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U.S. Department of State
Denmark Country Commercial Guide
Office of the Coordinator for Business Affairs


                       COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE FY 1996
                            COPENHAGEN, DENMARK

                             Prepared by
                   American Embassy, Copenhagen 
                           June 30, 1995


I.    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
II.   ECONOMIC TRENDS AND OUTLOOK
III.  POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
IV.   MARKETING U.S. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 
V.    LEADING SECTORS FOR U.S. EXPORTS AND INVESTMENTS
VI.   TRADE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 
VII.  INVESTMENT CLIMATE
VIII. TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCING 
IX.   BUSINESS TRAVEL
X.    APPENDICES
A.    COUNTRY DATA
B.    DOMESTIC ECONOMY 
C.    TRADE
D.    INVESTMENT STATISTICS
E.    U.S. AND COUNTRY CONTACTS
F.    MARKET RESEARCH
G.    TRADE EVENT SCHEDULE

This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at 
Denmark's commercial environment through economic, political and market 
analyses.  
The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion 
Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate 
various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community.  
Country Commercial Guides are prepared annualy at U.S. Embassies through 
the combined efforts of several U.S. governement agencies.  

I.  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Denmark is a democracy and a member of the EU and NATO.  Political and 
commercial relations with the United States are excellent.  It is a 
classic welfare state and its standard of living, per capita GDP, and 
rate of personal taxation are among the highest in the world.  It is a 
good market and investment site for American companies and its location, 
excellent and improving infrastructure, and the skills of its labor 
force make it an attractive location for regional offices serving 
Scandinavia and the Baltics.  The United States is Denmark's largest 
trading partner outside the EU and usually has between five and seven 
percent of the Danish market with total annual sales of around $2 
billion.  There are about 250 American subsidiaries in Denmark 
representing about 12 percent of foreign direct investment.  U.S. Direct 
investment totals about $2 Billion.
Because of its EU membership, Denmark imposes common external tariffs on 
goods entering from non EU countries including the United States.  These 
duties run from 5 to 14% on manufactured goods.  Agricultural products 
are governed by the common agricultural policy in which duties are 
supplemented by a system of variable levies.  Because of these levies 
some U.S. processed food products are not competitive in the Danish 
market.  This situation should improve over the next few years because 
such charges will be converted to fixed tariff equivalents and reduced 
under the Uruguay round multilateral trade agreement.  There are very 
few non-tariff trade barriers.  Denmark follows the GATT/WTO government 
procurement code and U.S. firms are eligible to bid on an equal basis 
for government contracts valued over $200,000. 
The investment climate is good.  Denmark follows liberal trade and 
investment policies and encourages foreign investment.  There are very 
few ownership restrictions, foreign investors receive national treatment 
and can benefit from national investment incentive programs.  There is a 
well established system of commercial law and expropriation is almost 
entirely limited to public construction purposes in which case full 
compensation is paid.  There are no restrictions on capital transfers 
and no foreign exchange restrictions.  Worker productivity is high, 
inflation low, and corporate taxation one of the lowest in the EU.  
Danish wages are high but employer contributions to social welfare are 
very low which results in lower total labor costs than most northern EU 
members.  Property, including intellectual property, is well protected. 
Denmark buys from the United States machinery and capital equipment 
(especially computers), aircraft, scientific instruments, military 
equipment, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood, coal, wine, tobacco, 
fodder, and nuts.  U.S. automobiles are starting to make inroads, 
strongly assisted by the weak dollar.  American owned firms in Denmark 
are prominent in computer software services and management consulting 
and their annual sales probably exceed $1 billion.
The best prospects for market growth for U.S. companies in the 
forthcoming year include software, computers, engineering services, 
tourism, pollution control equipment, electrical power systems, oil 
field machinery, medical equipment, telecommunications equipment, and 
auto parts.  The best agricultural prospects are wine, dry nuts, 
breakfast cereals, turkey meat, frozen sweet corn, and popcorn.  There 
are five major infrastructure projects in progress or scheduled for 
initiation and completion during the next 6-10 years.  These include one 
major bridge and tunnel presently under construction and another two 
bridges (to Sweden and Germany) tentatively scheduled to be built from 
1994 to 2000.  Each of these is valued at $3 billion or more.  
Additionally, two light rail systems will be constructed in the vicinity 
of Copenhagen.  
The Danish economy is expected to slow down in 1995 and 1996, but 
continued growth in private consumption and increased growth in business 
investment will keep GDP growth rates between three and four percent.  
The balance of payments will likely remain in surplus, allowing 
reduction of the foreign debt to below 25 percent of GDP.  Inflation 
will remain low, between two and three percent. 
We expect U.S. companies to increase their market share in forthcoming 
years.  Major favorable factors for such an increase include the low 
dollar rate, increased opportunities for government procurement 
contracts, and the opportunities presented by major Danish 
infrastructure projects.  In high-technology areas, such as electronic 
data processing, U.S. companies are already market leaders and are 
expected to maintain their lead.
Country Commercial Guides are available on the National Trade Data Bank 
on CD-rom or through the internet.  Please contact Stat-USA at 1-800-
Stat-USA for more information.  To locate Country Commercial Guides via 
the internet, please use the following world wide web address: www.Stat-
USA.Gov.  CCGs can also be ordered in hard copy or on diskette from the 
National National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at 1-800-553-
NTIS.

II.  ECONOMIC TRENDS AND OUTLOOK
Major Trends and Outlook:  The right-of-center Government which held 
power from 1982 to 1993 pursued a tight fiscal policy resulting in low 
economic growth and high unemployment.  Fiscal restraint achieved the 
government's goal of changing the Danish economy from an inflation-
ridden economy with large balance of payments deficits and a somewhat 
weak foreign exchange position into an economy with low inflation, 
consumer attitudes favoring saving more than spending, a firm exchange 
rate policy and increasing balance of payments surpluses.  A Social 
Democratic-led (SDP) minority government came into office in January 
1993 and continued in power after the September 21, 1994 election.  
While maintaining a firm monetary and exchange rate policy, the SDP 
government relaxed fiscal policy in order to kick-start the economy, 
reduce unemployment and combat the underground economy.  Introduction of 
limited income tax reform, government-funded leave programs, and 
incentives to refinance high-interest home  mortgages at low-interest 
rates sparked a private consumption growth rate of more than seven 
percent in 1994.  While the Danish manufacturing industry benefitted 
from this growth (and from favorable foreign market demand), a large 
share of private consumption was spent on consumer durables, notably 
imported automobiles.  As a result, total imports rose more than 10 
percent, while exports rose about seven percent. Public consumption and 
investment, on the other hand, rose only nominally so that total GDP 
growth came to 4.4 percent. As a consequence, the foreign balance also 
deteriorated.      
In 1995 and 1996, the Government is tightening fiscal policy again in 
order to reduce public budget deficits and to avoid labor market 
bottlenecks. Therefore, a slow-down in economic activity is expected in 
1995 and 1996.  GDP growth in 1995 is projected by the Government at 3.6 
percent, dropping to 2.4 percent in 1996, mostly a result of continued 
nominal growth in public consumption and investment, offset in part by 
strong growth in private investment.  Private consumption growth is 
expected to drop to 4.3 percent in 1995 and to 3.1 percent in 1996, and 
export growth to about five percent in each year.   
   
Denmark had a record-low inflation (measured on consumer prices) of 1.3 
percent in 1993.  Due to the introduction in 1994 of new environmental 
taxes, designed to partially offset lost income tax revenues, inflation 
rose to two percent.  Inflation is expected to increase further to 2.5 
percent and three percent in 1995 and 1996, respectively.  New labor 
contracts entered in early 1995 will continue to ensure wage earners 
real income gains, after taxes, of between one and two percent each 
year.  Hourly wage increases in 1995 and 1996 are projected at 4.2 and 
5.0 percent, respectively.
Manufacturing industry sales increased more than 10 percent in 1994.  
However, industry employment at the end of 1994 had only increased by 
some two percent due to very large productivity gains (which are normal 
at the beginning of an economic upswing).  Industry productivity is 
expected to return to normal levels in 1995 and 1996, i.e., to between 
two to three percent annually. Industry sales will likely increase five 
to six percent each year.
Official unemployment peaked in 1993 at 349,000 unemployed, or 12.4 
percent of the labor force.  Despite the economic upswing and the 
Government's leave programs, unemployment fell only nominally in 1994, 
to 12.2 percent of the labor force.  This was due partially to 
extraordinary large new labor inflows and partially to the very sharp 
increase in business productivity.  In 1995, productivity will likely 
return to normal, employment is now increasing and unemployment is 
expected to drop to about 10 percent in 1995.  At 10 percent 
unemployment will be close to the structural unemployment level - 
estimated at between 9 and 10 percent of the labor force - and remain a 
serious problem for the Danish economy.  In fact, almost one million 
working age people, or one-quarter of the working age population, are 
living on one or the other kind of transfer incomes.  The Government is 
addressing this problem by tightening availability-for-work rules, but 
it remains politically impossible to make extensive labor market and tax 
reforms in order to increase incentives to work, reduce the underground 
economy (estimated at between 5 and 10 percent of GDP), and reduce the 
number of people out of work, including an increasing number of "life-
style out of work".
Danish exports of goods in 1994 rose about 9 percent, reflecting strong 
foreign demand and a strong Danish competitive position.  The 
competitive position is likely to be reduced in 1995, as the Danish 
krone in early 1995 appreciated some four percent on a trade-weighted 
basis.  Due to Denmark's strong dependence on imported raw materials and 
semi-manufactures (about 40 percent of production value in manufacturing 
industry), a strong krone also makes imports cheaper, so that the net 
effect on competitiveness of a four percent appreciation is reduced to 
between two and three percent. The krone appreciated most, between 10 
and 15 percent, against three of Denmark's leading trading partners, 
Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States, while it depreciated 
only slightly against the German Mark and the Yen.  However, the carry-
over effect of the improved competitiveness in 1994 and continued strong 
foreign demand should ensure export growth in excess of five percent in 
1995.  Unless foreign exchange markets improve, prospects for a similar 
increase in 1996 appear bleak.
Growth in imports is likely to remain in the 8 to 9 percent range in 
1995, due to increased private investment and the strong krone.  U.S. 
exports to Denmark should take advantage of an improved competitive 
position resulting from the present low value of the Dollar.  Prospects 
for 1996 are for total imports  to increase some five percent, mostly 
supported by business investment increasing some seven percent and an 
export increase (if that holds) of some five percent.
Despite a reduction in the Danish balance of payments surplus resulting 
from the economic upswing, it will be possible to repay Denmark's 
foreign debt down to less than one-quarter of GDP by the end of 1995.
Business investment, corresponding to about 10 percent of GDP, increased 
by less than two percent in 1994.  However, pent-up demand for 
investment goods in industry and increased North Sea oil exploration 
activities are expected to increase business investment by some 15 
percent in 1995, and by six percent in 1996.  Public investment, 
however, is expected to drop by about five percent in 1995.  
In 1994, the United States ranked sixth among Denmark's suppliers, fifth 
among Denmark's trading partners, and first among non-European sources.  
The United States accounted for five percent of total Danish trade in 
goods, almost equally distributed between exports and imports.  Based on 
Danish trade statistics, the value of U.S. sales in 1994 came to $1.7 
billion, an increase of more than 20 percent over 1993.  Despite a 
recent change in Danish trade statistics from a "country of origin 
basis" to a "last country of departure" basis, Danish statistics 
continue to differ significantly from U.S. trade statistics which show 
U.S. exports to Denmark worth "only" $1.2 billion in 1994. The 
difference is probably due to Danish importers continuing to register 
U.S. goods which have been transshipped through other EU countries as 
"coming from the U.S.".  The United States has run a trade deficit with 
Denmark since 1992.  In 1993 and 1994 it amounted to about $450 million 
(about double that amount in U.S. statistics).
Principal Growth Sectors:  As Denmark is an industrialized "value-added" 
country dependent on supplies of raw materials and semi-manufactures, 
its imports are very diversified.  Major U.S. product categories sold 
are machinery and capital equipment, more than one-third are computers; 
aircraft; scientific and technical instruments; and military equipment.  
Other important U.S. sales include raw tobacco; fodder; nuts and 
almonds; pharmaceuticals; chemicals; wood and plywood; and coal.  U.S. 
produced consumer durables never played an important role in U.S. 
exports to Denmark.  However, U.S. automobiles and vans are making good 
inroads, with the help of the cheap Dollar.
Computer software, management consulting services, tourism and shipping 
play important roles in Danish/U.S. services trade.  U.S.-owned firms in 
Denmark have large shares of the Danish market for computer software 
services and management consulting service and their annual sales 
probably exceed $1 billion.  
More than 100,000 Danes annually visit the United States.  The bulk of 
those visitors are carried by non-U.S. airlines, most importantly 
Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS).  As of June 1995, Delta Airlines is 
the only U.S.-flag carrier serving Denmark, although United Airlines 
offers service to Denmark through a code-share arrangement with 
Lufthansa.  Denmark and the United States in June 1995, entered an "open 
skies" aviation agreement, which could increase competition and 
Danish/U.S. tourism trade.  The shipping trade is mostly in favor of 
Denmark, as Danish vessels engaged in liner trade (container traffic) to 
and from the United States in 1994 produced more than a quarter of total 
Danish shipping earnings of about $5 billion.
Prospects are good for increased U.S. sales of investment goods in 1995.  
Manufacturing and food processing industry in 1994 made investment in 
machinery and equipment worth about $8 billion which is projected to 
increase by close to 13 percent in 1995.  Investments in oil exploration 
and infrastructure projects are projected to increase by 15 percent to 
about $4 billion.  The  Government and industry are increasingly 
considering environmental issues in purchasing goods, machinery and 
equipment.
As a new element in U.S./Danish trade, U.S. shipyards are becoming 
increasingly competitive, supported by the cheap dollar and the present 
advantageous U.S. Title XI shipbuilding program.  One Danish shipowner 
has already placed an order with an Alabama shipyard for three chemical 
tankers, worth some $75 million.  U.S. high-speed ferry builders and 
subcontractors to Danish (and other European) shipyards also appear very 
competitive. 
Government Role in the Economy:  The public sector, with about 700,000 
employees, or one-quarter of the labor force, plays a very important 
role in the Danish economy.  The Danish (Scandinavian) welfare model is 
based on the public sector providing essentially all basic services 
within health, social security and welfare, and education.  However, 
because it was created during the 1960s, a time of full employment and 
much lower female participation in the labor market than today, the 
welfare model's validity and high cost are now high on the political 
agenda, but it remains politically impossible to introduce major 
changes.  Some vital government services are now suffering under the 
high costs of financing transfer income payments and servicing the large 
public debt, which together cost close to one-half of total public 
revenues, or more than one-quarter of GDP.  Hospitals and day care 
centers, for example, have long waiting lists, which have assisted the 
establishment of a number of private hospitals (attracting mostly 
wealthier people) and employment of private day care mothers.
The Danish tax burden is among the highest in the world - some 50 
percent of GDP - but is insufficient to balance public budgets.  
However, the present economic upswing has helped reduce public budget 
deficits and the Government expects the public sector budget to be in 
balance in 1997.  
Privatization has been increasing for some years, including sale (in 
whole or in part) of Government-owned business entities, including a 
life insurance company, a monopoly telecommunication entity, Tele 
Danmark, an export insurance company, Copenhagen Airports; and the 
Danish State Railroads.  In addition, some public services, mostly 
cleaning of and catering to public institutions, are being increasingly 
privatized.
The present Government budget priorities include a gradual reduction of 
income taxes, in part offset by increased environmental taxes.
The Government's 1994 tax reform includes gradually lowering of marginal 
income taxes (state and local government taxes) through 1998.  In 1995, 
marginal income taxes range between 43.2 (up to $20,600 taxable income) 
and 64.7 percent (taxable income exceeding $37,200).  By 1998, they were 
scheduled to range between 37.5 and 58 percent, but new local government 
income tax increases for 1996 (and probably onwards) will not allow the 
Government to attain its goal for reductions.  To partly offset revenue 
losses, the Government introduced a flat labor market contribution tax 
paid by employees.  In 1995, this tax is 6 percent on gross income 
rising to 8 percent in 1998.  Employers will pay a new labor market tax 
of 0.3 percent of their wage sum starting in 1997, rising to 0.6 percent 
in 1998.  In addition, introduction of several new and increasing 
"environmental" taxes will also offset income tax revenue losses.
The Government, also in 1994, introduced new labor market measures, 
including temporary Government-funded leave for child care, educational, 
and sabbatical purposes;  job and education offers to the unemployed and 
social benefit recipients; and 20,000 new education places.  The leave 
programs, which are also available to the unemployed, have had a rousing 
success attracting some 70,000 persons, more than half from the ranks of 
the unemployed, in 1995.  These programs were made permanent in 1995, 
but Government-funded compensation, except for educational leave, was 
reduced in an effort to avoid labor bottlenecks in a period with 
increasing employment.
The central government's budget deficit came to DKK 40 billion in 1994, 
4.3 percent of GDP, and is expected to drop slightly to DKK 37 billion 
in 1995.  Expenditures are expected to increase 2.1 percent (in current 
prices) to DKK 390 billion, while revenues are expected to increase 
three percent to DKK 352.9 billion. For 1996, the Government projects 
increases of 1.7 percent in expenditures and 2.4 percent in revenues, 
which would further reduce the deficit to DKK 35 billion. For the public 
sector budget as a whole (including local governments and public pension 
funds), the Government projects a deficit corresponding to 1.7 percent 
of GDP in 1995, 1.0 percent in 1996 and a balanced budget in 1997.
Even though Denmark will not participate in the third phase of the EU's 
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), it will adhere to the economic 
policies of the Union, including meeting the convergence criteria for 
such participation.  The Government's monetary and exchange rate policy, 
built on the German model, aims at price stability and building 
international confidence in a strong Danish economy.  Since the currency 
crises in July 1993 and the spring of 1995, the Government has pursued a 
carefully balanced monetary policy which has helped maintain 
international confidence in the economy and strengthen the krone.
The Government's firm krone policy, which in practice means a stable 
Krone/DM exchange rate, due to the vulnerable nature of the Danish 
economy also means that Danish interest rates are usually 1.0 and 1.5 
percent above those of Germany, despite Denmark's present strong economy 
and similar inflation rate.  This also means that real interest rates 
are high in Denmark, some six percent on mortgage credits, seven percent 
on business credits, and some 10 percent on consumer bank credits.  
Balance of Payments Situation:  The Danish BOP has been in surplus since 
1990, after 27 straight years of deficits.  The BOP surplus peaked in 
1993 at DKK 30.7 billion kroner, or 3.5 percent of GDP. In 1994, the 
surplus dropped to DKK 22.1 billion, resulting from a surplus of DKK 64 
billion on the goods and services balance, offset by DKK 42 billion in 
foreign debt interest payments and development assistance payments.  As 
imports are increasing faster than exports in 1995, the BOP surplus is 
projected to drop slightly in 1995. However, it does not take much to 
change the BOP situation insofar as only one percent change in either 
exports or imports means DKK 5 billion up or down in the surplus.
Trade in goods alone (fob/fob basis) in 1994 produced a surplus of DKK 
48.3 billion, down from DKK 50.7 billion in 1993, while the surplus on 
trade in services rose from DKK 15.4 billion in 1993 to DKK 17.2 billion 
in 1994.  The travel account, traditionally in deficit, deteriorated by 
DKK 1.6 billion to a deficit of DKK 2.6 billion.  Net EU payments to 
Denmark dropped DKK 2.8 billion to DKK 1.3 billion, reflecting increased 
Danish payments to the EU, but also a minor drop in EU export subsidies 
to Denmark.  Net interest payments, including a small amount of 
dividends paid abroad, amounted to DKK 33.5 billion, DKK 2.5 billion 
more than in 1993.  In addition, Denmark paid DKK 8.6 billion in 
assistance to less developed countries.
The BOP surplus has allowed Denmark to gradually reduce its foreign debt 
from about 40 percent of GDP in 1991 to 27 percent at the end of 1994.  
At the end of 1995, the debt will likely drop below 25 percent of GDP.  
The Danish Government is a net external debtor, while the private 
sector, including banks, is a net creditor.  At the end of 1994, the 
governmental foreign debt was DKK 357 billion, of which krone-
denominated bonds accounted for close to one-half.
Infrastructure Situation:
Denmark possesses a first class distribution infrastructure, including 
excellent telecommunications, a high quality nationwide highway and rail 
network and airports accessible from all population centers. Copenhagen 
is a major port with free port facilities and is ideally situated as a 
transit point into the Baltic.  Many multinational firms utilize Denmark 
as a distribution point for Scandinavia or the Baltic littoral.  Denmark 
has shown a continued willingness to invest in infrastructure 
improvements which is currently evidenced by a major expansion of 
Kastrup (Copenhagen) Airport and three bridge/tunnel project expected to 
cost US$3 billion each.  The latter include a connection between Eastern 
and Western Denmark, a connection between Copenhagen and Malmo, and a 
possible connection across the Baltic from Southern Denmark to Northern 
Germany.  When these projects are completed, a new northern European 
land route will exist connecting all of Scandinavia to the European 
continent through Germany.  
III.  POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
Nature of the Bilateral Relationship with the United States: Although 
US-Danish relations were strained in the early 1980s over security 
issues, bilateral relations are now excellent. NATO, the keystone of the 
American national security relationship with Denmark, is popular in 
Denmark, perhaps more so than in any other country in Europe. More than 
70 percent of the Danes favor Danish membership of NATO, and the Danes 
are also adamant that progress toward European integration should not 
come at the expense of transatlantic ties.  Concern for retaining NATO 
is one of the arguments consistently invoked by opponents of Danish 
membership in the Western European Union.
Major Political Issues Affecting the Business Climate:  While political 
issues rarely affect the Danish business climate, the business sector 
fears that the  Government's new series of environmental taxes imposed 
on business, pending introduction of similar taxes in Denmark's major 
competing countries, may jeopardize Danish competitiveness.
Brief Synopsis of Political System, Schedule for Elections, and 
Orientation of Major Political Parties:  Denmark is a constitutional 
monarchy.  The Parliament, known as the Folketing, is elected for a 
four-year term, but usually elections are held before the four years are 
up,  either because the Government is toppled in a vote of confidence, 
or because the Prime Minister calls an election (which he can do at any 
time) in an attempt to increase the government coalition's parliamentary 
position.  Denmark has a history of minority governments.  The last 
election was held September 21, 1994.
With a few amendments (the latest and most comprehensive in 1953), the 
Constitution dates from 1849, when the King renounced absolutism (the 
"royal dictatorship"). Today Denmark is among the most politically 
stable democracies.  The Queen nominally rules through the Prime 
Minister and his Cabinet. As the Prime Minister is accountable to the 
Folketing (Denmark's unicameral parliament), the Queen "chooses" him 
based on recommendations from the leaders of the political parties.
The Prime Minister works through Cabinet Ministers and their ministries. 
Cabinet Ministers need not be members of Parliament, although all but 
two of the current 20 ministers are.  Ministers have no political Deputy 
Ministers or Secretaries of State as in other parliamentary democracies. 
Rather, they have one or more Permanent Under Secretaries, who are the 
highest-ranking civil servants within the ministry. There are no 
political appointees among the civil servants, who remain unaffected by 
changes of government.
The parliament has 175 members, plus two each from Greenland and the 
Faroes, which are autonomous parts of the Danish realm.  
Judicial power rests solely with the courts, although the Monarch on 
rare occasions grants pardons.
In 1995, eight political parties are represented in the Folketing and 
there is one unaffiliated member.  Four of the parties have a 
parliamentary history of 79 years or longer.  Political parties play a 
much greater role in Danish politics than in the United States, for two 
major reasons. The first is the system of awarding seats on the basis of 
proportional representation.  The second reason is the fact that 
Folketing members have no personal staff (nor, for that matter, do 
parliamentary committees).  As a result, Danish parliamentarians rely on 
their parties for support and technical expertise and party discipline 
is very tight.
The Government that was re-elected in 1994 is a minority coalition 
composed of three parties: The Social Democrats, the Radicals, and the 
Center Democrats. Together, these parties control 76 of the 179 seats in 
the Folketing.
The Social Democratic Party (SDP, with 63 seats), is the party of Prime 
Minister Poul Nyrup Rasmussen and the largest party in the Folketing.  
Founded in 1871, the left-of-center SDP has been in government for most 
of the post-WWII era except for the 1982-93 period. The SDP 
traditionally has support from the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions 
(LO).  The SDP was the primary originator of the Danish welfare state in 
the 1920s and 1930s, and today its policies include a large public 
sector to fight unemployment and a powerful government role in the 
economy and society.  Some of the party's members still harbor 
misgivings about closer European integration.
The two major non-socialist opposition parties are the Venstre Party (44 
seats in the Folketing) and the Konservative People's Party (28 seats).  
Venstre's platform very much resembles that of the Konservatives, 
although Venstre favors reducing government power and budgets more than 
the Konservatives.  Venstre also very strongly supports European 
integration, while the Konservatives are more hesitant.
IV.  MARKETING U.S. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Distribution and Sales Channels:  As in most other developed countries, 
methods of distribution in Denmark vary with the type of product.  
Capital goods, commodities and industrial raw materials are most often 
handled by non-stocking sales agents.  Specialized and high-technology 
products are usually handled by stocking distributors which have their 
own service and maintenance facilities.  Consumer goods are usually sold 
through importing agents and distributors, but increasingly also 
imported directly by major retailers such as department and chain 
stores.
The Danish food sector is dominated by a number of large retail chains 
with in-house wholesale and import divisions.  There are about 30 
significant food product importers in Denmark.  Approximately 25% of 
Danish retail food shops are coops.  The balance are mostly owned by a 
few very large private chains.  The two largest, FDB and Dansk 
Supermarked, account for just over 50% of the market with annual 
turnovers of US$3.5 billion and US$900 million respectively 
  
Use of Agents/Distributors, Finding a Partner:  The modern world of 
advanced cross-border communications has eliminated numerous barriers, 
but many Danish companies still prefer to deal with an established local 
import agent or distributor, rather than buying directly from abroad.  
The Danish agent/distributor community has developed over centuries and 
is today a very selective and competitive group of businesses.  Many 
sectors are dominated by a few powerful and quite conservative 
companies, which have spent decades establishing lasting relationships 
with their clientele.  In contrast to such traditional distribution 
channels, there is now some movement, albeit slow, toward direct 
purchasing especially from European suppliers.  This trend is especially 
evident in the food business where the larger retail chains maintain in-
house import divisions.  At the same time, there is an increasing trend 
for foreign companies to establish branch offices in Denmark. In those 
instances where a U.S. company does not wish to establish its own sales 
office in Denmark, it is advisable to seek a local agent or distributor.  
The U.S. Department of Commerce Agent/Distributor Search service (ADS) 
is an excellent vehicle for finding such a representative.
Franchising:  While franchising is not as widespread as in the United 
States, it is a well known form of business.  Numerous American 
franchising companies are already operating in Denmark.  The longest 
established are MacDonalds and Burger King.  Pizza Hut and Taco Bell are 
recent entrants.  Franchising is also common outside the fast food 
trade.  Shoe-repair services, car rental, health clubs, and indoor 
tanning salons are examples.
Direct Marketing:  Danes are conservative consumers and, because of the 
small size of the country, used to having easy and fast access to retail 
outlets.  Door-to-door sales are generally prohibited by law, but other 
forms of direct marketing are seen. Telephone marketing is still in its 
infancy, and its success rate with the conservative Danish consumer has 
so far been disappointing.  The forms of direct marketing which have 
most piqued consumer curiosity, are combination mail-order catalogs and 
TV-Shop sales.  Direct marketing plays an insignificant role in relation 
to total retail sales.
Joint Ventures/Licensing:  Licensing and joint venture arrangements are 
common in Denmark.  Danish firms are fully familiar with both licensing 
foreign products for manufacture and sale in Denmark and licensing their 
own products for sale abroad.  Licensing agreements do not have to be 
registered with Danish authorities, and there are no Danish government 
restrictions on remittance of royalties or fees.  Joint ventures may be 
established as corporations, general partnerships, or in any other legal 
format.  Danish law does not discriminate against joint ventures with 
foreign participation.  The Government of Denmark, through the Ministry 
of Industry, actively encourages foreign companies to manufacture high-
technology products in Denmark.
Steps to Establishing an Office:  Setting up a branch office in Denmark 
requires a relatively simple registration procedure with the Danish 
Trade and Companies Agency.  The filing requirement is for general 
information on the U.S. parent company and the activities of its Danish 
branch. This includes place of business, accounting periods, memorandum 
and articles, and the power of attorney granted to the branch manager.  
For tax purposes, branches of foreign companies are treated as 
incorporated companies.  As in many other countries, numerous rules and 
regulations apply to establishing a Danish corporation.  Danish business 
legislation does not discriminate against foreign subsidiaries or 
foreign owned companies.  Foreign companies need only meet the 
requirements applicable to national companies.  As in the United States, 
it is advisable to secure the services of an attorney and a CPA when 
establishing a business.  There are approximately 250 subsidiaries of 
American companies in Denmark. 
Selling Factors/Techniques:  The factors deciding where importers place 
their orders are almost entirely commercial, although 
cultural/historical or social ties with a long-standing trade partner 
may, understandably, play a role.  General competitive factors such as 
price, quality, promptness of delivery and availability of service are 
those which determine the success of a supplier in Denmark.  Add to this 
patience and commitment.  Danes don't change suppliers easily and many 
commercial relationships have been built up and maintained over decades.  
Export companies seeking only a fast buck have very little chance of 
success.
Advertising and Trade Promotion:  Introducing a new product or company 
on the Danish market is often a costly affair and U.S. parent companies 
are expected by their Danish agents to cover, in full or in part, 
initial advertising and promotion expenses. Several large American and 
international advertising agencies maintain offices in Denmark. The code 
of conduct for advertising in Denmark is, in some areas, more 
conservative and consumer protection oriented  than that of the United 
States, while in other areas, more liberal. For example, nudity per se 
is not considered obscene and is seen in some Danish advertising.  The 
rules and regulations for advertising and marketing are determined in 
the "Markedsføringsloven" (the Act on Marketing).  The Consumer 
Ombudsman oversees compliance with the Act on Marketing.  He may take 
action on his own initiative, or based on complaints by third parties.  
However, he will not be consulted for prior approval or rulings on 
planned campaigns.  Examples of typical cases for Consumer Ombudsman 
action are those involving misleading statements, unfounded claims of a 
product's qualities, or sexual discrimination.  Generally, the types of 
advertising media that exist in the United States, exist in Denmark.  
Television commercials, however, are more restricted.  They cannot 
interrupt a program and may be shown only in assigned spots between 
programs.  Only one of the two national stations, TV-2, regularly 
carries commercials. The other, Danmarks Radio, does not carry 
commercials, but allows certain restricted types of program sponsorship. 
Local TV stations are allowed to carry commercials in blocks, in the 
same way as TV-2.  One Danish language TV station (TV3), receivable only 
via dish or cable, reaches more than half of the Danish population and 
is not subject to Danish restrictions on commercials.  Another popular 
form of audio-visual advertising is the showing of commercials in movie 
theaters prior to the main feature film.  Printed media advertising is 
widely used.
Below is a list of major newspapers and business journals:
NAME AND ADDRESS                 Circulation
*Berlingske Tidende
Pilestraede 34                   133,600/weekdays
DK-1147 Copenhagen K             187,600/Sunday
Tel: (45) 3375 7575
Fax: (45) 3375 2020
*Jyllandsposten                  146,521/weekdays
JP Center                        240,533/Sunday
Raadhuspladsen 4
DK-4200 Slagelse
Tel: (45) 5353 5577
Fax: (45) 5353 2601
Politiken
Raadhuspladsen                   156,200/weekdays
DK-1785 Copenhagen V             203,900/Sunday
Tel: (45) 3311 8511
Fax: (45) 3315 4117
MAJOR BUSINESS PAPERS AND JOURNALS
*Borsen (Daily)                  42,000  
Montergade 19                    weekdays only
DK-1140 Copenhagen V
Tel: (45) 3332 0102
Fax: (45) 3312 2445
Erhvervsbladet (Daily)           113,000
Vesterbrogade 12                 weekdays only
DK-1780 Copenhagen V
Tel: (45) 3121 3636
Fax: (45) 3121 8036
Borsens Nyhedsmagasin (Bi-Weekly) 28,494
Montergade 19
DK-1140 Copenhagen K
Tel: (45) 3332 4400
Fax: (45) 3311 5906
Computer World (Weekly)           26,600
Carl Jacobsensvej 25
DK-2500 Valby
Tel: (45) 3619 9100
Fax: (45) 3644 2569
Ingenioren (Weekly)               70,000
Skelbaekgade 4
DK-1717 Copenhagen V
Tel: (45) 3121 6810
Fax: (45) 3121 6701
* Berlingske Tidende and Jyllandsposten contain significant business 
sections.  Borsen is the closest Denmark has to the Wall Street Journal.
Pricing Product:  Exporters usually quote c.i.f Copenhagen prices to 
Danish importers.  The c.i.f. price includes all U.S. domestic freight 
costs, ocean/air freight and insurance but not Danish import duty and 
VAT.  The rate of duty ranges from 5 to 14 percent on industrial 
products.  Additionally, the importer must pay a 25% Value Added Tax 
(VAT) calculated on the landed (c.i.f.) cost plus the duty.  VAT applies 
on a non-discriminatory basis to all products sold in Denmark, whether 
imported or produced locally.  The appropriate price for a product in 
the Danish market is best determined by thorough market research.  The 
US&FCS' CMA program is geared to assist U.S. exporters to assess their 
competition for a specific product in a selected country. Any U.S. 
Department of Commerce District Office will assist a U.S. exporter in 
explaining the scope and advantages of the CMA.  In Denmark, a number of 
private companies also perform market research.  The Copenhagen US&FCS 
office can supply contact information. 
Sales Service/Customer Support:  This requirement varies with 
the type of product.  In general, Danish importers demand, and get from 
European competitors, a high degree of sales and after-sales service and 
customer support.  The extent of the service and support requirement is 
directly proportional to the technical complexity of the product.  Sound 
commercial judgement dictates after-sales service at least equal to that 
supplied by European competitors.  Immediate response to customer's 
questions and requests is mandatory as is the use of modern 
communication methods.  This means fax or electronic mail for routine 
communications and a readiness to employ overnight courier service when 
necessary.
Selling to the Government:  Government procurement practices in Denmark 
are generally transparent.  Denmark is a signatory to the GATT 
Government Procurement Code, and U.S. firms are eligible to bid on an 
equal basis with Danish and other bidders for contracts valued over 
approximately $200,000.  Announcements of public tenders are published 
in the "Supplement to the Official Journal of the European Communities." 
The text of the invitation to bid is in English, but the tender 
documents are normally in the Danish language. For major projects, 
documents may be available both in Danish and English.  In the United 
States, the journal is available from the following organization:
Unipub
4611 F Assembly Drive
Lanham, MD 20706-4391
Tel (toll-free) 800 274 488 8222
Suppliers are qualified on a contract by contract basis.  Although a 
local agent is not required in order for a U.S. firm to bid, it is 
usually wise to employ one in order to establish service capability 
equivalent to that available from resident firms.  U.S. companies are 
also eligible to bid for major NATO military projects in Denmark, and 
for major public works engineering and construction projects such as 
ocean bridges and tunnels.  The central contact point for information on 
such projects is the U.S. Department of Commerce, ITA/TD/OEEI, 
Washington DC, telephone (202) 482-5225, or any of the Department's 
District Offices throughout the United States.
Protecting Your Product from IPR Infringement:  Denmark offers adequate 
protection for intellectual property rights.  Please see section VII for 
a list of the international conventions and treaties concerning 
intellectual property to which Denmark adheres.
Need for a Local Attorney:  The need for a Danish attorney typically 
arises in connection with establishing a corporation in Denmark, or in 
connection with trade disputes. Also, it is advisable to seek local 
legal assistance in matters involving complicated government concessions 
such as applications for oil or gas prospecting.
V.  LEADING SECTORS FOR U.S. EXPORTS AND INVESTMENTS
A. Best Prospects for Non-Agricultural Goods and Services
1. Computer Software (CSF)
Narrative:  Denmark is a highly computerized society with a large and 
growing demand for software.  However, fierce competition and constant 
price reductions prevent the high growth from being fully reflected in 
dollar sales.  Local software houses are quite successful, but are often 
lacking the resources necessary for continued growth on their own.  They 
are therefore increasingly being acquired or subjected to control by 
foreign system vendors, most often from the United States.  Thus, 
neither local production nor third country suppliers appear likely to 
threaten the dominant position that U.S. software firms have in this 
market.    
Data Table:                     1994      1995        1996
Total Market Size               1,200      1,500     1,625
Local Production                  450        600       650
Total Exports                     225        250       275
Total Imports                     975      1,150     1,250
Imports from the U.S.             300        350       375
Exchange Rate (1USD=DKK)         6.36        5.5       5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.
2. Computers and Peripherals (CPT)
Narrative:  U.S. brand products dominate the market.  Products are 
supplied either directly from the U.S. or from third country 
manufacturing/assembly facilities.  Most U.S. suppliers operate through 
fully owned subsidiaries.  Local production is insignificant.  The 
market is extremely PC oriented with an installation base of 1.5 million 
units, or nearly one for every three Danes.  About one million of the 
PC's are used professionally, and two thirds of these are hooked up in a 
network.  Only state-of-the-art equipment is suitable for this market, 
and even then the allocation of considerable resources may be required 
to succeed in this very competitive market.  Large growth rates in 
volume of equipment sold are largely off-set by constant reduction in 
prices.
Data Table:                1994       1995       1996
Total Market Size         1,500      1,750      1,850
Local Production            100        100        100
Total Exports                50         50         50
Total Imports             1,450      1,700      1,800
Imports from the U.S.       300        300        350
Exchange Rate (1USD=DKK)   6.36        5.5        5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.
3. Architectural/Construction/Engineering Services (ACE)
Narrative:  This service category is included as No. 3 in the Best 
Prospects List solely because of the three major construction projects 
in progress and scheduled for initiation and completion during the next 
6-10 years.  These include one major bridge and tunnel presently under 
construction, and another two bridges (to Sweden and to Germany) 
tentatively scheduled to be built from 1994 to 2000.  Each of those is 
valued at US$ 3 billion or more.  Additionally, two light rail systems 
will be constructed, one around Copenhagen and the other near Kastrup 
Airport.  Because all these projects are subject to international 
bidding, and the price of the successful bidders will determine the 
cost, import, export and market data do not exist.  Detailed information 
on the time-frame of the bidding process is reported as developments 
occur.  Interested U.S. civil engineering/construction companies may 
obtain copies of USFCS reports from USDOC/ITA/TD.  U.S. civil 
engineering companies, because of proven tunnel and/or bridge-building 
expertise and experience with light railway systems have a good chance 
to win contracts, especially in joint-ventures or consortia with local 
or European partners.   
Data: N/A
4. Travel and Tourism Services (TRA)
Narrative: Data are not available to complete the standard format for 
Best Prospects matrix purposes.  Nevertheless, the size of the Danish 
tourist market and the amount of USFCS effort expended in promoting 
Danish tourism to the United States qualifies this sector as a best 
prospect.  In 1994, 105,500 Danes visited the United States.  In spite 
of an often turbulent travel market, the number of Danes visiting the 
United States has remained stable over the past six years and will 
increase this year.  Florida remains the most popular destination 
followed by New York and California.  Danish tourists are good spenders 
with average expenditures of over US$2,300 per person for their U.S. 
trips.  The United States will earn about 6% of total Danish foreign 
tourism expenditures in 1995 and about US$3 for every US$1 that American 
tourists spend in Denmark.
Data:                           1994     1995     1996
Expenditures by Danish 
Tourists Abroad                 3,600    4,350    4,400
Expenditures by Danish            225      275      280
Tourists in the USA
Exchange Rate                       6.36     5.50     5.50
The above statistics are unofficial estimates. 
5. Pollution Control Equipment (POL)
Narrative:  Denmark was the first nation ever to establish a Ministry of 
the Environment in 1972, and is recognized by the OECD as the World's 
biggest spender on environmental protection in relation to its size.  
Further cementing Denmark's central position was the decision to 
establish the EU Environment Agency in Denmark and the appointment of a 
Dane as the EU Commissioner for the Environment.  Denmark has a 
substantial, progressive and technologically advanced local industry 
which has also developed a significant foothold in the international 
market place, including the Baltic region and the entire eastern Europe.  
Potential U.S. exporters may find it advantageous to establish a 
business relationship with an established local company.  This may also 
offer the possibility of joint marketing in the Baltics and eastern 
Europe.  Relatively low growth in total market size should be seen in 
the light of an already highly developed market. 
Data Table:                     1994     1995        1996
Total Market Size                320       380        410
Local Production                 460       550        600
Total Exports                    230       280        310
Total Imports                     90       110        120
Imports from the U.S.              4         5          5
Exchange Rate (1USD=DKK)        6.36       5.5        5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.         
6. Electrical Power Systems (ELP)
Narrative: Danish power-plants are modern and very fuel-efficient.  
Their pricing policy allows them to be self-financing and keep up-to-
date with the latest technology. Through own research and engineering 
departments they participate actively in technology development. Local 
production of equipment play an important role in this sector, but most 
equipment is imported. One of the largest suppliers is ABB.  Large item 
purchases must now be announced for international bidding, forcing 
buyers to look at non-traditional suppliers. U.S. companies may 
participate in the international bidding for power plant equipment.
Data:                                      1994     1995     1996
D:  Total Market Size                       730      740      765
E:  Total Production                        350      380      390
F:  Total Exports                           150      180      185
G:  Total Imports                           530      540      560
H:  Total Imports from U.S.A.                38       40       42
I:  Exchange Rate                             6.36     5.50     5.50
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.
         
7. Oil and Gas Field Machinery (OGM)
Narrative: Comments:  The United States is a recognized industry leader 
for this type of equipment.  Local production is insignificant, major 
third country suppliers are the U.K. and Germany.  On-going expansions 
of off-shore oil and gas facilities offer excellent opportunities for 
U.S. companies.  
  
Data:                                    1994     1995     1996
D:  Total Market Size                     285      310      333
E:  Total Production                       18       20       24
F:  Total Exports                           9       10       11
G:  Total Imports                         276      300      320
H:  Total Imports from U.S.A.             150      180      210
I:  Exchange Rate                           6.36     5.50     5.50
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.
8. Medical Equipment (MED)
Narrative: Denmark's hospitals are almost all publicly owned, and 
practically all medical care is subsidized.  With increasingly tight 
government budgets, labor-saving equipment, especially high-tech 
diagnostic and surgical equipment, have good potential.  In selected 
areas (heart-lung machines and disposable products), local production 
plays a dominant role.  Major public purchases of medical/hospital 
equipment are announced in the Supplement of the EC Journal for public 
tendering. American companies have access to bid. 
Data:
                                    1994      1995      1996
A.  Total Market Size                333       403       427      
B.  Total Local Production           107       130       134
C.  Total Exports                     61        77        79
D.  Total Imports                    287       350       361
E.  Imports from the U.S.             49        64        66
Exchange Rate                          6.36      5.50      5.50
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.
9. Telecommunications Equipment (TEL)
Narrative:  Denmark's liberalization process of this very important 
industrial sector continues.  Denmark was one of the first countries in 
Europe to introduce the GSM cellular telephone system.  Steps are now 
being taken to liberalize additional service areas, such as permitting 
establishment of a privately-owned, nation-wide telephone company. Local 
production is strong in satellite communications equipment, but U.S. 
suppliers also have good opportunities.  Japan is the major third-
country supplier of satellite communications equipment.  Sweden and 
Germany are other important suppliers. 
Data:                            1994     1995      1996
D:  Total Market Size             340      357       361
E:  Total Production               55       60        65
F:  Total Exports                  17       20        25
G:  Total Imports                 302      317       321
H:  Total Imports from U.S.A.      28       31        33
I:  Exchange Rate                   6.36     5.50      5.50
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.
10. Automotive Parts and Service Equipment (APS)
Narrative:  There are about 1.6 million passenger cars in Denmark, or 
almost one for every three Danes.  New car sales reached 140,000 units 
(passenger cars) in 1994, the best in eight years, and are expected to 
remain at that level throughout 1995.  High taxes on cars result in long 
life cycles, offering good opportunities in the after-market.  However, 
these opportunities exist primarily for large vendors with pan-European 
distribution.  U.S. suppliers are very well represented in this segment, 
although U.S. brand products are often not exported directly from the 
U.S.  Local production of parts is substantial, but consists mostly of 
OEM supplies to auto makers outside Denmark, and is therefore seldom 
felt strongly in the Danish after-market.  The last few years have seen 
a significant upturn in the sales of U.S. made cars and vans in Denmark, 
although from a low level (i.e. hundreds of units per year).  As these 
cars reach "repair age", U.S. sales in the Danish after-market should 
increase notably.
Data Table:                          1994      1995      1996
Total Market Size                     390       500       500
Local Production                      250       325       325
Total Exports                         345       445       445
Total Imports                         485       620       620
Imports from the U.S.                   4         5         5
Exchange Rate   (1USD=DKK)              6.36      5.5       5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.            
B. Best Prospects for Agricultural Products
Wines
Narrative: Denmark ranks fourth in total volume and fifth in total value 
among all overseas destinations for U.S. wine exports. Sales of U.S. 
wines have increased ten-fold in the past 6-7 years, reaching $6.3 
million in CY 1993. About two-thirds of all wine sales are channeled 
through large 
grocery chains and another 10 percent are sold in small supermarkets. 
Most of the remainder is sold through either hotels/restaurants (11 
percent) or wine dealers (9 percent). Over 90 percent of wine sold on 
the Danish market is priced under $7.00 per bottle. Mark-ups in 
supermarkets come to about a third of the f.o.b. export value, while 
that in wine retail shops stands at two-thirds of the export value and 
that in restaurants/hotels at 5 times the f.o.b. value. U.S. wine 
industry promotion funding and interest in the Danish market are up 
substantially over the past few years.
Data:                            1994      1995      1996
Total Market Size 1/:         120,000   125,000   130,000
Total Local Production:           Nil       Nil       Nil
Total Exports:                      0         0         0
Total Imports:                120,000   125,000   130,000
Total Imports from U.S.A        6,360     5,000     5,500
Exchange Rate:                      6.36      5.5       5.5
1/ Thousand liters.
The above statistics are unofficial estimates 
Dry Nuts
Narrative: While the tax and duty structure on dry nuts is rather 
prohibitive, competitive pricing by such alternative suppliers as South 
Africa and Turkey also affect marketing prospects within the retail 
trade. An especially high degree of interest among grocery chains exists 
for pistachio nuts.
Data                             1994      1995      1996
Total Market Size:             11,620    12,000    13,000
Total Local Production:           Nil       Nil       Nil
Total Exports:                    500       500       500
Total Imports:   1              1,620    12,000    13,000
Total Imports from U.S.A.       5,400     6,000     6,500
Exchange Rate:                      6.36      5.5       5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.

Breakfast Cereals
Narrative: The retail food trade is looking for "something new" in the 
breakfast food line and views as attractive the rather diverse character 
of American breakfast cereals. This quality also holds a special appeal 
to the consumer, who values ease of preparation and cereals with a 
strong healthy quality.
Data:                       1994      1995      1996
Total Market Size:        20,695    22,000    24,000
Total Local Production:   46,834    47,000    48,000
Total Exports:            40,067    40,000    40,000
Total Imports:            13,928    15,000    16,000
Total Imports from U.S.A.    114        60        80
Exchange Rate:              6.36       5.5       5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.
Turkey Meat
Narrative: Recent problems with sales of chicken and pork products and 
the grocery trade's interest in new "white" meat products make the 
current marketing opportunities for turkey products very attractive. 
This is especially true for the processed, value added line of products 
now available in many U.S. supermarkets.
                            1994     1995     1996
Total Market Size:        12,000   13,000   14,000
Total Local Production:    9,000   10,000   11,000
Total Exports:             2,211    2,000    2,000
Total Imports:             5,161    5,000    5,000
Total Imports from U.S.A.      0       10       20
Exchange Rate:                 6.36     5.5      5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates
Sweet Corn, Frozen
Narrative: N/A
            
Data:                       1994       1995        1996
Total Market Size:          616         800         900
Total Local Production:     Nil         Nil         Nil
Total Exports:            1,044       1,200       1,400
Total Imports:            1,660       2,000       2,300
Total Imports from U.S.A.     0          50          80
Exchange Rate:                6.36        5.5         5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates.
Popcorn
Narrative: Flavored microwave popcorn varieties would be especially 
attractive to many grocery chains, supermarkets and kiosk outlets.
Data:                          1994      1995         1996
Total Market Size:             3,300    3,600        3,800
Total Local Production           Nil      Nil          Nil
Total Exports:                   Nil      Nil          Nil
Total Imports:                 3,300    3,600        3,800
Total Imports from U.S.A.      3,300    3,600        3,800
Exchange Rate:                     6.36     5.5          5.5
The above statistics are unofficial estimates
VI. TRADE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS
Trade Barriers, Tariffs, Import Taxes:  As a result of the EU Single 
Market, many mandatory EU industrial standards have been harmonized.  
However, as harmonization takes place, new trade barriers have surfaced 
in individual EU member countries.  Denmark has taken the lead in 
combatting the problem and, together with the EU Commission, hosted a 
successful nontariff barrier conference in Copenhagen in September 1994.  
Denmark has the best record of all EU countries regarding implementation 
of Single Market directives.  U.S. products which are marketable in 
Denmark thus should also be marketable in other EU countries. Denmark 
applies no unilateral trade barriers against the U.S.A. It is a full 
member of the European Union (EU) and EU tariffs are applicable on all 
products entering from non EU countries including the United States.  
Duties run from 5 to 14% on industrial goods. Once goods have cleared 
customs in one EU country they may circulate freely within the Union.  
Although not an import tax, all goods imported into Denmark are also 
subject to a 25 percent Value-added-tax (VAT).  The VAT is applied on a 
non-discriminatory basis to all goods and most services, whether 
imported or locally produced.
Non-Tariff barriers are most likely to be encountered in environmentally 
related areas.  The Danish Government's procurement procedures now 
(since March 1, 1995) give environmental and energy conservation 
considerations relevance along with price, quality, and delivery terms 
in evaluating and awarding bids.  It is an open question how the Danish 
provision dovetails with EU legislation which neither includes nor 
forbids application of environmental standards to government 
procurement.  There is a possibility that preference will be given to 
companies meeting voluntary ecolabel or ecoaudit standards which could 
be disadvantageous for U.S. suppliers.
Also as a consequence of EU membership, certain agricultural products 
imported from non EU countries are governed by the Common Agricultural 
Policy (CAP). Duties on these items -- which include cereal grains, 
rice, milk and milk products, beef and veal, olive oil and sugar -- are 
supplemented with a system of variable levies or other charges; the 
purpose of which is to equalize prices of imported commodities with 
those produced within the Community. In addition to the bound duties, 
the EU subjects most imported consumer-ready products to additional 
import charges based on the percentage of sugar, milk fat, milk protein 
and starch in the product.  While these additional import charges have 
made some imported processed food products non-competitive in the 
European market, the situation should improve over the next few years 
because such charges will be converted to fixed tariff equivalents and 
reduced under the Uruguay Round Multilateral Trade Agreement.  Note: 
advice on current import charges for consumer-ready products can be 
obtained from the Agricultural Affairs Office of the U.S. Mission to the 
European Union.     
Customs Valuation:  Because Denmark is a member of the EU, customs 
procedures, including the classification and valuation of imported goods 
entering Denmark, are governed by EU rules. The Danish/EU tariff 
schedule utilizes the Harmonized System (HS) code.  
Import Licenses:  With very few exceptions; which include alcoholic 
beverages, weapons and arms, certain drugs and chemicals, and certain 
food products; Denmark requires no import licenses.  There are no 
special import restrictions or license requirements which constitute 
problems for U.S. industrial product exporters.  
Export Controls:  Denmark is a member of NATO and therefore participates 
in the successor regime to COCOM regulating on export and re-export of 
strategic commodities.
Import/Export Documentation:  With the implementation of the Post-1992 
Single Market, commercial shipments entering Denmark are classified in 
one of the two following categories:
A. T-1 Goods: These are goods originating outside the EU which have not 
cleared customs in any EU country.  Whether arriving directly from a 
third-country or being transhipped through another EU country, formal 
customs clearance is required.  This entails the submission of a so-
called "Single Document" to the customs authority.
B.  T-2 Goods:  These are either goods originating in the EU or T-1 
goods which have cleared customs in another EU country and are already 
in free circulation within the EU.  No formal customs clearance is 
required.
All Danish companies "with a substantial international trade", must 
submit statistical data to the Danish authorities for use in the joint 
EU statistical program INTRASTAT when they export either T-1 or T-2 
goods.  The importer is generally responsible for product specific 
documentation.  To qualify for inter-EU VAT free shipments, the VAT 
registration number of both the exporter and importer must be listed on 
the commercial invoice.
Temporary Entry:  Most foreign businesses needing to export temporarily 
into Denmark chose to do so by using an ATA Carnet.  In the United 
States, this document is issued by an American Chamber of Commerce 
office.
Labeling, Marking Requirements:  The marking and labeling requirements 
for products sold in Denmark are numerous and vary considerably from 
product to product.  The requirements may stem from either Danish or EU 
laws and regulations. For the exporter to comply, the assistance of the 
Danish importer is essential.  As a general rule, consumer products must 
be labeled in Danish or in a language which differs from Danish only 
slightly in spelling.  As a practical matter this means Norwegian and in 
some instances Swedish.  Certain products must be marked clearly with 
the country of origin.  In some cases, marking can be done by the 
importer after arrival of the goods in Denmark.  Weights and measures 
must be stated in the metric system.  Labels and marking must accurately 
describe the contents of packages.  The responsibility for compliance 
with Denmark's marking and labeling regulations falls on the importer.  
Exporters, however, should carefully follow importer's instructions 
because failure to do so can cause customs delays and extra expenses 
which will negatively impact future business.
   
Imported food is subject to the Government Labelling Announcement 
(Maerknings-bekendtgoerelsen No. 165/91), which describes required 
labelling for all foodstuffs sold on the Danish market.
For consumer-ready food products the following are compulsory:
-Name of the food -- usually understood as the name described by law or, 
if no name exists, a descriptive name to identify the foodstuff to the 
consumer.
-List of ingredients in descending order of weight at time of   
manufacture.
-Identification of the quantity or lot to which each particular unit 
belongs and the identification number preceded by the letter "L" (for 
lot).
-Place of origin if omission could mislead the consumer.
-Stick-on food labels are permitted, but must be in the Danish  language 
(or another marginally different, see above)
-Any special storage or use conditions if omission could cause  
confusion over the proper way to use or store the product.
-Date of minimum durability or the date until which the foodstuff will 
keep its specific properties under the right storage conditions. The 
date shall be preceded by the words:  "Mindst holdbar til....." (Best 
before....). The date shall consist of the day, month, and year in 
encoded form.
-Net quantity using metric units.
-With the exception of wine and spirits, all beverage products  must be 
sold in standard-sized glass bottles capable of being  processed in the 
national bottle recycling system. The sale of beverages in cans is 
strictly prohibited.
These general label-requirements must be fulfilled for all consumer-
ready food products sold in Denmark.  Some products require more 
detailed labelling.  
Prohibited Imports:  Except for those relatively few items that require 
an import license, there are no statutory import prohibitions in 
Denmark.    
Standards:  Although the EU has established a framework for pan-European 
standards in most areas, implementation of many of these standards 
remains to be done.  U.S. exporters therefore still must comply with a 
great many national standards.  International Standards Organization 
9000 certification has received much attention in Denmark and the number 
of companies receiving the certification has risen sharply in the last 
two years.  
  
Effective January 1, 1993, the EU instituted its Single Market program; 
which sought to remove the technical, physical and fiscal barriers 
hindering the movement of all goods, services, capital and people. 
Border delays were estimated to be adding 15 percent to the costs of 
transporting many types of goods including agricultural produce. One of 
the main reasons for the problems of the latter were differing 
veterinary and phytosanitary policies among EC member states.  Almost 80 
percent of the Single Market EC Commission directives deal with 
agricultural products, whose harmonization should facilitate the 
movement of food products throughout the EC. 
Denmark has separate import standards on a number of food products. The 
separate requirements are generally more restrictive due to Denmark's 
high veterinary and food standards.
In general, Danish importers assume the responsibility for assuring that 
imported consumer-oriented food products are in compliance with Danish 
Government and/or EU regulations. Nevertheless, U.S. suppliers should 
note the following EU/national restrictions:
-Imported food products are subject to the National Food Agency of 
Denmark's "Positive list", which is an extensive list of the additives 
and the amount of additives permitted in food products sold in Denmark. 
The "positive list" also describes the labelling requirements for 
additives. The list can be obtained from the National Food Agency of 
Denmark (see address below).
-There is a general prohibition on importing meat or meat products from 
animals on which growth hormones have been used. All beef, pork and 
horse meat imported into the European Union for human consumption must 
come from slaughterhouses, cutting plants, and cold stores that have 
been approved by the EU.  Legislation was adopted recently which 
transfers the authority for approving poultry slaughter and processing 
facilities from the Member States to the Union.  Until this legislation 
is fully implemented, however, the Member States will maintain separate 
lists of approved poultry facilities in third countries.
-Fresh poultry may not be exported to Denmark. Denmark is declared a 
Newcastle-disease-free country and therefore does not allow any fresh 
poultry into the country. Only poultry meat that has been cooked to a 
temperature of 70 degrees celsius (158 degrees fahrenheit) is permitted 
entry.
Food products containing additives and/or aromatic substances are 
required to undergo a process of registration with the National Food 
Authority. The legal requirements for permitted types and quantities of 
additives are extensive in Denmark -- more so than in any other EU 
member state.
Free Trade Zones/Warehouses:  The Port of Copenhagen operates the only 
free port in Denmark.  The free port accepts and stores transhipment 
cargo and also offers facilities for assembly or production for "re-
export".  In addition to the traditional free port in Copenhagen, Danish 
freight forwarders operate around 60 bonded warehouses at their own 
premises across the country.
Special Import Provisions: None  
Membership in Free Trade Arrangements:  Denmark is a full member of the 
EU and GATT/WTO.
VII.  INVESTMENT CLIMATE
Openness to Foreign Investment:  As Denmark is heavily dependent on 
foreign trade and international cooperation, it follows liberal trade 
and investment policies and encourages increased foreign investment.  
For several years the Danish Government has run a campaign to attract 
U.S. and Japanese hi-tech investors, describing Denmark as a gateway to 
the large EU Single Market, to Scandinavia, and to the new democracies 
in Eastern Europe.  Although concrete results of the campaign, i.e., new 
greenfield investments, are limited, the campaign has improved the 
perception of Denmark as an investment destination worth considering.  
Denmark welcomes foreign investors on a non-discriminatory, national 
treatment basis, including allowing them to benefit from national 
investment incentive programs. U.S. and other foreign firms may 
participate in Government financed and/or subsidized research and 
development programs on a national treatment basis.  As a general rule 
foreign direct investment in Denmark may take place without restrictions 
and screening and there are no major foreign investment barriers.  
Ownership restrictions apply to only a few sectors, including those 
subject to national security considerations (see below).  The Embassy 
has no record of any non-governmental groups which have been opposed to 
a U.S. foreign investment. The investment climate benefits from low 
inflation (between 2 and 3 percent annually), and high worker 
productivity in industry (averaging a 3 percent annual increase).  
Denmark has a highly skilled and efficient labor force, and the 
corporation tax at 34 percent is among the lowest in the EU.  Work 
permits are easy to obtain for foreign managerial staff, but permits for 
white or blue collar workers from countries outside the EU and the 
Nordic countries, who compete with Danish workers, are difficult to 
obtain.  High-paid foreigners stationed temporarily (on a contract) in 
Denmark are subject to lenient income taxation - in 1995, 25 percent 
plus a 6 percent labor market contribution tax on gross income compared 
to the standard progressive income tax system with a 6 percent tax on 
gross income plus marginal tax rates ranging between 43 and 65 percent 
on taxable income).  Investment in regional development areas may take 
advantage of certain grants and access to preferential financing.
Conversion and Transfer Policies:  Denmark has no restrictions 
on capital transfers.  Denmark adheres to OECD and EU rules on the 
liberalization of capital movements, and has no foreign exchange 
restrictions, only reporting requirements.  Profits can be freely 
repatriated, but are subject to Danish taxation.  The Denmark/United 
States double taxation agreement, which dates back to 1948, is now being 
revised.
Expropriation and Compensation:  Public expropriation of private 
property is almost entirely limited to public construction purposes, 
such as bridge and highway projects, and then only with full 
compensation.  There have been no cases of Danish or foreign companies 
being expropriated for other purposes since World War II.  On the 
contrary, the Government favors privatization of Government entities, of 
which the most important so far are Tele Danmark A/S (49 percent sold to 
investors), Copenhagen Airport (25 percent sold), an export credit 
insurance company (25 percent sold), and a state life insurance company 
(100 percent sold).
Dispute Settlement:  The Embassy has no knowledge or record of any major 
disputes involving foreign, including U.S., direct investors in Denmark.  
The Danish legal system belongs to the "Nordic family" which is based on 
continuity through centuries. In fact some Danish legislation from the 
17th century, which has its roots dating back to the 13th century, still 
is in force.  The Danish legal system includes written laws covering 
practically all commercial issues.  Denmark has a written and 
consistently applied Bankruptcy law (Consolidated Act No. 588 of 
September 1, 1986, as amended).  Monetary adjustments under the 
bankruptcy law are made in freely convertible Danish Kroner.  Creditors' 
claims against a bankruptcy are met in the following order: 1) Costs and 
debt accrued during the treatment of the bankruptcy; 2) Other costs, 
including the court tax, relating to attempts to find a solution other 
than bankruptcy; 3) mostly wage claims and holiday pay; 4) mostly excise 
taxes owed to the Government; 5) all other claims.
Interests in real property, both private and business, are for the most 
part secured through the well established Danish mortgage bond credit 
system, the security of which compares to that of Government bonds.  All 
mortgage credits in real property are recorded in local public registers 
of mortgages.  Except for interests in cars and commercial ships which 
are also publicly recorded, other chattel interests generally are 
unrecorded.
Denmark is a party to the 1965 Convention on the Settlement of 
Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of other States, and to 
the 1958 Convention of the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign 
Arbitral Awards.  Subsequent Danish legislation makes international 
arbitration of investment disputes binding in Denmark.  In addition, 
Denmark is a party to the 1961 European Convention in International 
Commercial Arbitration and to the 1962 agreement relating to the 
application of this convention.

Performance Requirements/Incentives:  Performance requirements are 
applied only in connection with investment in hydrocarbon exploration, 
where concession terms normally require a fixed work program, including 
seismic surveys and in some cases exploratory drillings, consistent with 
applicable EU directives.
Performance incentives are mostly designed to protect the environment, 
mainly through reduced energy and water use.  In January 1993 Denmark 
was the first, and so far the only EU country, to introduce a carbon 
dioxide (CO2) tax on business and industry.  The present CO2 tax is 
equal to 50 kroner per calculated ton of CO2 emitted.  Companies with a 
production dependent on large use of energy, e.g., steel plants and 
glass and brick producers, may be able to avoid virtually the entire 
tax.  Supplementing the CO2 tax are a number of subsidy measures to, 
inter alia, promote renewable energy and natural gas use.  As part of 
the 1994 tax reform, a number of new environmental taxes were 
introduced.  These fall mostly on households and offset revenues lost 
through income tax reductions.  Effective on January 1, 1996, a new 
series of environmental taxes will come into force, including changes in 
the CO2 tax, a new CO2 tax on space heating in the business sector and a 
SO2 tax, part of them offset by reduction of other costs to business in 
an effort to not jeopardize Danish competitiveness.
Right to Private Ownership and Establishment:  As a general rule, any 
foreign or domestic private entity may freely establish, own, and 
dispose of a business enterprise in Denmark.  The capital requirement 
for establishing a corporation (aktieselskab) is DKK 500,000 and for 
establishing a private company (anpartsselskab) DKK 200,000.  
Registration fees are nominal.  Capital can take the form of goods, 
equipment and/or cash on hand.  There is a general requirement that 
managers and at least half of the Board of Directors must be Danish or 
EU residents.
Denmark, like most other countries, has restrictions on provision of 
legal services and other areas which require a Danish (or EU or Nordic) 
professional certification to practice in Denmark.  The Danish 
telecommunications sector is undergoing significant liberalization, but 
the network remains a government monopoly until 1998 and access to 
broadcasting is restricted.  Sales of telecommunications equipment and 
value-added services on leased lines (VANS) have been fully liberalized.
Ownership restrictions are applied in few sectors, including:
-   Hydrocarbon exploration (20 percent Government participation, but in 
the fourth licensing round with licenses granted in May 1995, no longer 
on a "carried interest" basis), 
-   Arms production (maximum 40 percent of equity and 20 percent of 
voting rights may be held by foreigners),
-   Aircraft (foreign citizens or airlines may not directly own or 
exercise control over aircraft registered in Denmark), and
-   Ships registered in the Danish International Ships Register (a 
Danish legal entity or physical person must own a significant share and 
exercise a significant control (20-25 percent) over such ship).
For EU physical persons and legal entities, some of the above 
restrictions do not apply.
Protection of Property Rights:  Denmark is a party to, and enforces, a 
large number of international conventions and treaties concerning 
protection of intellectual property rights, Denmark offers adequate 
protection of such rights. Denmark and the EU are also parties to and 
have ratified the Uruguay Round "TRIPS" agreement.
     
Patents:  Denmark is a member of the World Intellectual Property 
Organization (WIPO).  It adheres to the Paris Convention for the 
protection of Industrial Property, the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), 
the Strasbourg convention, and the Budapest convention.  Denmark has 
ratified the European Patent Convention and the EU Patent Convention.
Copyrights:  Denmark is a party to the 1886 Bern Convention and its 
subsequent revisions, the 1952 Universal Copyright Convention and its 
1971 revision, the 1961 International Convention for the Protection of 
Performers, etc., and the 1971 Convention for the Producers of 
Phonograms, etc.
There is little piracy in Denmark of records or video cassettes, but 
software piracy is estimated to cost the industry more than $100 million 
annually.  Software piracy is expected to decline due to sharply reduced 
prices, improved protection of programs and efforts to combat such 
piracy by the international software company-owned Business Software 
Alliance.  Piracy of other items, including books, is very limited.  
There is no evidence that pirated products are imported to or exported 
from Denmark.  One present copyright issue of concern to U.S. 
rightholders involves the Danish levy on blank audio and video tapes for 
home use which came into force in 1993.  It is the aim of the law that 
the levy should only be passed on to authors/performers in Denmark and 
from countries having a similar or comparable levy (material 
reciprocity).  It remains an open question whether the U.S. levy on 
blank digital audio tapes (DAT) meets this requirement.  However, this 
issue should not be seen as affecting Denmark's climate for investors.
Trademarks:  Denmark is a party to the 1957 Nice Arrangement and to this 
arrangement's 1967 revision.  A new Danish trademark act entered into 
force January 1, 1992 which also implements the EU trademark directive 
harmonizing EU member countries' trademark legislation.  Denmark 
strongly supports the establishment of an EU-wide trademark system.
Trade Secrets:  It is the Embassy's impression that trade secrets are 
adequately protected in Denmark.  We note that, for example, Danish 
legislation requires registration of the composition of certain chemical 
compounds and products in order to obtain approval for sale.  The 
Government treats this as confidential information which is not made 
publicly available.
Semiconductor Chip Layout Design:  Denmark has legislation implementing 
EU regulations for the protection of the topography of semiconductor 
products which also extends protection to legal U.S. persons.
Regulatory System: Laws and Procedures:  As an industrialized country 
based on a free market economy, Danish economic policy and laws foster 
competition.  The Danish Competition Law, which has been criticized by 
the OECD as being too lenient, is now being revised to reflect, to a 
greater degree, the "prohibition" principle used in most other OECD 
countries.  As Denmark wants increased foreign direct investments.  Its 
laws and policies, grant "national treatment" to foreign investment, to 
support that goal.  Bureaucratic procedures are streamlined and 
transparent.  In order to adapt to the EU Single Market, Denmark has 
significantly harmonized excise taxes (except for the 25 percent value-
added-tax) with those of Germany in order to reduce border trade.  
Efficient Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment:  As noted above, 
Denmark has fully liberalized foreign exchange flows, including for 
direct and portfolio investment purposes.  Credit is allocated on market 
terms and is freely available (depending of course on collateral 
offered).  A large variety of credit instruments are available, 
including, but not limited to: commercial bank overdraft facilities for 
operational purposes, investment loans, export credits and financial 
loans in foreign currencies.
Total assets of the five largest Danish banks are about $125 billion.  
The Danish banking system is generally sound and under strict control by 
the Financial Sector Supervisory Authority.  Particularly in the early 
1990s, banks made large provisions for bad debts, but since 1994, mostly 
as a result of the economic upswing and banks' more cautious attitude 
towards lending, their bad debt provisions have become sharply reduced.
Danish legal, regulatory, and accounting systems for the business sector 
are transparent and largely consistent with EU directives and 
regulations.
Danish company law and regulations, except in relation to the sectors 
mentioned above, do not authorize companies to specifically limit or 
prohibit foreign investment.  Also the Embassy has no record of any 
efforts, by private sector or the Government, to restrict foreign 
participation in standards-setting consortia or organizations, nor of 
practices used by private firms to restrict foreign investment.
Political Violence: Political violence is virtually unknown in Denmark. 
Bilateral Investment Agreements:  Denmark's bilateral investment 
agreements are generally with countries where Danish investments involve 
participation of the government-funded Industrialization Fund For 
Developing Countries and the Investment Fund for Central and Eastern 
Europe (see below).  Investment agreements have been entered with the 
following countries (year of publication): Indonesia (1970), Romania 
(1981 and updated in 1994), People's Republic of China (1985), Sri Lanka 
(1985), South Korea (1988), Hungary (1989), Poland (1991), Estonia 
(1993), Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (1993), Turkey (1993), 
Malaysia (1993), Lithuania (1994), Vietnam (1995), Latvia (1995), Hong 
Kong (1995), Ukraine (1995).
OPIC and Other Investment Insurance Programs:  OPIC programs are not 
applicable to U.S. investments in Denmark, but may be used by at least 
95 percent U.S.-owned subsidiaries in Denmark to support their 
investments in developing countries and in the former east bloc.  
Denmark is member of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency 
(MIGA).
Labor:  The Danish labor force includes about 2.85 million persons.  The 
total number of employed (measured on a full-time basis) in 1994 was 
about 2.3 million, of which the private sector accounted for about 70 
percent.  Official unemployment in 1994 came to 343,000, or 12.2 percent 
of the labor force.  However, due to high structural unemployment, 
estimated at 10 percent of the labor force, the government-funded leave 
programs, and the economic upswing, labor bottlenecks are beginning to 
show in some industries and in some private and public services.  The 
participation rate for women is among the highest in the world (about 80 
percent for women aged between 16 and 60 years). The labor force is 
highly organized with more than two million trade union members 
accounting for more than 80 percent of all wage and salary earners.  
Labor disputes and strikes occur sporadically in connection with new 
labor contract negotiations, but as a general rule labor/management 
relations are excellent.  Labor market conditions and wages are in 
general covered by national contracts, which are traditionally 
negotiated every two years.  However, in connection with the new 
contract negotiations completed in early 1995, the industrial sector 
entered three-year contracts while other sectors entered two-year 
contracts.
The contractual work week for most wage earners is 37 hours.  Employees 
are entitled to five weeks of paid annual leave.  Denmark has well-
functioning unemployment insurance and sick-pay schemes.
Danish wages are high by international standards, but employer 
contributions to social welfare are very low.  Thus, total employer 
costs per hour worked are lower in Denmark than in Germany, Switzerland, 
Belgium, Norway, Japan, Austria and the Netherlands.  In 1993, the 
average hourly wage, including overtime and holiday pay, was about 130 
kroner, ranging between 90 kroner for an unskilled female packaging 
worker and 150 kroner for a skilled male roof worker.  Danish wages are 
expected to increase about 4.2 percent in 1995 and about 5.0 percent in 
1996.
Denmark adheres to ILO conventions protecting worker rights.  In a 
modern industrialized society like Denmark with an expensive, highly 
skilled labor force, labor cost factors have impacted significantly on 
the country's technological direction.  For example, the Danish 
shipbuilding industry, despite a steady reduction of its labor force, 
has increased production by introducing state-of-the art computerized 
production equipment.
Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports:  The only free port in Denmark is the 
Copenhagen Free Port.  The concession for running the free port is 
granted to the Copenhagen Free Port and Stevedoring Company, which is 
fully owned by the Copenhagen Port Authority.  The facilities in the 
free port are basically used for imports, exports, and transit trade but 
there are also a few manufacturing firms.  However, new manufacturing 
operations can only be established with the permission of the customs 
authorities, which is granted only if special reasons exist for having 
the facility in the free port area.  Certain minor procedures, such as 
preparing and finishing imported automobiles for sale, are not 
considered production, and are allowed in the free port.  The Copenhagen 
Free Port welcomes foreign companies establishing warehouse and storage 
facilities, whether for servicing Denmark only or, for example, 
Scandinavia, part or all of the EU, or East European and Baltic 
countries.  
Capital Outflow Policy:  Denmark has no restrictions on exports of 
capital, including dividends from investments in Denmark, nor on outward 
direct investment.
Investment in developing countries and in east and central European 
countries is promoted through the government-funded Industrialization 
Fund for the Developing Countries (IFU) and the Investment Fund for East 
and Central Europe (IO).  The IFU/IO offers assistance in identifying 
projects and establishing joint ventures which is also freely available 
to foreign-owned, including U.S., companies based in Denmark.  In the 
project identification phase, the funds provide loans at preferential 
rates to finance feasibility studies which may be converted to a non-
repayable grant if the project is established.  In the active investment 
phase, the funds participate with share capital (up to 30 percent and 
with participation on the Board of Directors) and loans.  The funds' 
total engagement in a project usually will not exceed 25 percent of the 
total investment.  Once a project is financially consolidated and 
running smoothly, the funds withdraw from it.  As noted above, OPIC 
programs may be used by U.S. subsidiaries in Denmark, including as a 
supplement to IFU/IO programs.
Foreign Investment Statistics:    
Source: Danish Central Bank Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Statistics.
For the four years ending in 1994, foreign direct investment flows 
averaged DKK 11.5 billion annually ($1.8 billion).  EU countries 
provided 51% of this and Nordic countries 37%.  The United States 
provided 6.5% of the total.  The breakdown of the Nordic area was Sweden 
and Norway each 18%, and Finland 1%.  The EU breakdown was the 
Netherlands 16%, UK 14%, Germany 12%, France 4%, and others 5%. 
FDI in Denmark by Country of Origin (annual inflows in millions of 
kroner)
                        1991    1992    1993     1994
TOTAL ALL             11,097    6,556   11,629   16,906
(percentage of GDP)   (1.3%)   (0.8%)   (1.3%)   (1.8%)
of which
EU total               4,965    3,605    5,032   10,166
 of which
-United Kingdom          420      614    1,491    3,945   
-France                1,390      193      269       88
-The Netherlands       1,362      548    1,395    4,199
-Germany                 511    1,879    1,770    1,509
Nordic total           5,217    2,109    5,155    4,758
 of which
-Finland                  85      188       94      131
-Norway                2,569      254    2,009    3,568
-Sweden                2,561    1,656    3,046    1,054
United States            379      402      673    1,513
Japan                     76       42       18       45
Other total              460      398      751      424
FDI in 1993 and 1994 were distributed as follows (as a percentage of 
total FDI value:
                         1993      1994
Investment Expansion      45       38
Acquisition               32       35
New Investment             9       19
Operating Cost Transfers  14        8
FDI in Denmark, Distribution by Sectors (annual inflows in millions of 
kroner)
                     1991    1992    1993    1994
TOTAL ALL          11,097    6,556   11,629   16,906
 of which
Food/Beverages        247      446      359      588 
Chemical Industry     382      314      966       71
Machinery              81       17    1,400       51 
Electronics         3,065      735      121    1,240
Other Manufact.       666    1,233      396      580
Total Industry      4,441    2,746    3,242    2,530      
Agriculture and 
  Raw Materials        78      129      473      112
Trade/Services      3,459    1,504    1,883    5,565
Transport and 
  Communication     1,069      628      258      450  
Financial Sector      627      457    1,970    3,707
Real Estate Trade
  and Administration  598      459      910      536
Other                 823      633    2,893    4,005

Danish FDI abroad by Country of Destination (annual outflows in millions 
of kroner):
                       1991   1992   1993   1994
TOTAL ALL           15,391   11,740   10,811   11,480
(Percentage of GDP) (1.9%)   (1.4%)   (1.2%)   (1.2%)
 of which
EU total            8,295    7,317    4,728    4,699
 of which      
-United Kingdom     2,389    3,466    2,069    1,157 
-France               509      740      670    1,062
-The Netherlands      257      259      541      232   
-Germany              985      814      514    1,371
Nordic total        2,903    2,693    2,074    1,536
 of which
-Finland              195      249      269      212
-Norway               294      342      409      896
-Sweden             2,414    2,089    1,396      428
Eastern Europe         60        91      265      308
United States         635      669    1,511    3,497
Japan                 173      167      172      104 
Other total         3,325      803    2,061    1,336
Major Foreign Investors:  The major foreign investors in Denmark are 
other EU countries, other Nordic countries and the United States.  The 
Danish Central Bank in late 1994, for the first time, published detailed 
FDI stock figures.  As of the end of 1991, total FDI in Denmark was 
valued at DKK 87.2 billion, distributed between Sweden (DKK 21 billion), 
United Kingdom (DKK 11.9 billion), the Netherlands (DKK 10.6 billion), 
the United States (DKK 10.3 billion), Norway (DKK 9.1 billion), other EU 
countries (DKK 16.4 billion, and other countries (DKK 7.9 billion). U.S. 
FDI is concentrated on oil exploration, trade, and financial services. 
There are about 250 U.S. subsidiaries in Denmark representing roughly 12 
percent of the present value of total FDI in Denmark.  In the period 
1983-1994, U.S. investors acquired about 75 Danish companies with some 
6,000 employees.  This compares with total foreign acquisitions in that 
period of more than 600 companies with close to 70,000 employees.
According to the U.S. Department of Commerce News (June 28, 1995), the 
U.S. FDI position in Denmark in 1994 was as follows (in million of 
dollars, historical-cost basis):
All Industries   1,993
-Petroleum     (D)
-Manufacturing total     298
-Wholesale Trade     190
-Banking     (D)
-Finance (except banking),
  insurance and real estate     380
-Services     533
-Other Industries      14
(D) = Suppressed to avoid disclosure of individual companies.
The following major direct investments (mostly acquisitions) have taken 
place since 1991.  Costs of acquisitions are generally not available 
(Source: Danish Competition Council and Embassy records):
Year
Investor      Company Acquired

-1991:
Group Scete, France   Samson Transport
      Forwarding Agent and
      Transporting Company
Nord Mills, Sweden   Havnemoellen, Milling
Unilever      Alfa Solo, Margarine Producer
-1992:
AGIV, Germany   Bruel and Kjaer
-      Electronic Measuring
-      Instruments
Waste Management, USA   A number of waste treatment
      companies.
-1993:

Procuritas MBO Invest, UK   Axtrades, Several Activities
Amstrad PLC, U.K.   Dancall Radio A/S, Mobile Telephones
IBM Danmark A/S, USA   EDB Gruppen A/S, Computer Systems and Services
Gnosjoe Gruppen, Sweden   Expedit A/S, Shop Metal Furniture and 
Equipment 
Codan Insurance, U.K.   Hafnia Insurance A/S
Christiani and Nielsen A/S,
  Thailand   Intertec Contracting A/S, Electrical and Mechanical 
Engineering
Companie Generale des Eaux,
  France      Krueger Group, Water Treatment
GEA A.G., Germany   Niro A/S, Spray Drying Equipment
Swedish Investors   Nordchoklad A/S and A/S Nordic Candy
Howden Group PLC   Novenco Industries, Heating, Air Conditioning and 
Ventilating Equipment and Systems
Drewsen Specialpapiere, Germany and
Stora Papyrus, Sweden   Silkeborg Papirfabrik A/S, Paper Producer
Kverneland Group, Norway   Taarup Maskinfabrik A/S, Agricultural 
Machinery
-1994
DSC Communications Corp., USA   NKT Electronic ($145 million)
Toys R' Us   Greenfield investment

VIII.  TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCING
   
Brief Description of The Banking System:  The core of the Danish banking 
system is the Danish National Bank, an autonomous central bank.  It 
establishes monetary policy including the interest rate structure and 
monitors money supply. There are just over 200 commercial and savings 
banks in Denmark, all of which operate under the same basic conditions.  
Of these, two are by far the largest, Den Danske Bank and Unibank.  Both 
have a nationwide network of branch banks.  The largest, Den Danske 
Bank, had total assets of $53.2 billion at the end of 1994 and employed 
12,000 people at year-end.  Unibank, the second largest, had total 
assets of $43.9 billion and a staff of 10,900.  The interests and 
activities of major Danish banks are very broad.  For example, Den 
Danske Bank Group in addition to its commercial banking activities has 
subsidiaries engaged in mortgage finance, stockbroking, leasing, 
factoring, investment, property and insurance.  Several banks operate 
branches abroad, including in the United States.  There are 15 foreign 
banks, mostly European, with branches or offices in Denmark, including 
three American banks.  These are Citicorp (through its U.K. subsidiary), 
Republic National Bank of New York and State Street Bank Trust Company.  
In addition to the commercial banking system, other major credit 
institutions include mortgage credit companies, leasing and factoring 
companies, government and private venture capital organizations and 
pension funds.
Foreign Exchange Controls Affecting Trading: There are no foreign 
exchange controls in Denmark.
General Financing Availability:  The vast majority of small to medium 
sized Danish firms are financed by commercial bank credit lines.  The 
credit line is typically extended on a continuous, revolving basis and 
is not subject to an annual settlement.  Such credit lines are usually 
established  to finance day-to-day operations, including inventory 
financing.  Larger corporations may obtain capital through stock 
offerings on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (in some cases even on U.S. 
stock exchanges), or through direct negotiation with institutional 
investors such as pension funds.  Financing is often a problem for small 
to medium sized companies with high growth, or growth potential.  
Frequently, such companies chose or are forced to solve their financing 
problems by selling out to foreign, including U.S., corporations.
How to Finance Exports/Methods of Payment:  U.S. exports to Denmark are 
usually financed by the importer or the importer's bank.  Eximbank 
financing is available but rarely used.  The most common method of 
payment for an importer in the early phases of a business relationship 
is by Irrevocable Letter of Credit opened through a commercial bank.  
This is a recognized procedure, well-known and acceptable to Danish 
banks and importers.  When a business relationship has reached a stage 
of mutual trust, payment credits are often extended by the exporter for 
periods varying from 30 - 90 days.  There are no local credit facilities 
available specifically to finance imports from the United States, or any 
other country.
Types of Available Export Financing:
Most exports to Denmark are financed by Danish commercial banks. Exim 
financing is available but rarely used.
Project Financing Available:  The Danish Government arranges 
its own financing for infrastructure projects.  Private projects are 
financed through a well established local capital market.  Multilateral 
institutions which make project finance available include the European 
Investment Bank and the Nordic Investment Bank.
List of Banks with Corresponding U.S. Banking Arrangements:
All major Danish banks have correspondent bank relationships in the 
United States.  Most of them have such relationships with more than one 
American bank.  The two largest have branches in New York as follows:
Den Danske Bank
280 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10017-1216
Unibank A/S
13-15 West 54th Street
New York, NY 10019
IX.  BUSINESS TRAVEL
Business Customs:  Danish business people are likely to get down to 
business right away and are generally conservative and efficient in 
their approach to business meetings.  Advance appointments are usually 
necessary for business meetings.  Punctuality is a must, it is 
considered rude to be late for a business meeting.  Handshakes are the 
accepted form of greeting.  Danes shake hands both for greetings and 
goodbyes.  Unlike in the United States, men do not stand when a woman 
enters or leaves a room.  Some American forms of greeting can be 
misunderstood.  The standard American greeting "How are you?" is 
sometimes literally construed and hence misunderstood.  "I'm pleased to 
meet you" is preferable and conveys a more sincere message.  Red is a 
positive color in Denmark.  As in many other parts of the world, the 
number 13 is considered an unlucky number.  Business gifts are not a 
normal custom in Denmark.  Flowers for the hostess are a suitable gift 
if invited to someone's home.  Business entertaining is usually done at 
lunch, but also often at dinner in a restaurant. 
Danes work shorter hours than Americans.  The standard work week is 37 
hours.  Mandatory vacation is five weeks, of which three are taken 
during summer, one often around Christmas, and one during the winter.  
Danes treasure their leisure time, most of which is spent with the 
family.  Business persons should not expect to meet with their Danish 
counterparts after 4.00 pm on weekdays.  On Fridays, many Danes leave 
early, generally between 2 - 3 pm.  Do not plan meetings for Saturdays, 
Sundays, or on national holidays.  
Travel Advisory and Visas:  Delta Air Lines provides non-stop service 
between Copenhagen and New York and direct service between Copenhagen 
and Atlanta.  Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) provides non-stop 
service from Copenhagen to New York, Chicago, Seattle and Los Angeles.  
Citizens from non EU countries have to apply for both residence and work 
permits before arriving in Denmark, if their stay is expected to last 
for more than three months, or if they have already been resident in 
Denmark or one of the other Scandinavian countries for the last nine 
months.  In the United States, applications may be submitted to the 
Danish embassy, or one of its diplomatic missions in the larger U.S. 
cities.  Americans don't need visas if staying in Denmark for less than 
three months and may transact business as long as they don't set up an 
office.
Holidays (1996):  January 1 (New Year's Day),  April 4 (Maundy 
Thursday), April 5 (Good Friday), April 8 (Easter Monday), May 3 (Prayer 
Day), May 16 (Ascension Day), May 27 (Whit Monday June 5 (Constitution 
Day), December 25 (Christmas Day), December 26 (Second Christmas Day).
Business Infrastructure:  Denmark (Greenland and the Faroe Islands not 
included) covers an area of 43,000 sq.km of which the Jutland peninsula 
accounts for 29,776 sq.km.  There are 406 islands of varying sizes, of 
which Zealand is the biggest with an area of 7,488 sq.km, while Funen 
covers 3,486 sq.km.  The country is small and, although the main islands 
of Zealand and Funen are separated from the Jutland peninsula by water, 
communications and transport are highly developed.  The infrastructure 
is excellent everywhere.  There are 70,000 km of good roads in Denmark 
(including 1,000 km of freeway) and a 3,000 km railway network.  Bridges 
and ferries provide fast links between the various parts of Denmark.  
There are 13 civilian airports of which Copenhagen International Airport 
(Kastrup) is the largest.  It is Scandinavian Airlines System's 
consolidation hub for U.S.-bound traffic.  Copenhagen also has a modern 
seaport.  Other major ports are at Esbjerg, Aalborg, Aarhus, and 
Fredericia. The Port of Copenhagen includes a free port (see VI above). 
Telecommunication services are highly developed.  Denmark is a central 
link for satellite communications between the former East Bloc and 
western Europe and the United States.  Its telephone system provides 
first class digital service, and two cellular systems (NMT and GSM) 
offer excellent trans-European and inter-Scandinavian mobile 
communications.  Very few non Danes speak Danish so almost all Danish 
international business people speak another language.  Most speak 
English and often also German.  A high proportion of the Danish 
population has a working knowledge of these two languages.
For expatriates working in Denmark, rental of a house or an apartment is 
the most common arrangement.  Housing costs are comparable to those in 
major American cities.  Denmark has a high standard of living.  Public 
and private health services are fair to good.  Expatriates living in 
Denmark are covered by the Danish health system.  The price level for 
food and durable consumer goods is considerably higher than that of the 
United States, but about the same as in most other West European 
Countries. Automobiles, however, are more heavily taxed than in other 
European countries and cost about three times what they would in the 
United States.  Americans will recognize many U.S. food and other 
consumer item brands in Danish stores. 
APPENDIX A: COUNTRY DATA
Population (End 1994):
      Denmark Proper: 5.2 million 
      Faroe Islands:  44,000
      Greenland:      56,000       
Population Growth Rate:   0.3 percent
Religion:         Lutheran (97 percent)
Government System:
         Constitutional Monarchy
         Head of State: Queen Margrethe II
         Head of Government: Prime Minister
         Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (Social Democrat)
Languages:
         Danish (most business people
                speak English)
Work Week:
         37 hours, Monday
          through Friday
Source:
      Government of Denmark
APPENDIX B: DOMESTIC ECONOMY
In millions of U.S. dollars unless otherwise stated converted from 
Danish Kroner (DKK) using the 1994 average exchange rate of DKK 6.36 = 
$1.00.  P = Projected.
                                          1994    1995P   1996P
GDP at current prices                  146,116  155,000   163,000
GDP Growth Rate (Real)                    4.4%     3.8%      2.5%
Per Capita GDP, current prices($)       28,072   29,700    31,100
Government Spending (Percent/GDP)        62.3%    59.3%     57.0%
Inflation (percent)                       2.0%     2.3%      2.6%
Unemployment Rate (Pct./Labor Force)     12.1%    10.0%      9.3%
Foreign Exchange Reserves, Yr End        8,505    9,000     9,000
Average Dollar Exchange Rate(DKK):        6.36     5.50      5.50
Total Foreign Debt (Percent/GDP)         27.0%    23.9%     21.1%
Debt Service Ratio 1/                    10.3%     9.5%      8.2%
1/ Due to the composition of Danish Foreign Debt with significant short-
term "roll-over or swap-like" debt, this figure covers net interest 
payments on the foreign debt as a percentage of total export income.
Source: Government of Denmark and unofficial estimate.
APPENDIX C: TRADE
In millions of U.S. dollars based on the 1994 average exchange rate of 
DKK 6.36=$1.00.
                                   1994     1995P     1996P
Total Commodity Exports (fob)    41,158    44,000    47,000
   Exports to U.S.A.              2,184     2,200     2,350
   U.S. Share                       5.3%      5.0%      5.0%
Total Commodity Imports (cif)    35,080    38,500    41,500
   Imports from the U.S.A. 2/     1,742     1,900     2,100
   U.S. Share                      5.0%      5.2%      5.3%
2/ Figures include Danish trade with Puerto Rico (which is negligible).
Imports of Manufactured Goods in 1994
(SITC 5-9 less Gold)
   Total (From World)   26,244
   From the U.S.A.    1,500
   U.S. Share of Manufactured Imports     6.5%
   Manufactured Goods Balance with U.S.A.      169
Projected Average Annual Growth Rate Through 1997
   From World     7.5%
   From the U.S.A.     8.1%
Imports of Agricultural Goods in 1994
(SITC 0-1-21-22-24-29-4)
   From World         5,428
   From the U.S.A.      190
   U.S. Share of Agricultural Imports     3.5%
Agricultural Goods Balance with U.S.A.              290
Trade Balance with Three Leading Partners (1994)
   Germany    1,539
   Sweden      221
   United Kingdom    1,030
Top-Five U.S. Exports to Denmark in 1994
   HS 84.71 (Computers)      199
   HS 84.73 (Computer parts)      127
   HS 88.02 (Aircraft)       91
   HS 99.10 (Military equipment)       89
   HS 85.24 (Mostly computer media)       47
   
Top-Five Imports from Denmark in 1994 3/
   HS 89.01 (Ships)      163
   HS 02.03 (Pork meat)      132
   HS 16.02 (Canned pork)      117
   HS 94.03 (Furniture)      114
   HS 35.07 (Enzymes)       86
3/ Danish statistics treat figures on exports to the United States of 
plastic toy blocks (Lego) and insulin (Novo) as "business confidential".  
These exports likely came close $100 million in 1994. 
Source : Danish Bureau of Statistics.
APPENDIX D: INVESTMENT STATISTICS
See Section VII.
APPENDIX E: U.S. AND COUNTRY CONTACTS
1.  Industry Sector Contacts
a) Danish Government Agencies
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Asiatisk Plads 2
DK-1448 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 33 92 00 00
FAX: 31 54 05 33
Ministry of Business and Industry 
Slotsholmsgade 12
DK-1216 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 33 92 33 50
FAX: 33 12 37 78
Danish Customs
Customs and Tax Region 1
Strandgade 100
DK-1401 Copenhagen K
Denmark
Tel: (45) 32-88-93-00
Fax: (45) 31-95-10-12
Danmarks Statistik (Danish Bureau of Statistics)
Sejerogade 11
DK-2100 Copenhagen O.
Tel: 39 17 39 17
FAX: 31 18 48 01
Dansk Standardiseringsraad (Danish Standards Association)
Baunegaardsvej 73
DK-2900 Hellerup
Tel: 39 77 01 01
FAX: 39 77 02 02
Flyvematerielkommandoen (Air Materiel Command)
Flyvestation Vaerlose
P.O. Box 130
DK-3500 Vaerlose
Tel: 44 68 22 55
FAX: 44 66 25 33
Forbrugerstyrelsen (The National Consumer Agency of Denmark)
Amagerfaelledvej 56
DK-2300 Copenhagen S.
Tel: 31 57 01 00
FAX: 32 96 02 32
DSB (Danish State Railways)
Solvgade 40
DK-1349 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 33 14 04 00
FAX: 33 14 04 40
Haerens Materielkommando (Army Materiel Command)
Arsenalvej 55
DK-9800 Hjorring
Tel: 98 90 13 22
FAX: 98 90 06 23
Miljostyrelsen (The National Agency of Environmental Protection)
Strandgade 29
DK-1401 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 31 57 83 10
FAX: 31 57 24 49
Patentdirektoratet (The Patent Agency)
Helgeshoj Alle 81
DK-2630 Taastrup
Tel: 43 71 71 71
FAX: 43 71 71 70
Sovaernets Materielkommando (Navy Materiel Command)
Holmen
DK-1433 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 31 57 22 55
FAX: 32 96 80 55
Statens Luftfartsvaesen (Civil Aviation Administration)
Luftfartshuset
Ellebjergvej 50
DK-2450 Copenhagen SV
Tel: 36 44 48 48
FAX: 36 44 03 03
Sundhedsstyrelsen (National Board of Health)
Amaliegade 13
DK-1256 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 33 91 16 01
FAX: 33 93 16 36
Telestyrelsen (National Telecom Agency)
Holsteinsgade 63
DK-2100 Copenhagen O.
Tel: 35 43 03 33
FAX: 35 43 14 34
b) Danish Trade Associations/Chambers of Commerce
Confederation of Danish Industries
H.C. Andersens Boulevard 18
DK-1787 Copenhagen V.
Tel: 33 77 33 77
FAX: 33 77 33 00 
The Danish Chamber of Commerce
Borsen
DK-1217 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 33 95 05 00
FAX: 33 32 52 16
American Club in Copenhagen
c/o PACE
Ny Ostergade 23
DK-1101 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 33 14 76 56
FAX: 33 11 97 47
c) Market Research Firms
AIM Research A/S
Strandboulevarden 89
DK-2100 Copenhagen O.
Tel: 35 43 35 43
FAX: 35 43 26 34
Burson-Marsteller A/S
Ostergade 26
DK-1100 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 33 32 30 00
FAX: 33 32 30 01
Nielsen Marketing Research A/S
Strandboulevarden 89
DK-2100 Copenhagen O.
Tel: 35 43 35 43
FAX: 35 43 13 31
T. I. Sorensen Marketing & Materiel
Jaegersborg Alle 16
DK-2920 Charlottenlund
Tel: 31 64 32 88
FAX: 31 64 52 88 
Vilstrup Research A/S
Rosenvaengets Alle 25
DK-2100 Copenhagen O.
Tel: 35 43 66 33
FAX: 35 43 66 16
d) Commercial Banks
Citibank N.A.   (Subsidiary of Citicorp)
Industriens Hus
Vesterbrogade 1-B
DK-1620 Copenhagen V.
Tel: 33 15 50 30
FAX: 33 32 88 73
Den Danske Bank A/S
Holmens Kanal 2-12
DK-1092 Copenhagen K.
Tel: 33 44 00 00
FAX: 31 18 58 73
Unibank A/S
Torvegade 2
DK-1786 Copenhagen V.
Tel: 33 33 33 33
FAX: 31 54 21 33
A/S Jyske Bank
Vestergade 8-16
DK-8600 Silkeborg
Tel: 89 22 22 22 
FAX: 89 22 24 96
e) U.S. Embassy Trade Personnel
Richard F. Benson
Senior Commercial Officer
American Embassy
Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24
DK-2100 Copenhagen O.
Tel: 31 42 31 44
FAX: 31 42 01 75
f) Washington-based USG Country Contacts
TPCC Trade Information Center
Washington DC
Tel: 1-800-USA-TRADE
US Department of Agriculture
Foreign Agricultural Service
Washington DC
Tel:  202-720-7420
Mr. James M. Devlin
Desk Officer for Denmark
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room H-3043
14th and Constitution Ave., N.W.
Washington, DC 20230
Tel: (202)-482-4414   
FAX: (202)-482-2897
g) U.S.-based Multipliers relevant for Denmark
 
Danish American Chamber of Commerce
825 Third Avenue, 32nd Fl.
New York, NY 10022
Tel: (212)-980-6240
FAX: N/A
Commercial Counselor
Royal Danish Consulate General
825 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10022-7519
Tel: (212)-223-4545
FAX: (212)-754-1904
2. Agricultural Sector Contacts
National Food Agency
The Import Section
Moerkhoej Bygade 19
DK-2860 Soeborg
Danmark
Tel: (45) 39-69-66-00
FAX: (45) 39-66-01-00
Services: Advice about the legal compliance with legislation concerning 
artificial aromas, additives, etc.
Veterinary Directorate
Rolighedsvej 25
DK-1958 Frederiksberg C
Danmark
Tel: (45) 31-35-81-00
FAX: (45) 35-36-19-12
Services: The physical examination and control procedures applicable to 
livestock and meat products destined for the Danish market.
American Embassy
Office of Agric. Affairs
Dag Hammarskjolds Alle, 24
DK-2100 Copenhagen O
Danmark
(alternatively, from the United States)
Office of Agric. Affairs
PSC-73
American Embassy (FAS)
APO AE 09716-5000
Tel: (45) 31-42-31-44 (Embassy)
Tel: (45) 35-26-10-81 (FAS)
FAX: (45) 35-43-02-78
Services: Commodity and other analytical market reports (see list 
below); Danish retail food contacts; trade and other statistics; 
administrative support for promotional events; marketing background for 
selected retail food and agricultural products; technical, tariff and 
excise duties, regulatory and food labeling/additive information.
The Institute for Food Studies
& Agro-Industrial Development
Agern Alle 15
DK-2970 Horsholm
Denmark
Tel: (45) 42-57-05-82
Fax: (45) 45-76-58-60
Services:  Makes special food related studies.
APPENDIX F: MARKET RESEARCH
I. USFCS Reports
a: Scheduled for Completion During FY '95
Sporting Goods, completed   12/94
Workers' Safety Equipment,
completed   12/94
Automotive Spare Parts   06/30
EDP Equipment, Mainframes   08/15
Cellular Telephony   08/30
Civil Aircraft and Parts   09/15
Solid Waste Management   09/15
Locating a Business (IMI)   09/30
Agricultural Equipment   09/30
b: Scheduled for completion During FY '96*
Airport Equipment 
Air Pollution Control Equipment
Construction/Engineering Services
Lingerie and Women's Swimwear
Medical Equipment
Radio/Television Studio Equipment
Water Pollution Control Equipment
 
*Note: The above list is tentative. A complete list of USFCS market 
research is available on the NTDB.
II. FAS Reports, scheduled for completion during FY 96:               
Livestock Sem-Annual Report                     
Grain & Feed Annual Report                 
Seafood Semi-Annual Report                 
Sugar Annual Report                          
Seeds Annual Report                       
Tobacco Annual Report                       
Oilseeds & Products Annual Report                    
Dairy Semi-Annual Report      
Poultry Annual Report      
Annual Marketing Plan               
Livestock Annual Report      
Fresh Deciduous Fruit Annual Report      
Seafood Annual Report      
Agricultural Situation (Annual) Report      
Dairy Annual Report      
Forest Products Annual Report      
APPENDIX G:  TRADE EVENT SCHEDULE
1.   1.  Event Name:  Visit USA Seminar
     2.  Event ID No.:  N/A
     3.  Location:  Copenhagen, Denmark
     4.  Industry Theme:  Travel and Tourism
     5.  Event Date:  Mid-March, 1996
     6.  Type of Event:  Joint Visit USA Committee/Post Event
     7.  Name and Phone No. of Post Control Person:
     -   Cherie Thomsen, (45) 31 42 31 44
  
In addition to the above event, post plans to
-Actively promote Danish attendance to the Key-events identified
by other European USFCS posts under the Showcase Europe initiative.
-Promote Danish attendance to Foreign Buyers Program (FBP) trade events 
in the United States, with special emphasis on the selected four 
Showcase Europe industry categories.
-Promote Danish attendance to major European shows with USDOC-rganized 
American participation, such as but not limited to the Farnborough Air 
Show, the ITU Geneva Conference and the Hannover Fair (Cebit). 
-Continue its series of quarterly business contact functions at SCO's 
residence.
-Continue series of Showcase Europe-related business meetings hosted by 
the Ambassador.
   
-Carry out on behalf of U.S. NTM companies, single company 
product/service promotions in the Embassy's auditorium.
Because trade event schedule may change, firms should consult the export 
promotive calendar on the NTDB or contact USFCS/Copenhagen for the 
latest information.   
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