     * Can be sonorous trademarks, such as musical tunes, jingles, 
words,  slogans. 
     * Must not be deceptive as to the nature or origin of the goods.
     * Must be recognizable by sight or sound.
     * Must have novelty for the specified product line.


Duration:  A trademark has a ten-year life span and is renewable every 
ten years.

Trademark Registration:  Applications must be filed with INPI, which 
receives applications, examines their validity, and registers 
trademarks.  After registering the trademark, it must be publicly and 
unequivocally exploited for five consecutive years, or all trademark 
rights are forfeited.  It may be sold totally or partially, by product 
or service category.

INPI
Division des Marques 
32, rue des Trois-Fontanot
92016 Nanterre, France
Tel: (33-1) 46 92 58 00
Fax: (33-1) 49 01 07 37

Registration of trademarks, as in the case of patents, requires a French 
address, which may be obtained through a legal representative in France.  
A list of trademark advisors who can act as legal representatives can be 
obtained from CNCPI, whose address is listed above.

Fees:
     * Application fee (first registration or renewal): $240 for up to 
three  product/service categories; $50 for each additional category 
protected.

For designs and models specifically:
     * For the first photographic reproduction: $50.
     * For each additional reproduction up to the 100th: $30.

Designs and Models

Designs and models have the following characteristics:

     * Designs are an assembly of traits or colors on the surface of an  
object.  They constitute an original two additional decoration.
     * Models are all creations (ornaments).
     * They must have absolute novelty.

Although some designs and models can be protected under patent or 
copyright procedures, others fall into a category which requires special 
treatment.  Designs or models having an industrial function follow 
patent procedures, while designs or models having a purely ornamental 
function follow copyright procedures.  Those designs or models which 
have both a practical and an ornamental function are subject to the 
following:

Duration:  Infringement protection has a 25 year life span, and is 
renewable for another 25 years.

Registration:  Exclusive proprietary rights to the design or model are 
acquired through the act of creation itself.  Registration merely serves 
as proof of that creation.  Designs and models are to be registered with 
the INPI:

INPI-Designs and Models Section
26 bis rue de Saint Petersbourg
75008 Paris, France
Tel: (33-1) 42 94 52 52
Fax: (33-1) 42 93 59 30

To prove the date of creation of a design or model without formal 
registration, a designer may wish to use a special envelope (envelope 
speciale) for a $11 fee.  The date of creation begins when the envelope 
is received by the INPI.

Copyrights

Copyrights cover artistic works, literary works and software.  In the 
French IPR regime, in order to qualify for a copyright, the language 
used to express the idea must be original, not the idea itself.

Duration: Copyrights are valid for 50 years after the death of the 
author, with two major exceptions: music copyrights are valid for 
seventy years after the death of the composer, and software copyrights 
are valid for 25 years after creation.  Contrary to other copyrights, 
software designed by a salaried employee belongs to the employer.

Registration: Artistic and literary works are automatically protected 
once created and fixed in tangible form.  Therefore, registration is not 
required, but nonetheless recommended.

For musical works, including songs, instruments, poems, sketches under 
20 minutes, monologues, and other musical audiovisual productions, 
applications must be filed with the French Society for Musical Authors, 
Composers and Editors:

Societe des Auteurs, Compositeurs et Editeurs de Musique (SACEM)
225, avenue Charles de Gaul
92521 Neuilly sur Seine, France
Tel: (33-1) 47 15 47 15
Fax: (33-1) 47 45 12 94

Membership acceptances are restricted to reputable applicants who are 
already known for the quality of their works.  If not qualified for 
SACEM, applications must be filed with the National Association of 
Musical Authors and Composers:

Syndicat National des Auteurs et Compositeurs de Musique (SNACM)
80, rue Taitbout
75009  Paris,  France
Tel: (33-1) 48 74 96 30
Fax: (33-1) 42 81 40 21

For theatrical works, including plays, operas, operettas, musical 
comedies, films and theatrical scripts, applications must be file with 
the Society for Theatrical Authors and Composers:

Societe des Auteurs et Compositeurs Dramatiques (SACD)
11 bis, rue Ballu
75442  Paris Cedex 09, France
Tel: (33-1) 40 23 44 44
Fax: (33-1) 45 26 74 28

For literary works and software, applications must be filed with the 
French Literary Society:

Societe des Gens de Lettres (SGDL)
38, rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques
75014 Paris, France
Tel: (33-1) 40 51 33 00
Fax: (33-1) 43 54 92 99

For documentary and educational works, applications must be filed with 
the Civil Society for Multimedia Authors:

Societe Civile des Auteurs Multimedia (SCAM)
38, rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques
75014  Paris,  France
Tel: (33-1) 40 51 33 00
Fax: (33-1) 43 54 92 99

K.  Need for Local Attorney

Establishing an entity to do business in France is not a good occasion 
for a "do it yourself" approach.  A lawyer with experience in France 
should be retained as soon as the establishment of a French business 
entity is contemplated.  The American Embassy in Paris maintains a list 
of American Lawyers practicing in France, which is available upon 
request.  More detailed information about professional backgrounds can 
be obtained from the Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory and for the Bar 
Register of Pre-eminent Lawyers.  Lawyers and bankers in the United 
States also will normally have means of recommending lawyers in France.

France has two major categories of legal practitioners:

Avocats: An "avocat" must be a lawyer.  "Avocats" may render legal 
advice on all matters, draft agreements and contracts, handle commercial 
disputes and collection cases, and plead and defend civil and criminal 
cases before the French courts to which they are admitted.

Notaries (Notaires):  A French "notaire" is a public official appointed 
by the Ministry of Justice, and not the equivalent of a public notary in 
the United States.  The number of "notaires" in each jurisdiction is 
limited, and their fees fixed by law.  Their functions include the 
preparation and recording of notarial acts (wills, deeds, acts of 
incorporation, marriage, contracts, etc.), the administration and 
settlements of estates (excluding litigation in court) and serving as 
the repository of wills.  They are not lawyers, but very specialized 
members of the legal profession.  They may not plead in court.


   CHAPTER V..  LEADING TRADE PROSPECTS FOR U.S. EXPORTS AND INVESTMENT

Listed below are 19 industry sectors which the U.S. Embassy in France 
considers "best prospects" for U.S. business; they are ranked by 
increasing forecast total imports from the U.S.

      RANK      TOTAL IMPORTS        SECTOR SYMBOL NAME
                                         FROM U.S.

        1           3,700                    IRA
        2           3,085                    CSF
        3           2,533                    ICH
        4           2,197                    EMP
        5           1,812                    ELC
        6           1,478                    INS
        7           1,430                    CPT
        8           1,085                    SEC
        9             990                    EPS
        10            633                    AIR
        11            533                    FLM
        12            447                    APG
        13            440                    MED
        14            428                    DFN
        15            400                    APS
        16            310                    AUT
        17            307                    POL
        18            300                    PUC
        19            150                    TEL


1 - TRAVEL & TOURISM (TRA)

The French travel and tourism market is showing two distinctive trends.  
First, the United States is no longer a destination for a privileged 
few.  In fact, it has become a bread-and-butter mainstay of both tour 
operators and retailers.  Second, as the French continue to be highly 
individualistic in their travel behavior, worries about personal safety 
are bringing about an upward trend in the escorted and inclusive tour 
segment of the market. 

Since 1982, French interest in travel to the U.S. has more than doubled 
reaching 863,345 visitors in 1994, with an average growth rate of 4 
percent forecast for 1995 and 1996.  In 1995, 930,000 French travelers 
are expected to visit the U.S., with New York being their primary 
destination.  According to a 1994 survey conducted by SOFRES of 1000 
French households, 57 percent of the French take a summer vacation away 
from home.  Of those, 19 percent go on vacation for two weeks, 12 
percent for three weeks, 8 percent for four weeks, and 5 percent for 
more than four weeks.  Of the respondents, 79 percent would take a one 
week vacation and 20 percent would divide their available leave into two 
vacations.  The annual paid vacation entitlement of the French workforce 
is 5 weeks. 

Only 23 percent of French travelers used a travel agent in 1994.  For 
travel to the United States that figure was 50 percent.  The best 
customers for U.S. agents are corporate managers, professionals, and 
people in the administrative professions.  By and large, wholesalers and 
tour operators play a smaller role than in other markets.  Roughly 30 
percent of the French buy packaged products, 10 percent of which involve 
fly-drive arrangements.  Wholesalers, however, view their investment in 
catalog production as a form of cost-effective direct consumer 
advertising and hence a basic consumer sales tool. The active Visit USA 
travel trade in France consists of roughly 2000 retail agents, 50 
wholesalers/tour operators, 20 incentive specialists, and some 120 
business and group specialists.  All major hotel companies, rental car 
firms, rail and cruise lines, and attractions are represented.  Nine air 
carriers, of which 8 are American, serve 13 U.S. cities on a non-stop 
basis.

                               1994          1995           1996

A. Total Market Size           81,600       83,600         85,700
B. Total Local Production      95,500       98,400        101,400
C. Total Exports               26,900       28,200         29,600
D. Total Imports               13,100       13,800         14,500
E. Total Imports from U.S.      3,200        3,400          3,700
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00     FRF 5.50    FRF 5.00       FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates. 

2 - COMPUTER SOFTWARE (CSF)

The recessionary environment of the early 90's had a strong negative 
impact on French companies' budget policies for computer expenditures.  
In addition to this, heightened competition among computer software 
vendors caused them to drop their prices at an accelerated pace.  In 
spite of these challenges, the French computer software market should 
continue presenting positive long-term prospects.  The introduction of 
the latest generation of micro-computers, the accelerating development 
of telecommunications, and the creation of networked systems will all 
contribute to this growth.

French companies tend to outsource a greater proportion of their 
software development than in other European countries, thus making 
France the largest software market in Europe, with over 6,000 software 
firms.  Furthermore, French flagship firms such as Bull (leading 
hardware manufacturer) and Cap Gemini Sogeti (leading software and 
services company) have helped ensure that adequate resources are 
invested in the software industry.  The recent growth of the software 
industry at the expense of the hardware industry has also led major 
hardware companies such as IBM, DEC, BULL and UNISYS to redirect their 
resources towards the software sector.  

American firms also control the French packaged software market with 
products for databases, spreadsheets, CAD/CAM systems and word 
processing.  The increasing availability of sophisticated off-the-shelf 
products as replacements for more expensive custom-made software is 
shifting the market toward packaged software products.  The U.S. 
technological edge in these areas, coupled with the anticipated growth 
of the PC software market, should facilitate a continued strong American 
presence in the French market.  Due to exchange rate fluctuations 
between 1994 and 1996, the growth rate of this sector appears to be 
declining in terms of dollars, but is in fact growing in terms of units.


                               1994           1995        1996

A. Total Market Size          18,503         21,805       23,063
B. Total Local Production     16,653         19,857       21,200
C. Total Exports               3,700          4,315        4,522
D. Total Imports               5,550          6,263        6,385
E. Total Imports from U.S.     2,775          3,089        3,085
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00    FRF 5.50      FRF 5.00    FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

3 - INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL (ICH)

In 1994, in spite of a world-wide recession, the French chemicals 
industry is still quite strong.  Demand for all types of chemicals is 
increasing, granted at a slower rate than in the 1990-1992 period.  As 
technological advances continue, and various needs from different 
industries arise, the markets for industrial chemicals should continue 
to grow.  The pharmaceutical and vitamin industries continue to grow due 
to consumer trends towards healthy lifestyles (vitamins), and new 
medical advances in pharmaceuticals.  At the same time, French cosmetics 
manufacturers continue to dominate demand worldwide.  These markets, 
however, are highly competitive. 

A few potential issues are: 

--   an increasing number of environment-related regulations are raising 
costs and discouraging investment
--   a change in the level of reimbursement of pharmaceuticals by the 
French social security could affect consumption and ultimately imports. 
--   worldwide prices are being rocked by the influx of chemicals from 
former Eastern Block countries. 


                               1994         1995           1996

A. Total Market Size          95,600        108,400      109,473
B. Total Local Production     68,300         77,400       78,196
C. Total Exports              37,700         42,709       43,136
D. Total Imports              21,950         24,883       25,131
E. Total Imports from U.S.     2,210          2,510        2,533
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00   FRF 5.50       FRF 5.00       FRF 5.10
 
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

4 - EMPLOYMENT SERVICES (EMP)

Unemployment, currently 11,6 percent of the working population, remains 
a major economic problem.  The employment services industry having 
suffered a 20 percent decrease in turnover in 1993, saw the trend 
reversed in 1994 as recruitment firms enjoyed a 9 percent increase in 
sales.  The beginning of 1995 seems to have confirmed this trend, and 
professionals are optimistic.

Temporary employment services are usually a good indicator of the 
employment market.  After three years of decline, the industry 
registered an increase of 27 percent in sales in 1994 compared to the 
previous year.  The recovery is evident in the industrial sector, 
particularly due to the special government allowance, "Prime Balladur", 
which boosted the sales of cars and positively affected other industry-
related sectors.

In the temporary services sector, four major companies account for 50 
percent of the market.  The leading employment services company, ECCO, 
is French, followed by the U.S. company MANPOWER, the French company 
BIS, and the Swiss company ADIA.

American recruitment firms figure most prominently in executive search 
where they represent some 25-30 percent of the market and account for 
about 43 percent of revenue.  Almost all major U.S. 
headhunter/recruitment companies are already present in France and enjoy 
a good reputation.  

Access to the French employment services market is relatively easy as 
there are no trade barriers, and U.S. firms are subject to the same 
regulations and standards as are local firms.  

The most promising subsectors are in heavy industry, with an estimated 
1995 market size of USD 5,066 million, and services, with an estimated 
1995 market size of USD 2,430 million.


                                  1994           1995            1996

A. Total Market Size              9,900          9,990          10,989
B. Sales by Domestic Firms        7,326          8,092           8,900
C. Export Sales                   1,049          1,059           1,164
D. Sales by Foreign-owned Firms   2,871          2,897           3,186
E. Sales by U.S.-owned Firms      1,782          1,998           2,197
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00       FRF 5.50      FRF 5.00       FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.


5 - ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS (ELC)

The figures listed below, other than the projections for 1995 and 1996, 
are based on official trade statistics for electronic components, both 
passive and active.  

It is difficult to assess the true U.S. portion of electronic component 
imports in France.  It is estimated that the United States accounts for 
32 percent of active component imports and 11 percent of passive 
component imports.  However, many American-made products transit through 
third-party countries before reaching France, and do not appear as U.S. 
origin imports.  In addition, U.S. firms such as Motorola and Texas 
Instruments France have major manufacturing facilities in France, but 
the output of these plants are considered to be local French production.

Total French demand for electronic components is distributed among the 
following products:  31 percent for semiconductors, 17 percent for 
printed circuits, 10 percent for connectors, 9 percent for passive 
components, 8 percent for tubes, 4 percent for hybrids and 21 percent 
for other miscellaneous components.  Some segments boosted by emerging 
new end-user markets, such as mobile telecommunication systems, 
automobile electronics, and smart card IC applications, should be 
experiencing strong growth rates averaging 7 to 15 percent.  Due to 
exchange rate variations between 1994 and 1996, the growth rate of this 
sector appears to be declining in terms of dollars, but is in fact 
growing consistently in terms of units.

                                 1994          1995          1996

A. Total Market Size:            5,637          7,005          7,828
B. Total Local Production:       5,606          6,934          7,750
C. Total Exports:                5,615          6,979          7,800
D. Total Imports:                5,646          7,050          7,879
E. Total Imports from U.S.:      1,310          1,621          1,812
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00     FRF 5.50        FRF 5.00     FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

6 - INSURANCE SERVICES (INS)

In the early '90s, French insurance companies started diversifying their 
investments.  In 1994, the industry was hurt both by the downturn in 
financial markets as well as the real estate crisis.  Today, as a result 
of these unfortunate investments, the insurance industry is 
restructuring to concentrate on its core activity 

The French insurance industry is ranked fifth in the world after the 
United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, and Germany.  The French 
companies UAP and AXA are among the ten leading insurance companies 
worldwide.

Despite difficult times in 1994, the industry has continued its 
development with an approximate overall growth rate of 10 percent.  The 
most promising subsectors include insurance of the person, especially 
life insurance with more than 20 percent growth over the last two years, 
and an estimated market size of USD 88,800 million.  While analysts 
expect slight stagnation in life insurance during the coming years 
because of increased competition, insurance companies are looking into 
new proposals with high growth potential, such as pension funds.  

Many analysts have high expectations for pension funds, pending 
government approval.  U.S. companies could certainly benefit from such a 
decision, when adopted.  The French insurance industry has already taken 
the lead by creating its own employee pension funds will from January 1, 
1996.  This initiative is expected to put pressure on the government 
decision process.

The French market is highly competitive, however foreign companies can 
access to it through a branch or a subsidiary upon approval of the 
French Ministry of Economy and Finance.


                                    1994        1995        1996

A. Total Market Size              134,040     148,935     165,485
B. Sales by Domestic Firms        121,976     135,530     150,590
C. Export Sales                     1,608       1,787       1,985
D. Sales by Foreign-owned Firms    12,465      13,850      15,390
E. Sales by U.S.-owned Firms        1,192       1,325       1,478
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00       FRF 5.50     FRF 5.00   FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

7 - COMPUTER AND PERIPHERALS (CPT)

France is the second largest information technology market in Europe, 
and the fourth largest computer market in the world.  This reflects the 
high priority given by the French government to the computerization of 
the country's institutions.

PCs and workstations will be the fastest growing segment of the French 
computer and peripheral market, rising 10 percent annually between 1993 
and 1997.  Small-scale multi-user computers sales should also post 
modest gains during this period.

Worldwide recession affected the French hardware market into early 1994.  
However, growth of personal computer sales from 1994-1996 is expected to 
reach 14 percent, with more modest growth anticipated for mid-range and 
mainframe systems.

The six largest suppliers of hardware in France are IBM, BULL, DIGITAL, 
COMPAQ, ICL and APPLE.  Four of these are American.  Although large 
companies still dominate the micro-computer industry, smaller 
organizations are entering the market through innovative marketing 
methods such as mail-order and telemarketing.

In terms of product choice, the widespread acceptance of Windows, the 
operating system developed by Microsoft, has shifted the market toward 
IBM-compatible products and away from Apple products.  Consumers have 
also become more targeted on their choices and now prefer well-known 
brands over clones, especially as the price differences between the two 
product categories have become negligible.  Due to exchange rate 
fluctuations between 1994 and 1996, the growth rate of this sector 
appears to be declining in terms of dollars, but is in fact growing in 
terms of units.

                                  1994         1995         1996

A.  Total Market Size             8,437        9,520        9,647
B.  Total Local Production        4,935        5,708        5,774
C.  Total Exports                   422          479          483
D.  Total Imports                 3,902        4,292        4,356
E.  Total Imports from U.S.       1,255        1,416        1,430
F.  Exchange Rate: USD 1.00     FRF 5.50      FRF 5.00   FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

8 - SECURITY AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT (SEC)

The French market for security and safety equipment is the second 
largest in Europe after Germany.  The rapid and considerable growth of 
this industry between 1989 and 1992 has slowed down along with the 
French economy.  However, market demand has enjoyed sustained growth 
over the past two years and by 1997 is expected to return to its normal 
annual growth rate of 10-12 percent.  Industry experts believe that 
market demand will rise by 100 percent in the next ten years, due to the 
aging of the population.

U.S. industry exports to France were estimated to be worth USD 1,028 
million in 1994, representing approximately 49 percent of the French 
import market.  By 1995, they are expected to continue to increase in 
line with projected market growth.  There is a lack of domestic and 
foreign competition in this segment.  

In the security and safety equipment market, some subsectors are more 
buoyant than others.  Electronic surveillance and access controls should 
remain the most dynamic. Tele-assistance is another subsection which 
promises to offer short and mid-term growth opportunities.  Best 
prospects for American companies include telesurveillance equipment for 
boiler rooms and elevators, biometrics systems, fire extinguishing 
agents, and sprinklers.  
 
                                 1994           1995           1996

A. Total Market Size             5,438          5,601          5,806
B. Total Local Production        4,358          4,445          4,614
C. Total Exports                 1,035          1,053          1,094
D. Total Imports                 2,115          2,209          2,286
E. Total Imports from U.S.       1,028          1,051          1,085
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00       FRF 5.50     FRF 5.00      FRF 5.10

Please note that the statistics above do not include security services 
and technical control, and are unofficial estimates.

9 - ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (EPS)

The French market for electrical power systems has remained stable over 
the past two years.  Market growth for 1996 is not expected to exceed 2-
3 percent. 

The search for the most environmentally sound, energy efficient and cost 
efficient means of generating and transmitting electric power will 
continue to drive the market over the next five years.  In addition, 
environmental concerns are leading to more stringent legislation. 
Consequently, great potential exists for fuel gas desulphurization 
equipment (FGD), gas turbines, waste heat boilers and cogeneration 
systems. The safety of nuclear power stations, which continues to be a 
priority of the French government, will keep demand rising for 
pressurized water reactors (PWR).

Presently, ninety percent of the domestic market is served by 
Electricite de France (EDF), a French government-owned electricity 
company, and its subsidiaries or partner firms.  However, under pressure 
from Brussels, EDF has indicated that it plans to reconsider its 
monopolistic position, opening the way for other operators, and offering 
major energy users the possibility of acquiring energy from independent 
producers.  Furthermore, as a result of EU directives on government 
procurement, France should offer a more competitive and open market for 
foreign electrical power system manufacturers. Thus should offer 
promising opportunities for U.S. electrical equipment manufacturers. 


                                  1994           1995           1996

A. Total Market Size             11,050         11,060        11,220
B. Total Local Production        10,350         10,350        10,400
C. Total Exports                  6,320          6,340         6,460
D. Total Imports                  5,620          5,630         5,660
E. Total Imports from U.S.          970            970           990
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00     FRF 5.50         FRF 5.0      FRF 5.1

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

10 - AIRCRAFT AND PARTS (AIR)

Although noting the improved market in 1994, industry experts predict a 
slight decline in revenues for 1995 followed by a modest improvement in 
1996.  
 
The rise in worldwide passenger traffic helps explain the European 
Airbus consortium's return to profitable trading in 1994.  New orders 
rose to 125 and cancellations dropped to 54, adding 71 aircraft to the 
order books.

During the year, Airbus delivered 123 aircraft, over half from the 
A320/321 family, to companies in 33 countries.  At year's end the total 
number of aircraft on order was 615, or 52 less than the 667 on order at 
the end of 1993.  This represents a little over four year's production.

The Franco-Italian ATR consortium delivered 48 turpoprop transports in 
1994, increasing its output from 1993.  On the business aircraft front, 
1994 was a better year for French manufacturer Dassault Aviation as 
well.  With 45 firm orders, almost all from export markets, Dassault 
sold twice as many Falcons as in 1993.

France's helicopter market, however, remained depressed.  The drop has 
been particularly felt in military markets.  France's overall aircraft 
market is split roughly 50/50 between civil and military customers.  
Revenues from space programs are buoyant, reflecting the full manifest 
of the Ariane space launcher. 

Source: GIFAS 
                                     1994          1995        1996

A. Total Market Size                2,360          2,308      2,343
B. Total Local Production           5,664          5,539      5,622
C. Total Exports                    4,720          4,616      4,685
D. Total Imports                    1,416          1,385      1,406
E. Total Imports from U.S.            637            623        633
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00         FRF 5.50     FRF 5.00   FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

11 - FILMS, VIDEOS AND OTHER RECORDINGS (FLM)

A total of 115 films were produced in 1994, of which 89 were French-
initiated films and 36 minority co-productions, including four with 
Central and East European countries.  Two-thirds of the French-initiated 
films were wholly French-produced, and a third were principally French-
produced with minority partners.  

In 1994, 126 million people filled France's 4,235 movie theaters 
representing USD 860 million of box office receipts.  The film viewing 
public was divided as follows: U.S. films were seen by 76 million 
people, European films by 51 million people, and French films by 35 
million people.
   
According to the French Ministry of Culture, French adults spent on 
average USD 14.4 on cinema tickets, USD 54 on the annual TV license or 
pay-TV services, and USD 51.4 on videocassettes.  Consumer spending on 
pay-TV and videocassettes grew 230 percent between 1980 and 1993, while 
box-office receipts fell 20 percent during the same period.

Household expenditures on video cassettes amounted to USD 567.63 
million, including rentals (USD 63.94 million) and sales (USD 503.69 
million).  Household expenditures on laser disks amounted to USD 15.75 
million, a 19.82 percent decrease compared with 1993 figures (19.65 
million).  Laser disks represented 3.12 percent of 1994 video cassette 
sales.

In 1994, video sales were broken down as follows: French films accounted 
for 6.5 percent, foreign films for 44.5 percent, special event videos 
for children for 35 percent, while other video recording accounted for 
the remaining 14.0 percent of sales.

                                   1994          1995        1996

A. Total Market size              763.46         779          792
B. Total Local Production         243.23         248          252
C. Total Exports                   73.40          75           76
D. Total Imports                  593.63         605          616
E. Total Imports from U.S.        513.71         524          533
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1          FRF 5.50      FRF 5.0   FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

12 - AVIONICS AND GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (APG)

The United States is France's leading foreign supplier of avionics and 
ground support equipment with approximately 45 percent share of the 
import market.  

Long term U.S. suppliers to the Airbus program include, Allied Signal, 
Auxitrol, BF Goodrich, Fairchild, Litton, Raychem, Rockwell-Collins, 
Rohr, Sundstrand, among others.  These firms could offer opportunities 
for small and medium sized firms to enter the market. 

In spite of pessimistic projections by trade specialists for the short 
term, some sub-sectors may still offer potential to France.  Demand for 
on-board telecommunications (SATCOM) and entertainment (Video Equipment) 
is expected to increase.  The French company Alcatel Telspace is 
developing an European network TFTS (Terrestrial Flight Telephone 
System) that will permit in-flight passengers to be connected to public 
lines.  According to media reports, however, TFTS is several years 
behind its American counterpart.

Modernization and expansion programs are underway at international 
airports in Paris, Marseilles, and Lyon.  The Paris Airport Authority is 
spending USD 1.4 to upgrade Orly and greatly expand Roissy-Charles de 
Gaul.  There is also a project to enlarge Marseilles Provence Airport, 
expanding total capacity to 90,000 spm before the year 2000.  At Lyon, a 
four-year expansion program is underway, designed to turn Lyon-Satolas 
Airport into an international connecting hub with a focus on intermodal 
transportation.

                                 1994          1995          1996

A. Total Market Size             1,880          1,839         1,866
B. Total Local Production        4,512          4,413         4,479
C. Total Exports                 3,760          3,677         3,732
D. Total Imports                 1,128          1,103         1,120
E. Total Imports from U.S.         450            440           447
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1        FRF 5.50       FRF 5.00     FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

13 - MEDICAL EQUIPMENT (MED)

The French medical equipment sector continues to grow at levels 
commensurate with the population increase and extended life expectancy.  
The recent growth of U.S. medical procedures and techniques in France 
such as (outpatient) same day surgery should benefit U.S. medical 
product manufacturers.  Along with products used by the elderly and 
home-medical care recipients, these products will be in great demand in 
the future.  

The current strain on public budgets has re-emphasized the importance of 
the price/quality factor, as well as a need for more cost-effective 
equipment.  Since up to 70 percent of all French medical costs are 
reimbursed, there has been a historical tendency for health-care 
providers and patients to overconsume and pay little attention to costs.  
Such overconsumption has endangered the social security system and 
caused health-care professionals to become more price-sensitive.  This 
shift in priorities provides opportunities for suppliers of price-
competitive products.  

American products also enjoy a positive reputation in France.  They are 
perceived to feature the latest technology and to be of high quality and 
well-serviced.  This opinion is reinforced by French trade publications, 
scientific journals and, most importantly, by word-of-mouth among the 
various end-users.  In sum, the French market is large and receptive to 
American products.

The best sales prospects for medical equipment include newly developed 
areas such as non invasive surgery, orthopedic and disposable medical 
equipment.  The medical equipment sector depends highly on imports, 
mainly from the U.S., followed by Germany, Japan and Italy.


                                   1994          1995          1996

A.  Total Market Size              2,086          2,149          2,213
B.  Total Local Production         1,042          1,040          1,046
C.  Total Exports                    526            550            577
D.  Total Imports                  1,570          1,660          1,766
E.  Total Imports from U.S.          392            415            440
F.  Exchange Rate:                FRF 5.50      FRF 5.00      FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.


14 - DEFENSE INDUSTRY EQUIPMENT (DFN)

France has arguably the largest and most sophisticated armed forces in 
Europe.  The budget to sustain this force structure and the size of the 
French defense industry point to a potentially huge export market.  On 
the other hand, national defense is at the core of an established 
industrial policy that favors indigenous development over procurement 
from non-French sources.  Actual exports to the French defense 
establishment are mainly European exports in the scope of common 
european defense programs.  Imports increased by more than 100 percent 
over the past ten years -- much of the increase benefiting U.S. 
suppliers.  In order to be successful in France, U.S. defense firms need 
to establish a permanent presence, they must understand the role of the 
Delegation General for Armament (DGA); on a case by case basis, they 
could be required to offer offsets, and, for large programs, they need a 
French partner.   U.S. export opportunities are still viable in cases 
where French concerns cannot justify parallel development.  Most U.S. 
companies enter the French market as a subcontractor.   

Source: DGA, EIA, and post files 

                                  1994            1995           1996

A. Total Market Size             21,203         21,588        20,508
B. Total Local Production        34,005         34,685        32,950
C. Total Exports                 13,602         13,847        13,155
D. Total Imports                    800            750           713
E. Total Imports from U.S.          416            400           428
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00   FRF 5.50       FRF 5.0      FRF 5.1

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

15 - AUTOMOTIVE PARTS AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT (APS)
  
French automobile equipment industry sales increased a small 1.5 percent 
in 1994, largely due to governmental measures. Prospects for 1995 are 
looking better, with a probable two figure increase.  

Aftermarket sales, particularly since the implementation of mandatory 
inspections for vehicles over 5 years old, are expected to profit from 
this increase. Two major segments of the aftermarket sector (tires and 
lubricants) show that the general environment is favorable: Market size 
for car lubricants in 1994 was up 0.8 percent in the replacement market 
and up 14 percent in the O.E.M market. Tires experienced an overall + 
12.7 percent increase in volume.

In 1994, the market share of the automotive parts sold by independent 
networks, agents, and distributors rose by 3 points while those sold by 
manufacturers declined by 2 points.  Because of lower overhead costs, 
auto centers have become very popular with DIY car repairers as part 
prices are very competitive and on-the-spot servicing is also available.  
There has been an increasing development of auto centers specializing in 
tire and oil replacement in large supermarkets and malls.

                                    1994          1995           1996

A. Total Market Size                11,905       12,499        12,749
B. Total Local Production           14,817       15,557        15,868
C. Total Exports                    10,371       10,889        11,107
D. Total Imports                     7,459        7,831         7,988
E. Imports from the U.S.               372          391           400
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00          FRF 5.50    FRF 5.00     FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.


16 - AUTOMOBILES AND LIGHT TRUCKS (AUT)

In 1994, the French vehicle fleet represented approximately 29,450,000 
automobiles.  France manufactured 3,175,213 private cars in 1994, a 11.9 
percent increase from 1993.  Of these, 1,975,436 were exported.  During 
the same period, France imported (and registered) 765,521 vehicles, 
representing 38.8 percent of the country's 1,972,919 registered 
vehicles.  Industry experts expect car sales to stablize in 1995 to 
around a 2 to 4 percent sales increase.
  
Electric vehicles constitute an important market trend.  French car 
manufacturers Automobiles Renault and Peugeot PSA will be launching 
three electric car models in September 95. To date, France has 
approximately 1,500 electric vehicles equipped with either lead-acid or 
nickel-cadmium batteries. Trade specialists predict that 200,000 
vehicles will be operating in major European cities within 10 years, and 
that sales of electric cars will reach 50,000 units annually by the year 
2000. 

Small city cars, such as the Mercedes-Swatch project, with hybrid 
propulsion (electric/diesel or gas engines) are also a trend in 
development. This model is expected to reach consumers in 1997.

                                1994             1995            1996

A. Total Market Size            53,974        53,944         57,008
B. Total Local Production       59,770        62,160         63,348
C. Total Exports                27,501         26,728         27,262
D. Total Imports                19,905        20,512          20,922
E. Imports from the U.S.        298             304               310
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00      FRF 5.50     FRF 5.00      FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

17 - POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT & SERVICES (POL)

The French market for pollution control equipment and services continues 
to grow steadily as a result of French legislation and European 
Directives.  Landfill management techniques, waste incineration, 
recycling methods, bio-remediation of contaminated sites, increased 
emphasis on monitoring and limiting air pollution are all important 
issues being addressed by the Ministry for the Environment.  New taxes 
are being levied on the disposal of industrial wastes to pay for the 
clean-up of some 700 polluted sites throughout France.  Additional sites 
are expected to be identified in the near future.  

As a result of European directives, French authorities have developed a 
long-term plan to bring France's environmental standards to a level 
comparable to those enforced in other EU countries.  For example, 
massive investment programs in waste water treatment infrastructure will 
be spent over the next ten to fifteen years.  

The difficulty in evaluating an industry composed of so many often 
unrelated markets (i.e. analytical instruments, trash containers, 
incineration ovens or bio-remediation chemicals), is that most 
manufacturers of equipment for use in environmental applications also 
produce a broad range of unrelated products.  However, the sales figures 
from these firms consolidate the sales of both their environmental and 
non-environmental products.

U.S. firms active in France provide high-tech, innovative and unique 
solutions to controlling pollution.  Competition from nearby European 
countries is high, particularly from Germany, U.K., Sweden, Netherlands 
and Switzerland.

The pollution control equipment sector includes the production of goods 
and services for measuring, preventing, limiting, or treating 
environmental damage including the pollution of water, air, and land, 
noise pollution, and waste.  Due to exchange rate fluctuations between 
1994 and 1996, the growth rate of this sector appears to be declining in 
terms of dollars, but is in fact growing in terms of units.

                                   1994          1995          1996

A. Total Market Size:            13,498        15,590       16,049
B. Total Local Production:       20,564        23,299       23,985
C. Total Exports:                10,440        11,536       11,768
D. Total Imports:                 3,375         3,828        3,833
E. Total Imports from U.S.:         243            285         307
F. Exchange Rate:              FRF 5.50       FRF 5.00    FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

18 - PUMPS, VALVES AND COMPRESSORS (PUC)

The French valve market is the largest in Europe and one of the most 
competitive, generating USD 2.1 billion in local sales and exports.  
From 1988 to 1994 the French market experienced an average 8.5 percent 
annual growth rate, with a period of contraction in 1992-1993.  The taps 
were re-opened in 1994 as the market flowed at a healthy 7.9 percent 
rate of growth.

The industrial valve sector generally followed the same pattern, but 
exceeded expectations in 1994 by posting a sales volume of USD 560 
million (up from USD 460 million in 1993).  Activity in the industrial 
valve sector represents 60 percent of the total valve market.  
French companies retain control of the domestic market for regulation 
valves, and are leaders in the production of "high security" valves.  
However, the presence of foreign companies is growing stronger.  In 
fact, imports contribute 35 percent to the total industrial valve 
market.  With 10 percent of the import market share, the U.S. is the 
third largest source of imported valves and maintains leading import 
positions in security valves, check valves and steel gate valves.  
With USD 850 million the French pump market is the largest in Europe and 
certainly one of the most competitive vis-a-vis the number of firms 
present as well as the level of technology requested.  Cutback in the 
nuclear program have reduced the demand for large industrial pumps, but 
nuclear applications still represent 28 percent of the global market.
Focus has been shifted to water treatment applications, which represent 
50 percent of the market and which are expanding due to the continuous 
need for infrastructure and public funds directed to those programs.  In 
1994, France pump imports represented more than USD 930 million. Germany 
is by far the largest supplier, leading the U.S., Spain and Italy.

France 's compressor market is valued at USD 400 million.  This sector 
is largely dominated by foreign firms that often have production 
facilities in France or control French firms.  The U.S. has a strong 
position thanks to world-wide leading companies such as Ingersoll-Rand 
and Dresser.

                               1994         1995             1996

A. Total Market Size          2,750        3,000            3,100
B. Total Local Production     2,950        3,300            3,180
C. Total Exports              2,200        2,650            2,740
D. Total Imports              2,200        2,450            2,525
E. Total Imports from U.S.      270          295              300
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00   FRF 5.50     FRF 5.00       FRF 5.10

The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

19 - TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT (TEL)

France Telecom operates virtually all public communications networks in 
France.  Among these are the public switched telephone network (PSTN), 
packet-switched data network, telex network, private leased circuits, 
mobile communications networks, and the integrated services digital 
network (ISDN) known as Numeris.  The French network uses digital, 
fiber-optic and terrestrial microwave systems and is generally 
considered to be one of the most advanced and reliable systems in 
operation.

The number of telephone lines installed in 1994 reached 31.6 million, 
including Numeris-ISND Access lines.  With a receiver for every 1.5 
inhabitants, France ranks behind the United States and Canada and ahead 
of Germany, United Kingdom and Italy.

In 1993, France represented an estimated 4.1 percent of the world market 
for telecommunications equipment.  Current growth trends indicate that 
France, for several years to come, will be one of the world's most 
attractive markets for mobile infrastructure, satellite antennae, 
optical fiber, telephone sets, mobile telephones and pagers, and fax 
machines.

All the hardware and software used by France Telecom is purchased from 
the private sector, thereby accounting for a large share of the nation's 
telecommunications equipment acquisitions.  France Telecom is also a 
major buyer of customer premises equipment (CPE), although private 
companies currently dominate this market.  With robust growth in this 
sector, and the expansion that is expected to accompany European 
telecommunications deregulation in 1998, American companies should be 
prepared to take advantage of the manifold sales opportunities presented 
by the French market.


                                 1994         1995           1996

A.  Total Market Size           3,692         3,810         3,881
B.  Total Local Production      4,759         4,900         5,010
C.  Total Exports               1,653         1,850         1,970
D.  Total Imports                 586           760           841
E.  Total Imports from U.S.       120           142           150
F.  Exchange Rate: USD 1.00   FRF 5.50      FRF 5.00     FRF 5.10

The figures above are unofficial estimates.

B.  BEST PROSPECTS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 

New market opportunities (or current opportunities which need to be 
heavily targeted) in France for U.S. agricultural exporters exist in a 
number of areas: fresh fruits and vegetables (particularly tropical and 
exotic), fruit juices and other beverages, including flavored spring 
waters, frozen foods (both ready-to-eat meals and specialty products 
like pizza and ice cream), snack foods such as cookies, chips and nuts, 
"ethnic" products featuring distinctive themes and flavors such as Tex-
Mex, Cajun or California-style cuisine's, seafood (particularly salmon), 
wild rice, innovative dietetic and health products, organic products, 
soups, breakfast cereals and pet foods.

Listed below are 6 agricultural sectors which FAS France considers "best 
prospects" for U.S. business (figures in USD millions): 

RANK                TOTAL IMPORTS      SECTOR SYMBOL NAME
                       FROM U.S.

-                       61             MISC. FOOD PREPARATIONS;
                                       -INCL SOUPS, SAUCES & ICECREAMS

-                       70             PROCESSED FRUITS & VEGETABLES,
                                        - INCL. FRUIT JUICES

-                      125             FISH AND SEAFOOD, FRESH OR FROZEN

-                      115             WOOD

-                       12             BEVERAGES, INCLUDING MINERAL   
                                       WATER, BEER, WINE AND SPIRITS

-                      115              FRESH AND DRIED FRUITS; 
                                        INCLUDING NUTS

Rank: n/a
Name of Sector: FRESH AND DRIED FRUITS; INCLUDING NUTS
HS Code: 08

                                 1994           1995           1996
                                 (Jan-Dec)       (P)            (F)

A. Total Market Size             3,790          3,900          4,020
B. Total Local Production        2,519          2,595          2,672
C. Total Exports                 1,226          1,265          1,300
D. Total Imports                 2,497          2,570          2,650
E. Total Imports from U.S.         125            135            145
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00 = FRF 5.55

Rank: n/a
Name of Sector: WOOD
HS Code: 44

                           1994           1995           1996
                          (Jan-Dec)       (P)              (F)

A. Total Market Size         2,924          2,985          3,045
B. Total Local Production    2,630          2,680          2,735
C. Total Exports             1,728          1,765          1,795
D. Total Imports             2,022          2,062          2,103
E. Total Imports from U.S.     113            115            120
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00 = FRF 5.55

Rank: n/a
Name of Sector: FISH AND SEAFOOD, FRESH OR FROZEN
HS Code: 03

                            1994           1995           1996
                           (Jan-Dec)       (P)            (F)

A. Total Market Size        2,804          2,860          2,920
B. Total Local Production   1,452          1,480          1,510
C. Total Exports              778            795            800
D. Total Imports            2,130          2,175          2,220
E. Total Imports from U.S.     97            100            105
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00 = FRF 5.55 

Rank: n/a
Name of Sector: PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, INCLUDING FRUIT JUICES
HS Code: 20

                              1994           1995           1996
                              (Jan-Dec)       (P)            (F)

A. Total Market Size          4,787          4,885          4,980
B. Total Local Production     4,126          4,210          4,295
C. Total Exports                851            870            885
D. Total Imports              1,512          1,540          1,570
E. Total Imports from U.S.       68             70             75
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00 = FRF 5.55

Rank: n/a
Name of Sector: MISCELLANEOUS FOOD PREPARATIONS; INCLUDING SOUPS, SAUCES 
AND ICE CREAMS
HS Code: 21

                                 1994             1 995          1996
                                 (Jan-Dec)       (P)              (F)     
 
A. Total Market Size            4,279          4,320          4,360
B. Total Local Production       5,276          5,360          5,435
C. Total Exports                1,745          1,800          1,850
D. Total Imports                  748            760            775
E. Total Imports from U.S.         54             56             60
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00 = FRF 5.55

Rank: n/a
Name of Sector: BEVERAGES, INCLUDING MINERAL WATER, BEER, WINE AND 
SPIRITS
HS Codes: 22.01 to 22.06 and 22.07 + 22.08


                             1994            1995         1996
                             (Jan-Dec)       (P)           (F)

A. Total Market Size         11,869          12,105       12,350
B. Total Local Production    17,838          18,190       18,555
C. Total Exports              7,334           7,480        7,630
D. Total Imports              1,365           1,390        1,420
E. Total Imports from U.S.       31              35           40
F. Exchange Rate: USD 1.00 = FRF 5.55



         CHAPTER VI.  TRADE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS

A.  Tariffs and Import Taxes

The member states of the European Union have established a Community 
Integrated Tariff (TARIC) system, under which duties are applied to 
imports from non-EU countries.  TARIC was established by the 1958 Treaty 
of Rome as part of the European Economic Community (EEC).

The duties levied on imports from non-EU countries, including the United 
States, are moderate.  Most raw materials enter duty-free or at low 
rates, while most manufactured goods are subject to rates of between 5 - 
17 percent.  Most agricultural product imports are covered by the Common 
Agricultural Policy (CAP), under which many items are subject to 
variable levies designed to equalize the prices of imported commodities 
with those produced in the EU.

France and other EU member states extend varying preferential tariff 
treatment to imports from the African, Caribbean and Pacific developing 
countries (under the Lome Conventions), several French and Dutch 
territories and departments, Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, 
Israel, Malta, Cyprus, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.  Tariff preferences 
are also extended to over 100 developing countries under the Generalized 
System of Preferences (GSP).

To export consumer-ready food products to France, a U.S. exporter should 
consider market access restrictions and food laws.  Most processed 
products entering the European Union and France are subject to 
additional import charges based on the percentage of sugar, milk fat, 
milk protein and starch in the product.   These additional import 
charges may make certain imported processed products non-competitive in 
the European market, vis-a-vis similar products produced in the EU.  The 
situation should improve over the next few years because these charges 
will be converted to fixed tariff equivalents and reduced under the 
Uruguay Round Agreement.  Interested U.S. exporters should contact the 
Office of Agricultural Affairs for up-to-date information on this issue.

The EU tariff schedule is based on the Customs Cooperation Council 
Nomenclature (CCCN), also referred to as the Harmonized System.  This 
system was introduced to provide a standard tariff classification regime 
for all products imported and exported throughout the world.

B.  Trade Barriers

U.S. companies sometimes complain of France's complex technical 
standards and of unduly long testing procedures.  Testing requirements 
(which must usually be done in France) and standards sometimes appear to 
exceed reasonable requirement levels needed to assure proper performance 
and safety.  Most of the complaints have involved electronics, 
telecommunications equipment and agriculture phytosanitary standards.

The 1989 EU Broadcast Directive requiring a "majority proportion" of 
programming to be of European origin was incorporated into French 
legislation on January 21, 1992.  France, however, specifies a 
percentage of European programming (60 percent) and French programming 
(40 percent).  These broadcast quotas were approved by the EU Commission 
and became effective on July 1, 1992.  They are less stringent than 
France's previous quota provisions which required that 60 percent of all 
broadcasts be of EU origin and that 50 percent be originally produced in 
French.  The 60 percent European/40 percent French quotas are applicable 
throughout the day, as well as during prime time slots.  The prime time 
rules go beyond the requirements of the EU Broadcast Directive and will 
limit the access of U.S. programs to the French market.  Nevertheless, 
the market share of U.S. films and television shows remains high.

The French government has recently revised its legal services system.  
Non-EU lawyers may no longer practice as legal consultants and are 
required to qualify as "avocats," on the basis of full-fledged 
membership in the French bar.  Under the implementing legislation which 
went into effect on January 29, 1993, this means that non-EU lawyers 
will have to pass either a "short-form" exam  or the full French bar 
exam.  Non-EU lawyers will qualify for a "short-form" exam provided they 
are able to prove that the foreign state or territorial unit in which 
they practice allows French lawyers to practice law "under the same 
conditions."  Failing that, they will have to take the full French bar 
exam.  Due to EU regulations, France is required to recognize law 
degrees for EC nationals but not third country nationals.  Nevertheless, 
non-French EU lawyers, who are also required to qualify as "avocats", 
may do so via exams less stringent that those for non-EU lawyers.  
Meaningful access will now hinge on how implementing regulations are 
administered, including the interpretation of what is meant by granting 
access on a 'reciprocal basis' and the nature of the exam to be imposed 
on the non-EU lawyers.

C.  Customs Valuation

Import duties are calculated on an ad valorem basis, i.e. expressed as a 
percentage of the value of the imported goods.  This dutiable value is 
the "transaction value" plus freight, insurance, commissions, and all 
other charges and expenses incidental to the sale and delivery of the 
goods to the point of entry into EU customs territory.  The invoice 
price will normally be accepted as the transaction value if the seller 
and the buyer are not related.

Under Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 
there are four additional methods for the determination of customs 
valuation in the event that the method described above is rejected by 
customs authorities.

These methods are to be applied in the following order: (1) the 
transaction value of incidental goods; (2) the transaction value of 
similar goods; (3) the deduction method, i.e. the resale price, less 
such costs as customs duties, taxes and commissions; and (4) the 
computed value, utilizing costs of production, profit, and other 
expenses.

D.  Internal Taxes

In addition to the duties levied under the Common External Tariff, goods 
imported into France are also subject to a Value Added Tax (VAT).  
Currently, the VAT in France is generally charged at one of two rates:

     - the standard rate of 18.6 percent
     - the reduced rate of 5.5 percent, applicable mostly to 
agricultural  products and foodstuffs, original artworks and certain 
medicines.

VAT must be added to the price of all goods and services sold in France 
in connection with an industrial or commercial activity.  The supplier 
of any goods or service bills his customer at his selling price, plus 
the amount of VAT at the applicable rate.  The supplier collects the 
full amount, subtracts his own VAT expenditures from the total amount of 
VAT collected, and periodically pays over the difference to the tax 
authorities.   

E.   Export Controls
     
France cooperates with her trading partners, including the U.S., to 
control the export of products and technologies with potentially 
strategic applications.  There are no restrictions or regulations on the 
export of merchandise from France, with the exception of strategic 
products (including arms and dual-use technologies) and antiques.  
Before exporting these items, special license must be obtained from 
customs officials to insure that the objects being exported are not a 
part of the national heritage of France.

Information on U.S. export controls is available from:
     Office of Export Administration
     U.S. Department of Commerce
     Washington,  DC  22030
     Tel: (202) 482-4811

For overseas companies: (202) 482-2547

F.  Import/Export Documentation

Import and export transactions exceeding FRF 250,000 in value must be 
conducted through an approved banking intermediary.  Goods must be 
imported/exported no later than six months after all financial and 
customs arrangements have been completed.

For products originating in countries other than EU member states or 
participants in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and 
for a limited number of products considered to be sensitive, a specific 
import/export license may be required by product or by category of 
products.  Otherwise, the following documents are required to import 
into France:

Shipping Documents.  The documents generally required by France on all 
sea and air shipments from the United States include the commercial 
invoice, the bill of landing or air waybill, and a certificate of 
origin.

Commercial Invoice.  As in a domestic transaction, the commercial 
invoice is a bill for the goods from the buyer to the seller.  No 
special form of commercial invoice is prescribed; the firm's letterhead 
may be used.  The invoice should contain the following details both in 
English and French:

--     Names and addresses of seller and buyer.
--     Place and date the invoice was prepared.
--     Method of shipment.
--     Number, kind and markings of the packages and their numerical 
order.
--     Exact description of the goods-customary commercial description 
according to kind, quality, grade, etc., with special emphasis on 
factors increasing or decreasing their value.
--     Quantity of goods, expressed in units customary in international 
trade.
--     Agreed price of the goods (unit cost, total cost, including 
shipping and insurance charges, as well as other expenses charged to the 
costs of the goods).
--     Delivery and payment terms.
--     Although not a requirement, it is advisable to have the signature 
of a responsible official of the exporting firm on each invoice.

Bill of Landing or Airway bill.  This is a contract between the owner of 
the goods and the carrier.  Either a straight or negotiable bill of 
landing is acceptable.  No consular formalities are required, and 
shipments may be made freight collect.

Certificate of Origin.  This document certifies that the goods entering 
French territory are made in the United States, and thus are subject to 
the duties, taxes and restrictions that apply to U.S. goods.  Although 
certificates of origin are not expressly required for all imports into 
France, they are strongly recommended.  If a shipment is not accompanied 
by a certificate of origin, it may be held up by customs.  French 
authorities accept certificates of origin certified by local U.S. 
chambers of commerce.

Other Documents.  Information on documents required for exportation to 
France of agricultural products (including food items), plants and 
animals is available from the Foreign Agricultural Service of the 
Department of Agriculture.  Owing to the complexities of these 
regulations, U.S. exporters should also obtain information directly from 
the importer prior to shipment.

For information on duties, taxes, and documentation, contact one of the 
following two offices:

Office of European Community Affairs
U.S. Department of Commerce
14th & Constitution, Rm. 3314
Washington, D.C. 20230
Tel: (202) 482-2905
Fax: (202) 482-2155

Centre de Renseignements des Douanes
23, rue de l'Universite
75007 Paris France 
Tel: (33-1) 40-24-65-10
Fax: (33-1) 40-24-65-30

G.  Temporary Entry

Samples and Carnets.  Samples of no commercial value enter France free 
of duties and taxes.  When sending such samples parcel post, the sender 
must specify what type of samples are being shipped.  "No commercial 
value" should be written on the appropriate shipping documents.

In order for samples of commercial value to enter France duty- and tax-
free, a bond or deposit of the total amount of duties and taxes must be 
arranged.  Samples must be reexported within one year if the deposit is 
to be recouped.  An alternative to placing such a deposit is applying 
for an ATA Carnet.

ATA Carnet.  An ATA carnet is a special international customs document 
designed to simplify and streamline customs entry procedures for 
merchandise into participation countries for up to one year.  The 
initials "ATA" are an abbreviation of the French and English words 
"Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission."  Customs authorities in the 
United States and France accept carnets as a guarantee that all customs 
duties and excise taxes will be paid if any of the items covered by the 
carnet are not reexported within the time period allowed.  Carnets may 
be used for commercial samples, professional equipment, and goods 
destined for exhibitions and fairs.

To enquire about or apply for an ATA Carnet, contact the U.S. Council 
for International Business:

USCIB
1212 Avenue of The Americas
New York, NY 10036
Tel: (212) 354-4480
Fax: (212) 575-0327

H.  Labeling and Marking Requirements

Labeling must provide consumers with precise information which answers 
six basic questions about the product:

--  What is it?
--  What is it used for?
--  What is it made of?
--  What does it cost?
--  How is it used?
--  When should it be used?

As labeling is strictly controlled in France, the answers are found in 
many regulatory texts.

U.S. firms entering the French market are strongly advised to examine EU 
as well as French laws.  Each EU country is integrating the rulings of 
the EU into its national legislation.  As much legislation regarding 
labeling is still in the developmental stage, EU labeling regulations 
and standards need to be carefully monitored.

For agricultural products, the Office of Agricultural Affairs has an up-
to-date extensive listing of labeling and packaging regulations and 
requirements on a product by product basis.

Labeling in France serves an increasingly informational and even 
promotional role.  Labels often act as "silent salespeople," especially 
due to the recent growth of large retail stores offering little sales 
assistance.

Basic Labeling Requirements.  Though many labeling regulations are 
sector related, the following information is generally required for all 
categories of products:

Language:  Labels must be written in French.  Any foreign words or 
abbreviations must have been authorized must have been authorized by 
French or international law.  The writing must be clear and non-
promotional.

Designation:  State what the product is.  For example: "olive oil."

Brand Names/Trademarks:  Any names, symbols and marks relating to the 
product must be found on the exterior of the packaging, the product 
label, and the bottle-top or lid, as the case applies.  Registered brand 
names and trademarks can only be used by the manufacturer.

Composition:  All ingredients or materials constituting the product must 
be listed.

Usage Instructions:  Explain how the product is to be used.

Required Dates: These include when the product was made, the consumption 
limit for perishable items, and recommended "use by" date for pre-
packaged and frozen food products.

Qualifiers:  For example: "made by hand" on leather goods.

Name/Address of Manufacturer or Vendor

Specifications:  Labels must inform the consumer of any particular 
product limitations or sales conditions.

Price: The price (including all taxes) must be marked on all pre-
packaged goods, unless they are sold by mail-order.

Bar Code Price Labeling (GENCOD):  Stores are increasingly using this 
system to speed up the passage of clients at cash registers.  GENCOD, 
France's bar code price labeling system, is generally used for products 
with a low per-unit value and rapid turnover, as well as for food and 
non-food products requiring an individual price marking because of their 
value, nature, or presentation.

Quality and Ecological Labels.  More established quality seals and 
labels exist in France than in any other European country.  Though 
desirable because they offer extra information to the customer, they are 
not mandatory.

Quality Labels:  There are two types of French quality certificates:

- Certificates issued by professional associations; each must be 
contacted individually for more information.  For a list of professional 
associations, contact the Consul National du Patronat Francais (CNPF):

CNPF
31, avenue Pierre-1er-de-Serbie
75784 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: (33-1) 40-69-44-44
Fax: (33-1) 47-23-47-32

- Certificates issued by AFNOR, which controls the coveted and highly 
regarded French "NF" Mark.  This quality seal certifies that a product 
complies with all applicable French standards.

Environmental Labels:  AFNOR also issues the "NF Environment" label, 
which certifies that a specific product meets the environmental criteria 
to qualify for an NF mark.  This label is only available for a limited 
number of goods, as it is still in the early stages of development.  
Currently, an "NF Environment" label can be issued for paints, 
lubricants, trash bags, household chemicals, heating equipment, 
cosmetics, insulating materials and papers.

The member states of the European Union are currently developing a 
European Ecolabel, which would certify products as environmentally 
friendly across the EU.  AFNOR is the issuer of the Ecolabel for 
products manufactured in, first marketed in, or imported to France. An 
Ecolabel can already be issued for washing machines and dishwashers.  
There are a further twenty-five products for which certification 
criteria are currently being drawn up by member states.

For information on the "NF" and the "NF Environment" marks, contact 
AFNOR directly.
(see section J)

I.  Prohibited Imports

While not traditionally considered to be a "closed market", certain 
regulations exist in both France and the EU which limit the market 
access for specific U.S. agricultural exports.  The ongoing 
harmonization of EU import regulations will hopefully result in the 
revocation of several French regulations that currently prohibit the 
importation of some agricultural and food products.  Products which are 
subject to restrictive regulations include: poultry meat, enriched 
flour, genetic material, "exotic meats" such as alligator and buffalo, 
crayfish, and certain fruits and vegetables which are subject to 
seasonal price restrictions.  Other fruits such as pineapples and 
bananas are subject to import certificates.  Fresh vegetables such as 
artichokes, cucumbers, eggplants, tomatoes, lettuce, and squash are also 
subject to seasonal price restrictions.

J.  Standards

U.S. exporters should note that all goods entering France should conform 
to French and European Union standards.  This is mandatory for all 
products satisfying publicly- funded contracts, as well as for all 
machinery, tools, household appliances, sporting equipment, toys, etc.  
Conformity is generally optional for other goods satisfying private 
contracts.  Products which meet French and EU standards have increased 
marketability.

These standards often differ substantially from those in the U.S. In 
many cases, particularly with goods of a technologically complex or 
potentially harmful nature, rigorous testing and approval procedures 
must be undertaken before the goods in question can be sold in France.

Although one of the goals of the European Union is to harmonize 
standards across the twelve EU member states, many of these EU standards 
remain in the developmental stage.  Where an EU standard does not 
currently exist, French standards apply.

United States companies often complain of France's complex standards and 
of unduly long testing procedures.  Testing requirements sometimes 
appear to exceed reasonable requirement levels needed to ensure proper 
performance and safety.  Most of the complaints have involved 
electronics, telecommunications equipment, medical/veterinary equipment, 
and agricultural phytosanitary products.

Mutual Recognition Agreements covering the testing and certification of 
specified regulated products have been proposed to permit U.S. companies 
to obtain product certification in the United States which will be 
recognized by the EU members.  Such recognition will enable U.S. firms 
to market their products throughout the EU and could eliminate the 
expense of multiple testing and certification procedures.   However, 
certain regulated products covered by MRA's may still be required to 
have some testing or evaluation done in Europe.  MRA's have been 
proposed in the following sectors: telecommunications terminal 
equipment, medical devices, pressure equipment and simple pressure 
vessels, personal protective equipment, visual display units, 
construction projects, lawn mower noise, recreational craft, equipment 
for use in explosive atmospheres, and measuring devices.    

The National Institute of Standards and Technology of the U.S. 
Department of Commerce is represented at the French International Bureau 
of Weights and Measures.  The Paris Embassy also has held and will 
continue to hold discussions with French standards organizations to 
press them to provide openness and transparency in the standards 
development process.

The Association Francais de Normalization (AFNOR) is the French 
authority in charge of coordinating the establishment of standards.  
AFNOR prepares new and revised standards, subjects them to public 
enquiry, and finally submits them to the relevant ministry for approval.  
Copies of the most up-to-date standards can be obtained directly from 
AFNOR:

AFNOR
Tour Europe
92049 Paris La Defense Cedex 7
Tel: (33-1) 42-91-56-55
Fax: (33-1) 42-91-56-56

Information on standards may also be requested from:

American National Standards Institute
11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Tel: (212) 642-4900; Fax: (212) 302-1286

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
National Center for Standards and Certification Information
U.S. Department of Commerce
Building 101, Rm. A-629
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
Tel: (301) 975-4040; Fax (301) 926-1559

EU Hotline (on draft standards of the CEN, CENELEC, and ETSI).
Tel: (301) 921-4164

Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. can assist U.S. exporters in und
understanding and complying with French and EU standards.  UL is 
authorized by the French government to test and certify electrical 
equipment:

Underwriters Laboratories
International Compliance Services Department
1285 Walt Whitman Road
Melville, NY 11747
Tel: (516) 271-6200; Fax: (516) 271-8259

Standards and testing for medical devices:

Commission National d'Homologation (CNH)
1, place de Fontenoy
75350  Paris  FRANCE
Tel: (331) 40 56 60 00; Fax: (331) 40 56 50 45

Laboratoire Nationale d'Essais
1, rue Gaston Boissier
75015  Paris  FRANCE
Tel: (331) 40 43 37 00; Fax: (331) 40 43 37 37 

Questions regarding standards and certification of machinery, heavy 
equipment, and plant facilities should be directed to U.S. the office of 
APAVE, the primary French technical inspection organization:

APAVE
American European Services, Inc.
Suite 120 1054 31st Street, NW
Washington, DC 20007

Standards - ISO 9000 Certification

The AFNOR (Association Francaise de Normalization) coordinates work and 
research relating to standardization in France.  AFNOR prepares new and 
revised standards, subjects them to public inquiry, and then submits 
them to the relevant ministry for approval.  It is the French branch of 
the European Standardization System (CEN) and a member of the 
International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Following EC harmonization policy, the official French standards or 
"Normes Francaises" (NF) are now in line with those of ISO 9000.  In 
France, compliance with national standards is mandatory for only 5% of 
the cases.  These are for the most part safety and health standards on 
the product itself.  However, one must bear in mind that ISO 9000 
certifies the company's management organization, not its products.  
Hence, the ISO 9000 certification will not necessarily fulfill these 
product-related requirements.  

The recognition and use of ISO 9000 in France is expanding at a very 
fast pace.  The ISO 9000 certification is never mandatory, but it 
increasingly plays a determining role, especially for sub-contracting 
companies.  Contracts between firms now often include a request for 
quality assurance.  In this respect, ISO 9000 is the most widespread and 
recognized quality management program in France.  
A source at AFNOR noted that ISO 9000 has become a great marketing tool 
in France, sometimes more cost-effective than advertising.  However, its 
efficiency as a marketing device varies from sector to sector.  ISO 9000 
is meant to provide quality recognition from firm to firm, rather than 
from a firm to end-users.  For sub-contractors in the public sector or 
in a heavily competitive field in the private sector, ISO 9000 generally 
provides added-value.  In fields such as those under EC directives (i.e. 
medical equipment) or subcontracting in the auto-industry, conformity to 
ISO 9000 is crucial to stay competitive.

The AFAQ (Association Francaise pour l'Assurance de la Qualite) is the 
French quality system registrar, which delivers ISO 9000 certifications.  
The AFAQ has issued approximately 1200 companies with ISO 9000 
certifications and it is estimated that about 200 more companies in 
France have the certification.  Requests are now booming, with 3500 
being processed by the AFAQ.  The certification takes about 6 months to 
complete.  A foreign company with an ISO 9000 certification from abroad 
simply needs to contact the AFAQ in order to be certified in France.  

The demand for ISO 9000 registration in France as well as in Europe 
comes primarily from the marketplace as a contractual rather than a 
regulatory requirement.  As compliance with the ISO 9000 standards 
becomes recognized and required by foreign and domestic buyers and used 
by manufacturers as a competitive marketing tool, the demand for ISO 
9000 conformity will increase.  It is therefore critical for 
manufacturers to determine what are their buyers' requirements regarding 
ISO 9000 compliance.

Useful Addresses:

AFNOR - Association Francaise de Normalization
Tour Europe 
92049 Paris La Defense Cedex 7
Tel: (33-1) 42 91 55 55
Fax: (33-1) 42 91 56 56

AFAQ - Association Francaise pour l'Assurance de la Qualite
B.P. 40
92224 Bagneux Cedex
Tel: (33-1) 46 11 38 50; (33-1) 46 11 37 11
Fax: (33-1) 46 11 37 10

In the United States:
AFAQ, Inc.
Woodfield Executive Center
1101 Perimeter Drive, Suite 450
Schaumburg, IL  60173 
Tel: (708) 330-0606
Fax: (708) 330-0707

AES - American European Services          
1054 31st Street, NW  Ste. 330
Washington, D.C. 20007
Tel: (202) 337-3214; Fax: (202) 337-3709

K.  Membership in Free Trade Zone/Warehouse Agreements

As a member of the European Union, France is subject to all European 
Union Free Trade Arrangements.  European Union laws and regulations 
provide that member states may designate parts of the customs territory 
of the Community as free trade zones and free warehouses.  Information 
on free trade zones and free warehouses is contained in Title IV, 
Chapter three, of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2913/92 of October 12, 
1992, establishing the Community Customs Code, titled, "Free Zones and 
Free Warehouses" (Articles 166 through 182).

Article 166 states that free zones and free warehouses are part of the 
customs territory of the Community or premises situated in that 
territory and separated from the rest of it in which:

     - Community goods are considered, for the purposes of import duties 
and commercial policy import measures, as not being on Community customs 
territory, provided they are not released for free circulation or placed 
under another customs procedure or used or consumed under conditions 
other that those provided for in customs regulations;

     - Community goods for which such provision is made under Community 
legislation governing specific fields qualify, by virtue of being placed 
in a free zone or free warehouse, for measures normally attaching to the 
export of goods.

Articles 167-182 details the customs control procedures, how goods are 
placed in or removed from free zones and free warehouses and their 
operation.

The use of free trade zones vary from member state to member state.  In 
France, the process of applying for the status of a free trade zone or 
free warehouse is administered by the Ministry of Economy/Budget at the 
following address: 
     
     Ministry of Economy/Finance
     139, rue de Bercy
     75572  Paris Cedex 12
     Tel: (33-1) 40 04 04 04

      
            CHAPTER VII.  INVESTMENT CLIMATE IN FRANCE

The French government actively courts foreign investment and has 
progressively liberalized its investment approval regime since the mid-
1980s.  Green field investments establishing new firms and acquisitions 
of smaller companies are no longer subject to prior approval, and the 
approval process for major acquisitions has become more transparent.  
With unemployment remaining high, and French government officials well 
aware that U.S. companies can now gain access to the entire EU market by 
investing in any EU country, attracting foreign investment has become a 
priority.  The stock of foreign investment in France continues to 
increase, and now represents a significant percentage of production in 
many sectors.  However, non-EU investors still do not receive full 
national or EU treatment in many sectors, and authorities in France 
continue to interfere more in the entry and operation of businesses than 
authorities in some other european countries.  In what will be a major 
reform, the French government has announced that it intends to abolish 
most remaining restrictions against non-European Union investors in 
order to attract foreign investment and to enhance the standing of Paris 
as a financial center. 

France offers a variety of financial incentives to foreign investors and 
its investment promotion agency, DATAR, provides extensive assistance to 
potential investors both in France and through its agencies around the 
world.  Using balance of payments data based on the historical book 
value of investment, the United States is the second largest foreign 
investor in France, with U.S. firms representing over 19 percent of the 
stock of foreign investment at the end of 1991.  However, this 
substantially understates the extent of U.S. investment.  Since U.S. 
firms have been in France a long time, using the book value instead of 
the market value of investments underestimates the value of U.S. 
investments compared to newer investments.  In addition, U.S. 
subsidiaries finance much of their expansions and acquisitions by 
borrowing in French financial markets, which is not included in balance 
of payments statistics.  Furthermore, according to French officials many 
investments made by firms in France's "largest" investor, the 
Netherlands, are holding companies set up to take advantage of tax 
regulations, and are really ultimately controlled by U.S. and other 
investors.  Correcting for these statistical biases they estimate that 
the U.S. is by far the largest investor in France, accounting for 36 
percent of total sales by foreign-owned subsidiaries.  U.S. subsidiaries 
in France account for about 3 percent of French non-bank business 
employment and non-banking private sector value-added.

A.  Openness to Foreign Investment

The French government actively courts inward foreign investment, which 
government officials now regard as an important source of new jobs.  
Over the last several years, French direct investment outflows have 
consistently exceeded inflows which has increased French officials' 
concerns about attractiveness of France's investment climate.  The 
government is fully aware that with the arrival of the single european 
market, investors can gain access to the French market from anywhere in 
the EU.  Accordingly, the domestic business and investment climate, 
rather than the performance of the French economy itself, has been 
recognized as key to attracting and retaining investment.

Notwithstanding the pro-investment attitude voiced by French officials, 
U.S. investors do not yet find a completely open, market-reliant 
approach on the part of the government.  The French state has a 
centuries old tradition of extensive control of business and the 
economy.  During the 1960s and 1970s the French authorities tended to 
take an ambivalent approach to foreign investment, with the positive 
aspects often being counterbalanced by misgivings over possible 
disadvantages of multinational or foreign domination of French industry.  
However, after a decade of rapid and comprehensive economic deregulation 
foreign investors in France now face much less interference from 
government officials.

B.  Authorization Process

The Ministry of Economics and Finance is responsible for regulating 
foreign investment in France.  Over the last several years, particularly 
due to reforms in 1990 and 1992, the French government has significantly 
liberalized prior approval requirements for foreign direct investment 
and now only requires, in many cases, after-the-fact notice.  For 
example, only notice is required for investments in new companies or 
start-ups (so-called greenfield investment) and for expansion of 
existing investments.  However, acquisitions, except for small 
unincorporated activities, continue to require prior approval from the 
government in a process that discriminates against non-EU investors.  
Economics Minister Madelin announced in July the government's intention 
to eliminate this latter Economics requirement in the near future. 

C.  Key Definitions

Direct Investment

The French authorities define direct investment as the purchase, 
creation or expansion of a business or any other operation that enables 
one or several persons to assume or increase control of a company or to 
expand a company already under their control.

Nationality of an Investor

French authorities determine the nationality of a company based on the 
residency of its ultimate beneficial owners, without regard as to place 
of incorporation.  The deciding factor is residency and not citizenship, 
so U.S. citizens legally residing in the U.K., for example, qualify as 
EU residents.  Also, firms incorporated in the European Union, but owned 
or controlled by American residents are deemed to be American.  

The French government defines publicly traded entities as non-EU 
investors if a physical person or a group of persons acting together, 
who are not EU residents, ultimately own more than 20 percent of a 
firm's capital, unless physical persons who are EU residents also own 
more than 50 percent of the firm's capital.  Thus, two shareholders of 
the investing company who were not EU residents and were not deemed to 
be acting in concert could each hold 19 percent of a firm's capital and 
the firm would still qualify as an EU investor.  In addition, if 21 
percent of a firm's shares are owned by a Japanese resident and 51 
percent of its shares are owned by EU residents, the firm would also 
qualify as an EU investor.  The French government defines non-publicly 
traded entities as non-EU investors if a physical person or a group of 
persons acting together, who are not EU residents, ultimately own or 
control more than 33.3 percent of a firm's capital, unless physical 
persons who are EU residents also own more than 50 percent of the firm's 
capital.  

However,  for both publicly and non-publicly traded firms, the French 
government retains the authority to declare that a firm is controlled by 
non-EU investors, even if the share of capital held by non-EU investors 
fell short of the thresholds noted above.  To determine whether non-EU 
investors control a firm, the French government could look, among other 
factors, at the residency of members of the board of directors, and the 
ability of non-EU investors to veto key management decisions, or 
commercial ties (such as loans, guarantees, options, licenses or 
contracts) if these factors effectively make the French company 
dependent on foreign investors.  

Firms wishing to qualify as EU investors must establish their status by 
filing an application with the Ministry of Economics and Finance before 
concluding an investment.  The Ministry then determines whether a firm 
qualifies as an EU investor, generally within 10-15 days.  The Office of 
Foreign Investments is responsible for administering the authorization 
process, and can be contacted at the following address:

Investissements Etrangers en France
Direction du Tresor
139 rue de Bercy
75012 Paris, France
Tel: (33-1) 44.87.72.43

D.  Investments Not Subject to Screening

The following activities do not require prior notification to, or 
approval by, French authorities:

-- creation of new enterprises or subsidiaries or expansion of existing 
investments;

-- liquidation of any direct investment;

-- an increase in control of a company by a foreign investor who already 
controls two-thirds of the company's shares or voting rights or an 
increase in a foreigner's investment that does not increase his 
percentage of control of the company;

-- mergers or other financial operations within a group of companies 
under the control of a foreign investor;

-- investment of less than FRF 10 million in real estate including 
unutilized agricultural land (except for vineyards);

-- investments of less than FRF 10 million in crafts and cottage 
industries; and

-- all investment activities (except those that affect the exercise of 
government functions, public order, public health or national security) 
by "established" EU investors.  To qualify as an "established" EU-
controlled firm, besides the nationality requirements noted above, 
businesses must have annual sales of more than FRF 1 billion and must 
have been in business for at least three years.  

E.  Investments Subject to Screening

Acquisitions other than those listed above face the following rules.  

--  For firms that are controlled by EU residents which do not qualify 
as "established," and for acquisitions by non-EU investors of French 
firms valued at less than FRF 50 million and with annual sales of less 
than FRF 500 million,  acquisitions are automatically approved.  
However, prior notification must be given to the Economics Ministry, 
which has 15 days to verify that the investor is an EU firm or that the 
French firm's sales or assets are under the thresholds.  

--  Acquisitions by non-EU investors and firms controlled by such 
investors must be first approved by the Ministry of Economics and 
Finance.  Acquisitions valued at over FRF 50 million or with sales of 
over FRF 500 million are considered approved automatically unless the 
economics ministry acts within 30 days of receipt of a complete 
investment application to delay approval or deny authorization.  
Acquisitions by non-EU investors may be denied authorization altogether 
if the French government determines that the acquisition is not in 
France's "national interest."  (Normally a specific reason, e.g., 
national security, would be cited in such a denial, but the French 
government has full discretion in deciding what is the "national 
interest.")   On July 10, Economics Minister Madelin announced that the 
government will soon eliminate this category of screening.

-- All acquisitions, irrespective of size or the nationality of the 
investors, involving the health, public order or the national security 
of France are also subject to this one month review.

The investment application itself generally includes essential financial 
and business information on the investing firm and the firm to be 
acquired as well as a summary of the investing firm's plans, 
particularly regarding employment.  While not legally enforceable as 
performance requirements, the French government officials monitor the 
fulfillment of these business plans and can call in the investor for 
consultations on them. 

F.  Screening in Practice

The French government has progressively liberalized the screening 
procedures over the last several years and claims that they now 
represent no more than a formality, particularly for U.S. investors.  
The French claim that the process is necessary both for national 
security reasons and to keep out undesirable, such as criminal 
investors.  They note that the overwhelming majority of applications are 
approved rapidly, and only a handful are rejected.  For applications 
from non-EU investors, the French government completes its decisions in 
an average of 12 calendar days.  According to French government 
officials, of the approximately 3000 applications which the Economics 
Ministry received 1992 and 1993, only 7 were rejected.  Five of the 
rejects involved Libyan or Syrian controlled firms and the rejections 
were part of U.N. sponsored economic sanctions.  One rejection involved 
a firm believed to be involved in international money laundering, and 
the other rejection was an African controlled company which the French 
government believed might take actions affecting French national 
security. Since the French government revised its screening regulations 
in 1990, no U.S. investment has been denied authorization.

While the authorization system involves relatively short delays, the 
process itself is not transparent nor are the criteria for rejection 
limited by law in any way.  Moreover, the continued imposition of a 
prior authorization requirement could put U.S. investors at a 
disadvantage compared to their EU and French competitors by increasing 
delay and uncertainty.  The system can lend itself to abuse by 
government officials used to taking an active role directing French 
business.  The 30 day waiting period for reviewing applications does not 
begin until the investor submits "all necessary information."  For 
example, in one instance, by requesting more information, the 
authorities restarted the clock and extended the review period.  In 
addition, by requesting more information or clarification, the 
authorities can exact explicit commitments from the investor regarding 
his intentions, particularly concerning potential plant closings or job 
cuts.  While such abuse of the process appears to be rare, the 
government's announced intention to eliminate the prior authorization 
requirement is a welcome development.

Several U.S. investors who have complained about the review process 
since 1990 had been in competition with a government-owned enterprise 
that had an interest in the acquisitions.  The future potential for such 
problems is likely to decline, as the French government sells off a 
large part of its shares in companies.  However, in those sectors where 
the French government is likely to maintain its interests, particularly 
in aircraft manufacturing, transportation, telecommunications, and 
financial services, there will continue to be a conflict between the 
French government's role as shareholder (either in the target entity or 
a domestic competitor of that entity or a competing investor) and 
regulator (either of inward investment or the sector in question.)

G.  Sectoral Investment Restrictions

Besides general screening of foreign investment, the French government 
restricts foreign investment in certain sectors.  French government 
officials argue that most of the sectoral restrictions have been imposed 
in response to sectoral restrictions in other countries, and in 
particular, the United States.  The French government has notified the 
OECD that in the following sectors it treats foreign investors 
differently than domestic investors and may treat foreign investors from 
different countries differently:

Agriculture

Residents of non-EU countries or groups of companies controlled by a 
majority of such nationals, who wish to acquire agricultural land must 
get approval from both the Economics Ministry and the local Agriculture 
Department. 

Aircraft Production

The French government limits the right of foreign investors to control 
firms engaged in aircraft construction.

Air Transport

The French government does not allow foreign-owned airlines to provide 
transportation between two cities in France (cabotage).  The French 
government grants landing rights to airlines from different countries 
based on bilateral air agreements.

Atomic Energy

The French government requires prior authorization for foreign-
controlled firms to undertake the following activities:  the use of 
artificial radio-elements, the operation of nuclear plants and 
installations dealing with liquid radioactive waste from such plans.  
The French government may also limit foreign investment in uranium 
mining, and the holding of fissile materials.

Audiovisual

Nationals of OECD countries that are not members of the EU may not hold, 
directly or indirectly, more than 20 percent of the capital or voting 
rights of a company that has been granted a license for radio and 
television broadcasting in the French language, unless the investors' 
home country allows French nationals to own more than 20 percent of such 
companies in that country under an international agreement.

Banking/Financial Services/Accounting Services

The French government may deny national treatment, in some 
circumstances, to non-EU companies in banking, securities brokers, and 
accounting services, and base treatment instead on reciprocity.  Article 
15-1 of the 1984 Banking Law, as revised, gives French banking 
authorities the right to prohibit banks controlled by non-EU investors 
from establishing or acquiring a credit institution, if the EU council 
or commission decides that banks controlled by EU investors do not have 
access to the foreign market or do not receive national treatment from 
the foreign government.

Defense Industry

The French government reserves the right to treat foreign-controlled 
firms differently than French-controlled firms involved in any activity 
directly or indirectly related to the national defense or armaments.  

Insurance

Enterprises with corporate headquarters in non-EU countries must obtain 
a license to operate in France.  For branches on non-EU countries, the 
French government will only grant a license for those types of insurance 
underwritten by the enterprise in its home country. The restriction does 
not apply to subsidiaries of non-EU firms.

Legal Services

The French government revised its legal services system in December 
1990, merging all legal professions into one category, that of 
"avocats."  All lawyers are now required to qualify as "avocats," based 
on full-fledged membership in the French bar.  For foreign 
practitioners, the ability to become a member of the French bar depends 
on whether or not one is an EU or foreign national.  Under the 
implementing legislation that went into effect on January 29, 1993, non-
EU lawyers must pass either a "short-form" exam or the full French bar 
exam.  Non-EU lawyers will qualify for a "short-form" exam provided they 
are able to prove that the foreign state or territorial unit in which 
they practice allows French lawyers to practice law "under the same 
conditions."  Failing that, they must take the full French bar exam.  
Due to EU regulations, France is required to recognize law degrees for 
EU nationals but has the right to discriminate against third country 
nationals.  Nevertheless, non-French EU lawyers may also have to take a 
"short-form" exam to be admitted into the new profession of "avocats."  
Meaningful access will now depend on how implementing regulations are 
administered, including the interpretation of what is meant by granting 
access on a "reciprocal basis" and the nature of the exam to be imposed 
on non-EU lawyers.

Maritime Transportation

Without authorization from the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of 
the Economy, enterprises controlled by foreign nationals may not have a 
controlling or participating interest in a shipping company sailing 
under the French flag.  To sail under the French flag, ships must 
either: (a) be owned by physical persons and at least 50 percent of the 
shares must be owned by French nationals, or b) be owned by a 
corporation whose headquarters is on French territory.

Publishing

Persons who are not EU nationals, or firms controlled by non-EU 
nationals, may not acquire, directly or indirectly, more than 20 percent 
of the capital or voting rights of enterprises that publish in the 
French language, unless the investors' home country allows French 
nationals to own more than 20 percent of publishing companies in that 
country under an international agreement.

Road Transportation

Non-EU citizens may not be road transport commissioners, unless their 
home country allows French citizens to undertake the same activities in 
the home country.  A road transport commissioner is a person employed in 
the private-sector who oversees road freight shipments on behalf of 
persons sending freight.  He ensures proper delivery of the freight and 
coordinates, if necessary, transactions among shippers.

Telecommunications

Telecommunication networks open to public use may only be established by 
the French telecoms operator, France Telecom.  The Minister of 
Telecommunications may authorize a person other than France Telecom to 
operate a radio-electric network to provide telecommunication services.  
However, persons who are not EU nationals, or firms not registered in 
the EU, may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 20 percent of the 
capital or voting rights of such enterprises, unless the investors' home 
country allows French nationals to own more than 20 percent of such 
companies in that country under an international agreement.

Tourism

The French government reserves the right to refuse to award travel agent 
licenses non-EU nationals of oecd countries if their home governments do 
not award such licenses to French nationals. 

H.  Treatment of Foreigners in France's Privatization Program

In March 1993, the French government began a massive privatization 
program, and has already sold some of the largest and best known 
government-owned corporations.  A seven-member privatization commission, 
appointed for a five-year period, decides the minimum price for the 
shares to be sold and chooses the core of stable investors for each 
privatization.  The Economics Ministry decides the percentage of shares 
to be sold, the proportion to be sold in foreign financial markets, and 
the extent of "core" shareholdings.

The law prevents the government from selling to non-EU investors more 
than 20 percent of a firm's capital at the time the government sells its 
shares.  However, this ceiling does not apply to shares already held by 
non-EU investors.  For example, suppose the government privatizes a 
company with 100,000 shares outstanding.  Of these outstanding shares, 
60,000 are held by the government, 25,000 are held by EU-investors, and 
15,000 are held by non-EU investors.  In this case the law would 
prohibit the government from selling more than 20,000 of its 60,000 
shares to non-EU investors.  However, once the government had sold its 
shares, the provision would not prohibit private EU-investors from 
reselling their shares to non-EU investors.

Furthermore, the government insisted on adding a provision that allows 
the privatization commission to waive the 20 percent limit if the 
purchase of other shares by non-EU investors is part of an industrial, 
commercial, or financial cooperation agreement.  Thus, if the French 
government sold a significant portion of "core shares" to non-EU 
investors, it could rule that these sales were covered by this provision 
and would not count as part of the 20 percent limit.  

Before each privatization, the French government also decides whether it 
is necessary to maintain a golden share "to protect its national 
interests."  While not a share that is bought or sold, the golden shares 
would give the government three legal rights:

1)  the right to require prior authorization from the Economics Ministry 
for any investor or group of investors acting in concert to own more 
than a certain percentage of a firm's capital.  The thresholds would 
apply to all investors, whether or not EU residents, and would be 
established at the time the government announces that it is establishing 
a golden share, before each privatization;

2)  the right to name up to two non-voting member's of the firm's board 
of directors; and

3)  the right to block the sale of any asset to protect "national 
interests."  Assets could include not only shares, but buildings, 
technology, patents, trademarks, and any other tangible or intangible 
property.

Once invoked, the government would retain these rights until they were 
specifically revoked.   

In practice, foreign investors have been treated the same as French 
investors in France's privatization program.  While no foreign investor 
has been allowed to gain controlling interest in a privatized company, 
several foreign, as well as non-EU investors have been approved by the 
French government to become "core shareholders."  Only in the 
privatization of Elf Acquitaine and the partial sale of Renault have 
French government officials promised to keep the companies controlled by 
French citizens.  

I.  Foreign Participation in R&D Programs

The French government sponsors R&D and technology development programs 
at three different levels: 

1)     international/European programs (accounting for 12 percent of 
French R&D budget); 

2)     technology development programs in the private sector (54 percent 
of industrial R&D expenditures are funded by French government), with 
specific programs to encourage transfer of research and to aid small and 
medium firms; and

3)     national research programs, with specific emphasis given to 
space, physical science, aeronautics, telecommunications, nuclear, and 
engineering.  

At each level, French government officials contend that all foreign 
companies registered in France receive the same treatment as French 
companies and have similar access to R&D funding.  U.S. companies 
registered in France agree.  In 1994, the U.S. Embassy surveyed 95 U.S. 
companies and received responses from 34.  With one exception, they 
believe that they receive treatment from the French government equal to 
that given French companies.  In certain cases, U.S. companies commented 
that they receive better treatment since, to lure a high profile and 
prestigious U.S. company to their region, regional councils will 
sometimes offer attractive grants.  (See section on investment 
incentives)

If the U.S. companies are not registered in France, they are treated 
like other non-French companies.  A possible exception exists for EU R&D 
programs (Eureka) that were designed to strengthen European 
competitiveness and productivity by promoting intra-European R&D, and in 
which companies from non-European countries are disadvantaged.  However, 
American companies, whether registered in France or not, can and do 
participate in Eureka R&D programs.  As one French government official 
pointed out, the program managers may want selected U.S. participation 
to obtain access to technology and expertise not available in Europe.  
U.S. firms have participated in Eureka projects, totaling 5.1 billion 
dollars, in biotechnology, robotics, environment and transportation.  

According to French government officials, there are no specific 
restrictions regarding R&D collaboration except for defense-related 
reasons and there is no legislation restricting foreign access to French 
R&D projects. Certain programs, aimed at general technological 
development, permit the participating companies to identify specific 
projects appropriate to the programs' goals.  The surveyed U.S companies 
felt involved in shaping strategies and developing R&D programs in 
France although electronics and computer companies did not feel as 
involved as other sectors.   

The experience of U.S.-French defense industry cooperation is comparable 
to non-defense cooperation.  The U.S. Embassy's Office of Defense 
Cooperation has monitored many collaborative programs in the defense 
industry.  These have been very successful with benefits accruing to 
both sides.  This experience has shown that, when both parties felt that 
the cooperation was mutually advantageous and that shared technology 
would not damage national or industrial interest, then access to French 
R&D facilities has been open and available.     

J.  Visa, Work Permit Requirements

The government of France requires that foreign citizens follow an 
extensive procedure if they wish to work in France.  The requirements 
are essentially the same whether foreign citizens work for a French or 
foreign-controlled firms.  However, with unemployment above 12 percent 
in 1994, the French government has become stricter in its approval of 
applications for work permits, which may make it more difficult for 
foreign firms to bring in employees.  

Non-EU nationals who intend to work or conduct any commercial activity 
in France must receive a long-term visa and a work permit (carte de 
travail) or business permit (carte de commercant) before establishing 
residence in France.  A business permit (carte de commercant) is 
required of any non-EU national working as follows:

  -     chief executives, general managers, and directors of any 
business organizations established under French law
  -      non-resident chief executives of companies which have a branch 
in France
  -      branch managers
  -      traveling salespeople
  -      self-employed individuals

K.  Investment Incentives

France offers a variety of financial incentives to foreign investors and 
its investment promotion agency, DATAR (Delegation a l'Amenagement du 
Territoire et a l'Action Regionale), provides extensive assistance to 
potential investors both in France and through its agencies around the 
world.  In addition, financial subsidies and tax incentives are offered 
at the local, regional and national government level to attract 
investment to the country's less affluent areas.  Incentives are 
available equally to French and foreign investors and eligibility 
requirements are the same.  

Within the French government, foreign investment promotion is the 
responsibility of the invest in France mission headed by an ambassador 
at-large, who is based at the Ministry of the Economy, and backed-up by 
DATAR.  DATAR maintains offices throughout France and around the world 
to seek out and advise potential investors on project development, site 
selection, investment incentives (the largest of that are administered 
by DATAR) and administrative and legal requirements.  There are four 
DATAR "invest in France" agencies in the United States:

New York
     610 Fifth Avenue, Suite 301
     New York, NY  10020
     Tel: (212) 757-9340
     Fax: (212) 245-1568

Chicago
     Invest in France Agency
     401 North Michigan Ave., Suite 600
     Chicago, IL 60611
     Tel: (312) 661-1640
     Fax: (312) 661-0623

Los Angeles
     Invest in France Agency
     1801 Avenue of the Stars, Suite 1248
     Los Angeles, CA  90067
     Tel: (213) 785-9735
     Fax: (213) 785-9213

Houston
     Invest in France Agency
     2727 Allen Parkway, Suite 960
     Houston, TX  77019
     Tel: (713) 526-1565
     Fax: (713) 526-3802

Senior French Economics Ministry officials often participate in 
roundtable discussions with major foreign investors to alleviate 
problems faced by foreign owned firms where possible.  One positive 
outcome of these efforts has been a pledge by the government to 
streamline review and approval of administrative requirements such as 
work permits for foreign executives.  Besides DATAR, several French 
cities and regions have developed their own investment promotion 
agencies that advise potential investors, offer administrative 
assistance, and oversee investment incentives.  All incentives are 
covered by regulations set by the European commission.

The following are the primary types of investment incentives:

- Prime de l'Amenagement du Territoire (PAT)
  regional development grants
- Prime Regionale à l'Emploi (PRE) 
  regional employment grants
- Prime Regionale à la Creation d'Entreprise (PRCE)
  regional new enterprise grant
- research and development project and headquarter grants
- tax incentives
listed below is the latest information available to the U.S. Embassy on 
French incentives.  The French government is currently reviewing the 
level of subsidies, and is expected to modify some of the ceilings at 
the end of 1994.

Prime de l'Amenagement du Territoire (PAT) - these subsidies are 
administered by DATAR and are the most important incentives offered by 
the French government.  The upper limit for the PAT is generally FRF 
75,000 per job created by the investment, up to a limit of 25 percent of 
the total fixed investment.  In less disadvantaged regions there is a 
ceiling of FRF 35,000 per job up to 17 percent of the total, but in 
practice these lower limits, and even the FRF 50,000 ceiling can be 
overlooked.  The 25 percent of the value of the investment limit, 
however, cannot be exceeded.  While these represent maximum limits, the 
actual amount offered is determined on a case-by-case basis by a French 
government interministerial committee.  Generally, the PATs are granted 
only to larger firms (with gross annual sales of at least FRF 300 
million) or for investment projects of at least FRF 20 million.  On 
average, one-third of the requests for PAT packages come from foreign 
investors.

Prime Regionale à l'Emploi (PRE) -  regional councils have the authority 
to offer investors a job creation subsidy.  Each regional council 
establishes the criteria for the PRE and select recipients.  This grant 
can total between FRF 10,000 to FRF 40,000 per job, up to 30 jobs, and 
can only be awarded to small or medium sized firms with sales less than 
FRF 300 million.  The PRE cannot exceed an amount double the investing 
firm's equity.

Prime Regionale à la Creation d'Entreprise (PRCE) - regional councils 
may also award a subsidy for the creation of new firms, which can total 
up to FRF 150,000.  In certain priority areas this amount may be 
increased to FRF 200,000.  The subsidy is intended to finance the 
purchase of new equipment.  Like the PRE, the regional council has the 
power to select the award criteria as well as the recipients.

Research and development project grants - the French government has set 
up specific programs to assist foreign investors in locating their 
research and development centers or their headquarters in France.  To 
receive these grants, investments should meet the following criteria: 
the business should be in engineering, management or software 
development; the location cannot be in the Paris metropolitan area; the 
investment must create at least 30 jobs over a three year period, or a 
minimum of 20 when the investor can provide evidence of world-wide sales 
of over FRF 300 million.  These grants provide up to FRF 35,000 per job 
created (FRF 50,000 in major urban areas), but the total cannot exceed 
twice the shareholder's equity (including current accounts of partners 
and directors.)

Tax treatment for headquarters - investors seeking to establish 
corporate headquarters in France to manage French and other regional 
holdings may be eligible for special tax treatment and other 
considerations for both the company and its employees.  A headquarters 
operation is one engaged exclusively in management functions for a group 
of companies and which has no independent income except the central and 
management charges allocated to its subsidiaries.  Under a headquarters 
ruling granted by French tax authorities, headquarters operations are 
taxed based on a percentage of expenses charged to subsidiaries.  This 
percentage can range from 8 to 12 percent depending on the functions of 
the headquarters.  A headquarters may also allow companies to include 
certain expatriate benefits as corporate income, in which case they are 
excluded from an employee's taxable income.  Besides tax benefits, there 
is agreement within the French government that foreign headquarters 
operations will be permitted to locate in Paris without regard to the 
official decentralization policy.

Other tax incentives - regional and local authorities can grant 
investors full or partial holidays on local taxes, including 
professional and property taxes, for up to five years.  For the first 
two years, the degree of exemption is 100 percent, for the third year 75 
percent, for the fourth year 50 percent and for the fifth year 25 
percent.  Eligibility varies by region.  

The French government has also established three enterprise zones, each 
of which is about 750 acres in size.  They are at Dunkerque on the 
north-east coast, and at Toulon-La Ciotat and Aubagne-La Seyne on the 
mediterranean coast.  Although these zones are now closed to further 
investment, new zones may be established.  Companies incorporated and 
operating in these zones, and with at least 10 full time employees, are 
exempt from corporate income taxes for the first ten years of 
operations.  Certain industry sectors are excluded.  The French 
government and EU authorities have also set up a joint program to 
promote specific location development in northeastern France.  This 
program offers grants that can be as much as 35 percent of the total 
amount invested. 

Regional governments can also offer loans at preferential interest rates 
and loan guarantees to investors.  Local governments at the commune and 
department level can only offer subsidies for investments that are also 
being subsidized by the regional government.  The sole exception is for 
real estate subsidies, in which local governments (as well as regional 
governments) can buy industrial property in order to sell or lease it to 
investors at below-market rates.  The central, regional and local 
governments can also offer free or low-cost managerial and technical 
assistance to new investors, particularly small firms.  In addition, 
investors can benefit from programs established by several large French 
industrial companies in areas where these companies have closed down 
factories or reduced their workforce.  In these areas, the French 
companies have established programs to attract investors, to establish 
ventures, often in the French companies' old factories, and to encourage 
the new investors to hire the old workforce.  The incentives to the 
investor can be in cash, low interest loans, or other assistance.

Finally, several quasi-public financial institutions offer a variety of 
low-cost financing to small businesses.  This includes the Credit 
d'Equipment des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises (CEPME), which provides 
loans for investment, Societes de Development Regional, which also 
provides loans for projects in certain regions, and Sofaris, which 
guarantees commercial bank loans to small businesses.  In all cases, if 
a foreign-owned firm meets the qualifications as a small businesses, it 
is eligible to take advantage of these programs.  Whether French or 
foreign-owned, subsidiaries of large corporations are ineligible.

L.  Discriminatory Trade Policies

France's trade policies are determined by European Union agreements and 
practices.  These policies include preferential trade agreements with 
African, Caribbean and Pacific countries, under the Lome Convention.

While the vast majority of bilateral trade occurs without controversy, 
U.S. companies sometimes complain of France's complex technical 
standards and of unduly long testing procedures.  Testing requirements 
(which must usually be done in France) and standards sometimes appear to 
exceed reasonable requirements to ensure proper performance and safety.  
Most complaints concern the electronics, telecommunications equipment, 
and medical/veterinary equipment and product industries, and 
agricultural sanitary and phytosanitary standards.

An area where French trade policy is clearly discriminatory is in 
audiovisual trade. The 1989 EU broadcast directive requiring a "majority 
proportion" of programming to be of European (i.e. EU and central 
European) origin was incorporated into French legislation on January 21, 
1992.  France, however, goes beyond this rule, specifying a percentage 
of European programming (60 percent) and French programming (40 
percent).  These broadcast quotas were approved by the EU commission and 
became effective on July 1, 1992.  They are less stringent than France's 
previous quotas which required that 60 percent of all broadcasts be of 
EU origin and that 50 percent be originally produced in French.  The 60 
percent European/40 percent French quotas are applicable throughout the 
day, including prime time slots.  The prime time rules go beyond the 
requirements of the EU broadcast directive and limit the ability of U.S. 
firms to offer programs in the French market.  

M.  Conversion and Transfer Policies

All inward and outward payments must be made through approved banking 
intermediaries by bank transfers.  

Repatriation of capital and earnings:  there is no restriction on 
repatriation of capital provided this is carried out through an approved 
bank and the investment was authorized.  Similarly, there is no 
restriction on transfers of profits, interest, royalties, or service 
fees, provided the investment was authorized and made through approved 
banks.

Businesses:  foreign-controlled French businesses are required to have a 
resident French bank account and are subject to the same regulations as 
other French legal entities.  The use of foreign bank accounts by 
residents is permitted.

Individuals:  the exchange control regulations applicable to both French 
citizens and foreigners have been relaxed significantly since the 
beginning of 1990.  For exchange control purposes, the French government 
considers foreigners as residents from the time they arrive in France.  
French and foreign citizens are subject to the same rules.  Residents 
are entitled to open an account in foreign currency with a bank 
established in France and to establish accounts abroad.  Residents must 
report the account number for all foreign accounts on their annual 
income tax returns.  French-source earnings may be transferred abroad, 
without limitations if carried out through an approved bank.

N. Expropriation and Compensation

Under French law, private investors are entitled to compensation if 
their properties are expropriated, and such compensation must be 
adequate and paid promptly.  In France's bilateral investment treaties, 
the French government promises to provide both prompt and adequate 
compensation.  There have been no recent disputes involving 
expropriation of U.S. investments.

O.  Dispute Settlements

There have been no major investment disputes involving established U.S. 
firms since 1984.  However, there have been individual cases in which 
the French government held up a U.S. investor's acquisition of a French 
firm until the potential investor made commitments in suggested areas 
(such as employment levels, input souring, or export levels) or so that 
a domestic buyer could be found, though this has become increasingly 
rare.  Government decisions in investment cases can be appealed to 
administrative tribunals and ultimately to the Council of State (Consul 
d'Etat).  The rights of U.S. investors are also protected by the U.S.-
French bilateral treaty (see below).

The judicial system is independent.  Property and contractual rights are 
enforced by the French civil code.  Judgments of foreign courts are 
accepted and enforced by courts in France once they have been "declared 
executory" by a French judge through "exequatur" proceedings (Art. 2123 
of the French Civil Code and Art. 509 of the Civil Procedure Code).  
However, in some civil cases and in bankruptcy cases, foreign judgments 
are recognized and enforced by French courts without executory 
proceedings. 

France adopted a new law on liquidation and bankruptcy on June 19, 1994.  
The main purpose of this new law is to reinforce the rights of all 
creditors, especially banks, by giving priority to debts incurred before 
a company has filed for bankruptcy.  Under the previous bankruptcy law, 
debts incurred after a company filed for bankruptcy were paid off first, 
mainly so as to encourage buy-outs.  As a result, French banks were 
hesitant to lend to small and medium-sized companies having financial 
difficulties.  Banks argued that the prior law was one reason why the 
number of bankruptcies more than doubled between 1985 and 1993 (though 
the 1992-93 recession was probably the most important factor).  The new 
law also ensures that creditors are paid in a buy-out.  Under the old 
system, an individual or company could take over a bankrupt firm "free 
from debt." 

France is a member of the International Center for the Settlement of 
Investment Disputes (ICSID).  In addition, in most of its bilateral 
investment treaties it has agreed to accept binding arbitration to 
resolve investor-state disputes.  However, because most of France's bit 
partners are developing countries, investors from these countries have 
few investments in France.  (See below). 

P.  Performance Requirements and Incentives

Other than those linked to incentives, there are no mandatory 
performance requirements established by law.  However, the French 
government will generally require commitments regarding employment or 
research and development from both foreign and domestic investors 
seeking government financial incentives.  For example, to be eligible 
for DATAR grants, the French government usually requires that firms, 
whether owned by EU or non-EU residents, create a minimum of 20 jobs 
within the first three years.  As noted in the section on incentives, 
PAT and R&D subsidies are based on the number of jobs created.  In 
addition, the authorities have occasionally sought commitments as part 
of the approval process for acquisitions by foreign investors.

Nonetheless, foreign firms need the French government's approval on a 
variety of regulatory issues, and in France, officials generally have 
much wider discretion than their U.S. counterparts.  This often leaves 
firms subject to "unwritten" performance requirements, with regulatory 
officials making it known that a firm's request would be more favorably 
viewed if it increased employment, R&D, or exports.  For example, a 
priority of French financial regulators in recent years has been to 
promote Paris as a financial center.  When subsidiaries of U.S. banks 
seek regulatory approval, whether to become primary dealers in 
government bonds, or participate in the government's privatization 
program, those firms which agree to increase employment and undertake 
certain activities in France often receive more favorable treatment.  
Q.  Right to Private Ownership and Establishment

French industrial policy has traditionally considered the development of 
many domestic industries as critical to national security.  Thus, until 
the mid-1980s, many sectors were not open to private investors, be they 
French or foreign.  This situation is gradually changing due to the 
current government's efforts to privatize many state-owned industries.  
The French government has a monopoly in the following sectors:  basic 
telephone services (France Telecom), postal services (La Poste), 
national rail transportation (SNCF), Parisian bus and metro services 
(RATP), the supply and production of gas and electricity (GDF/EDF), and 
tobacco manufacturing and distribution (Seita).  This situation is also 
changing in view of the European Union's efforts to gradually do away 
with state monopolies.

Despite its privatization program, the French government remains a major 
shareholder in many enterprises which compete with private firms.  Both 
French and foreign private sector firms occasionally complain that 
government-owned enterprises receive favorable treatment in getting 
licenses, credit, and procurement contracts from the government.  For 
example, in the past, the French government has directed other state-
owned firms to inject capital, or has provided government funds to bail-
out government-owned enterprises experiencing financial difficulties.  
Thus, private sector firms argue that these arrangements lower the cost 
of financing for government-owned firms.  However, government ownership 
can just as often hurt a firm's competitiveness.  The government's 
willingness to bail-out firms in the past has shielded many of these 
firms from having to take the necessary cost-cutting measures to remain 
competitive.  In addition, having to undertake certain activities for 
political, as opposed to commercial, reasons can put state-owned firms 
at a competitive disadvantage.  For example, in recent years, the French 
government has pressured many government-owned firms not to trim excess 
staff to keep unemployment from rising further.  However, as the 
government sells off more of its firms, private firms' concerns about 
competing with state-owned firms will diminish.  

R.  Protection of Property Rights

France is a strong defender of intellectual property rights worldwide.  
Under the French intellectual property rights regime, industrial 
property is protected by patents and trademarks, while literary/artistic 
property is protected by copyrights.  By virtue of the Paris Convention 
and the Washington Treaty regarding industrial property, U.S. Nationals 
have a "priority period" after filing an application for a U.S. patent 
or trademark, in which to file a corresponding application in France.  
This period is twelve months for patents and six months for trademarks.

The 1992 code on intellectual property governs the protection of 
property rights (IPR). There are three types of patents: patents of 
invention (brevets d'invention), patents of addition (certificats 
complementaires) which cover supplements to those inventions, and 
certificates of utility (certificat d'utilite).  To qualify for patent 
protection, the invention must have an industrial or agricultural 
application, imply a non-obvious procedure, and have absolute novelty.  
Patents have a twenty-year life span, after which they become part of 
the public domain.  Patents of addition are only valid for the unexpired 
term of their parent patents.  Certificates of utility have a six-year, 
non-renewable life span.

Copyrights cover artistic works, literary works, computer programs and 
data bases, as well as sound recordings.  Copyrights are valid for 50 
years after the death of the author, with two major exceptions: music 
copyrights are valid for 70 years after the death of the composer, and 
software copyrights are valid for 25 years after creation.  Contrary to 
other copyrights, software designed by a salaried employee belongs to 
the employer.

Trademark protection can apply to both goods and services.  Trademarks 
recognize and protect marks or symbols which serve to distinguish one 
product or service from similar products or services.  In the French 
regime, trademarks:

-- can be written or designed trademarks;
-- can be sonorous trademarks, such as music tunes, jingles, words, 
slogans;
-- must not be deceptive as to the nature or origin of the goods;
-- must be recognizable by sight or sound;
-- must be novel for the specified product line.

A trademark has a ten-year life span and is renewable every ten years.  
However, this protection can be lifted if the trademark has not been 
used over a period of 5 years after filing.  Fines for counterfeiters 
can be up to FRF 120,000 with prison sentences of six months to 2 years.

Protection of trade secrets is provided for in the code on intellectual 
property which states that "any attempt by a director or an employee to 
reveal a company trade secret is punishable by two-year imprisonment and 
a FRF 200,000 fine."

Protection for layout design of a semiconductor chip is valid for 10 
years from filing or first commercial use.  Such protection is granted 
to nationals or residents of the European Union.  Nationals of third 
countries or companies established in third countries are subject to a 
condition of reciprocity.  This protection includes the exclusive right 
to reproduce and commercially use the layout design of a semiconductor 
chip.

S.  Regulatory System:  Laws and Procedures

French anti-trust and competition rules are generally not as 
comprehensive as those found in the U.S.  This stems in part from the 
fact that when the government owned many commercial firms, such policies 
were not deemed to be necessary, since the government already had 
adequate means for ensuring that companies acted in the public interest.  
Furthermore, an important component of French industrial policy was the 
belief that French companies needed to be large enough to compete 
against U.S. multinationals.  As a result, the largest French firms 
often account for a significant market share of many sectors.  Both 
French and foreign small and medium-sized firms sometimes complain that 
the government allows large French firms to undertake anti-competitive 
practices to maintain or expand market share.  For example, because of 
effective control of the market by French banks, U.S.-controlled firms 
are unable to act as lead managers of public or private sector French 
franc bond issues, though they participate in the syndicates.  

Nevertheless, the French government has strengthened its enforcement of 
competition policy in recent years.  Restrictive business practices that 
are forbidden include:  price fixing; minimum resale prices; misleading 
advertising; tying arrangements; the use of loss leaders; requiring the 
use of long-term contracts; and price dumping.  Ministers, companies, 
consumer organizations and trade associations may petition the unfair 
competition council to investigate anti-competitive practices.

Like their counterparts in other industrialized countries, French 
bureaucrats occasionally require extensive and detailed reports, often 
requesting more information than their immediate needs require.   

T.  Efficient Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment 

Access to Capital and Capital Markets

After significantly deregulating its capital markets in the mid-1980s, 
France now has one of the most open financial markets in the world.  
Private sector firms have access, both in French and international 
markets, to a variety of financing methods.  In addition, foreign 
portfolio investment has soared in recent years.  At the end of 1992, 
non-residents held 19 percent of French stocks and 32 percent of all 
French government bonds.  While the French government still subsidizes 
home mortgages and loans to small business, most loans are provided at 
market rates.  An increasing share of firms in France are bypassing 
banks and going directly to financial markets for their financing needs.  
French legal, regulatory and accounting systems may not be as 
transparent as U.S. systems, but are consistent with international 
norms.

The French banking system underwent a fundamental structural reform in 
1984, which removed the distinction between commercial banks and 
merchant banks and grouped most financial institutions under a single 
supervisory system.  The largest French commercial banks, such as 
Societe Generale, Credit Lyonnais, Banque Nationale de Paris, Credit 
Agricole, Paribas, Indosuez, CIC, and Credit Commercial de France, rank 
among the largest banks in the world.  These commercial banks offer all 
classic financing instruments, including short, medium, and long-term 
loans, short-and medium-term credit facilities, and secured and non-
secured overdrafts.  Commercial banks also assist in public offerings of 
shares and corporate debt, and mergers, acquisitions and takeovers.  
Banks also offer hedging services against interest rate and currency 
fluctuations.  France also has more than 170 foreign banks; some have 
sizable branch networks.  Foreign companies have access to all banking 
services.  The five largest French banks hold FRF 6.7 trillion in 
assets, about 41 percent of total French banking assets.

The other main financing is through French financial markets.  The 
center of the French stock market ("Bourse") is the Paris stock exchange 
which accounts for 95 percent of all stock transactions.  For a foreign 
company to be listed in one of French stock exchanges, it must send an 
application to both the Ministry of Economy and the "Commission des 
Operations de Bourse (COB)" (the French equivalent to the SEC).  The COB 
makes a recommendation and submits it to the Ministry of Economy, which 
makes the ultimate decision.  A financial futures market, the "Marche a 
Terme des Instruments Financiers," commonly known as the MATIF, opened 
in 1986.  The MATIF is under the general supervision of the COB, and 
trades standard contracts on short-term treasury bonds.  An options 
exchange, the "Marche des Options Negociables de Paris (MONEP)," was 
established in September 1987, trading a limited number of shares of 
larger companies.  Finally, though not nearly as active as in the United 
States or the United Kingdom, venture capital has become an increasingly 
important way for start-up firms to raise funds.

Foreign companies account for about 20 percent of the number of 
companies offering stocks in French financial markets.  Non-EU 
controlled companies must be sponsored by a bank in France and must 
prepare a prospectus subject to the approval of the COB and the stock 
market council (Consul des Bourses de Valeurs -- CBV, a self-regulatory 
agency similar to the New York Stock Exchange).  They must submit French 
translations of two years of financial statements and an auditor's 
report on these statements.  The translations must be certified by an 
independent accountant in France.  The sponsoring bank is responsible 
for placing the securities with investors when the securities are 
listed, and acting as a market maker once the securities are listed.    

Cross-shareholding

One barrier to foreign acquisitions of French firms is the intricate and 
extensive network of cross-shareholdings among French corporations.  
Often, two French companies will each own a significant share of the 
other.  This system evolved from the time when the French government 
owned most large banks and insurance companies, and used investments by 
these institutions and other government-owned enterprises as a way of 
controlling other firms.  French government officials point out that, 
lacking large private pension funds, cross-shareholding is a crucial 
source of capital for many French firms.  In addition, the relationships 
between many French companies are more than financial.  Most top French 
executives are alumni of the same universities (Grandes Ecoles),  often 
sit on each others' board of directors, and are often hesitant to let a 
newcomer, and in particular, a foreigner, "join the club."
 
In its privatization program, the French government continues to 
negotiate separate sales to "core" shareholders who hold up to 20 
percent of shares.  This practice is, according to some analysts, 
necessary to ensure that hostile investors do not take over companies.  
The government has attempted to address past criticism that it 
previously favored certain well-connected individuals in deciding who 
would be eligible for "core" holdings by having a privatization 
commission determine the core investors.

Mergers and Aquisitions

Until the late 1980s, takeovers of publicly traded companies, whether 
friendly or hostile, were exceedingly rare in France.  Many companies 
were either privately held or owned by the government.  Of those 
publicly traded, many firms were undercapitalized, and interwoven by 
cross ownership into large groups controlled by minority shareholders.  
The French government was an avid practitioner of industrial policy and, 
as majority owner of the country's financial sector, was well placed to 
implement its strategies.  

In the 1990s, takeovers have become much more common, particularly those 
aimed at integrating complementary operations or product lines or at 
expanding market share. However, "speculative" raids intended to 
maximize the value of a company by dismembering it are dreaded by both 
the private and public sectors and have not occurred to date.  Asset 
sales by French companies are subject to heavy transfer and capital 
gains taxes in a breakup.  While French laws regarding takeovers do not 
discriminate against foreign investors,  a hostile takeover in France by 
a foreign investor would be extremely unlikely, particularly if highly 
leveraged, due to the private or narrowly-held nature of corporate 
ownership, severe limitations on leverage, and the French government's 
authority to block inward direct investment.  Perhaps most importantly, 
as noted above, French corporate leaders remain a cohesive group.  
Members of an elite social class sharing a common education experience, 
they tend to defend each other's interests against outsiders.

Stockholders are required to reveal to the company and the authorities 
their holdings in any publicly traded company when these total 5, 10, 
20, 33 or 50 percent of the capital of the company.  On crossing the 20 
percent threshold, purchasers must declare their intentions.  If an 
investor acquires one-third of either the shares in a publicly-traded 
company, a takeover bid for at least another third of the shares of 
target must be launched immediately.  Moreover, when an investor 
acquires a controlling stake in a publicly-traded firm, the investor is 
required to support the share price of that company on the market for 15 
working days, thus providing other shareholders the ability to liquidate 
their holdings on equal terms.  For investors who hold between one-third 
and one-half of the shares of a listed company, the obligation to launch 
a tender offer is triggered by acquisition of a further two percent of 
the company in any 12 month period.

U.  Foreign Participation in Industry Standards-Setting

All products satisfying publicly-funded contracts, and all machinery, 
tools, household appliances, sporting equipment, toys, should conform to 
French and European Union standards.  Conformity is generally optional 
for goods satisfying private contracts.  These standards often differ 
from those in the U.S.  Often, particularly with goods of a 
technologically complex or potentially harmful nature, rigorous testing 
and approval procedures must be undertaken before the goods can be sold 
in France.

Although one goal of the European Union is to harmonize standards across 
the twelve member states, many EU standards remain in the developmental 
stage.  Where an EU standard does not exist, French standards apply.  
The "Association Francaise de Normalization" (AFNOR) is the French 
authority in charge of preparing new and revised standards.   Mutual 
recognition agreements covering the testing and certification of 
specified regulated products have been proposed to permit U.S. companies 
to obtain product certification in the United States which will be 
recognized by the EU members.  Such recognition will enable U.S. firms 
to market their products throughout the EU and would eliminate the 
expense of multiple testing and certification procedures.  In addition, 
the National Institute of Standards and Technology of the U.S. 
Department of Commerce is represented at the French International Bureau 
of Weights and Measures.  The U.S. Embassy in Paris also has held and 
will continue to hold discussions with French standards organizations to 
press them for more openness and transparency in the standards 
development process.

Industry associations have an influential role in developing both 
government policies and influencing self-regulatory organizations.  To 
play a more active role in the formulation of national policies, U.S. 
firms should be encouraged to become members of local industry groups.  
However, experience has shown that even "observer" status can offer U.S. 
firms an insight into new investment opportunities and greater access to 
government-sponsored projects.  Due in part to the concentration in many 
sectors (see above), foreign investors occasionally complain that they 
lack adequate influence in these industry associations, and that they 
are not always given an adequate opportunity to participate in the 
determination of regulations.   

V.  Political Violence

Periodically, anti-American sentiments, particularly among groups likely 
to be economically harmed by U.S. policies, produce demonstrations 
against U.S. investments.  For example, during the GATT negotiations, 
French farmers demonstrated against several American icons, such as 
McDonalds restaurants or the Euro Disney resorts, and in certain 
instances damaged property.  However, these have mostly been isolated 
incidents, and there is no risk of nascent insurrections, belligerent 
neighbors, or widespread civil disturbances. 

W.  Bilateral Investment Agreements

1959 U.S.-France Convention on Establishment

U.S. Investment in France is subject to the provisions of the convention 
on the establishment between the United States of America and France, 
which was signed in 1959 and is still in force.  Some of the rights it 
provides to U.S. nationals and companies include:

--  the right to be treated like domestic nationals and companies in:

     o  all types of commercial activities including the right to 
establish offices and acquire majority control of French firms. (This 
right does not apply to firms involved in communications, air 
transportation, water transportation, banking, the exploitation of 
natural resources, certain "professions," and the production of 
electricity.); and

     o  in obtaining and maintaining patent and trademarks;

--  the right to receive the best treatment accorded to either domestic 
nationals and companies or third country nationals and companies with 
respect to transferring funds between France and the U.S.; and

--  the requirement that property may only be expropriated for a public 
purpose and that payment must be just, realizable, and prompt.

The treaty does not apply to the use of production of fissionable 
materials, arms, or any materials used directly or indirectly to supply 
military establishments.  Finally, the treaty does not prevent the 
application of any measure necessary to protect essential security 
interests.

Investments in France by other EU member states are governed by the 
provisions of the Treaty of Rome and by Union Law.  As of the fall of 
1994, France had also signed 47 Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) 
with the following countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, 
the former Czechoslovakia, Egypt, El Salvador, equatorial Guinea, 
Hungary, Indonesia, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kuwait, Laos, Liberia, 
Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Morocco, Mongolia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, 
Panama, Paraguay, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Singapore, 
South Korea, the former Soviet Union, Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad 
and Tobago, Tunisia, Vietnam, Yemen, former Yugoslavia, and Zaire.  
Other treaties signed but not yet in force include the following 
countries:  Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, 
Peru, and United Arab Emirates.  French BITs generally provide French 
investors with the following rights:

--     just and equitable treatment that is no less favorable than that 
accorded to domestic investors or the most favored investor from a third 
country;

--     restrictions on when the host country can expropriate French 
investments and requirements that, in the case of expropriation, 
compensation is prompt and adequate;

--     free transfers; and

--     the ability to resolve investor-state disputes through binding 
international arbitration. 

X.  OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs

Given France's high per capita income, the U.S. Overseas Private 
Investment Corporation (OPIC) does not insure investments made in France 
by U.S. Investors.  

Labor

The French labor force is one of the country's strongest points in 
attracting foreign investment, combining high quality with competitive 
unit wage costs.  In a recent survey of U.S. investors in France, 
management was unanimous in agreeing that the quality of local personnel 
was adequate and 90 percent found labor costs to be competitive.

The labor code sets out minimum standards for working conditions 
including the work week, overtime, vacation and personal leave.  Other 
labor standards are contained in collective agreements, which are 
usually negotiated on a national or regional basis by the various unions 
and employers' associations.  French absenteeism is modest by European 
standards while the number of hours lost to strikes is at an all-time 
post World War II low. Despite highly visible nuisance strikes in the 
public sector and a high profile shutdown of Air France, peaceful labor 
relations have been the order of the day, particularly in the private 
sector.  

While the rate of unionization in France is about half that of the 
United States, French labor law provides an extensive institutional role 
for employee representatives and for organized labor.

--  In companies with more than 10 employees, employee delegates (shop 
stewards) are elected for a one-year term.  They are authorized to 
present individual or collective claims and grievances relating to 
working conditions, to inform government labor inspectors of any 
complaints under the labor law, and to concur in any reorganization of 
the work week.  Management is required to meet with employee delegates 
at least monthly.

--  Companies employing more than 50 individuals are required to have a 
joint management/employee enterprise committee, to which union 
representatives are elected.  The committee must be consulted by 
management for all major corporate decisions affecting economic and 
professional areas but has no power of veto.  The enterprise committee 
must be provided with the same information that is made available to 
shareholders.  It is funded by the company at a rate equal to at least 
0.2 percent of the firm's payroll, and uses this money to finance social 
and cultural activities for the benefit of employees.

--  Workers also hold most slots on occupational health and safety 
committees, which are mandatory in medium and large size companies.  
Labor tribunals (playing a role largely equivalent to the NLRB in 
resolving labor disputes) are comprised of equal numbers of union and 
employer representatives.

Due to a variety of factors, businesses in France tend to use less labor 
intensive procedures and rely more on labor saving technology than 
businesses in other countries.  This is one reason France's unemployment 
rate remains more than 12 percent during 1994.  These factors include:  
high payroll taxes, a high minimum wage, and rigid labor laws.  In the 
fall of 1993, the French government carried out some reforms to increase 
the flexibility of the labor market.

Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports

As a member of the European Union, France is subject to all European 
Union free trade zone arrangements.  European Union laws and regulations 
provide that member states may designate parts of the customs territory 
of the Union as free trade zones and free warehouses.  Information on 
free trade zones and free warehouses is contained in Title IV, Chapter 
Three, of Council Regulation (EEC) no. 2913/92 of October 12, 1992, 
establishing the community customs code, titled, "Free Zones and Free 
Warehouses" (articles 166 through 182).

Article 166 states that free zones and free warehouses are part of the 
customs territory of the union or premises in that territory and 
separated from the rest of it in which:

--  union goods are considered, for the purposes of import duties and 
commercial policy import measures, as not being on community customs 
territory, provided they are not released for free circulation or placed 
under another customs procedure or used or consumed under conditions 
other that those provided for in customs regulations;

--   union goods for which such provision is made under union 
legislation governing specific fields qualify, by virtue of being placed 
in a free zone or free warehouse, for measures normally attaching to the 
export of goods.

Articles 167-182 detail the customs control procedures, how goods are 
placed in or removed from free zones and free warehouses and their 
operation.

Capital Outflow Policy

There are no restrictions or administrative controls on outward capital 
flows including outward direct investment.  France continues to provide 
limited tax incentives to French firms for foreign investments intended 
primarily to commercialize French products.  

COFACE

The "Compagnie Francaise d'Assurance pour le Commerce Exterior 
(COFACE)," a quasi-governmental agency, supports French investors in 
markets that conventional insurance companies are not willing to cover 
due to perceived risks.  These involve large projects, such as aircraft 
financing, as well as high risk markets such as the third world and 
central Europe.  In these cases, COFACE acts for and with the backing of 
the French government.  This category includes market survey insurance, 
medium-term credit insurance on large scale projects and capital goods, 
investment risks in foreign countries, and exchange rate guarantees on 
major contracts or large amounts.  In this case, COFACE acts as the 
manager for the French government, in particular for the French treasury 
("Tresor").  The Tresor pays COFACE for services rendered, which takes 
the form of an annual payment calculated each year according to defined 
criteria.

Y.  Foreign direct investment statistics

Foreign Direct Investment in France (FRF billions)
Position - by Country of Origin     
-------------------------------------------------

                                1990           1991       1992

OECD                           423.0          485.0       524.6
EU                             258.1          283.8       324.7
Of which          
Netherlands                     83.3          102.6       119.9
United Kingdom                  69.4           61.5        68.2
Germany                         41.3           52.4        51.5
Belgium/Luxembourg              29.5           30.7        42.6
Italy                           26.8           28.6        33.4
Spain                            4.0            4.4         5.8
Denmark                          2.2            2.2         1.6
Other                            1.6            1.7         1.7
North America                   94.1          102.3       103.8
USA                             90.6           97.5        99.5
Canada                           3.5            4.8         4.3
Other OECD countries            70.8           99.2       122.3
Switzerland                     36.1           50.8        50.6
Sweden                           9.3           23.5        21.1
Japan                           13.6           15.8        18.3
Finland                          3.2            4.4         4.3
Other                            8.6            4.5        28.0
Non-OECD countries              20.7           15.5        19.9
Other                            N.A            5.7         7.3
                               443.7          506.6       551.8
Total as % of GDP                6.8           7.5          7.9

Source:  Bank of France

Foreign Direct Investment in France (FRF billions)
Position - by Main Industrial Sector Destination 
-------------------------------------------------

                                 1990          1991          1992

Holding companies
(diversified)                    78.6          79.2         121.8
Wholesale/Retail Trade           53.0          57.5          58.5
Banking                          68.8          70.5          95.8
Chemicals                        40.4          46.7          45.0
Energy                           26.9          26.7          27.9
Transportation                   N.A.          22.3          19.5
Processed food                   18.0          30.0          28.2
Precision equipment              17.1          18.9          14.6
Paper, press, editing   
  Equipment                      16.3          19.5          15.1
Office machines,          
  Electrical/electronic          20.5          18.1          23.8
Insurance                         3.1          15.7          15.1
Other                           101.1         101.5          86.5
Total                           443.7         506.6         551.8

Source:  Bank of France

Foreign Direct Investment in France (FRF billions)          
Net Flows - by Country of Origin          
-------------------------------------------------

                        1990      1991        1992        1993

OECD                    29.5      41.9         62.5        66.9
EU                      16.6      21.5         43.5        49.9
Of which
  United Kingdom         2.5       1.4          2.2        14.5
Belgium/Luxembourg       1.3       3.0         10.8        11.0
Italy                    3.8       3.2         14.1         8.7
Germany                  5.3       9.3          5.9         7.9
Netherlands              2.9       4.1          9.3         5.9
Spain                    0.4       0.2          0.7         1.4
Denmark                  0.2       0.1          0.4         0.2
Other EU                 0.1       0.2          0.1         0.4
North America            2.8       3.1         12.5         5.1
USA                      2.7       2.7         11.8         4.4
Canada                   0.1       0.5          0.7         0.7
Other OECD countries    10.1      17.2          6.6        11.8
Switzerland              0.9       0.3          2.8         7.8
Japan                    2.6       1.8          1.7         2.0
Sweden                   1.9      13.1          0.2         1.0
Finland                  1.9       0.9          1.0         0.6
Other                    2.7       1.1          0.9         0.4
Non-OECD Countries       0.7       0.5          0.4         2.5
Total                   30.2      42.3         62.9        69.3

Source:  Bank of France

French Direct Investment Abroad (FRF billions)
Position - by Country of Destination
---------------------------------------------          

                      1990          1991          1992

OECD                 518.4          578.2        655.8
EU                   333.1          391.8        450.1
Of which
  Netherlands         97.1          117.3        152.0
United Kingdom        64.7           72.7         70.3
Spain                 44.6           58.7         53.9
Belgium/Luxembourg    52.5           60.1         69.0
Italy                 34.7           33.2         36.9
Germany               26.0           30.7         50.6
Other                 13.5           19.1         17.4
North America        134.9          131.3        148.6
USA                  119.4          118.1        132.6
Canada                15.5           13.2         16.0
Other OECD countries  50.4           55.1         57.1
Switzerland           39.3           36.1         36.9
Other                 11.1           19.0         20.2
Non-OECD countries    46.4           42.8         61.6
Latin America         14.9           17.7         23.8
CFA Zone               8.4            7.0          7.6
Eastern countries      0.1            1.0          2.0
Other                 23.0           17.1         28.2
Other                 N.A.           51.9         56.7
Total                564.8          672.9        774.1
Total as % of GDP      8.7            9.9         11.0

Source:  Bank of France

French Direct Investment Abroad (FRF billions)          
Position - by Main Industrial Sector Destination          
------------------------------------------------

                        1990          1991          1992

Banking                109.9         117.7         122.1
Equipment               39.0          64.2          N.A.
Chemicals               57.4          62.9          68.9
Energy                  59.4          61.7          76.6
Insurance               43.4          55.1          68.5
Repairs,trade           31.5          41.6          47.9
Other retail services   30.8          40.6          N.A.
Transportation          25.1          34.2          32.1
Processed foods         27.9          33.3          33.9
Metals                  29.8          29.8          33.9
Electrical/electronic    N.A.          N.A.         50.7
Other                  116.7         131.8         239.5
Total                  564.8         672.9         774.1

Source:  Bank of France

French Direct Investment Abroad (FRF billions)          
Net Flows by Country of Destination          
-----------------------------------

                      1990         1991         1992       1993

OECD                  109.3        91.4         77.0       52.1
EU                     79.9        51.4         67.7       38.1
Of which
Spain                  11.5         9.6         11.1        8.1
Netherlands            18.7         7.9         17.9        7.1
United Kingdom         20.2         8.2          5.5        6.2
Italy                   8.5         7.0          9.8        6.2
Germany                 9.5         6.8          4.3        6.0
Belgium/Luxembourg      9.7         8.7         17.5        2.6
Portugal (1)            N.A.        N.A.         N.A.       1.0
Other                   1.8         3.2          1.4        0.9
North America          22.2        24.8          3.9        9.8
 USA                   21.1        22.0          3.6        9.8
  Canada               1.04         2.8          0.3        0.0
Other OECD Countries    7.3        15.2          5.4        4.2
  Other                 0.8         1.6          1.8        2.1
Switzerland             4.4         1.6          1.7        1.5
Sweden                  1.9        11.9          1.4        0.4
Japan                   0.2         0.2          0.6        0.3
Non-OECD Countries      2.7         2.2          3.6       16.8
Total                 112.1        93.6         80.6       68.9

(1) Portugal included in "Other" in 1990-92 
     
Source:  Bank of France  

Z.  Major Foreign Investors

Today, foreign-controlled firms play a significant role in France's 
economy: they account for 22 percent of the workforce, 27 percent of 
capital expenditures, 30 percent of exports and 30 percent of  
production.

Major foreign investors by industry include: 

Agribusiness

Beghin-Say (Eridania, ITA)
Nestle (Nestle, SWISS)     
Unilever France (Unilever, NL)
Source Perrier (Nestle, SWISS)
Unisabi (Mars, USA)
Francaise de Brassiere (Heineken, NL)
Mars Alimentaire (Mars, USA)
CPC France (CPC Europe, USA)

Chemicals

Bayer France (Bayer, GER)
BASF France (BASF, GER)
ICI France (ICI, GB)
Kodak Pathe (Eastman Kodak, USA)
Solvay (Solvay, BEL)
Procter & Gamble France (Procter & Gamble, USA)
Francaise Hoechst (Hoechst, GER)
Francaise Exxon Chemical (Exxon, USA)

Electrical/Electronics/Information Technology

Compagnie IBM France (IBM, USA)
Philips France (Philips, NL)
Hewlett Packard France (Hewlett Packard, USA)
Sony France (Sony, JPN)
Digital Equipment France (Digital Equip., USA)
Siemens France (Siemens, GER)
Rank Xerox (Rank Xerox Ltd, GB)
Cables Pirelli (Pirelli, ITA)

Mechanics 

Case Poclain (Tenneco Case, USA)
Celcius Ex Cich (Blue Circle, GB)
John Deere (Deere, USA)
Caterpillar France (Caterpillar, USA)
Liebherr France (Liebherr Inter., SWISS)
Massey-Fergusson (Varity, CAN)
Saunier Duval (Hepworth, GB)
Fenwick-Linde (Linde, GER)

Metals Industry

Metaleurop (Preussag, GER)
Trefimetaux (Europe Metalli, ITA)
Haironville (Cockerill Samb., BEL)
Alusuisse-lonza France (Alusuisse-Lonza, SWISS)
Alcan France (Alcan, CAN)
Fabrique de Fer de Maubeuge (Boel, BEL)
Thyssen Aciers Speciaux (Thyssen, RFA)
Ferembal (Viatech, USA)

Transportation Equipments

Groupe Fiat France (Fiat, ITA)
Ford France (Ford Motor, USA)
VAG France (Volkswagen, GER)
Mercedes-Benz France (Mercedes-Benz, GER)
General Motors France (GM, USA)
Robert Bosch (Bosch, GER)
Fiat Auto France (Fiat, ITA)
Bendix Europe (Allied Signal, USA)

Paper/wood

Aussedat Rey (International Paper, USA)
Kayserberg (Ja-Mont, NL)
Stora Feldmuehle Corbehem (Stora Feldmuhle, GER)
Peaudouce (Molnlycke, SWE)
Chapelle Darblay (Kymmene, SF)
Cascades (Cascades, CAN)
Kaysersberg Packaging (David S. Smith, GB)
Papeteries de Clairefontaine (Nusse, SWISS)

Energy

Groupe Shell France (Royal D. Shell, NL)
Esso SAF (Exxon, USA)
BP France (BP, GB)
Mobil Oil Francaise (Mobil, USA)
Fina France (Petrofina, BEL)
AGIP Francaise (AGIP Petroli, ITA)
Esso REP (Exxon, USA)
Omya (Pluess-Staufer, SWISS)

Textile/clothing

Bata (Leader, SWISS)
DIM (Sara Lee, USA) 
Chaussures Bailly France (Bailly, SWISS)
Griffine (Solvay, B)
Lee Cooper International (Lee Cooper, NL)
Triumph International (Triumph Univer, SWISS)
Brochier (Ciba Geigy, SWISS)
Filix Lastex (Willcox & Gibbs, USA)

Communication/leisure 

Euro Disneyland (Disney Corp., USA)
Carat (Aegis, GB)
Prisma Presse (Gruner + Jahr, GER)
Selection du Reader's Digest (Reader's Digest, USA)
Editions Atlas (De Agostini Bv, NL)
Mattel France (Mattel, USA)
Les Echos (Pearson, GB)
Tonka France (Tonka International, USA)

Building

Kaufman & Broad France (Kaufman & Broad, USA)
RMC France (RMC, GB)
Nord France (Philip Holzmann, GER)
Origny (Holderbank, SWISS)
Villeroy & Boch (Villeroy & Boch, GER)
Siplast (Icopal, DEN)
Spac (Socogetra, BEL)
Sika (Sika Finanz, SWISS)

Distribution

Cargill (Cargill, USA)
Pum Station Service Acier (Cockerill Samb., BEL)
Compagnie Continentale France (Continental Grain, USA)
Safic Alcan & Cie (Ifint, LUX)
Meubles Ikea France (Ingeka, SWE)
Granit (Itex Itagrani, ITA)
Stora Feldmuehle Beghin (Stora Feldmuehl, RFA)
Quelle (Schickedanz, GER)

Transportation/tourism

Eurest (Ciwlt, BEL)
Seavt Wagons-Lits Tourisme (Ciwlt, BEL)
Pullman International Hotel (Ciwlt, BEL)
Simotra (Branbles Invest.,NL)
PLM (Ciwlt, BEL)
Safaa (Merkur Selecta, SWISS)  
Voyages (Kuoni, SWISS)
Hotel Jamet le Bristol (Oeteker, GER)

Services

Manpower France (Manpower, USA)
Adia France (Adia International, SWISS)
Europe Assistance (Generali, ITA)
Avis Location de Voiture (Avis Europe, GB)
GFI Informatique (EDS, USA)
Alliance Gestion Commerciale (Prenussag, GER)
Foster Wheeler Cee (Foster Wheeler, USA)
SGS Qualitest (SGS, SWISS)



             CHAPTER VIII.  TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCING  

A.  Banking System

The French banking system underwent a fundamental structural reform in 
1984, which removed most of the distinction between commercial banks and 
merchant banks and grouped most financial institutions under a single 
supervisory system.  The largest French commercial banks, such as 
Societe General, Credit Lyonnais, Banque Nationale de Paris, Credit 
Agricole, Paribas, Indosuez, CIC, and Credit Commercial de France, rank 
among the largest banks in the world.  These commercial banks offer all 
classic financing instruments, including short, medium, and long-term 
loans, short-and medium-term credit facilities, and secured and non-
secured overdrafts.  Commercial banks also assist in public offerings of 
shares and corporate debt, as well as mergers, acquisitions and 
takeovers.  Banks also offer hedging services against interest rate and 
currency fluctuations.  France also has more than 170 foreign banks; 
some have sizable branch networks.

The Bank of France ("Banque de France") is both a central bank and an 
issuing bank.  As the national issuing bank, it alone issues bank notes.  
As a central bank, it has supervisory powers over credit distribution 
and control.  The governor of the Bank of France is president of the 
Committee on Credit Institutions, which grants or withdraws banking 
licenses.  The governor is also president of the Banking Commission, 
which ensures that banks adhere to banking regulations.  Since January 
1994, the Bank of France is also independently responsible for the 
conduct of the French monetary policy, i.e. control of money supply and 
official interest rates. 

In the past 8 years, the French government has sold most of its equity 
stake in major banks and insurance companies.  It plans to continue this 
process.  However, the government will retain ownership in several major 
financial institutions, such as Credit Agricole and Caisse des Depots et 
Consignations (CDDC).

B. Foreign Exchange Controls

All inward and outward payments must be made through approved banking 
intermediaries by bank transfers.

Repatriation of Capital and Earnings.  There is no restriction on 
repatriation of capital provided this is carried out through an approved 
bank and the investment in question was authorized.  Similarly, there is 
no restriction on transfers of profits, interest, royalties, or service 
fees, provided the investment was authorized and made through approved 
banks.

Businesses.  Foreign-controlled French businesses are required to have a 
resident French bank account and are subject to the same regulations as 
other French legal entities.  The use of foreign bank accounts by 
residents is permitted.

Individuals.  The exchange control regulations applicable to both French 
citizens and foreigners have been relaxed significantly since the 
beginning of 1990.  For exchange control purposes, foreigners are 
considered to be residents from the time they arrive in France.  French 
and foreign citizens are subject to the same rules.  Residents are 
entitled to open an account in foreign currency with a bank established 
in France and to establish accounts abroad.  Residents must report the 
account number for all foreign accounts on their annual income tax 
returns.  French-source earnings may be transferred abroad, without 
limitations if carried out through an approved bank.

C.  General Financing Availability

Foreign companies have access to all banking services described in 
Section A.  The other main financing is through French financial 
markets.  The center of the French stock market ("Bourse") is the Paris 
stock exchange which accounts for 95 percent of all stock transactions.  
In addition, there are six provincial exchanges, in Bordeaux, Lille, 
Lyon, Marseilles, Nancy and Nantes.  For a foreign company to be listed 
in one of French stock exchanges, an application must be sent to both 
the Ministry of Economy and the "Commission des Operations de Bourse 
(COB)" (the French equivalent to the SEC).  The COB makes a 
recommendation and submits it to the Ministry of Economy, which makes 
the ultimate decision.  A financial futures market, the "Marche a Terme 
des Instruments Financiers," commonly known as the MATIF, opened in 
1986.  The MATIF is under the general supervision of the COB, and trades 
standard contracts on short-term treasury bonds.  An options exchange, 
the "Marche des Options Negociables de Paris (MONEP)," was established 
in September 1987, trading a limited number of shares of larger 
companies.

D.  Export Financing

France has a sophisticated export financing market.  In general, large 
commercial banks provide the bulk of export financing.  These loans can 
be made to the French supplier or the foreign buyer.  Most major U.S. 
banks and the U.S. Export-Import Bank provide both financing and 
technical assistance for the exports of American companies to France.

Through its special toll-free number (the "Export Financing Hotline": 1-
800-424-5201), Eximbank provides information on its export credit 
insurance, pre-export financing through working capital guaranteed 
loans, and medium and long-term loans and guarantees to overseas buyers.
 
COFACE.  The "Compagnie Francaise d'Assurance pour le Commerce Exterieur 
(COFACE)," a quasi-governmental agency, has two distinct functions.  
First, it insures French exporters against the short-term non-payment 
risks, principally involving trade with other OECD countries.  These 
include the insolvency of private buyers, unfavorable currency 
fluctuations on ordinary business, and political risks in OECD 
countries.  In these cases, COFACE acts like any other insurer: it set a 
competitive premium based on perceived risks.

COFACE's second function is to support French exporters in markets that 
conventional insurance companies are not willing to cover due to the 
perceived risks.  These involve large projects, such as aircraft 
financing, as well as high risk markets such as the Third World and 
Eastern Europe.  In these cases, COFACE acts on behalf of and with the 
backing of the French Government.  This category includes market survey 
insurance, medium-term credit insurance on large scale projects and 
capital goods, investment risks in foreign countries, and exchange rate 
guarantees on major contracts or large amounts.  In this case, COFACE 
acts as the manager for the French government, in particular for the 
French Treasury ("Tresor").  The Tresor pays COFACE for services 
rendered, which takes the form of an annual payment calculated each year 
according to a defined criteria.

COFACE also provides "expert credit insurance" for French agricultural 
exports into "high risk" markets.  These coverages are usually in direct 
competition with U.S. agricultural exports.

COFACE's data for FY 1992/93 shows that out of total French exports of 
FRF 1,248 billion, COFACE covered some FRF 300 billion or 24 percent.  
About half of covered amounts were for COFACE's commercial account, i.e. 
commercial risks for OECD trade, and the remaining half was for the 
Tresor account.  For the Tresor account, the largest amount (FRF 61 
billion) was for medium-term export credit insurance, followed by short-
term export credit insurance for political risks on non-OECD countries 
(FRF 43 billion).


E.  Correspondent U.S. Banking Arrangement

All large French banks have correspondent U.S. banking arrangements.  
Many French banks also have branch offices in the United States:

Credit Agricole
520 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Tel: 212-418-2200

Credit Lyonnais 
Credit Lyonnais Building
1301 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10019
Tel: 212-261-7000

Banque Nationale de Paris
499 Park Avenue
P.O. Box 7589
New York, NY 10022
Tel: 212-415-9400

Societe General
50 Rockefeller Center
14th Floor
New York, N.Y. 10020
Tel: 212-278-6000

Banque Paribas
Equitable Tower
787 7th Ave.
New York, N.Y. 10019
Tel: 212-841-2020

Union European de CIC
520 Madison Ave.
New York, NY 10022
Tel: 212-715-4400

Banque Indosuez
Indosuez North America Inc.
Rockefeller Center
1230 Avenue of the Americas 4th Floor
New York, NY 10020
Tel: 212-408-5883



            CHAPTER IX.  BUSINESS TRAVEL

Although French executives are becoming increasingly international in 
their outlook, Americans will occasionally encounter differences in 
business practices and cultural standards.  Attention to the following 
points may improve the chances of a successful business trip to France.

A. Business Etiquette

The most important characteristic of French business behavior is its 
emphasis on courtesy and a certain formality.  Appointment schedules and 
hierarchical titles are to be respected and correspondence--whether by 
mail or by FAX--should be acknowledged promptly.  A hand-shake is 
customary upon initiating and closing a business meeting, accompanied by 
an appropriate greeting.  Professional attire is expected.

Today, many French executives put less emphasis on long, heavy business 
lunches for reasons of health and time.  Nevertheless, informal business 
discussions in restaurants where everyone appreciates a good meal are 
one of the best ways to promote good working relations.

The work-days abutting the French holidays and vacation periods are not 
"prime time" for business meetings; this could include the month of 
August and the several vacation periods between Christmas and Easter.  
Business hours in France are generally 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM (banking hours 
9:00-4:30) Monday through Friday while stores are generally open 10:00 
AM to 7:00 PM, Monday through Saturday.  To ensure availability, advance 
appointments are recommended.

B.  Entry of persons and things

Every U. S. citizen entering France must present a valid American 
passport; for stays of less than 3 months there is no requirement for 
visas, entry permits or health certificates.

Bona fide personal effects in a visitor's luggage (or hand-carried) are 
not normally subject to customs duties nor the 18.6 percent value-added 
tax.  Items to be declared, however, include those intended to be left 
in France, goods for professional/commercial use as well as any 
prohibited items. Goods imported for exhibition may enter under bond, 
deposit or an ATA carnet. Professional equipment may be temporarily 
imported into France free of duty and tax under the Customs Convention 
on Temporary Importation of Professional Equipment; the appropriate 
carnet may be obtained from the U. S. Council of the International 
Chamber of Commerce.              

C.  Electrical Characteristics/Communications

Electric current in France is 220 volts AC, 50 cycles.  A transformer is 
needed for most U. S. electrical equipment and appliances.

Telecommunications to and from Paris compare favorably with those in any 
large U. S. city.  A direct-dial telephone system links France to the U. 
S. and most of the world.  Calls to the States may be charged to 
international telephone cards such as AT&T, MCI and Sprint; 
international directory inquiries may be reached by dialing 19-00-11 
(AT&T Direct U. S. operator). Most public phones in France are equipped 
for the convenient pre-paid "Telecartes" (credit cards) available in 
tobacco shops, post offices and subway/railway stations at 40 francs for 
50 units.

D.  Transportation

Frequent direct air service is available to many U. S. and French 
cities.  The two airports serving Paris--Charles DeGaulle (Roissy) and 
Orly--are easily accessible by excellent bus (Air France) and rail 
service.  The French railway system is among the best in the world; its 
efficient network ties in conveniently with public transportation in 
most French cities.

Buses and the Metro (subway) may be crowded during rush hours but they 
provide fast and efficient service, but a word to the wise:  As in many 
large cities world-wide,one should be alert to the dangers of pick-
pockets while in public places.

E.  Climate and Clothing

France's climate is temperate which varies somewhat from north to south.  
Rain is frequent and most experienced travelers carry collapsible 
umbrellas. Average temperatures in Paris range from 25 degrees Celsius 
(77 F)  in mid-summer to 6 Celsius (43 F) in winter.  Collar, tie and a 
dark business suit for men are very useful, especially in Paris.  For 
women, similar attire is appropriate, but it should be noted that women 
in France do not dress as conservatively as women in the U.S.

F.  Bed and Board in Paris

May 1994 estimates of the Department of State for reasonable lodging and 
meal/incidental expenses for a business traveler are 132 dollars and 
108, respectively per day. One could pay less or a great deal more than 
this $240 amount.

In France the ground floor in buildings is identified as "RC" (Rez-de-
Chausee) and the next floor up is considered the first floor.

Tipping in France is largely optional since a 15 percent service charge 
is normally included in restaurant bills.  Small, additional tips are 
often left for particularly good service.  Parisian taxi drivers may be 
tipped by rounding up the payment to include up to 10 percent of the 
fare.  At no time in France are tips obligatory.

G.  Commercial Language

While French is the official language in France, many business people 
speak English.  Product literature, correspondence and negotiations in 
the French language provide a distinct advantage over competitors who 
use only English.  It should be noted that other EU suppliers are 
accustomed to dealing in the French language.

H. Useful Addresses

Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)
U.S. Embassy
2 avenue Gabriel
75382 Paris Cedex 08
TEL:  (33-1) 43 12 22 45
FAX:  (33-1) 43 12 26 62

U. S. & Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS)
U.S. Embassy
2 avenue Gabriel
75382 Paris Cedex 08
TEL:  (33-1) 43 12 22 22
FAX:  (33-1) 43 12 21 72


U. S. Travel & Tourism Administration (USTTA)
U.S. Embassy
2 avenue Gabriel
75382 Paris Cedex 08
TEL:  (33-1) 42 60 57 15 -- 
FAX:  (33-1) 40 15 08 74
Notes: --  Recorded messages in French - USTTA deals exclusively with 
promotion of tourism from France to the U.S.

American Hospital in Paris
63, blvd. Victor Hugo
92202 Neuilly sur Seine
Telephone:  (33-1) 46 41 25 25
(24-hour English-speaking medical and dental emergency service; credit 
cards accepted.)

Emergency Medical Team and Ambulance (SAMU)
Telephone:  15   (or 33-1 45 67 50 50)

Police Department
Telephone:  17

Fire Department
Telephone:  18

I.  French Holidays 

January 1, 1996      New Year's Day
April 8, 1996        Easter Monday
May 1, 1996          Labor Day
May 8, 1996          Veterans' Day (W.W. II)
May 16, 1996         Ascension Day
May 27, 1996         Whit Monday
July 14, 1996        French National Day
August 15, 1996      Assumption Day
November 1, 1996     All Saints' Day
November 11, 1996    Veterans' Day (WWI)
December 25, 1996    Christmas

     APPENDIX A - COUNTRY DATA

     1.  PROFILE

POPULATION:
     58 million
RELIGION:
     90% Roman Catholics, 5% Muslim, 2% Protestants,
     1% Jewish, 2% unaffiliated
GOVERNMENT:
     Republic
     Head of State: Jacques Chirac
     Head of Gov't: Alain Juppe
LANGUAGE:
     French
WORK WEEK:
     39 hours

CONTACTS:
     
     Foreign Commercial Service
     Senior Commercial Officer: Peter G. Frederick
          TEL: (33-1) 43 12 23 70; FAX: (33-1) 43 12 21 72
     Commercial Counselor: Edward Ruse
          TEL: (33-1) 43 12 23 83; FAX: (33-1) 43 12 21 72
     Country Desk Officer: Elena Mikalis
          TEL: (202) 482-6008; FAX: (202) 482-2897
     US&FCS Regional Director/Europe: George Knowles
          TEL: (202) 482-1599; FAX: (202) 482-3159

     U.S. Department of Agriculture - Foreign Agricultural Service
     Minister Counselor for Agricultural Affairs: Mattie S. Sharpless
          TEL: (33-1) 43 12 22 77, FAX (33-1) 43 12 26 62
     

     APPENDIX B.  DOMESTIC ECONOMY

 (USD millions, except as noted)  


                                1994         1995            1996
                                             (f)                (f)

GDP (current USD, billions)      1343         1520          1598
GDP real growth rate (percent)    2.8          3.0           2.9
GDP per capita (USD)           23,155       26,111        27,409
Government spending as
a percentage of GDP (1)          55.3         55.9           55.3
Inflation - CPI (percent) (2)     1.7          1.9            2.1

Unemployment rate (percent)      12.6         12.0           11.5

Foreign Exchange Reserves (minus gold)
(Current USD billions)           26.3          n.a.           n.a.

Average Exchange Rate (4)         5.6          5.1             5.1
(Francs per USD)


      APPENDIX C - TRADE

Merchandise Trade (USD billions, except as noted)

                                 1994            1995          1996
                                                 (f)            (f)

Total Exports (F.O.B.)          234.6          286.7          314.1
Total Imports (C.I.F.)
excl. military equipment        218.7          268.5          298.8
Exports to U.S. (F.O.B.)         16.4            n.a.          n.a.
Imports from U.S. (C.I.F.)       19.4            n.a.          n.a.
excl. military equipment     
U.S. share of imports (percent)   8.9            n.a.          n.a.
Imports of manufactured goods
from all countries (C.I.F.)     183.9          220.0          239.0

Imports of manufactured goods
from the U.S.                    18.2          n.a.            n.a.
U.S. share of manufactured
imports (percent)                 9.9          n.a.            n.a.
Manufactured trade balance       -3.1          n.a.            n.a.
with the U.S.

Average real growth rate
imports of manufactured products
from world (percent)              8.2         10.1              9.0
Average real growth rate
imports of manufactured
products from the U.S. (percent) 12.9          n.a.            n.a.

Trade balances with three
leading partners (cif/fob)
     Germany                     -0.7          n.a.            n.a.
     Italy                       -1.0          n.a.            n.a. 
     Belgium                     -0.4          n.a.            n.a.

n.a. = non available
Sources: 1993-94: Official French Government Data; 1995-96: June 95 OECD 
forecasts.


     MAJOR AMERICAN EXPORTS TO FRANCE - 1994
     INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE COMBINED
     

Rank / HS   Description

1/       714 - Engines, motors, non electric parts
2/       792 - Aircraft and associated equipment, spacecraft, etc.
3/       752 - Automatic data processing machines, units and parts
4/       874 - Measuring, checking, analyzing and controlling equipment
5/       759 - Parts for office and automatic data processing machines
6/       776 - Thermionic, cold cathode, photocathode valves, etc.
7/       971 - Gold  (excluding ores and concentrates)
8/       541 - Medicinal products (except medication)
9/       872 - Medical and dental instruments
10/      764 - Telecommunications equipment


     MAJOR AMERICAN IMPORTS FROM FRANCE- 1994 
     
Rank     HS        Description

1/       792 - Aircraft and associated equipment, spacecraft, etc.
2/       714 - Engines, motors, non electric parts
3/       112 - Alcoholic beverages
4/       784 - Parts and accessories for motor vehicles
5/       553 - Perfumery, cosmetics and toiletries
6/       896 - Works of art, collectors pieces, antiques
7/       776 - Thermionic, cold cathode, photocathode valves, etc.
8/       874 - Measuring, checking, analyzing and controlling equipment
9/       723 - Civil engineering and contractor's plant and equipment
10/      665 - Glassware


--  HS refers to the Harmonized System by which goods are classified for 
the purpose of international trade
     

         FRENCH IMPORTS OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 
       AND US MARKET SHARE VALUE CY 1994 (In FRF  millions)

High Value Products:

                                   Total        From U.S      % U.S

- Meat & offals                    20,109         226            1.1
- Dairy & eggs                      9,820          13            0.1
- Coffee, tea, & spices             5,881          44            0.7
- Manufactured tobacco              7,178           1             --
- Prepared meat                     1,512          --             --
- Fish and seafood, fresh
  or frozen                        11,823         537            4.5
- Prepared fish and seafood         3,342          20            0.6
- Processed grains                  1,014           8            0.8
- Sugar & confectionery             3,518          12            0.3
- Cocoa & chocolate                 6,399          92            1.4
- Prepared grain products           6,961          41            0.6
- Fresh & dry vegetables            7,749         145            1.9
- Fresh & dried fruits             13,861         696            5.0
- Processed fruits & veg. 1/        8,390         375            4.5
- Misc. food preparations           4,154         300            7.2
- Beverages (except spirits)        4,532          29            0.6
- Spirits                           3,071         147            4.8
Subtotal High Value 
Products            FRF           119,314       2,686            2.2
     USD (millions)                21,498        484

Subtotal Bulk
Products (-- )       FRF           35,798       2,204           6.1
     USD (millions)                 6,450       397

TOTAL HIGH VALUE
+ BULK PRODUCTS  FRF              155,112      4,890            3.1
     USD (millions)                27,948     881

(-- )  Includes live animals & animal products, nursery products, 
grains, oilseeds and seeds, plants for weaving, vegetable extracts, oils 
and greases, protein meals and other feeds, wood, unmanufactured tobacco 
and raw products (i.e., cotton, silk, wool & other animal hair, raw 
hides and skins)

--  Means nil or insignificant
1/  Including fruit juices
Source:  French Customs

APPENDIX D. INVESTMENT STATISTICS

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN FRANCE (FRF billions)
POSITION  -  BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN


                             1990          1991         1992

OECD                         423.0         485.4        524.6
EU                           258.1         283.8        324.7
of which
Netherlands                   83.3         102.6        119.9
United Kingdom                69.4          61.5         68.2
Germany                       41.3          52.4         51.5
Belgium/Luxembourg            29.5          30.7         42.6
Italy                         26.8          28.6         33.4
Spain                          4.0           4.4          5.8
Denmark                        2.2           2.2          1.6
Other                          1.6           1.7          1.7
NORTH AMERICA                 94.1         102.3        103.8
USA                           90.6          97.5         99.5
Canada                         3.5           4.8          4.3
Other OECD countries          70.8          99.2        122.3
Switzerland                   36.1          50.8         50.6
Sweden                         9.3          23.5         21.1
Japan                         13.6          15.8         18.3
Finland                        3.2           4.4          4.3
Other                          8.6           4.5         28.0

NON-OECD COUNTRIES            20.7          15.5         19.9
Other                          n.a.          5.7          7.3
TOTAL                        443.7         506.6        551.8
TOTAL AS % OF GDP              6.8           7.5          7.9


FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN FRANCE (FRF billions)
POSITION  -  BY SECTOR
     
                              1990         1991        1992

Companies (diversified)       78.6         79.2        121.8
Wholesale/Retail Trade        53.0         57.5         58.5
Banking                       68.8         70.5         95.8
Chemicals                     40.4         46.7         45.0
Energy                        26.9         26.7         27.9
Transportation                n.a.         22.3         19.5
Processed Food               18.0          30.0         28.2
Precision equipment          17.1          18.9         14.6
Paper,press, editing
 equipment                   16.3          19.5         15.1
Office machines,             20.5          18.1         23.8
Electrical and electronical
Insurance                     3.1          15.7         15.1
Other                       101.0         101.5         86.5
TOTAL                       443.7         506.6        551.8


FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FRF billions)
FLOWS --   BY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN


                           1990            1991        1992

OECD                       29.5            41.9        62.5
EU                         16.6            21.5        43.5
of which
Italy                       3.8             3.2        14.1
Belgium/Luxembourg          1.3             3.0        10.8
Netherlands                 2.9             4.1         9.3
Germany                     5.3             9.3         5.9
United Kingdom              2.5             1.4         2.2
Spain                       0.4             0.2         0.7
Denmark                     0.2             0.1         0.4
Other EU                    0.1             0.2         0.1
NORTH AMERICA               2.8             3.1        12.5
USA                         2.7             2.7        11.8
Canada                      0.1             0.5         0.7
Other OECD countries       10.1            17.2         6.6
Switzerland                 0.9             0.3         2.8
Japan                       2.6             1.8         1.7
Finland                     1.9             0.9         1.0
Other                       2.7             1.1         0.9
Sweden                      1.9            13.1         0.2
NON-OECD 
  COUNTRIES                 0.7             0.5         0.4
TOTAL                      30.2            42.3        62.9

FRENCH DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD (FRF billions)
POSITION  -  BY COUNTRY OF DESTINATION
     

                                  1990         1991       1992

OECD                              518.4       578.2      655.8
EU                                333.1       391.8      450.1
of which
Netherlands                        97.1       117.3      152.0
United Kingdom                     64.7        72.7       70.3
Spain                              44.6        58.7       53.9
Belgium/Luxembourg                 52.5        60.1       69.0
Italy                              34.7        33.2       36.9
Germany                            26.0        30.7       50.6
Other                              13.5        19.1       17.4

NORTH AMERICA                     134.9       131.3      148.6
USA                               119.4       118.1      132.6
Canada                             15.5        13.2       16.0
Other OECD countries               50.4        55.1       57.1
Switzerland                        39.3        36.1       36.9
Other                              11.1        19.0       20.2

NON-OECD COUNTRIES                 46.4        42.8       61.6
Latin America                      14.9        17.7       23.8
CFA zone                            8.4         7.0        7.6
Eastern countries                   0.1         1.0        2.0
Other                              23.0        17.1       28.2
OTHER                              n.a.        51.9       56.7
TOTAL                             564.8       672.9      774.1
TOTAL AS PERCENTAGE OF GDP          8.7         9.9       11.0

FRENCH DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD (FRF billions)
POSITION  --  BY SECTOR


                             1990        1991        1992

Banking                     109.9        117.7       122.1
Equipment                    39.0         64.2          
Chemicals                    57.4         62.9        68.9
Energy                       59.4         61.7        76.6
Insurance                    43.4         55.1        68.5
Repairs,trade                31.5         41.6        47.9
Other retail services        30.8         40.6     
Transportation               25.1         34.2        32.1
Processed food               27.9         33.3        33.9
Metal                        29.8         29.8        33.9
Electrical and electronical  50.7
Other                       1116.7       131.8       239.5
TOTAL                        564.8       672.9       774.1


FRENCH DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD (FRF billions)
FLOWS --  BY COUNTRY OF DESTINATION


                                1990       1991      1992

OECD                           109.3       91.4       77.0
EU                              79.9       51.4       67.7
of which
Netherlands                     18.7        7.9       17.9
Belgium/Luxembourg               9.7        8.7       17.5
Spain                           11.5        9.6       11.1
Italy                            8.5        8.0        9.8
United Kingdom                  20.2        8.2        5.5
Germany                          9.5        6.8        4.3
Denmark                          0.0        0.1        0.1
Other                            1.8        3.2        1.4

NORTH AMERICA                   22.2       24.8        3.9
USA                             21.1       22.0        3.6
Canada                           1.04       2.8        0.3

Other OECD countries             7.3       15.2        5.4
Switzerland                      4.4        1.6        1.7
Sweden                           1.9       11.9        1.4
Japan                            0.2        0.2        0.6
Other                            0.8        1.6        1.8

NON-OECD 
 COUNTRIES                       2.7        2.2        3.6
TOTAL                          112.1       93.6       80.6

Sources:  Official French Government Data          

APPENDIX E

U.S. AND COUNTRY CONTACTS

U.S. EMBASSY TRADE PERSONNEL

AMBASSADOR
Pamela Harriman
American Embassy 
2, avenue Gabriel
75008 Paris
Unit 21551, APO AE 09777
Tel: 33 (1) 43 12 27 00
Fax: 33 (1) 42 66 97 83

DEPUTY CHIEF OF MISSION
Avis T. Bohlen
American Embassy 
2, avenue Gabriel
75008 Paris
Unit 21551, APO AE 09777
Tel: 33 (1) 43 12 28 00
Fax: 33 (1) 42 66 97 83

MINISTER-COUNSELOR FOR ECONOMIC AFFAIRS
John Medeiros
American Embassy 
2, avenue Gabriel
75008 Paris
Unit 21551, APO AE 09777
Tel: 33 (1) 43 12 26 54
Fax: 33 (1) 42 66 97 83

MINISTER-COUNSELOR FOR COMMERCIAL AFFAIRS
Peter G. Frederick
American Embassy
4, avenue Gabriel
75382 Paris Cedex 08
Unit 21551, APO AE 09777
Tel: 33 (1) 43 12 23 70
Fax: 33 (1) 43 12 21 72

DIRECTOR OF THE UNITED STATES TRAVEL AND TOURISM ADMINISTRATION
Max J. Ollendorff
American Embassy 
4, avenue Gabriel
75008 Paris
Unit 21551, APO AE 09777
Tel: 33 (1) 43 12 27 70
Fax: 33 (1) 40 15 08 74

MINISTER-COUNSELOR FOR AGRICULTURAL AFFAIRS
Mattie R. Sharpless
American Embassy 
2, avenue Gabriel
75008 Paris
Unit 21551, APO AE 09777
Tel: 33 (1) 43 12 23 29
Fax: 33 (1) 42 66 61 06

U.S. CONSULATE - Bordeaux
Alan Eastham
Consul General
22 cours du Marechal Foch
33080 Bordeaux Cedex
Tel: 33 (16) 56 52 65 95
Tel: 33 (16) 56 51 60 42

U.S. CONSULATE - Marseille
Jackson McDonald
Consul General 
12 blvd. Paul Peytral
13286  Marseille
Tel: 33 (16) 56 51 60 42
Tel: 33 (16) 91 55 09 47

U.S. CONSULATE - Strasbourg
Shirley Barnes
Consul General
15, avenue d'Alsace
67082  Strasbourg Cedex
Tel: 33 (16) 88 35 31 04
Tel: 33 (16) 88 24 06 95

U.S. Commercial Delegation - Lyon
Philippe Minard
Trade Specialist 
Lyon Commerce International
69289 Lyon Cedex 02
Tel: 33 (16) 72 40 59 20

U.S. Commercial Delegation - Nice
Reine Joguet
Trade Specialist
Agence Consulaire
31, avenue du Marechal Joffre
06000 Nice
Tel: 33 (16) 93 88 89 55
Tel: 33 (16) 93 87 07 38

U.S. Mission to O.E.C.D.
19, rue Franqueville
75016 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45 24 74 37

WASHINGTON BASED USG COUNTRY CONTACTS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE
Office of Western European Affairs  EUR/WE
Anne Carson
France Desk Officer 
Washington, D.C. 20520
Tel: (202) 647-1559
Fax: (202) 647-3459 
 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
Office of Western Europe - France Desk
Elena Mikalis
France Desk Officer
14 Street and Constitution Avenue
Room 3042
Washington, D.C. 20230
Tel: (202) 482-6008
Fax: (202) 482-2897

UNITED STATES TRAVEL AND TOURISM ADMINISTRATION
Mary Tack
Marketing Research Analyst
Department of Commerce
14 Street and Constitution Avenue
Washington, D.C. 20230
Tel: (202) 501-8170
Fax: (202) 482-2887

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Foreign Agricultural Service
Trade Assistance and Promotion Office (TAPO)
14 Street and Independence Avenue SW
Washington, D.C. 20250
Tel: 202 690-0207

FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, International Trade Policy
14th & Constitution Avenue, SW
Room 5522
Washington,  DC  20250
Meritt Chesley, Western Europe Group
Tel: (202) 720-1322
Fax: (202) 720-0069

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, International Affairs Staff
5600 Fishers Lane, Room 15A-30
Rockville, MD  20857
Donald Aronson, Europe Desk
Tel: (301) 443-4480
Fax: (301) 443-0235

ENERGY DEPARTMENT, Office of International Energy Relations
1000 Independent Avenue, SW
Room 7G-046
Washington,  DC  20585
Ken Workman, Western Europe
Tel: (202) 586-6383
Fax: (202) 586-6148

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, International Environmental Policy
401 M Street, SW
Room 1135 West Tower
Washington,  DC  20460
Kelly Jacobs, Western Europe
Tel: (202) 260-4870
Fax: (202) 260-4470

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, International Affairs Staff
5600 Fishers Lane, Room 15A-30
Rockville, MD  20857
Donald Aronson, Europe Desk
Tel: (301) 443-4480
Fax: (301) 443-0235

LABOR DEPARTMENT, Bureau of International Labor Affairs
200 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Room S-5006
Washington,  DC  20210
William Brumfield, France Desk
Tel: (202) 219-6234
Fax: (202) 219-5613

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, International Affairs
1500 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
Room 5050
Washington,  DC  20220
Susan Rzemien, France Desk
Tel: (202) 622-0166
Fax: (202) 622-0134

OFFICE OF THE U.S. TRADE REPRESENTATIVE
Office of Europe and the Mediterranean
Executive Office of the President
Washington,  DC  20506
Tim Richards
Tel: (202) 395-3211
Fax: (202) 395-3911

U.S. BASED MULTIPLIERS RELEVANT FOR COUNTRY

FRENCH EMBASSY
Mr. Jean-Daniel Gardere
Minister-Counselor for Economic and Commercial Affairs
4101 Reservoir Road, N.W.
Tel: 202 944-6000
Fax: 202 944-6336

FRENCH-AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE IN THE U.S.
Mr. Serge Bellanger
President,
520, Madison Avenue
New-York NY 10022
Tel: 212 715-4444
Fax: 212 715-4441

INVEST IN FRANCE AGENCY (I.F.A.)
Mr. Bernard Giraud
Director
Suite 301
610 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10020
Tel: 212 757-9340
Fax: 212 245-1568

COUNTRY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

AGENCY FOR CORPORATE DEVELOPMENT OF ILE DE FRANCE
Mr. Jean Maurice Parnet
Director General
16, Boulevard Raspail
75007 Paris, France
Tel: 33 (1) 45.44.34.87
Fax: 33 (1) 45.48.43.59

FRENCH INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY - D.A.T.A.R
Mr. Olivier Auguin
Director, North America
1 avenue Charles-Floquet
75007 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 40.65.10.06
Fax: 33 (1) 40.65.12.40

Institut National des Statistiques et des Etudes Economiques (INSEE) 
195 rue de Bercy
75012  Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 43.45.70.75


INVEST IN FRANCE MISSION
Mr. Jean-Daniel Tordjman 
French Roving Ambassador for Foreign Investments
Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances
139, rue de Bercy
75572 Paris Cedex 12
Tel: 33 (1) 44.87.70.21/23/28
Fax: 33 (1) 44.87.70.36/26

(Most regions have local economic development agencies.  For more 
information, consult with US&FCS France, Tel: 33 (1) 43.12.22.22; Fax: 
33 (1) 43.12.21.72 

FRENCH CUSTOMS
Centre de Renseignements des Douanes
Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances
Bat H1
238 quai de Bercy
75572 Paris cedex 12
Tel: 33 (1) 42.60.33.00
Statistics : Tel: 33 (1) 40.24.65.20
Duties :     Tel: 33 (1) 40.24.65.10
     Fax: 33 (1) 40.24.65.30

FRENCH CONSUMER AGENCY
Direction General de la Concurrence, de la
Consommation et de la Repression des Fraudes
Carre Diderot
3-5, Boulevard Diderot
75572 - Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44.87.17.17
Fax: 33 (1) 45.55.60.97

FRENCH FOREIGN INVESTMENT CONTROL AGENCY
Ministere de l'Economie, des Finances et du Budget
Direction du Tresor
Service des Participations et Financements
Sous-Direction D des Financements
Bureau D3 Investissements Etrangers en France
Teledoc 267
139, rue de Bercy
75572 - Paris Cedex 12
Tel: 33 (1) 40.04.04.04

FRENCH NATIONAL TESTING LABORATORY - L.N.E. 
Gilbert Revise
Chef de Department
1, rue Gaston-Boissier
75015 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 40.43.37.00
Fax: 33 (1) 40.43.37.37

OFFICIAL GAZETTE - J.O.
Bernard Sarazin
Director
26, rue Desaix
75727 Paris Cedex 15
Tel: 33 (1) 40.58.75.00
Fax: 33 (1) 40.58.77.80

NATIONAL AGENCY FOR THE VALORIZATION OF RESEARCH - ANVAR
Mr. Gilbert Santini
Director
43, Rue Caumartin
75009 - Paris Cedex 09
Tel: 33 (1) 40.17.83.00
Fax: 33 (1) 40.17.83.19

NATIONAL FRENCH STANDARDS ASSOCIATION - AFNOR 
Tour Europe
92049 Paris-La Defense
Tel: 33 (1) 42.91.55.55
Fax: 33 (1) 42.91.56.56

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY - INPI 
26 bis, rue de Leningrad
75800 Paris Cedex 08
Tel: (1) 42.94.55.65
Fax: (1) 42.93.59.30

Note: The US & Foreign Commercial Service, the Office of Agricultural 
Affairs at the American Embassy in Paris maintains an up-to-date listing 
of French Governments contacts by Ministry and subject matter.

COUNTRY TRADE ASSOCIATION/CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE

Chambers of Commerce:

AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
Mr. Barrett Dower
Director
21, avenue Georges V
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 47.23.80.26
Fax: 33 (1) 47.20.18.62

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF PARIS - CCIP
Ms. Delorme
North America Desk Officer
2 rue de Viarmes
75001 Paris
Tel: (1) 45.08.36.00     
Fax: (1) 45.08.35.80

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY OF VAL D'OISE - YVELINES
Mr. Jean-Francois Marmey
Director, International Trade
21, avenue de Paris
78021 Versailles Cedex
Tel: 33 (1) 30.84.79.79
Fax: 33 (1) 30.38.57.34

FRENCH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE IN THE U.S.
Mrs. Claudine Serre
Director, French Chapter
7, rue Jean Goujon
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42.56.05.00
Fax: 33 (1) 43.59.50.15

(Each district in France has a chamber of commerce and industry.  For 
more information, consult with US&FCS France, Tel: 33 (1) 43.12.22.22; 
Fax: 33 (1) 43.12.21.72) 

Trade Associations:

IMPORTERS' ASSOCIATION FOR MECANIC AND ELECTRONIC
Federation des Entreprises Industrielles et Commerciales Internationales 
de la Mecanique et de l'Electronique (FICIME)
Mr. Michel Grandemange
President
25-27 rue d'Astorg
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44.51.14.60
Fax: 33 (1) 42.65.39.49

APPLIANCE MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION
Groupement Interprofessionnel des Fabricants d'Appareils d'Equipement 
Menager (GIFAM)
Mr. Jacques Mourlon
President
39, avenue d'Iena
75783 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 47.20.32.20
Fax: 33 (1) 47.20.20.73

AUTOMOTIVE EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Federation des Industries des Equipements pour Vehicules (FIEV)
Mr. J. Pages
Director
79, rue J.J. Rousseau
92150 Suresnes
Tel: 33 (1) 46.97.00.56
Fax: 33 (1) 46.97.00.80

BAKERY EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Union des Fabricants d'Equipements pour la Boulangerie et Patisserie 
(UFFEB)
Mr. Jean-Paul Broutin
Secretary
13, rue Saint-Lazare
75009 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42.80.44.41
Fax: 33 (1) 42.85.29.00

BUILDING MATERIAL, COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT ASSOCIATION
Syndicat des Producteurs de "l'Amisie" et de Stratyfies
Mr. Laval
Managing Director
11, rue Hamelin
75783 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: 33 (1) 45.05.71.28

BUILDING MATERIALS AND QUARRIES INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Union Nationale des Industries de Carriers et Materiaux de Construction 
(UNICEM)
Mr. Xavier Salmon-Legagneur
President
3, rue Alfred-Roll
75849 Paris Cedex 17
Tel: 33 (1) 44.01.47.01
Fax: 33 (1) 47.63.26.90


BUSINESS GIFTS PROFESSIONALS UNION
Syndicat des Producteurs de Cadeaux d'Affaires
Mr. Jean Paoli
34, bd Haussmann
75009 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 48.01.48.01
Fax: 33 (1) 45.23.18.30

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Union des Industries Chimiques
Mr. Pierre Laroche
Project Officer
14, rue de la Republique
Cedex 99
92909 Paris-La-Defense
Tel: 33 (1) 46.53.11.00
Fax: 33 (1) 46.53.11.05

CYCLE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
Chambre Syndicale Nationale du Cycle
Mr. Jean-Marie Caudron
General Manager
79, rue J.J. Rousseau
92150 Suresnes
Tel: 33 (1) 46.97.00.56
Fax: 33 (1) 40.99.06.20

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Federation Nationale de la Gestion de l'Equipement de l'Energie et de 
l'Environement
Mr. Augustin
President
5, rue de Teheran
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 40.75.04.11
Fax: 33 (1) 40.75.04.07

FARM MACHINERY INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Syndicat General des Constructeurs de Tracteurs et Machines Agricoles 
(SYGMA)
Mr. Walter Reber
President
19, rue Jacques Bingen
75017 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42.12.85.90
Fax: 33 (1) 40.54.95.60

FEDERATION OF ELECTRIC AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES
Federation des Industries Electriques et Electroniques (FIEE)
Mr. Deogeorges  
President
11-17, rue Hamelin
75783 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: 33 (1) 45.05.70.70
Fax: 33 (1) 45.53.03.93

FRENCH FEDERATION OF JEWELRY, GOLDSMITHING, GIFTS, DIAMONDS, GEMS, 
PEARLS AND RELATED ACTIVITIES
Federation Francaise de la Bijouterie, Joaillerie, Orfevrerie, du 
Cadeau, des Diamants, Pierres et Perles et Activites qui s'y rattachent
Mr. M. Gruson
President
58, rue du Louvre
75002 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42.33.61.33
Fax: 33 (1) 40.26.29.51

FRENCH FEDERATION OF TOY INDUSTRIES
Federation Francaise des Industries du Jouet
Mr. Daniel Aboaf
Managing Director
47, bd Berthier, BP 518
75825 Paris Cedex 17
Tel: 33 (1) 43.80.60.75
Fax: 33 (1) 42.27.82.72

FRENCH FISHING EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Groupement d'Industrie Francaise d'Articles de Peche 
Mr. Pierre Noreau
President
17, rue Arnoux
92340 Bourg-la-Reine
Fax: 33 (1) 40.91.03.24

FRENCH INTERNATIONAL TRADE ASSOCIATION 
Confederation Francais du Commerce de Gros Interentreprises et du 
Commerce 
International (CGI)
Mr. Bernard Clerc
President d'Honneur
Mr. Antonin De Bono
Mr. Guy Laporte
Co-Presidents
31, av. Pierre-1er-de-Serbie
75784 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: 33 (1) 44.55.35.00
Fax: 33 (1) 47.23.47.32

FOOD PRODUCT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Association Nationale des Industries Agro-Alimentaires (ANIA)
Mr. Victor Scherrer
President
155, boulevard Hausmann     
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 53.83.86.00
Fax: 33 (1) 45.61.96.64

FRENCH AERONAUTIC AND SPACE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Groupement des Industries Francaises Aeronautiques et Spatiales (GIFAS)
Mr. Dassault
President
4, rue Galilee
75782 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: 33 (1) 44.43.17.00
Fax: 33 (1) 40.70.91.41

FRENCH AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURERS COMMITTEE
Comite des Constructeurs Francais d'Automobiles
Mr. H. Streit
President
2, rue de Presbourg
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 49.52.51.00
Fax: 33 (1) 47.23.74.73

FRENCH EMPLOYERS' ASSOCIATION
Consul National du Patronat Francais (CNPF)
Mr. Bernard Deschamps
Secretary General
United States Committee
31, avenue Pierre 1er de Serbie
75784 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: 33 (1) 40.69.43.89
Fax: 33 (1) 47.23.47.32

GAZ AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Groupement des Entreprises Parapetrolieres et Paragazieres (GEP)
Mr. Pierre DUPAL  
President
45, rue Louis Blanc
La Defense 1
92400 Courbevoie
Tel: 33 (1) 47.17.60.00
Fax: 33 (1) 47.17.67.47

LABORATORY EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Chambre Syndicale des Fabricants et Negociants d'Appareils de 
Laboratoire (FABRILABO)
Mr. Daniel Constant
President
39-41, rue Louis Blanc
Cedex 72
92038 Paris La Defense
Tel: 33 (1) 47.17.64.06
Fax: 33 (1) 47.17.62.47

MEASURE, CONTROL EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Syndicat de la Mesure du Controle et de la Regulation Automatique 
(SYMECORA)
Mr. Francis Martinez
President
39-41, rue Louis Blanc
Cedex 72
92038 Paris La Defense
Tel: 33 (1) 47.17.68.01
Fax: 33 (1) 47.17.68.11

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION
Federation des Industries Mecaniques (FIM)
Mr. Marc Bay
Director
39-41, rue Louis Blanc
Cedex 72
92038 Paris La Defense
Tel: 33 (1) 47.17.60.00
Fax: 33 (1) 47.17.64.99

MEDICAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Syndicat National de l'Industrie des Technologies Medicales (SNITEM)
Mr. Jean-Pierre Ravut
President
39-41, rue Louis Blanc
Cedex 72
92038 Paris La Defense
Tel: 33 (1) 47.17.63.88
Fax: 33 (1) 47.17.63.89

MINERALS, AND NON-FERROUS METALS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Federation des Chambres Syndicales des Minerais, Mineraux industriels et 
des Metaux non Ferreux
Mr. Yves Rambaud
President
30, avenue de Messine
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.63.02.66
Fax: 33 (1) 45.63.61.54

MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Federation Nationale des Techniques du Film, Cinema et Television
Mr. Jean-Fleurent Didier
Representative
50, avenue Marceau
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 47.23.75.76
Fax: 33 (1) 47.23.70.47

NATIONAL UNION OF PRODUCT ADVERTISING 
Syndicat National de la Publicite par l'Objet
Mr. Gilles Lefevre
President
15, rue de Chateaudun
75009 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 48.78.75.98
Fax: 33 (1) 45.26.25.39

NATIONAL BUILDING FEDERATION 
Federation Nationale du Batiment
Mr. Jean Domange
President
33, av. Kleber
75784 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: 33 (1) 40.69.51.00
Fax: 33 (1) 45.53.58.77

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF PUBLIC WORKS
Federation Nationale des Travaux Publics (FNTP)
Mr. Philippe Levaux
President
3, rue de Berri
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44.13.31.10
Fax: 33 (1) 47.61.04.47

NATIONAL CONFEDERATION WOOD INDUSTRY FOR CONSTRUCTION  
Confederation Nationale des Industries du Bois
Mr. Bernard Merceles
President
36, av. Hoche
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.61.00.90
Fax: 33 (1) 42.56.19.94

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF HOME REPAIR AND RELATED HOBBIES 
Union Nationale Industries Bricolage Activites Loisir
Mr. Alain Vicart
Representative
14, rue du 8 Mai 1945
75010 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 40.35.34.30
Fax: 33 (1) 40.35.59.52

NATIONAL UNION OF FRENCH FURNITURE INDUSTRIES (UNIFA)
Union Nationale des Industries Francaises de l'Ameublement
Mr. Philippe Mayer
President
28 bis, avenue Daumesnil
75012 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44.68.18.00
Fax: 33 (1) 44.68.18.01

NATIONAL WOOD FEDERATION
Federation Nationale d'Exploitants Forestiers, Scieurs et Industriels du 
Bois
Mr. Roger Lesbats
President
1, place Andre Malraux
75001 Paris
Fax: 33 (1) 42.60.58.94

NAUTICAL INDUSTRY FEDERATION
Federation des Industries Nautiques
Mr. Thierry Roulois
President
Port de Javel-haut
75015 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.77.79.79
Fax: 33 (1) 45.77.61.88

OPTICAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Groupement des Industries Francaises de l'Optique (GIFO)
Mr. Jean-Claude Mas
President
39-41, rue Louis Blanc
Cedex 72
92038 Paris La Defense
Tel: 33 (1) 47.17.64.00
Fax: 33 (1) 47.17.63.98

PAINTS & INKS INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Federation des Industries des Peintures, Encres, Couleurs et Produits 
Connexes (FIPEC)
Mr. Michel Magnan
President
42, avenue Marceau
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 47.23.36.12
Fax: 33 (1) 47.20.90.30

PAPER, CARDBOARD, CELLULOSE INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Confederation Francaise de l'Industrie des Papiers, Cartons et 
Celluloses (COPACEL)
Mr. F. Blondot
President
154, bd Haussmann
75008 Paris
Fax: 33 (1) 45.62.82.47

PERFUME INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Federation des Industries de la Parfumerie (FIP)
Mr. Mosser
President
57, avenue de Villiers
75017 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44.15.83.83
Fax: 33 (1) 44.15.83.84

PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Federation Francaise des Industries du Medicament (FEFIM)
Mr. Mesure
President
88, rue de la Faisanderie
75782 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: 33 (1) 45.03.88.61
Fax: 33 (1) 45.04.07.98

PHOTOGRAPHIC AND VIDEO EQUIPMENT INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION 
Syndicate des Industries du Materiel Photo, Cinema substandard, Video et 
des Industries Connexes
Mr. Patrick Posso
President
5 bis, rue Jacquemont
75017 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 46.27.47.29
Fax: 33 (1) 42.29.02.22

PLASTIC TRANSFORMERS FEDERATION
Federation de la Plasturgie
Mr. Jean Heaume
President
65, rue de Prony
75854 Paris Cedex 17
Tel: 33 (1) 44.01.16.16
Fax: 33 (1) 44.01.16.55

PRINTING AND GRAPHIC ARTS FEDERATION
Federation de l'Imprimerie et de la Communication Graphique (FICG)
Mr. Joelle Bouzy
President
115, bd Saint-Germain
75006 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44.44.90.64
Fax: 33 (1) 44.41.90.63

PROFESSIONAL UNION OF PLASTICS MANUFACTURERS
Union Professionnelle des Fabricants de Plastique
Mr. Pierre Avenas
President
14, rue de la Republique
Cedex 99
92909 Paris-La Defense
Tel: 33 (1) 46.53.10.53
Fax: 33 (1) 46.53.10.73/10.75

RAILROAD INDUSTRY FEDERATION
Federation des Industries Ferroviaires
Mr. Guillemard
Representative
12, rue Bixio
75007 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.56.13.53
Fax: 33 (1) 47.05.29.17


SHIP BUILDERS UNION
Chambre Syndicale des Constructeurs de Navires
Mr. Alain Grill
President
47, rue de Monceau
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.61.99.11
Fax: 33 (1) 42.89.25.32

SPORTING GOOD INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Federation Francaise des Industries du Sport et des Loisirs (FIFAS)
Ms. Nicole Berthier-Stoops
Managing Director
3/5, rue Jules Guesde
92305 Levallois-Perret
Tel: 33 (1) 47 31 56 23
Fax: 33 (1) 47 31 56 32

STATIONARY PRODUCERS' UNIONS
Federation des Syndicats de Fabricants d'Articles de Papeterie
Mr. Francois Nusse
President
71, av. Marceau
75116 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 47.20.90.12
Fax: 33 (1) 49.52.05.88

STATIONARY AND OFFICE PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION
Federation Francaise d'Articles de Papeterie et des Fournitures de 
Bureau
Mr. Bertand
President
9 ter, rue Auguste-Barbier
75011 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 43.57.63.13
Fax: 33 (1) 43.57.81.41

TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY UNION
Syndicat des Industries de Telecommunication (SIT)
Mr. Lavenir
Representative
64, rue de Monceau
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.63.96.44
Fax: 33 (1) 45.62.05.14

TEXTILE INDUSTRY UNION
Union des Industries Textiles
Mr. G. Jolles
President
37-39, rue de Neuilly
92110 Clichy
Tel: 33 (1) 47.56.31.21
Fax: 33 (1) 47.30.25.28

UNION OF PLASTIC AND RUBBER INDUSTRY DISTRIBUTORS
Union pour Industries et de la Distribution des Plastiques et du 
Caoutchouc (UCAPLAST)
Mr. Peyronnet
President
1, square La Bruyere
75009 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42.82.10.22
Fax: 33 (1) 42.80.55.45

VETERINARIAN DRUG INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
Syndicat de l'Industrie du Medicament Veterinaire (SIMV)
Mr. Ghislain Follet
President
6, rue de la Tremoille
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 47.23.94.20
Fax: 33 (1) 40.70.00.13

Note: this list is not exhaustive. The Commercial Service at the 
American Embassy in Paris maintains an up-to-date and comprehensive 
listing of industry associations. 

COUNTRY MARKET RESEARCH FIRMS

A.C. NIELSEN
Mr. C. Charbit
44, boulevard de Grenelle
75732 Paris Cedex 15
Tel: 33 (1) 40.58.40.00
Fax: 33 (1) 45.79.13.31

ADEGE
Mr. G. Saurais
45, boulevard Brotteaux
69006 Lyon
Tel: 33 72.74.44.57
Fax: 33 72.74.23.57

ALGOE
Mr. J. Clement
President and Managing Director
9 bis, route de Champagne
69134 Ecuilly Cedex
Tel: 33 78.33.14.30
Fax: 33 78.33.59.87

ARTHUR D. LITTLE FRANCE
Mr. Michel d'Halluin,
President and Managing Director
230, rue du Faubourg Saint Honore
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.63.14.59
Fax: 33 (1) 42.89.03.02

AVISO CONSUL
Mr. B. Vincent
President and Managing Director
11, quai Rambaud
69002 Lyon
Tel: 33 78.37.52.71
Fax: 33 78.42.16.10

BURKE MARKETING RESEARCH
Mr. G. Hustaix
Tour Gallieni 1
7880, avenue Gallieni
93174 Bagnolet Cedex
Tel: 33 (1) 43.60.20.40
Fax: 33 (1) 43.60.72.93

B.V.A (Brule Ville Associates)
Mr. Michel Brule & Mr. Jean Pierre Ville
191, avenue du General Leclerc
78200 Viroflay 
Tel: 33 (1) 30.84.88.00
Fax: 33 (1) 30.84.88.01

CATHERINE DELANNOY & ASSOCIATES
Mrs. G. Delannoy
21, rue de Miromesnil
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42.65.27.42
Fax: 33 (1) 47.42.25.89

CEGOS
Mr. Claude Maire
Tour Chenonceaux
204, Rond Point de pont de Sevres
92516 Boulogne Billancourt Cedex
Tel: 33 (1) 46.20.63.03
Fax: 33 (1) 46.20.88.60

E.S.O.P
Mr. Morgensztern
92, avenue d'Ivry
75013 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.80.50.60
Fax: 33 (1) 45.85.24.93

E.S.T.E.L
1, rue Alsace Lorraine
94140 Alfortville
Tel: 33 (1) 43.96.01.12
Fax: 33 (1) 43.96.02.01
Mr. J. Poulton

EURO-MARKETING ASSOCIATES, INC.
European Liaison Office
The Heron Building
10, rue de la Paix
75002 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42.86.54.31
Fax: 33 (1) 40.20.98.98

FRENCH MARKET RESEARCH ASSOCIATION - SYNTEC
Comite Etudes de Marches
Maison de l'Ingenierie
3, rue Leon Bonnat
75016 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45 24 43 53
Fax: 33 (1) 42 88 26 84

GROUPE MV2
Mr. Ferdinand Weisenfeld
89, avenue Aristide Briand
92120 Montrouge
Tel: 33 (1) 46.73.31.31
Fax: 33 (1) 46.76.31.60

IMS S.A.R.L
Mr. Philippo,
President and Managing Director
9, avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 45.62.98.25
Fax: 33 (1) 45.61.26.00

Note: The Office of Agricultural Affairs at the American Embassy in 
Paris maintains an up-to-date and comprehensive listing of market 
research firms.  As functions, contacts, and assigned responsibilities 
change often, interested exporters are requested to direct specific 
inquiries to the US & Foreign Commercial Service or to the Office of 
Agricultural Affairs at the American Embassy in Paris for up-to-date 
references.

COUNTRY COMMERCIAL BANKS

French Subsidiaries of U.S. Banks:

AMERICAN EXPRESS INTERNATIONAL BANKING CORPORATION
12-14, Rond-Point des Champs-Elysees
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42-25-15-16
Fax: 33 (1) 42-25-08-68

BANK OF AMERICA
Mr. Christian Bartholin
President and Managing Director
43-47, avenue de la Grande Armee
75782 Paris Cedex 16
Tel: 33 (1) 45-02-68-00
Fax: 33 (1) 45-01-77-89

BANK OF NEW YORK
Mrs. Deidre Perroux
President and Managing Director
36, bd Haussmann
75009 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42-46-26-25
Fax: 33 (1) 42-47-02-36
  
CHASE MANHATTAN BANK SA
Mr. Philippe Leroy
Director General
18, bd Malesherbes
75361 Paris Cedex 08
Tel: (33-1) 40.17.15.34
Fax: (33-1) 40-17-15-34

CITIBANK
Mr. Claude Jouven
Managing Director
Citicenter, 19 Le Paris
92073 Paris La-Defense Cedex 36
Tel:  33 (1) 49-06-10-10
Fax: 33 (1) 47-67-07-04

THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BOSTON
Mr. Robert Ward
Managing Director
104, avenue des Champs-Elysees
75008 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 40-76-75-00
Fax: 33 (1) 40-76-75-95

MANUFACTURERS HANOVER BANQUE
Mr. Jean-Olivier Bartholin
President and General Manager
16, place de l'Iris
Tour GAN
92082 Paris-La Defense 2 Cedex 13
Tel: 33 (1) 49-06-36-00
Fax: 33 (1) 47-76-48-55

MIDLAND BANK SA
Mr. Bernard Pouy
Chairman of the Board
6, rue Piccini
75116 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44-28-80-80
Fax: 33 (1) 44-28-85-99

MORGAN GUARANTY TRUST CO OF NEW YORK
Mr. Didier Cherpitel
Managing Director
14, place Vendôme
75001 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 40-15-45-00
Fax: 33 (1) 40-15-44-77

NATIONAL WESTMINSTER BANK
Mr. Paul Imison
President and Managing Director
18, place Vendôme
75001 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44-58-53-00
Fax: (33-1) 40-15-07-37

PHILADELPHIA NATIONAL BANK
Mr. John Knutson
Managing Director         
231, rue St.-Honore
75001 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 42-60-21-87
Fax: 33 (1) 49-27-95-02

REPUBLIC NATIONAL BANK OF NEW YORK
Mr. Robert Sevrin
Managing Director
20, place Vendôme
75001 Paris
Tel: 33 (1) 44-86-18-61
Fax: 33 (1) 42-60-05-62

French and other Foreign Banks:

ASSOCIATION FRANCAISE DES BANQUES - AFB
Mr. Michel Freyche
President
18 rue Lafayette
75440 Paris Cedex 08
Tel: 33 (1) 48 00 52 52
Fax: 33 (1) 42 46 76 40


BANQUE INDOSUEZ
Mr. Antoine Jeancourt-Galignani
President
96, boulevard Haussman
75008 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 44 20 20 20
Fax: 33 (1) 44 20 29 56

BANQUE FRANCAISE DU COMMERCE EXTERIEUR (B.F.C.E.)
Mr. Michel Freyche
President
21, boulevard Haussman BP 265-09
75427 PARIS Cedex 09
Tel: 33 (1) 48 00 48 00
Fax: 33 (1) 45 23 10 56

BANQUE NATIONALE DE PARIS
Mr. Michel Pebereau
President and Managing Director
16, boulevard des Italiens
75450 PARIS cedex 09
Tel: 33 (1) 40 14 45 46
Fax: 33 (1) 40 14 69 73

BANQUE PARIBAS
Mr. Andre Levy-Lang
President
5, rue d'Antin
75002 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 42 98 12 34
Fax: 33 (1) 42 98 11 42

COMPAGNIE BANCAIRE
Mr. Francois Henrot
President
5, avenue Kleber
75116 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 45 25 25 25
Fax: 33 (1) 45 01 78 05

CREDIT COMMERCIAL DE FRANCE (C.C.F.)
Mr. Charles de Croisset
President and Managing Director
103, avenue des Champs-Elysees
75008 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 40 70 70 40
Fax: 33 (1) 47 23 71 04

CREDIT NATIONAL (C.N.)
Mr. Philippe Calavia
Director General
45, rue St. Dominique
75700 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 45 50 90 00
Fax: 33 (1) 45 55 89 58

CREDIT AGRICOLE
Mr. Marc Bue
President and Managing Director
48, rue de la Boetie
75008 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 49 53 43 23
Fax: 33 (1) 49 53 44 81

CREDIT LYONNAIS
Mr. Jean Peyrelevade
President and Managing Director
19, boulevard des Italiens
75002 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 42 95 70 00
Fax: 33 (1) 42 95 59 02

GROUPE DES BANQUES POPULAIRES
Mr. Jacques Delmas-Marsalet
President and Managing Director
115, rue Montmartre
75002 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 40 39 30 00
Fax: 33 (1) 40 26 62 27

SOCIETE GENERALE
Mr. Marc Vienot
President and Managing Director
29, boulevard Haussman
75009 PARIS
Tel: 33 (1) 40 98 20 00
Fax: 33 (1) 40 98 75 55

UNION EUROPEAN DE CIC
Mr. Jean-Pierre Aubert
President
4, rue Gaillon
75107 PARIS Cedex 02
Tel: 33 (1) 42 66 70 00
Fax: 33 (1) 42 66 78 90

Note: this list is not exhaustive. The US & Foreign Commercial Service 
at the American Embassy in Paris maintains an up-to-date and 
comprehensive listing of commercial banks. 


APPENDIX F


UPCOMING DOC INDUSTRY SECTOR ANALYSES (ISA)

- Industrial Pumps - ISA - Jul.31/96
- Fertilizers - ISA - Mar.31/96
- Printing Machines - ISA - Jan.31/96
- Computer Numerical Controllers for Machine Tools - ISA - Oct.31/95
- CD-Rom Video Games - ISA - Oct.31/95
- Housewares - ISA - Nov.30/95
- Franchising - ISA - Dec.31/95
- Equipment and Services for Upgrading/Refurbishment of Power Generation 
Facilities - ISA - Mar.31/96
- Large Transport Aircraft - ISA - Apr.30/96
- Airport Expansion Projects - ISA - Dec.31/95
- Composite Materials for the Automotive Sector - ISA - Nov.30/95
- Intelligent Transportation Systems - ISA - Jul.31/96
- Telecom Services Infrastructure - ISA - Jul.31/96
- Automotive Electronics - ISA - Aug.31/96
- Solid Waste Management - ISA - Feb.28/96
- Software for Groupware Applications - ISA - May.31/96
- Function Analysis Medical Equipment - ISA - Jun.30/96


Available DOC Industry Sector Analyses (ISA)

- Access Controls - ISA '95
- Processing Equipment in the Food Industry - ISA '95
- Children's Wear - ISA '95
- Books - ISA '95
- Agricultural Machinery - ISA '95
- Floor and Wall Covering Equipment - ISA '95
- Salmon - ISA '95
- Sporting Kites - ISA '95
- Fire Extinguishing Equipment - ISA '95
- Aeroports de Paris - ISA '95
- Jeanswear - ISA '95
- Lobsters - ISA '95
- Building Products - ISA '95
- Industrial Textiles - ISA '95
- Medical Equipment - ISA '95
- Satellite Telecommunications - ISA '95
- Integrated Circuits - ISA '95
- Micro Computers - ISA '95
- Inflatable Boats - ISA '95
- Industrial Valves - ISA '95
- Sport Shoes - ISA '95
- Printing and Graphic Arts - ISA '95
- Clean Coal Technology for Power Generation - ISA '95
- Electrical Generating Equipment - ISA '95
- Cellular Telephony Information - ISA '95
- Air Traffic Control Systems - ISA '95
- Water Pollution Controls - ISA '95
- Pet Industry - ISA '95
- Education Services - ISA '95
- Dental Implants - ISA '95
- Telecommunication Value Added Services - ISA '95
- Control, Test and Quality Assurance Equipment - ISA '95
- Packaged Software - ISA '95
- Mobile Communication Equipment - ISA '95
- Water Treatment Chemicals - ISA '95
- Packaged Software - ISA '94
- Vacuum Packaging - ISA '94
- Landscape Equipment - ISA '94
- Automotive Accessories - ISA '94
- Heavy Construction Equipment - ISA '94
- Forestry Equipment - ISA '94
- Sportswear - ISA '94
- Toys: Models & Miniatures - ISA '94
- Special Metals - ISA '94
- Operational Maintenance Services - ISA '94
- Laptop Computers - ISA '94
- Plastics - ISA '94
- Medical Prostheses - ISA '94
- Do-It-Yourself Products - ISA '94
- Air Filters - ISA '94
- Fiber Optics - ISA '94
- Coal - ISA '94
- Basic Chemicals for Pharmaceutical Applications - ISA '94
- Solid Waste Disposal - ISA '94
- Pre-press (Printing Equipment) - ISA '94
- Defense Sales in France - ISA '94
- Pilot Vision Aids - ISA '94
- Computers and Peripherals - ISA '94
- Scientific Laboratory Equipment - ISA '94
- Electronic Surveillance - ISA '94
- Household Linen - ISA '94
- Telecommunications Equipment - ISA '94
- Medical Imaging - ISA '94
- Lingerie - ISA '94
- Welding Protective Equipment - ISA '94
- Fitness Equipment - ISA '94
- Industrial Baking Equipment - ISA '94
- Catalog Sales - ISA '94
- Monkfish - ISA '94
- Computer Software - ISA '94
- Franchised Auto Repair Centers - ISA '94
- Telecommunications Networks - ISA '94
- Semiconductors - ISA '94


Available  DOC Industry Market Insights (IMI)

- French Auto Market - IMI '95
- Electronic Waste Control - IMI '95
- Privatization of Seita - IMI '95
- Pronic Trade Show - IMI '95
- Elec'94-Electricity Exhibition - IMI '95
- French Furnishing Fabrics Show - IMI '95
- Industrial Subcontracting Exhibit - IMI '95
- French Biomedical Market - IMI '95
- Trends in the Door, Window, Solar Protection, and Veranda Markets - 
IMI '95
- End of Show Report - Study USA '95 - IMI '95
- Int'l Women's Wear Trade Show, Paris - IMI '95
- The Rising Cost of Water in France - IMI '95
- The French Market for IBM as/400 Versus Unix-Based Systems - IMI '95
- French Investments into Info Superhighway - IMI '95
- Biotechnology in Alsace - IMI '95
- U.S. Investments in the Bas-Rhine (Alsace) - IMI '95
- Cost of Living in France - IMI '95
- New Media Market Trade Show, Cannes - IMI '95
- Midem '95, Cannes - IMI '95
- Paris International Show Fashion Fair -IMI '95
- Unique Healthcare System - IMI '95
- France Telecom is Being Scrutinized - IMI '95
- Financial Health of Artisan Fishing Industry - IMI '95
- The French Beer Market - IMI '95
- Bio-Avenir (Research in Health, Agricul., Biochem., and Method.) - IMI 
'95
- Sales of Textile in Hypermarkets - IMI '95
- French Market Trends for Heavy Construction Equipment - IMI '95
- CE Marketing for Medical Devices - IMI '95
- The Incubator Program & the Montpelier - IMI '95
- Languedor-Roussillon Technopole (Eurocite) - IMI '95
- IRIS Challenges France Telecom - IMI '95
- Info. on Emergency Numbers in France - IMI '95
- Interselection Trade Show at Exhibition Center of Paris - IMI '95
- A new start for IT Forum - IMI '95
- New President's Views on Info Tech. Issues - IMI '95
- France Telecom Discloses Its Accounts - IMI '95
- Trade Show "Arcaide '95": Focus On The Market - IMI '95
- TDR and Infomobile Challange France Telecom in The Field of .- IMI '95
- The Status of France Telecom and Deutsche Telekon's Joint venture - 
IMI '95
- Problems Pose By The Privatization of France Telecom - IMI '95
- 700 Polluted Sites in France - IMI '95
- France Liberalizes Its Mobile Telecommunication Industry - IMI '95
- The Status of 800 Numbers in France - IMI '95
- New Shareholders for Bull - IMI '95
- France Telecom's Government Contract Is Signed - IMI '95
- Data Changes The Criteria for One of Its Invest. Incentive Prog. - IMI 
'95
- Delay in French Information Highway - IMI '95
- Used Refurbished Equipment - IMI '95
- Status of The Movie Theater Industry in Europe - IMI '95
- Alcatel Acquires Stake in Euronews - IMI '95
- The Used and Remanufactured Medical Equipment Market In France - IMI 
'95
- The French Market Is Warming Up To The Multimedia Industry - IMI '95
- Computer and Network Security an Emerging Market in Belgium - IMI '95
- Durables Recycling Plan - IMI '95
- Dioxin Study Proj - IMI '95
- Prince Trends - IMI '95
- EU Electric Capacitor Purchase - IMI '95
- EU Special Vehicle Regulation - IMI '95
- Science News - IMI '95
- Telecom Service Regulation - IMI '95
- Economic Statistic - IMI '95
- Trade Statistic - IMI '95
- EU Construction Lifting Equip Purchase - IMI '95
- EU Electric Distribution Trends -IMI '95
- EU Valve Purchase - IMI '95
- Industrial production Trends - IMI '95
- Women's Clothing Trade - IMI '95
- Water Cost Trends - IMI '95
- Direct Marketing Trade Show - IMI '95
- Information Superhighway Plan - IMI '95
- Computer Use Trends - IMI '95
- Record Trade Show - IMI '95
- Biotechnology Overview - IMI '95
- Lingerie Trade Show - IMI '95
- Publishing Trade Show - IMI '95
- EU Power Transmission Proj - IMI '95
- Alsance Economic News - IMI '95
- Banking Trends - IMI '95
- Economic News - IMI '95
- EU Computer Laesing Proj - IMI '95
- EU Kitchen Furniture Purchase - IMI '95
- Cost of Living Statistic - IMI '95
- Auto Market Trends - IMI '95
- Trade Statistic - IMI '95
- Door, Window Market Trends - IMI '95
- EU Nuclear Power Plant Proj - IMI '95
- EU Wire Fencing Purchase - IMI '95
- Electric Industry Trade Show - IMI '95
- Component Production Trade Show - IMI '95
- Tobacco Company Privatization - IMI '95
- Financial News - IMI '95
- EU Office Building Proj - IMI '95
- Furnishing Fabrics Trade Show - IMI '95
- Inflation Statistic - IMI '95
- EU Telephone System Purchase - IMI '95
- Biomedical Market Trends - IMI '95
- EU Market Research Proj - IMI '95
- Economic Statistic - IMI '95
- Industrial Research Trends - IMI '95
- Carminat Automobile Systems in France - IMI '94
- SFR the American Alliance - IMI '94
- European Broadcasting Union - IMI '94
- Bouygues is Rushing into the Beeper Service - IMI '94
- Brussels Approves $ 2.17 Billion - IMI '94
- Subsidy to Group Bull - IMI '94
- Premiere Vision, The World Meeting of Textiles and Fashion - IMI '94
- The Int'l Babycare, Nursery, and Infant Toy Exhibition - IMI '94
- End-of-Show Report: Pollutec '94 Environmental Trade Show - IMI '94
- New French Regulations Concerning Third Brakelight for Cars- IMI '94
- Interselection Trade Show - IMI '94
- The European Market for Cogeneration Systems - IMI '94
- French Market for Heat Pumps & Dehumidifiers - IMI '94
- Overview of 1993 French Leather Industry - IMI '94
- France Telecom's New Minitel Videotext Systems - IMI '94
- Market Trends and Industry Standards - IMI '94
- For Sanitary Faucets in France - IMI '94
- France Selected as Manufact. Base for the Future Mercedes-Swatch.. - 
IMI '94
- TV Shopping in France - IMI '94
- End of Show Report, US Catalog Exhibition at Expoprotection '94 - IMI 
'94
- Aeroport de Paris - IMI '94
- The European Market for Lithium Batteries - IMI '94
- Mosheim and Lahr Among Finalists for Site of Swatchmobile.. - IMI '94
- Appointment of New Snecma President/CEO - IMI '94
- French Industrial Waste Disposal Market - IMI '94
- The French Air Pollution Control Market - IMI '94
- European Defense Industry Restructuring - IMI '94
- Trends and Opportunities in the French Packaging Market .. - IMI '94
- Auto Production Proj - IMI '94
- Pollution Clean Up Plan - IMI '94
- TV Shopping Overview - IMI '94
- Economic News - IMI '94
- EU Computer Purchase - IMI '94
- Sanitary Faucet Market Trends - IMI '94
- Security Trade Show - IMI '94
- EU Water Distribution Proj - IMI '94
- EU Industrial Equipment Purchase - IMI '94
- EU pharmaceutical Purchase - IMI '94
- Gene Therapy Research - IMI '94
- EU Shelving Purchase - IMI '94
- EU Public Lighting Purchase - IMI '94
- EU Electronic Equipment Purchase - IMI '94
- Eyewear Trade Show - IMI '94
- EU Polo Shirt Purchase - IMI '94
- Airport Overview - IMI '94
- EU Eletrics Supplies Purchase - IMI '94
- High-tech Conference With Russia - IMI '94
- New Aircraft Company President - IMI '94
- Experiment Car Plan - IMI '94
- Air Pollution Control Market Trends - IMI '94
- Industrial Waste Disposal Market Trends - IMI '94
- EU Gas Supply Equipment - IMI '94
- EU Construction Supplies Purchase - IMI '94
- Industrial Production Statistics - IMI '94
- Computer Company Privatization - IMI '94
- Packaging Trade Show - IMI '94
- EU Computer, Electrical Equipment Purchase - IMI 94
- Interest Rate Trends - IMI '94
- EU Gas Tap Purchase - IMI '94
- Economic News - IMI '94
- Fashion Trade Show - IMI '94
- Tax Free Trade Show - IMI '94
- Heat Pump, Dehumidifier Market Overview - IMI '94
- EU Power Transmission Equipment Purchase - IMI '94
- Leather Industry Overview - IMI '94
- EU Power Transmission Equipment Purchase - IMI '94
- Heating Equipment Purchase - IMI '94
- Consumer Price Trends - IMI '94
- New Videotext Service - IMI '94
- Science News - IMI '94
- Economic News - IMI '94
- EU Military Uniform Purchase - IMI '94
- EU Power Equipment Purchase - IMI '94
- Canal Proj - IMI '94
- Industrial Diversification - IMI '94
- Lingerie Trade Show - IMI '94
- Videotape Trade Show - IMI '94
- TV Program Trade Show - IMI '94
- Auto Navigation System Market Trends - IMI '94
- Nice Exhibit Center -IMI '94
- New Beeper Company - IMI '94
- Mobile Communications Company Profile - IMI '94
- Financial Statistic - IMI '94
- Industrial Production Statistics - IMI '94
- Travel Conditions - IMI '94
- Fashion Textiles Trade Show - IMI '94
- Baby Products Trade Show - IMI '94
- Unemployment Statistics - IMI '94
- Household Goods Trade Shows - IMI '94
- Computer Company Sells US Operations - IMI '94
- Sports Goods Trade Show - IMI '94
- Economic Statistic - IMI '94
- Renault Privatization - IMI '94
- Trade Trends - IMI '94
- Industrial Production Statistic - IMI '94
- Science News - IMI '94
- Window Market Overview - IMI '94
- Telecom Service License - IMI '94
- Vehicle Emission Overview - IMI '94
- Bids For Water Treatment Plant Proj - IMI '94
- Telecom Delegation Reaction -IMI '94
- Industrial Production Statistic - IMI '94
- Yarn Trade Show - IMI '94
- Men's Cosmetics Market Overview - IMI '94
- Euroteleport Inaugurated - IMI '94
- Telecom Carrier Expands - IMI '94
- Computer Company Privatization - IMI '94
- Car Fleet Sales Overview - IMI '94
- Toy Market Overview - IMI '94
- International Standards - IMI '94
- DSC 1800 Standards Agreement - IMI '94
- Overview of Apparel - IMI '94
- Telecom Joint Venture - IMI '94
- Apparel Trade Show - IMI '94
- Consumer Price Statistics - IMI '94
- Telecom Service Rate Dispute - IMI '94
- Car Ferry Purchase - IMI '94
- Coalbed Methane Proj - IMI '94
- Electronic Measuring Instruments Purchase - IMI '94
- Paper Industry Overview - IMI '94
- Industrial Production Trends - IMI '94
- Franche-Comte Economic Profile - IMI '94
- Consumer Profile Trends - IMI '94
- Golf Equipment Market Overview - IMI '94
- Urban Development Proj - IMI '94
- Green Tech Center Proj - IMI '94
- Ecological Proj - IMI '94
- Nursing Products Trade Show - IMI '94
- Industrial Production Trends - IMI '94
- Bank Card Progress - IMI '94
- Police Communication Proj - IMI '94
- Luxury Goods Trends - IMI '94
- Plastic Industry Trends - IMI '94
- Study In USA Trade Show - IMI '94
- Consumer Price Trends - IMI '94
- Telecom Company Expansion - IMI '94
- Environmental, Science News - IMI '94
- Measurement Instruments Trade Show - IMI '94
- Medical Equipment Trade Show - IMI '94
- New Mobile Telephone Service - IMI '94
- Medicine Trade Show - IMI '94
- Lab Instrument Trade Show - IMI '94
- Yacht Market Overview - IMI '94
- In Vitro Instruments Market Overview - IMI '94
- Technology Research JV Proj - IMI '94
- Oil Company Privatization - IMI '94
- New Multimedia Company - IMI '94
- Mobile Telecom News - IMI '94
- Genetics Research Center - IMI '94
- Men's Clothing Trade Show -  IMI '94
- Employment Trends - IMI '94
- Ministry of Economy Opens Bidding on the Privatization of Bull - IMI 
'94

     APPENDIX G - TRADE EVENT SCHEDULE

DATE
EVENT / INDUSTRY
CITY
ORGANIZER
TELEPHONE / FACSIMILE

10/02-05/95
SATIS / Image and Sound
Paris
SATIS
T:(33.1)47.20.84.44 / F:49.52.00.54

10/03-06/95
POLLUTEC
Environment and Pollution Control
Paris
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.21.15 / F:47.56.21.10

10/06-15/95
MAISON INDIVIDUELLE / Houseware
Paris
CEP
T:(33.1)49.09.64.55 / F:49.09.60.03

10/06-15/95
INTERIEURS D'AUTOMNE / Houseware
Paris
CEP
T:(33.1)49.09.61.13 / F:49.09.60.03 

10/06-15/95
IDEES MAISON  / Houseware
Paris
CEP
T:(33.1)49.09.60.81 / F:49.09.60.03  

10/06-15/95
FIAC / Art Fair
Paris
OIP
T:(33.1)49.53.27.20 / F:49.09.60.03

10/09-13/95
MIPCOM / Film, T.V., Cable
Cannes
REED MIDEM
T:(33.1)44.34.44.44 / F:44.34.44.00 

10/11-14/95
MITCAR / Tourism Fair
Paris
Groupe Liaison
T:(33.1)41.29.96.21 / F:41.29.96.68

10/13-19/95
EQUIP'AUTO / Car Components
Paris
CEP
T:(33.1)49.09.60.00 / F:49.09.60.03 

10/14-16/95
DIETEXPO / Dietetic & Cosmetic products
Paris
OIP
T:(33.1)49.53.27.00 / F:49.53.27.86

10/18-24/95
EQUIP'HOTEL
Hotels & Catering
Paris
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.50.00 / F:47.56.14.40

10/20-23/95
SILMO
Optics and Eyewear
Paris
CEP
T:(33.1)49.09.61.35 / F:49.09.60.03

10/24-28/95
SITEF / Advanced Technologies
Toulouse
CCI Toulouse
T:(33.1)61.33.66.70 / F:61.33.66.99 

10/24-28/95
EUROPACK/EUROMANUT
Packaging
Lyon
CEP
T:(33.1)49.68.51.00 / F:47.37.74.47 

10/25-27/95
ALARMES PROTECTION SECURITE 
Security (2)
Paris
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.51.46 / F:47.56.14.40

11/01-12/95
CONFOREXPO
Lifestyle and Comfort
Bordeaux
CE de Bordeaux
T:(33.1)56.11.99.00 / F:56.11.99.09
 
11/01-12/95
CONFORT MENAGER
Houseware
Lille
NOREXPO
T:(33.1)20.15.81.95 / F:20.15.81.91

11/7-12/95
BATIMAT (1)
Building Materials (2)
Paris
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.51.62 / F:47.56.14.40  

11/20-23/95
PHYSIQUE / Scientific Expo
Paris
SF de Physique
T:(33.1)47.07.32.98 / F:43.31.74.26 

11/20-24/95
MIDEST
Sub-Contracting (2)
Paris
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.50.00 / F:47.56.14.40

11/20-25/95
INTERTRONIC
Electronic Components (2)
Paris
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.50.00 / F:47.56.14.40

11/21-23/95
SITEVI
Grape & Fruit Tree (2)
Montpellier
EXPOSIMA
T:(33.1)49.68.51.00 / F:47.37.74.47 

11/21-24/95
MILIPOL (1)
Police, Military & Security (2)
Paris
IMEXPO
T:(33.1)46.27.82.00 / F:46.27.91.63

11/21-24/95
INTERSELECTION
Inter Selection (3)
Paris
Fed. de la Maille
T:(33.1)47.56.32.32 / F:47.56.32.99

12/01-10/95
CHEVAL & PONEY
Horse & Poney
Paris
CEP
T:(33.1)49.09.60.00 / F:49.09.60.03  

12/01-11/95
NAUTIQUE INTERNATIONAL
Nautical
Paris
OIP
T:(33.1)49.53.27.10 / F:49.53.27.86

12/01-11/95
PISCINE SPA SAUNA
Pools, Saunas
Paris
OIP
T:(33.1)49.53.27.10 / F:49.53.27.86

11/04-08/95
INTERCHIMIE
Chemical Process (4)
Paris
SEPIC
T:(33.1)49.68.54.80 / F:49.68.54.84 

12/12-15/95
FORAINEXPO
Traveling Show
Paris
SEPFI
T:(33.1)47.56.21.07 / F:47.56.21.20

01/96
CONFORTEC
Household Appliances (2)
Paris
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.50.00 / F:47.56.14.40

01/27-30/96
SEHM (1)
Men's Clothing (3)
Paris
F.F.I.V.
T:(33.1)44.55.66.50 / F:44.55.66.65

02/96
EXPOBOIS
Woodworking Machinery (2)
Paris
CEP
T:(33.1)47.56.14.40 / F:44.55.66.65
 
02/96
INTERGLACES
Ice & Ice-Cream (2)
Paris 
CEP
T:(33.1)49.09.60.00 / F:49.09.60.03 

02/96
EUROPEAN
World Bread & Pastry Exhibition (2)
Paris
CEP
T:(33.1)49.09.61.52 / F:49.09.60.03

02/96
INTERSIMA
Agrosupplies & Meat Production (2)
Paris
EXPOSIMA
T:(33.1)49.68.51.00 / F:47.37.74.47

03/96
SEMBO
Coffee, Hotels & Institutional Food (2)
Bordeaux
CE de Bordeaux
T:(33.1)56.11.99.15 / F:56.11.99.99

03/96
MECANELEN
Mechanical Eng. Components (2)
Paris
SEPIC
T:(33.1)49.68.54.60 / F:49.68.54.84

03/96
PROFESSIONS DE L'IMAGE
Photo, Video (2)
Paris
SIPI
T:(33.1)46.27.47.29 / F:42.29.02.22

03/96
TRANSFOMETAL
Machine Tool (2)
Lyon
SEPELCOM
T:(33.1)72.22.32.56 / F:72.22.32.70 

03/96
SITAl
Dental Trade (4)
Paris
Comident
T:(33.1)48.74.11.08 / F:42.85.20.32

03/96
SPECIAL VIDEO MISSION (1)
Paris
The Commercial Service, Paris
T:(33.1)43.12.21.49 / F:43.12.21.72     

03/25-29/96
HOSPITAL-EXPO /Hospital Equipment (2)
Paris
P.G. Promotion (Lyon)
T:(33.1)78.42.67.70 / F:78.42.37.70

03/28-31/96
SALON DE L'ETUDIANT (2)
Education
Paris
L'Etudiant
T:(33.1)48.07.41.41 / F:48.07.02.92

04/24/26/96
JEC  Composites
Paris
CPC
T:(33.1)44.01.16.44 / F:47.63.57.39

04/96
FORUM LABO  Laboratory Techniques (2)
Paris
MCI
T:(33.1)44.53.72.20 / F:44.53.72.21 

04/96
GRAPHITEC
Graphic Arts Industry (2)
Paris
Sepic
T:(33.1)49.68.54.40 / F:49.68.54.84

04/96
PLASTEXPO  Plastic & Rubber (3)
Lyon
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.50.00 / F:47.56.14.40

04/96
SAM  Mountain Industries (2)
Grenoble
ALEXPO
T:(33.1)76.39.63.28 / F:76.09.36.48

05/96
EUROFOUR
Furnace & Heating (2)
Paris
SEPIC
T:(33.1)49.68.54.80 / F:49.68.54.84

05/96
INTEROUTIL
Cutting & Shaping Tools (2) 
Paris
SEPIC
T:(33.1)49.68.54.80 / F:49.68.54.84

05/96
EUROASSEMBLAGE
Assembly Machines (2)
Paris
SEPIC
T:(33.1)49.68.54.80 / F:49.68.54.84 

05/96
MACHINE OUTIL
Mechanical Industries (2)
Paris
SEPIC
T:(33.1)49.68.54.80 / F:49.68.54.84 

06/05-08/96
AUTONOMIC Disabled and Elderly Independence
Paris
SIS 
T:(33.1)43.39.41.45 / F:43.39.33.45 

06/96
MESUCORA
Measure, Control Devices (4)
Paris
MESUCORA
T:(33.1)42.27.33.14 / F:47.55.69.15

06/24-29/96
EUROSATORY (1)
Defense Industry
Paris
COGES
T:(33.1)44.14.58.10 / F:42.30.70.88

09/96
BATIMAT-DECOR-PARITEX  Decoration (2)
Paris
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.50.00 / F:47.56.14.40

09/96
VEGECOM
Horticulture (2)
Orleans
CDHRO (Saint Cyr en Val)
T:(33.1)37.76.24.04 / F:38.69.07.92

09/96
CUIR  Leather (2)
Paris
SIC SA
T:(33.1)43.59.05.69 / F:43.59.30.02

09/96
SEHM (1)
Men's Clothing (3)
Paris
F.F.I.V.
T:(33.1)44.55.66.50 / F:44.55.66.65

09/96
TOP RESA
Tourism
Deauville
Blenheim
T:(33.1)47.56.50.98 / F:47.56.14.40 

(1).  The U.S. Government is participating and supporting this event.
(2).  Every two years
(3).  Every six months
(4).  Every three years

FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL TRADE SHOWS IN FRANCE - 1995/1996


MOFEL-NICE
International Fruits and
September 18-20, 1995
Vegetables Exhibition

DIETEXPO
Health and Dietetic Food and Drink
Paris - Porte de Versailles
October 14-15-16, 1995

FOIRE INTERNATIONALE DE DIJON
International Food and Wine
October 31-November 12, 1995

INTERSUC'96
International Confectionary Products Show
Paris-Nord Villepinte              
February 24-28, 1996

FLORISSIMO'96 - DIJON
VI th International Flowers and Plants Exhibition
March 8-18, 1996

EUROBIERE
International Beers and Refreshments Show
Strasbourg
April 12-16, 1996    

SIAL'96/SIAL BOISSONS'96
International Food Products  and Drinks Show
Paris-Nord Villepinte
October 20-24, 1996

3 940 exhibitors in 1994
USDA/FAS will sponsor U.S. 
Pavilion in 1996

HORTI-AZUR
Subtropical Vegetal Show
Nice
November '96
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