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U.S. Department of State 
Australia 1996 Country Commercial Guide 
Office of the Coordinator 
 
 
                           AUSTRALIA 
                1996 COUNTRY COMMERCIAL GUIDE 
 
                    TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 
 
CHAPTER  I:  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 
 
CHAPTER II:  ECONOMIC TRENDS AND OUTLOOK 
    A.    MAJOR TRENDS AND OUTLOOK 
    B.    PRINCIPAL GROWTH SECTORS 
             1. MINING AND ENERGY RESOURCES 
             2. AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES 
             3. VALUE ADDED PROCESSING, MANUFACTURING 
             4. HIGH TECH INDUSTRY   
             5. SERVICES 
             6. TOURISM  
    C.    GOVERNMENT ROLE IN THE ECONOMY  
             1. BUDGET PRIORITIES  
             2. ECONOMIC REFORMS  
    D.    BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SITUATION 
    E.    INFRASTRUCTURE SITUATION 
             1. OVERVIEW 
             2. AIR TRANSPORT 
             3 ELECTIONS; AND ORIENTATION OF MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES 
 
CHAPTER IV:  MARKETING U.S. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES  
 
    A.    RETAILING TRENDS 
    B.    DISTRIBUTION AND SALES CHANNELS 
    C.    USE OF AGENTS AND DISTRIBUTORS  
    D.    FINDING A PARTNER - HOW THE U.S. COMMERCIAL SERVICE IN 
          AUSTRALIA CAN HELP  
    E.    FRANCHISING  
    F.    DIRECT MARKETING  
    G.    JOINT VENTURES AND LICENSING  
    H.    STEPS TO ESTABLISHING AN OFFICE  
    I.    SELLING FACTORS AND TECHNIQUES 
    J.    ADVERTISING AND TRADE PROMOTION THROUGH MAJOR  
          NEWSPAPERS AND BUSIN ESS JOURNALS 
    K.    PRODUCT PRICING  
    L.    SALES SERVICE AND CUSTOMER SUPPORT 
    M.    SELLING TO THE GOVERNMENT AND LOCAL INDUSTRY  
          DEVELOPMENT ENCOURAGEMENT  
    N.    PROTECTING YOUR PRODUCT FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY  
          RIGHTS INFRINGEMENT 
    O.    NEED FOR A LOCAL ATTORNEY   
 
 
CHAPTER V:  LEADING SECTORS FOR U.S. EXPORTS AND INVESTMENT 
 
    A.    EXPORTS 
            1.  COMPUTER SOFTWARE (CSF) 
            2.  COMPUTERS AND PERIPHERALS (CPT) 
            3.  MEDICAL EQUIPMENT (MED)   
            4.  AUTOMOTIVE PARTS AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT (APS) 
            5.  EDUCATION AND TRAINING SERVICES (EDS) 
            6.  TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT (TEL) 
            7.  TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES (TES) 
            8.  HEALTHCARE SERVICES (MCS) 
            9.  DEFENSE EQUIPMENT (DFN) 
            10. SECURITY AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT (SEC) 
            11. AIRCRAFT AND PARTS (AIR) 
            12. LABORATORY AND SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT (LAB) 
            13. BIO-TECHNOLOGY (BTC) 
            14. FOOD PROCESSING/PACKAGING EQUIPMENT (FPP) 
            15. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT (CON) 
 
    B.    AGRICULTURAL SECTORS 
            1.  FROZEN VEGETABLES 
            2.  BEVERAGE BASES 
            3.  SNACK FOODS 
 
    C.    SIGNIFICANT INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES  
            1.  PRIVATIZATION 
            2.  MAJOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS  
                  BY SECTOR/BY STATE 
                a.    AIR TRANSPORT 
                b.    RAIL/ROAD TRANSPORT 
                c.    SEA TRANSPORT 
                d.    TELECOMMUNICATIONS 
                e.    ENERGY 
                f.    WATER AND SEWERAGE 
                g.    BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION  
            3.  OPPORTUNITIES ARISING FROM MULTILATERAL  
                DEVELOPMENT BANK-FUNDED PROJECTS 
            4.  OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT 
     
CHAPTER VI:  TRADE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 
 
    A.    TRADE BARRIERS  
            1.  TARIFF 
            2.  NON-TARIFF BARRIERS 
            3.  IMPORT TAXES 
    B.    CUSTOMS VALUATION 
    C.    IMPORT LICENSES 
    D.    EXPORT CONTROLS 
    E.    IMPORT/EXPORT DOCUMENTATION 
    F.    TEMPORARY ENTRY  
    G.    LABELING, MARKING REQUIREMENTS  
    H.    PROHIBITED IMPORTS 
            1.  PHYTOSANITARY RESTRICTIONS AFFECTING IMPORTS 
                OF FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 
    I.    STANDARDS (E.G. ISO 9000 USAGE) 
    J.    FREE TRADE ZONES/WAREHOUSES 
    K.    SPECIAL IMPORT PROVISIONS 
    L.    MEMBERSHIP IN FREE TRADE ARRANGEMENTS 
 
CHAPTER VII:  INVESTMENT CLIMATE 
 
    A.    OPENNESS TO FOREIGN INVESTMENT/INVESTMENT BARRIERS  
    B.    CONVERSION AND TRANSFER POLICIES 
    C.    EXPROPRIATION AND COMPENSATION 
    D.    DISPUTE SETTLEMENT 
        . ROAD/RAIL TRANSPORT 
             4.  SEA TRANSPORT  
             5.  TELECOMMUNICATIONS 
             6.  ENERGY 
             7.  WATER AND SEWERAGE 
             8.  BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 
 
CHAPTER III:  POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT  
 
    A.    NATURE OF POLITICAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE UNITED STATES 
    B.    MAJOR POLITICAL ISSUES AFFECTING BUSINESS CLIMATE 
    C.    A BRIEF SYNOPSIS OF THE AUSTRALIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM;  
          SCHEDULE FOR 
            1.  INVESTMENT DISPUTES 
            2.  COMMERCIAL DISPUTES 
            3.  POLITICAL VIOLENCE AFFECTING INVESTMENT  
    E.    POLITICAL VIOLENCE AFFECTING INVESTMENT 
    F.    PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND INCENTIVES TO SUPPORT  
          LOCAL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT 
            1.  SELLING TO THE GOVERNMENT 
            2.  BOUNTIES 
            3.  FIXED TERM ARRANGEMENTS FOR INFORMATION 
                TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 
            4.  RESTRICTED SYSTEMS INTEGRATION PANEL 
            5.  GOVERNMENT BUSINESS ENTERPRISES 
            6.  LOCAL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IMPACT 
            7.  EXPORT MARKET DEVELOPMENT SCHEME GRANTS   
    G.    RIGHT TO PRIVATE OWNERSHIP AND ESTABLISHMENT 
    H.    PROTECTION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS  
            1.  PATENTS, TRADE SECRETS, DESIGNS 
            2.  TRADE NAMES AND MARKS, PARALLEL IMPORTS 
    I.    REGULATORY SYSTEM:  LAWS, PROCEDURES AND TAXES   
    J.    FOREIGN INVESTMENT REVIEW BOARD  
    K.    BILATERAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS 
    L.    OPIC AND OTHER INVESTMENT INSURANCE PROGRAMS 
    M.    LABOR 
            1.  WORK FORCE CHARACTERISTICS 
            2.  LABOR RELATIONS 
    N.    FOREIGN TRADE ZONES AND FREE PORTS  
    O.    CAPITAL OUTFLOW POLICY 
    P.    MAJOR FOREIGN INVESTORS 
 
CHAPTER VIII:  TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCING 
 
    A.    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE BANKING SYSTEM 
    B.    FOREIGN EXCHANGE CONTROLS AFFECTING TRADING  
    C.    GENERAL FINANCING AVAILABILITY  
    D.    HOW TO FINANCE EXPORTS AND METHODS OF PAYMENT  
    E.    TYPES OF AVAILABLE EXPORT FINANCING AND INSURANCE  
          (COMMERCIAL, BILATERAL, MULTILATERAL AND LOCAL SOURCES) 
    F.    PROJECT FINANCING AVAILABLE  
    G.    LIST OF BANKS WITH CORRESPONDENT U.S. BANKING ARRANGEMENTS 
 
CHAPTER IX:  BUSINESS TRAVEL 
 
    A.    BUSINESS TRAVEL  
    B.    BUSINESS CUSTOMS      
    C.    TRAVEL ADVISORY AND VISAS 
    D.    HOLIDAYS 
    E.    BUSINESS INFRASTRUCTURE 
     
CHAPTER X:  APPENDICES 
     
    APPENDIX A:  AUSTRALIA COUNTRY DATA 
        1.  POPULATION  
        2.  POPULATION GROWTH RATE (%) 
        3.  RELIGION(S)  
        4.  GOVERNMENT SYSTEM  
        5.  LANGUAGE(S) 
        6.  WORK WEEK 
 
    APPENDIX B:  AUSTRALIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY STATISTICS FOR 
                 1994, 1995, 1996 
        1.  GDP 
        2.  GDP GROWTH RATE (%) 
        3.  GDP PER CAPITA 
        4.  GOVERNMENT SPENDING AS A % OF GDP 
        5.  INFLATION (%) 
        6.  UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (%) 
        7.  FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES 
        8.  AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATE FOR USD1.00 
        9.  NET FOREIGN DEBT 
        10. DEBT SERVICE RATIO (%) 
        11. U.S. ECONOMIC MILITARY/ASSISTANCE 
 
       APPENDIX C:  U.S. AND AUSTRALIAN TRADE STATISTICS FOR  
       1994, 1995, 1996 
       PART I:  GOODS AND SERVICES TRADE STATISTICS  
        1.  TOTAL AUSTRALIA EXPORTS (G&S) 
        2.  TOTAL AUSTRALIA IMPORTS (G&S) 
        3.  AUSTRALIA'S EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE GOODS 
        4.  AUSTRALIA'S IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE GOODS  
        5.  U.S. SHARE OF MERCHANDISE IMPORTS (PERCENT) 
        6.  AUSTRALIA'S IMPORTS OF MANUFACTURED GOODS 
        7.  U.S. SHARE OF MANUFACTURED IMPORTS (PERCENT) 
        8.  MANUFACTURED GOODS TRADE BALANCE WITH U.S. 
        9.  TRADE BALANCE WITH THREE LEADING PARTNERS 1994 
        10. PRINCIPAL U.S. EXPORTS TO AUSTRALIA 1994 
        11. PRINCIPAL U.S. IMPORTS FROM AUSTRALIA 1994 
 
        PART II:  AGRICULTURAL TRADE STATISTICS 
        1.  AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL IMPORTS 
        2.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE BALANCE WITH U.S.  
        3.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE BALANCE WITH 3 TOP PARTNERS 
        4.  PRINCIPAL AUSTRALIAN EXPORTS TO THE U.S. 
        5.  PRINCIPAL AUSTRALIAN IMPORTS FROM THE U.S. 
 
 
    APPENDIX D:  FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT STATISTICS 
        1.  TABLE 1:  FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA 
        2.  TABLE 2:  STOCK OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA  
                      AT FYE BY SELECTED COUNTRIES 
        3.  TABLE 3:  STOCK OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA  
                      AT FYE BY INDUSTRY 
        4.  TABLE 4:  TOTAL EXPECTED INVESTMENT BY COUNTRY OF 
                      INVESTOR AND INDUSTRY SECTOR 
        5.  TABLE 5:  AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD 
 
    APPENDIX E:  KEY CONTACTS IN THE U.S. AND AUSTRALIA 
         1.  U.S. GOVERNMENT OFFICES IN AUSTRALIA 
         2.  AMCHAM AND BILATERAL BUSINESS COUNCILS 
         3.  KEY AUSTRALIAN TRADE ORGANIZATIONS AND 
             INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS 
         4.  KEY AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICES  
         5.  SOURCES OF MARKET RESEARCH AND BUSINESS  
             FACILITATION SERVICES  
         6.  COMMERCIAL BANKS IN AUSTRALIA  
         7.  NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS AND BUSINESS DIRECTORIES 
 
    APPENDIX F:  MARKET RESEARCH 1995 - 1996  
 
         1.  KEY INDUSTRY SECTOR MARKET RESEARCH 
         2.  AGRICULTURAL MARKET RESEARCH  
 
    APPENDIX G:  1996 TRADE EVENT SCHEDULE 
 
 
CHAPTER I:  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: 
 
This Country Commercial Guide (CCG) presents a comprehensive look at 
Australia's commercial environment through economic, political and 
market analyses. 
 
The CCGs were established by recommendation of the Trade Promotion 
Coordinating Committee (TPCC), a multi-agency task force, to consolidate 
various reporting documents prepared for the U.S. business community.  
Country Commercial Guides are prepared annually at U.S. Embassies 
through the combined efforts of several U.S. Government agencies. 
 
The United States Mission regards the commercial environment in 
Australia as exceptionally "friendly", attractive to American business 
and with room for more of the same.  With the United States' only 
significant bilateral trade surplus in Asia ($7+ billion), and with 
American names commonplace in the market, Australia's receptivity to 
U.S. goods and services is well-documented.  Moreover, Australian 
willingness to give "new" things a try recommends the country as a good 
market in which to test the international appeal of a product or 
service.  The well-developed media and advertising sectors, combined 
with the use of English, can mean that copy and other promotional 
material require little adjustment.  The countries' relatively 
comparable positions on the scale of technology implementation can mean 
that, if an offering finds the American market "ready", it will probably 
find that of Australia ready as well.   
 
To these factors, one should add that of geography.  While location, in 
the high-tech world of the majority of American exporters, may not be as 
important as in real estate, new-to-Asia/Pacific companies should 
consider that Australia is physically closer to many emerging markets 
than is the United States.   
 
This fact will not mean the same to every firm, but it well behooves any 
U.S. business initiating relationships with ASEAN or Indian Ocean 
markets to consider whether headquartering part of their regional 
operations in Australia makes business sense.  The roster of American 
and other companies that have done so is impressive.  Those same new 
companies might also look at Australia as a source of like-minded 
potential joint-venturers. 
    
The similarities in the economies of Australia and the U.S. are 
striking.  Among them are:  the current account situation; a chronic 
trade deficit; a low savings rate; declining union membership; an ever 
more important service sector; a strong focus on the Asia/Pacific 
Region; ready acceptance of innovations in product and marketing; the 
availability of a major money center; and privatization as a watchword.  
To these, a similar language further contributes to the "at home" 
feeling, as do the many familiar marquee corporate names. 
 
To help cope with a budget deficit, the Labor government raised the 
company tax from 33 to 36 percent, and is forecasting a modest surplus 
for 1995/96.  With one notable exception, the states in Australia are 
also in the red.  A trade account deficit sounds familiar to most 
Americans, although the bilateral side of the ledger is distinctly in 
the United States' favor.  As in North America, the service sector is 
gaining in importance, and that of manufacturing declining, although it 
is not a zero sum situation.  At this writing, the savings rate in 
Australia is about 2.5%, lower even than the U.S. level.  While these 
similarities have some negative connotations, most Americans will find 
compensating comfort in the ease with which day-to-day business life 
progresses. Many familiar products and service providers are at hand 
and, as in the United States, firms are encouraged to look toward Asian 
markets as the source of business growth. 
 
The similarities make it easy to assume that the business environments 
are identical. They are not.  Perhaps the most striking variance is the 
different role of government, and attitudes toward that role, in the 
conduct of day-to-day business.  In Australia, the Federal and State 
governments have traditionally been more overt players in the economy 
than their American counterparts.  While privatization, and an evolving 
philosophy toward what government's role should be, are narrowing the 
gap, in general, American managers will find that they have to take 
officialdom into account to a greater degree here than they do at home. 
 
The Australian economy is more dependent than that of the United States 
on commodity exports and, consequently, is subject to more precipitous 
changes of direction.  It is hoped that moves to broaden the economic 
base will put an end to the boom and bust tradition.  The distances that 
businesses must cope with in both countries are similar, though what 
lies between any two points in terms of population centers and 
customers, is apt to be very different.  Networking is no less crucial 
in Australia than in the U.S. in getting business done, but there seems 
to be a greater importance attached to the "old boy" network. 
 
In summary, Australia's is as competitive a marketplace as any, but one 
of opportunity for American companies, where barriers both formal and 
informal are few, where innovation is welcome, and where one might find 
an attractive port of entry to Asia. 
 
Country Commercial Guides are available on the National Trade Data Bank 
on CD-ROM or through the Internet.  Please contact STAT-USA at 1-800-
STAT-USA for more information.  To locate Country Commercial Guides via 
the Internet, please use the following World Wide Web address:  
WWW.STAT-USA.GOV.  CCGs also can be ordered in hard copy or on diskette 
from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) at 1-800-553-
NTIS.  
 
 
    CHAPTER II:  ECONOMIC TRENDS AND OUTLOOK 
 
A.  MAJOR TRENDS AND OUTLOOK 
 
The Australian economy is enjoying a period of sustained, moderate 
growth.  Over the 1994 calendar year, real gross domestic product grew 
5.1 percent, due mainly to a significant rebound in business investment.  
In the 1995 calendar year, real average GDP growth is expected to slow 
to 4.2 percent.  This is due to a consolidation in the business sector, 
and the moderating effects of a tightening of monetary policy in late 
1994.  Growth in the mid-3 percent level is expected in the medium-term 
thereafter.  Australia currently is well-positioned for continued solid 
economic growth, with very little in the way of unfavorable indicators.  
With increasing links to the dynamic economies in the region, and a 
continuation of economic reform, Australia's trade and investment 
climate will be attractive for the foreseeable future.  
 
The economic recovery over the past two-three years has effectively 
thrown off most of the lingering effects of the severe recession of 
1990-92.  During that period, weak world demand, combined with 
government efforts to rein in an overheating economy, saw company 
profits tumble and economic conditions sour.  The recovery, initially, 
was relatively weak, with considerable stimulus from the Government 
failing to have any effect.  This was especially prevalent in the labor 
market, with Australia posting unemployment levels not seen since the 
Great Depression. 
 
However, a significant drop in mortgage interest rates soon led to a 
housing boom, with finance approvals rising to record highs.  As the 
main locomotive force for the recovery, private dwelling investment 
pulled the economy forward, assisted by strong exports and low 
inflation.  It was not until mid-1994 that the housing boom began to 
subside. 
 
Fortunately, at that stage, business investment began its resurgence.  
The Federal Government predicted in its May, 1994 Budget that business 
investment would rise by an unprecedented 14.5 percent, with plant and 
equipment outlay forecast to rise an even higher 18.5 percent.  
Commentators were at first skeptical, despite signs of strengthening 
business confidence and profit. 
 
It is now apparent that even these optimistic forecasts have been 
exceeded.  For the 1994-95 financial year, business investment is 
estimated to have grown by 18 percent, with plant and equipment 
investment up 23 percent on the year before.  Higher mortgage interest 
rates have had an opposite effect on private dwelling investment, which 
is estimated to have grown only 4 percent in FY 1994-95, with a 13 
percent decline predicted for the following financial year.  This is 
indicative of the fact that consumer interest rates are currently around 
their highest real values in Australian history. 
 
Economists agree that the threat of economic overheating has now 
subsided, and more substantial forces are at work to assist economic 
growth.  Export performance continues to strengthen as global demand 
firms, and the Australian farm sector is once again expected to make a 
significant contribution to economic growth as drought and seasonal 
conditions improve.  Employment also will be assisted by positive 
economic growth, with the unemployment rate slowly returning to pre-
recession levels.  Inflation is predicted to remain relatively low, with 
only moderate upward pressure from wages and the effect of a weaker 
currency. 
 
Australia's main concern is its high external deficit, driven by 
continued foreign borrowing, and a high domestic propensity to consume 
imported goods.  The current account deficit is forecast to change 
little over the next year, as the gains from stronger net exports are 
eroded by higher debt service payments.  Despite a significant reduction 
in the Federal Government's Budget deficit for FY 1995-96, Australia's 
balance of payments will continue to weigh down a buoyant economy. 
 
B.  PRINCIPAL GROWTH SECTORS 
 
    1.  MINING AND ENERGY RESOURCES 
 
Australia's mineral and energy resource sector is vast, with great 
potential for expansion.  Australia is the world's largest producer of 
alumina, bauxite and mineral sands, and among the top producers of lead, 
zinc, nickel, gold and uranium.  In addition, Australia is easily the 
world's largest exporter of coal, its second largest exporter of iron 
ore, and is a major regional exporter of liquefied natural gas.  
Australia's resource sector provides around 5 percent of production-
based GDP, and almost half of the nation's merchandise export earnings, 
and offers attractive opportunities for American investors and vendors 
of mining machinery, equipment and technology. 
 
    2.  AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES 
 
Australian agriculture suffered from a massive drought in the eastern 
winter grain belt in 1994, which saw a reduction in the gross value of 
farm production of over four percent, and a loss in Australia's export 
grain earnings.  This consisted of a large decrease in the value of crop 
output, coupled with a slight increase in the gross value of livestock.  
Farm income, as measured by the net value of farm production, decreased 
by 36 percent, as compared with the previous year. 
 
An excellent pattern of autumn rains throughout most of the drought 
affected areas has caused great optimism, with the net value of farm 
production tipped to increase by around 49 percent.  Widespread rains 
have boosted pasture growth and the prospects for all sectors of 
livestock production, while the planting of winter grains has increased 
dramatically from 1994.  Follow-up rains, however, still will be 
necessary for the 1995 crop to reach its full potential. 
 
The more positive agronomic and climatic conditions for the agricultural 
sector are coupled with favorable world prices for most major crops 
produced by Australia.  Wheat prices are expected to remain strong as 
demand from China, coupled with crop problems in North America, point to 
a tight supply and demand picture.  Cotton is at record high price 
levels, although Australia's ability to capitalize on them is hampered 
by frequent shortages of water.  The rise in international dairy prices, 
which grew steadily throughout the first half of 1995, is expected to 
continue, with positive effects on that sector. 
 
    3.  VALUE ADDED PROCESSING, MANUFACTURING 
 
The Government's economic development strategy focuses on continued 
economic reform to encourage expansion of value-added production in the 
minerals and agricultural sectors; manufacturing in high-technology 
products; and, expansion of the services sector (including services 
exports to the region).  Manufacturing production has continued to 
outpace other sectors in the economy, growing almost 11 percent in 1994.  
This is an indication of a growing emphasis on increasing the share of 
manufactured goods in Australia's international trade, combined with 
stronger economic growth and a resurgence in profitability.  The growth 
in elaborately transformed manufactures is set to continue, as 
Australian firms expand into broader markets, particularly in Asia. 
 
Traditionally, Australia's earnings have been based on primary products 
- minerals, grains, meats.  Today, the government's  economic 
development strategy focuses on continued macro and microeconomic reform 
to encourage expansion of value-added production,  particularly in the 
minerals and agricultural sectors, and in manufacturing of high-
technology products.  
 
    4.  HIGH TECH INDUSTRY 
 
Australia, as a nation, has the level of sophistication and buying power 
to use hi-tech products in a number of industry sectors.  Hi-tech 
products are used in industries such as medical, health, communications, 
information technology, security and defense.  Although Australia has 
its own small, but vigorous, high tech industry, particularly in the 
fields of information and medical technologies, the U.S. is seen as a 
world leader for many hi-tech products, and Australia normally looks 
first to the U.S. for purchases.   
 
Australians are keen to maintain a leading technological edge and 
continually are updating their technology to avoid obsolescence.  This 
means that Australian firms often are open to propositions for capital 
investment, joint ventures and other strategic alliances, both to 
capture a larger share of the Australian market, and to gain a 
competitive advantage in developing products for export to other 
markets, particularly in the Asia Pacific region.     
 
Information Technology (IT) innovators perceive the opportunities within 
the Australian market, and pursue this market zealously with their 
products.  The average annual growth rate of hi-tech IT products is 
expected to be around 20 percent for the duration of the decade.  Twenty 
IT firms, of which 18 are American, have chosen Australia as their 
regional headquarters.  Their choice is based on the ease of market 
penetration (second largest per capita user of PCs in the world after 
the US) and the technical sophistication of the Australian IT market.  
With all these considerations, Australia provides a relatively small - 
but highly active and attractive -market for hi-tech products from the 
U.S. 
 
    5.  SERVICES 
 
Asia's dramatic regional growth is reshaping global markets, with the 
services sector in the lead.  Australia's credentials as a regional 
platform for the provision of services in support of manufacturing, 
processing, support and management in Asia are based on unique 
comparative strengths.  These include a sophisticated, educated, 
anglophone human resource base unequaled in the region; and, the 
availability of extensive technology-based support services for both 
domestic and international usage.  Continued economic vigor, business 
profitability, increased foreign investment, and domestic consumer 
confidence are expected to sustain increased growth in demand for 
services in Australia in the management, commercial, legal, financial, 
educational, health and community, recreational and personal areas.  The 
1994 services sector growth rate was 10.9 percent over 1993. 
 
    6.  TOURISM 
 
Australia's excellent climate and natural endowments make tourism a 
growth sector with continuing potential to attract foreign visitors, 
especially from the increasingly affluent countries of North and 
Southeast Asia.  Accordingly, all of the industry sectors associated 
with the provision of tourism facilities, products and services should 
prosper.   
 
The tourist industry is a vital component of the services sector, 
contributing greatly to overall GDP.  The industry grew by 7 percent in 
1993, and by 3 percent in 1994, with  tourist accommodation receipts 
totaling over $2.8 billion.     
 
Excluding airline passenger earnings, the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
(BEA) estimates that Australian tourists contributed US$1.4 billion to 
the U.S. economy in 1994.  The BEA forecasts increases of 2.8 percent in 
1995, and 5 percent in 1996.  In 1994, over 400,000 Australians came to 
the U.S. for business and/or pleasure.  While this number is lower than 
in previous years, due partly to the lingering effects of recession on 
consumer spending, Australian Bureau of Statistics data confirms that 
the U.S. remains the number one long-haul destination for Australian 
travelers, with 31 percent of market share.  The U.S. Travel and Tourism 
Agency forecasts an increase in Australian visitor arrivals over the 
next four years - with growth in the 6-7 percent range each year through 
1998. 
 
Many investors, both domestic and abroad, already have gotten into the 
action, with considerable tourism infrastructure expansion taking place, 
particularly on the Queensland coast.  Other major developments are 
associated with the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.   
 
C.  GOVERNMENT ROLE IN THE ECONOMY 
 
    1.  BUDGET PRIORITIES 
 
The Commonwealth Government uses both fiscal and monetary policy to 
influence the economy.  Previously, in an effort to overcome the effects 
of the early-1990s recession, the Government undertook an expansive (and 
expensive) program of fiscal stimulus, aimed mainly at the labor market.  
The results, at least initially, were disappointing from the perspective 
of cutting unemployment.  Combined with a subsequent easing of monetary 
policy, however, economic growth responded strongly. 
 
With the recovery complete, the Government is now reducing the amount of 
fiscal and monetary stimulus it injects into the economy.  In the recent 
FY 1995-96 Budget, the Government announced a reduction in this program 
of expenditures.  This, combined with an increase in official interest 
rates of 2.75 percent in the latter half of 1994, has reduced the chance 
of economic overheating. 
 
The Government also has responded to calls to reduce its budget deficit.  
The FY 1995-96 budget announced a $9.5 billion turnaround in the Budget 
balance to a surplus of around $500 million.  Although some commentators 
are skeptical of the Government's ability to deliver the surplus, its 
efforts to achieve this result are significant. 
 
Official interest rates are perceived as being at, or near, their peak, 
with the possibility of an easing of monetary policy when the Federal 
election is announced.  The current government has the option to call an 
election any time before mid-1996, and will do so when it believes 
economic and social factors are ripe. 
 
    2.  ECONOMIC REFORMS 
 
Australia commenced a basic reorientation of its economy more than 10 
years ago, and is transforming itself from an inward-looking, import-
substitution country to an internationally competitive, export-oriented 
one.  Key reforms include the unilateral reduction of high tariffs and 
other protective barriers; floating the Australian dollar exchange rate; 
deregulating the financial services sector (including a decision in late 
1992 to allow liberal access for foreign bank branches); rationalizing 
and reducing the number of trade unions; efforts to restructure the 
highly centralized system of industrial relations and labor bargaining; 
better integration of the State economies into a national federal 
system; improvement and standardization of the national infrastructure; 
and privatizing many government-owned services and some public 
utilities.   
 
The ultimate goal is for Australia to become a competitive producer and 
exporter, not just of traditional farm and mineral commodities, but of a 
diversified mix of value-added manufactured products, services and 
technologies.  While progress has been made on this economic reform 
agenda (such as in the oligopolistic telecommunications market, now 
responsive to competition), much remains to be done.  Herein, lie some 
of the most promising opportunities for American business and 
investment. 
 
While the near-term outlook is for continued economic expansion, 
Australia's longer-term prospects depend heavily on continued 
fundamental economic reform.  There is a general consensus among the 
major political parties, management and labor on the necessary features 
of this reform, but significant divergence of views on the methods, pace 
and degree of change required.  
 
D.  BALANCE OF PAYMENTS SITUATION 
 
Both Australian imports and exports are set to grow strongly in coming 
years.  The Government, in recent economic forecasts, has predicted that 
export growth will eclipse import growth in the 1995-96 financial year.  
This reverses the trend of the past few years, as higher economic growth 
saw a boom in the consumption of imported goods.  A return to a 
merchandise trade surplus would be a welcome development, especially in 
helping to deal with the current account deficit. 
 
Trade is important for Australia:  merchandise exports in 1994 totalled 
$47.7 billion, about one fifth of the nation's gross domestic product.  
Australia imported $50.1 billion worth of merchandise goods in 1994, 
resulting in a balance of trade deficit of $2.3 billion.  This follows a 
surplus of around $300 million the year before, and reflects the growing 
level of imports as the economic recovery promotes domestic demand.  
Nevertheless, Australia's growing export orientation is one of the 
country's success stories and will continue as a major factor 
contributing to the nation's economic health.  
  
In 1994, around 60 percent of Australia's exports went to Asia, with 
East Asia being the fastest growing regional market for both exports and 
imports.  Japan is Australia's largest trading partner, taking around 25 
percent of Australian merchandise exports ($11.8 billion in 1994), and 
supplying 17.8 percent of its imports ($8.9 billion in 1994).  
Australia's major exports to Japan are coal, iron ore, and meat.   
 
The United States is Australia's second largest trading partner, but has 
been relegated to fourth among its export markets; China/Hong Kong is 
second; and, South Korea third.  The U.S. remains, however, Australia's 
single largest source of merchandise imports ($10.9 billion in 1994).  
Of Australia's top five trading partners, the U.S. is the only country 
to consistently run a bilateral trade surplus with Australia.  The 
surplus reached $7+ billion in 1994. 
 
The composition of Australia's exports has been changing gradually over 
the past two decades, to reflect the increasingly value-added direction 
of Australian industry.  Manufactured exports have grown at an average 
rate of around 13 percent per annum over the last five years.  Within 
manufactures, elaborately transformed manufactures (ETMs) have shown the 
best performance -- in the last five years their share of total exports 
has increased from around 16 percent to 22 percent.  Australia's 
emerging ETM exports also have an increasingly diverse base.  They 
include such items as high-speed ferries, telecommunications equipment, 
and motor vehicles. 
 
Compared to recent years, growth in ETM exports slowed slightly in 1994.  
Increasing by 9.8 percent, the value of Australia's ETM exports reached 
$10.5 billion.  Simply transformed manufactures (STMs) have grown at a 
slower rate during the last decade, although, in 1994, their performance 
strengthened (up by 9.6 percent).  Primary products, although they have 
experienced very low growth in the past few years, remain the dominant 
export sector in value terms.  In 1994, they comprised 58 percent of 
total merchandise exports. 
 
Assisting the improvement in rural exports in the coming year is the 
promise of more favorable weather conditions, following the nation's 
severe drought.  Grain crops are expected to improve considerably, while 
other rural export commodities will benefit from improving global 
demand.  The Government has predicted that the rural sector again will 
play a significant part in Australia's export earnings in the coming 
years, supporting a slight decline in non-rural earnings growth.  Coal 
and iron ore exports will remain the big money earners, with Japanese 
buyers paying higher prices after years of difficult price negotiations. 
 
Australia has a net deficit for trade in services, despite having one of 
the most prosperous and vibrant tourism sectors in the world.  The 
services deficit for 1994 totalled $578 million, due mainly to shipment 
outflows.  Australia has relatively few shipping lines.  Therefore, net 
costs for freight and insurance regularly exceed $2 billion each year.  
Other net debits include "miscellaneous" services, such as advertising, 
computing, and education and training.  
  
Net income remains the single most expensive item on Australia's current 
account.  In 1994, the net income deficit totalled $12.1 billion, by far 
the largest component in the overall current account deficit of $15.7 
billion.  Most of the income deficit comes from debt service payments, 
resulting from Australia's high level of foreign debt.  Australia's 
vulnerability to foreign interest rate increases and currency movements 
tends to exacerbate this problem.  Net foreign debt at year-end 1994 was 
$119.3 billion. 
 
The Current Account Deficit (CAD) remains Australia's foremost economic 
constraint.  The Government has forecast that, in nominal terms, the CAD 
will remain unchanged from FY 1994-95 to FY 1995-96, at A$27 billion -- 
this is despite a projected improvement in the trade balance.  Higher 
global interest rates will increase the nation's debt servicing burden, 
which accounts for most of the CAD.  The Government has announced a new 
compulsory retirement scheme to boost national savings, which will 
reduce the CAD over the long-term.  However, in the short- to medium-
term, Australia's external financial balance will continue to be a 
significant policy restraint. 
 
E.  INFRASTRUCTURE SITUATION  
 
    1.  OVERVIEW 
 
See Chapter V.C.1,2 for Information on Opportunities in Major 
Infrastructure Development Projects. 
 
Geographically, Australia is similar in size to the U.S.  Despite its 
small population and vast land mass, the country has well developed, 
nation-wide air, road, rail, port and telecommunications infrastructure 
networks comparable to those in other industrialized countries.  With 
its highly urbanized population along the east and southern coasts, yet 
with critical goods and services needed throughout the country, 
nationwide infrastructure systems support the needs of the people to 
live, to conduct business, and to distribute goods throughout densely 
populated metropolitan areas, in more isolated country towns, and to 
remote areas.   
 
Privatization and corporatization of government-owned facilities and 
services is an integral part of the Australian federal and state 
governments' economic reform programs.  Major project activity is 
dominated by infrastructure developments and privatization of facilities 
formerly run by federal, state and local governments.  Demand for 
further infrastructure development is due to population growth, changing 
demographic patterns, increased environmental awareness, and a 
cumulative obsolescence of existing infrastructure facilities.   
 
In 1992, the Federal Government began a series of initiatives designed 
to encourage private sector investment in infrastructure projects.  
Roads, railways, ports, airports and utilities are all slated for 
corporatization, commercialization, or privatization.  
The Federal Government took the lead by first corporatizing, then 
privatizing, a number of its facilities and functions. 
Planned reforms in the public utility areas (electricity, natural gas, 
telecommunications) should yield increased competition and efficiency 
improvements in those sectors.  Plans are drawn, but not implemented, to 
establish a national electricity grid to balance power generation, 
distribution and demand among the states.  
 
Greater participation by the private sector has relieved the pressure on 
fiscal policy, produced operational efficiencies, stimulated competition 
and spurred the growth of capital markets.  As traditional government-
owned and -operated institutions strive to restructure themselves in 
pursuit of competitive operational effectiveness and efficiency, 
opportunities are being created for management and operations 
consultants, particularly those with leading-edge U.S.-based expertise, 
to provide advice and assistance in the reinvention process.   
 
Private sector involvement also has produced engineering achievements 
such as the Sydney Harbor tunnel, prefabricated and sunk in sections; 
the Glebe Island Bridge in Sydney, which will be one of the world's 
largest cable bridges when completed in 1996; and the excavation of the 
Sydney Opera House parking garage to 100 feet below the harbor. 
 
The Government's push towards more efficient and improved infrastructure 
has seen a number of significant reforms that will facilitate growth in 
those sectors dependent on transport.   Australia has no notable 
transport infrastructure bottlenecks affecting sales/distribution of 
goods.  As most of the population lives on the east coast, transport 
infrastructure is most concentrated there, although major mining 
projects throughout Australia have necessitated a nation-wide road, rail 
and port infrastructure network. 
 
An important factor in Australian goods and service distribution is the 
distance goods must be transported.  When long distances are involved, 
transportation costs can be a significant component of the selling 
price.  Recent reforms in the transport and goods handling industries 
are increasing efficiency and improving services while reducing costs.  
Competition between modes of transport acts to constrain prices.  Even 
so, port inefficiencies still exist, and rail remains expensive.  The 
transportation sector remains a major focus for microeconomic reform. 
 
Government entities in the process of privatization or corporatization 
include:  Australian National Railways; the remaining 75 percent of the 
air carrier Qantas; the Office of Defence Production; the Government 
Aircraft Factories; the Federal Airports Corporation; and the Australian 
Industry Development Corporation.  AUSSAT, the Australian satellite, was 
sold to Optus Communications, the Commonwealth Bank was partially 
floated (with the full sale slated for the next financial year), and the 
naval Dockyard in Melbourne was sold.  The Government has also announced 
its intention to sell the Australian National Line, major Australian 
airports, and to open up some postal services to competition. 
 
    2.  AIR TRANSPORT 
 
Air transport is used extensively.  Australia has 440 airports, 
including the major international gateways of Sydney, Melbourne, 
Brisbane, Perth and Cairns.  International passenger and cargo flights 
are frequent and reliable.  
 
Air is used extensively for lighter cargo, small high value items, and 
for urgent needs.  An extensive network of air cargo operators, 
including a number of familiar international companies, offer a full 
range of services for all types of cargo, and process all related 
documentation relating to importation and clearance of goods, as well as 
on-delivery to regional centers.  Around 170,000 tonnes of cargo is 
flown annually into Australia. 
 
International passenger and cargo flights are frequent and reliable, 
with a wide range of international carriers and routes to choose from.  
Domestic air fares have fallen in real terms by about 20% since 1990, 
and service standards and flight frequency have improved on the 50 
busiest domestic routes.  Landing charges at Australia's major airports 
are among the lowest in the world. 
 
The national airport system has been reassessed by the Federal 
Government.  In the May, 1994 Federal Budget, the Government announced 
its intention to sell all of the nation's major airports to encourage 
competition arising from privatization.  This should see a wide range of 
efficiency improvements in the airport system, which, in turn, will 
complement other transport sectors.  However, detailed financial 
analyses of selling schemes have not been made, and the proposal remains 
controversial. 
 
    3.  ROAD/RAIL TRANSPORT 
  
With its huge landmass and small population - and, therefore, its 
limited tax base - the extensiveness of Australia's modern national, 
state and local road system is quite remarkable.   Road funding 
continues to feature prominently in both State and Federal Government 
budgets, presumably due to the high profile the need for good roads 
holds in the eyes of the voting public.  Australia's road transport 
industry is relatively efficient, and approaches world best practice.  
The majority of inter-state goods transport is by road.  Centralized 
charging and administration for heavy vehicles, and an increase in 
weight limitations for six-axle trucks is estimated to have increased 
productivity by 25 percent in recent years.   
 
A 24,000 mile network of railroads competes with road transport. Rail 
transport is the preferred mode to Perth, in Western Australia, for the 
transportation of freight from Eastern ports, and for the bulk transport 
of Australia's mineral exports.
 
Traditionally, rail transport has lagged behind international best 
practice.  In the last century, before Federation of the States into the 
Commonwealth, each state government established its own different gauge 
railway to encourage its own industries.  Cargo had to be transferred at 
state boundaries.  The National Rail Corporation Limited (NR), 
established in 1993 between the Federal and State Governments of New 
South Wales and Victoria, operates the interstate rail freight business 
in Australia, in competition with road transport.   
 
The Australian Federal Government's "One Nation" rail infrastructure 
upgrade has at last overcome the problem.  The completion of the first 
standard gauge rail line from Brisbane to Perth (via Sydney, Melbourne 
and Adelaide) in June, 1995, was heralded politically as a new era in 
rail freight transport.  
 
The ability to track a coal train from Queensland to South Australia is 
a symbolic step in Australia's reform agenda.  NR's monopoly over 
freight transport may be short-lived.  Both private companies and state 
rail authorities are interested in competing with NR in this market, 
using the new standard gauge track.  Long term benefits will include 
substantial reduction in travel times, and a reduction in the costs of 
running trains.  
 
    4.  SEA TRANSPORT 
 
Australia is serviced by major shipping lines transporting goods world 
wide, to and from the major ports of Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, 
Adelaide and Fremantle.   The shipping industry is undergoing 
significant changes.  Australia has had a well-deserved reputation for 
wharf problems characterized by high cost, inefficiency, poor labor and 
management practices, and industrial disputes.  Some port operations, 
such as bulk loading and discharge, have improved, due in part to labor 
practice reforms, but problems persist. 
 
General and containerized cargo is handled by one of two stevedoring 
companies.  Initially, wharf reform resulted in faster container 
handling rates at levels, in the more efficient terminals, comparable 
with Australia's trading partners.  There was approximately 45 percent 
improvement in ship turnaround time and substantial reductions in truck 
queues and waiting time.  Waterfront charges fell by 25 percent between 
1990-1992.  However, in the last twelve months, there appears to have 
been a marked decline in wharf productivity, and reform remains an issue 
between government, management, and the unions. 
   
Australia has developed an array of modern, deep water ports to handle 
its expanding minerals export trade.  Major shipping lines visiting 
Australian ports include Australian National Line, Blue Star, Columbus, 
Contship Container Lines, Fesco, Five Star, Hapag-Lloyd, Hetherington 
Kingsbury, Maersk, Nedlloyd, NYK, Ocean Star, P&O, Patrick Sleigh 
Shipping, Swire, Union Bulkships and Wilhelmsen, making around 15,000 
calls per annum, and discharging 32 million tonnes of cargo. 
 
    5.  TELECOMMUNICATIONS 
 
Australia has state-of-the-art international and domestic 
telecommunications services, and one of the highest per capita use of 
fixed and mobile telephones and facsimile machines in the world.  Annual 
sales in 1994 reached $12 billion. 
 
There is a single land-based network operated by Telstra and covering 
most of coastal and nearby coastal Australia, where the majority of 
Australia's 18 million people reside.  Much of the mainstream traffic 
along this network is by fiber optic cable, with copper cable in 
residential areas.  Outlying regions are reached by mobile satellite 
connection, sometimes using solar power for base stations.  This network 
currently is upgrading from analog to digital. 
 
Presently, there are three mobile phone operators with more than 1.6 
million subscribers using an analog AMPS and digital GSM.  Analog AMPS 
will be phased out by the year 2000, when digital GSM takes over. 
 
International calls connect to anywhere in the world through Telstra and 
Optus switches based in Sydney.  Users also can subscribe through local 
agencies to use Callback companies, most of which are located in the 
United States. 
 
A variety of services are available, mainly from Telstra including ISDN, 
Frame Relay, EMail, voice messaging, faxstream, and more. 
 
    6.  ENERGY 
 
The Australian State Governments are developing billion-dollar 
strategies to meet further energy demands that will involve significant 
new infrastructure developments over the next decade.

The electricity supply industry in Australia has capacity of 36GW and an 
annual income of around $9 billion.  The Federal Government and State 
Premiers have agreed on the need to reform the nation's electricity 
generation, transmission and distribution systems.  Reform includes some 
privatization, reorganization, and improved central organization, based 
on the proposition that competition will accelerate further gains in 
productivity and efficiency.  Total generating capacity in the 
Australian electricity industry is just under 36.5MW dominated by large 
coal-fired power stations, since low cost coal is relatively abundant.  
Coal is the dominant fuel source, accounting for 72.9% of primary energy 
consumption, followed by hydro 20.3%, and natural gas 5.6%, with a 
small, but important, fraction of electricity being generated from other 
sources.  The move to gas-fired power generation is becoming an 
important issue in the States of Western Australia, Victoria, South 
Australian and Queensland, where an abundance of natural gas fields 
occur. 
 
Electricity reform is Australia-wide, but most advanced in Victoria.  
Generation and distribution businesses in Victoria have all been 
separated into a number of independent entities, and earmarked for sale.  
Generation and supply will become increasingly subject to competition.  
Five distribution businesses are to be sold before the end of 1995, and 
possibly one power station.  While other States are undertaking reform 
at differing paces, the need to disaggregate generation, transmission, 
and distribution functions has been accepted almost universally. 
 
Reform in the Australian gas sector has centered around transmission and 
distribution.  It is envisaged that a national gas market with 
transnational interconnection will result in a competitive supply market 
and create efficiencies on a similar scale to those expected to be 
achieved through the National Grid for electricity.  The Gas & Fuel 
Corporation of Victoria has been disaggregated in preparation for a 
future sale.  Corporatization of Western Australia's gas transmission 
and distribution functions has occurred, and changes are expected in New 
South Wales with the introduction of a competitive environment for the 
supply of natural gas.  Queensland's Government has released its ADols 
2.5 billion energy strategy which will involve significant 
infrastructure for electricity and gas, coupled with energy conservation 
measures, and renewable energy.  
 
Pipeline reforms have been instigated to encourage supply competition, 
especially in the area of gas.  Government sales of gas pipelines in New 
South Wales (Moomba-to-Sydney), South Australia (Pipeline Authority of 
South Australia), and Western Australia (Bunbury to Perth) are all part 
of the new regime to create open access and supply competition.   
 
Attractive investment opportunities will become available as the 
industry is rationalized and reformed.  There is no shortage of 
potential trade buyers for assets in any of the electricity or gas 
utility industries.  Both domestic and international companies have 
expressed interest in acquiring Australian utilities, which are ripe for 
considerable efficiency gains, and which will provide large, stable cash 
flows. 
 
Strategies implemented will ensure the environmentally responsible 
development of the States' energy resources, and offer great potential 
for U.S. investors and suppliers of technology.   Huge energy savings 
from natural gas are set to fuel an Australian minerals and industrial 
boom to rival those of 1960 and 1980.  Renewable energy continues, as in 
most industrialized countries, to have economic constraints, even when 
technically feasible.  Because of the need to supply power to remote 
areas, because of favorable sun, wind and mini/micro hydro regimes, and 
because of evolving reforms that would allow generators to sell excess 
power to the distributors, there is potential on a case-by-case basis.  
Conservation technologies also hold promise. 
 
Plant upgrades will provide opportunity for the installation of new 
technology, particularly clean coal and other environmental 
technologies.  Further, as Australian coal is exported to the major 
Asian industrial nations, technology adapted to the characteristics of 
Australian coal should see increased opportunity in coal-importing 
nations throughout the region. 
 
    7.  WATER AND SEWERAGE 
 
Australia's water supply and sewerage treatment infrastructure is well 
established, and systems are being expanded to meet demand caused by 
industrialization and urbanization.  Public environmental concerns are 
moving federal, state and local governments, and industry from an 
emphasis simply on the supply of water toward a greater focus on 
resource usage, water quality and pollution control.  While some 
technologies for water treatment and sewerage systems are well 
established, this sector is now subject to significant technological 
change as the sewage to be treated becomes chemically more complex due 
to pollutants, and as more stringent standards are imposed on effluent 
discharges to protect the recipient land or water body.   
 
    8.  CONSTRUCTION 
 
Engineering and non-residential construction is expected to continue 
steady overall growth, with activity forecast at US$15 billion for 1995, 
and US$15.5 billion for 1996.   Construction companies are looking at 
Government-financed infrastructure projects such as new road, rail, 
airport, and waterfront links.  Industrial, hotel, and retail 
construction sectors have strong growth prospects over the next two 
years, although some reduction in office building prospects is likely, 
once outstanding projects are completed (except in Queensland where the 
office vacancy rate is lower).   
 
After a few boom years, a less positive outlook is seen for the 
residential construction market, with a decline in new housing starts of 
about 13 percent estimated for 1995/96 over 1994/95, and a lowering of 
consumer confidence under the weight of higher interest rates.  However, 
the renovations and additions market (representing approximately 40 
percent of the total residential market) is growing strongly and is 
expected to continue to do so throughout the next two years.  
 
SYDNEY OLYMPICS:  The Sydney 2000 Olympics is projected to create more 
than US$1.42 billion of building activity in Australia before the end of 
the decade, with construction of sporting venues, accommodation, and 
other Olympic facilities.  One of the strong features of Sydney's bid 
for the 2000 Olympics was the advanced stage of facilities and 
infrastructure planning.   
 
Part of the New South Wales Government strategy for a successful Games 
is the involvement of domestic and international private sector 
organizations as equity participants in the provision of sporting venues 
and facilities.  The planned Sydney Olympic Games developments form part 
of a larger plan for urban renewal in the Sydney area.  The completed 
redevelopment of Sydney's Darling Harbor, the City West redevelopment, 
and the Homebush Bay Olympic site all will contribute to the plan by 
providing Olympic facilities whose use will extend into the next 
century. 
 
 
CHAPTER III:  POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT 
 
A.  NATURE OF THE POLITICAL RELATIONSHIP WITH THE UNITED STATES: 
    ALLIES WITH COMMON INTERESTS FOR THE FUTURE 
 
The United States and Australia have been close allies for over 50 
years, during which Australia has been the southern link in the 
structure of Asia-Pacific strategic alliances.  The Australian 
Government contributes to mutual security and regional stability by 
hosting key joint defense facilities and ship visits, participating in a 
range of exercises and exchanges with U.S. forces, and fostering 
regional security dialogue.  In addition, the two governments cooperate 
in worldwide non-proliferation, arms control, and peacekeeping efforts. 
 
Like the United States, Australia is a leading advocate of trade and 
investment liberalization.  Because of common interests and convictions, 
the two countries work together on many global issues (e.g., U.N. 
reform, promoting democracy and human rights, protecting the 
environment, and enhancing the multilateral trading system and the new 
World Trade Organization). 
 
In recent years, U.S. export subsidies for wheat and other agricultural 
commodities have generated periodic friction.  But these concerns are 
being attenuated because of agreement during GATT's Uruguay Round on 
substantial world-wide reductions in agricultural-export subsidies. 
 
 
B.  MAJOR POLITICAL ISSUES AFFECTING THE BUSINESS CLIMATE 
 
    A POLITICAL CONSENSUS FOR PROGRESS AND CHANGE 
 
There are no major political issues that detract from the business 
climate or the stability of the bilateral trading relationship with the 
United States.  All of Australia's major political parties seek to 
promote growth and encourage investment, including investment from 
abroad.  Although there are differences in approach, both leading 
parties strongly support Australia's internal economic restructuring to 
transform the country into a globally competitive trading nation. 
 
Other policy directions that attract equally universal support include 
Australia's desire to define itself as a part of the dynamic Asia-
Pacific region, as well as efforts to upgrade its mix of exports in 
order to reduce reliance on basic commodities and increase sales of 
value-added products.  There is also broad political approval for 
federal and state government programs to corporatize and privatize 
public services so as to reach world quality standards, and for labor 
and work force reforms aimed at the world's "best practice". 
 
C.  BRIEF SYNOPSIS OF POLITICAL SYSTEM, SCHEDULE FOR ELECTIONS, AND 
    ORIENTATION OF MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES 
 
A LONGSTANDING PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY COMBINING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL 
PROGRESS WITH POLITICAL STABILITY 
 
Australia has a federal system of government, and a long history as a 
multiparty parliamentary democracy.  There is no written Bill of Rights, 
but fundamental rights are ensured by law and respected in practice. 
 
The Commonwealth (federal) government and the six state governments 
operate under written constitutions that draw on the British tradition 
of a Cabinet Government, led by a Prime Minister, which is responsible 
to a majority in Parliament's lower house.  The Federal Constitution, 
however, also contains some elements that resemble American practice 
(e.g., a Senate, in which each state has equal representation).  The 
Head of State is Queen Elizabeth II, the reigning British monarch, but 
she exercises her functions through personal representatives who live in 
Australia (i.e., Australian citizens who serve as the Governor-General 
of Australia, and the Governors of the six states).  Australians are 
debating whether their country should become a republic, give up ties 
with the Queen, revise the constitution, and adopt a new flag. 
 
Members of the Federal House of Representatives are elected for three 
years, and national elections were last held in March, 1993.  Lower-
house elections, thus, are due no later than mid-1996, but earlier 
scheduling is a matter of discretion.  (The Prime Minister may recommend 
that the House be dissolved at any time, and the Governor-General 
traditionally follows such advice.)  Current political commentary 
focuses on two likely "windows" for national elections:  August-October, 
1995, and March-May, 1996. 
 
Members of the Senate are elected for six years.  June 30, 1996 is the 
next date on which Senators' terms expire, and a regular election for 
half the members of the Senate is due before that time, but no earlier 
than July, 1995. 
 
Under complex conditions specified in the federal Constitution -- in 
essence, extended deadlock between the House and Senate -- both houses 
may be dissolved simultaneously, so that ensuing national elections 
would involve all seats in Parliament.  This "double dissolution" is 
unusual, and has occurred only six times since the Constitution entered 
into effect (1901). 
 
All major parties support the U.S.-Australia alliance and stress the 
importance of close relations between Australia and the United States.  
Thus, this longstanding and stable pattern is essentially unaffected by 
the outcome of national elections. 
 
The ruling Australian Labor Party (ALP) maintains close ties to the 
trade union movement and has held office since 1983.  During that 
period, the government has carried out major restructuring of the 
economy (e.g., floating the Australian dollar, cutting tariffs by 
substantial amounts, reducing and simplifying regulations that affect 
business).  Liberalizing trade and enhancing economic integration with 
Asia-Pacific countries are major tenets of the ALP and, in particular, 
of the incumbent Prime Minister, Paul Keating. 
 
The opposition Liberal-National Coalition is often described to 
Americans as the more "conservative" party.  It upholds traditional 
social values and stresses the importance of a free market, 
entrepreneurial approach to economic growth (i.e., it promotes an 
updated version of the classical liberalism originated by Adam Smith).  
The Liberal Party is the senior partner, holding 79 of the Coalition's 
101 seats in the current Parliament.  The National Party is identified 
closely with the interests of farmers, and its supporters reside mainly 
in rural areas. 
 
Two minor parties, the Australian Democrats and the Western Australia 
"Greens", are represented only in the Senate but have political and 
media effects that are disproportionate to their numbers.  They take 
highly visible stands on various economic, political, environmental, and 
social issues, challenging the major parties to respond in ways that 
meet their concerns. 
 
 
CHAPTER IV:  MARKETING U.S. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 
 
Market entry strategies for U.S. firms are straightforward.  They 
include exporting of products and services through the use of 
agent/distributorships, license/technology transfers, franchise 
arrangements, joint ventures, strategic alliances, and wholly owned 
subsidiaries/branches.  As Australia restructures economically, there 
are significant opportunities to participate in major public-funded 
projects and to win major infrastructure and services projects available 
through public sector divestment and privatization. 
 
A.  RETAILING TRENDS 
 
Contemporary Australian retailing, while still predominantly 
characterized by specialty shops and department stores with high 
markups, is being transformed rapidly by the introduction of superstores 
and warehouse sales outlets.  While Australians remain quality conscious 
buyers, their consumer appetites are just becoming whetted by discount 
buying.  
 
Opportunities are ripe in almost every consumer product sector adaptable 
to discount sales - from building supply, to automotive accessories, 
toys, books, records and tapes, household goods, and household linen.  
Over sixty, large American-style outlets have opened throughout the 
country.  With record sales far surpassing expectations, retailers are 
planning over 100 more superstores to satisfy demand.  Because of 
similar Australian/U.S. consumer preferences, and high per capita 
consumer buying power, many U.S. chains are considering setting up 
operations in Australia.  To hold their market share, established stores 
are being forced to re-examine their pricing policies, and to stage more 
frequent, and severe, markdown promotions and sales.   
  
B.  DISTRIBUTION AND SALES CHANNELS 
 
Australia's extensive distribution and sales channels are comparable to 
those in other industrialized countries.  Channels of distribution are 
through direct sales, use of distributors or agents, and also through 
direct investment.   Financing of exports is effected through open 
account, commercial bills of exchange (sight and time drafts), letters 
of credit, and cash in advance.  Foreign exchange is readily available 
to the Australian importer through the local banks.  There are virtually 
no exchange controls or import licensing required for imports of goods 
and services.  Both direct and indirect foreign investment is encouraged 
with only minimal requirements for government review in certain sectors, 
e.g., residential housing and media. 
 
C.  USE OF AGENTS AND DISTRIBUTORS 
 
U.S. businesses marketing their products in Australia usually establish 
relationships with sales agents, distributors, franchisees, and 
licensees. 
 
    1.  Sales Agents 
 
Sales agents or representatives solicit business for the foreign 
company, and serve as a conduit for purchase agreements. In most cases, 
a sales agent does not have the power to negotiate terms, or to finalize 
the sales contract.  Instead, the sales representative forwards the 
contract to the foreign company, which either accepts or rejects it.  It 
should be noted, however, that because the sales representative is 
considered to be an agent of the foreign corporation, under the general 
laws of agency, the foreign corporation may be bound by the acts of its 
agent. 
 
Agents assume a number of duties and obligations once a representation 
contract with a foreign company is finalized, including adherence to the 
principal's instructions, good faith in the interest of the principal, 
and maintenance of proper accounts.  The agent retains the right to 
remuneration, and the right to an indemnity for liabilities or for 
losses incurred due to improper termination.  However, there is no 
precedent for required indemnity payments in Australian law.  Parties 
may stipulate specific causes for termination in the agreement.  Either 
party may terminate the agreement upon receipt of reasonable notice of 
termination.  Although no specific time period exists which defines a 
"reasonable notice period", courts may take into consideration the 
nature and length of the contract when determining whether reasonable 
notice was given. 
 
    2.  Distributors 
 
A distributor acts as an independent contractor, purchasing products 
from the foreign corporation and distributing them to wholesale buyers 
or, on occasion, to retailers.  Generally, the foreign corporation 
cannot restrain the distributor from selling competitors' products.  
However, because the distributor is not considered to be an agent of the 
foreign corporation, it is not bound by the acts of the distributor.  It 
is common practice for Australian distributors to ask for exclusive 
geographic rights to market a foreign corporation's products.  Because 
of the size of the market, these rights are often for several states or 
even nation-wide. 
 
Parties are free to choose between Australian and foreign (in this case 
U.S.) law governing the contract when drafting an agreement.  However, 
the choice of foreign law does not preclude application of mandatory 
provisions of Australian law.  Without a stipulation of law, Australian 
courts will apply the law of the jurisdiction where the agent or 
distributor works (i.e., Australian federal law, and appropriate state 
and local law).  Therefore, notification of agent appointments should be 
submitted in writing to satisfy various state jurisdictional laws, 
especially when they last for more than one year or include terms for 
commissioning the agent.   Either fixed or indefinite-term contracts may 
be employed.  However, repeated renewal of fixed-term contracts will not 
cause the contract to achieve indefinite-term status. 
 
D.  FINDING A PARTNER - HOW THE U.S. COMMERCIAL SERVICE (CS)  
    IN AUSTRALIA CAN HELP 
 
CS Australia provides a range of business facilitation services to help 
American companies identify potential partners.  All services are 
arranged by the U.S. company contacting its local U.S. Department of 
Commerce District Office in the United States.  Business Facilitation 
Services include: 
 
    1.  Agent Distributor Search (ADS) 
 
CS Australia will locate, screen, and assess Australian agents, 
distributors, and representatives for U.S. companies.  After an 
investigation that determines there is potential interest in a product, 
CS Australia will send the U.S. firm contact information on companies 
that have reviewed the product literature and expressed interest in 
representing the firm in Australia.  U.S. companies then contact the 
potential representatives directly. 
 
    2.  Gold Key Service (GKS) 
 
Designed to make a U.S. company representative's visit to Australia more 
productive, the GKS provides a combination of many services, such as 
market orientation briefings, market research, agent distributor search 
and screening, introductions to potential partners, and assistance in 
developing a sound market strategy and an effective follow-up plan. 
 
    3.  Customized Market Analysis (CMA) 
 
Formerly called the Customized Sales Survey (CSS), a CMA provides a 
quick and accurate assessment of how an American product will sell in 
Australia.  Especially valuable for first-time exporters with few 
Australian contacts and limited overseas expertise, a CMA provides 
current data to make marketing decisions without large travel, 
investigative, and other expenses associated with overseas product 
research. 
 
    4.  Participation in Catalog Exhibitions 
 
CS Australia takes booth space in selected Trade Shows and runs separate 
catalog exhibitions in association with a variety of trade promotion 
events, conferences, symposia etc.  U.S. firms are invited to 
participate either directly, or by providing catalogs for display.  
 
    5.  Introduction to Australia 
 
CS Australia has developed a new market entry program called 
"Introduction to Australia", which offers U.S. firms an effective,  yet 
very inexpensive, way to test the Australian market.  Through this 
program, CS Australia contacts American firms in a specific industry 
sector, and invites the companies to participate by completing an 
application form and forwarding copies of product literature.  A special 
mailing then is sent to hundreds of local agents, distributors, 
wholesalers, and end-users in that particular industry.  Interested 
respondents are sent product literature.  The U.S. participants are 
advised of the names of the local companies that requested their 
catalogs so they can follow-up directly.   
 
    6.  Participation in Trade Missions 
 
CS Australia organizes and supports trade missions sponsored by the 
Department of Commerce and by State Governments. 
 
    7.  Trade Events 
 
CS Australia organizes U.S. booths and support for companies 
participating in Trade Shows and Exhibitions in Australia.  (See 
Appendix E for full Trade Event Schedule.) 
 
    8.  Trade Opportunities Program (TOP) 
 
This program provides U.S. suppliers with credible, complete, and timely 
trade leads gathered by CS Australia. The trade leads may be requests 
for representation, manufactured goods, services, investment, joint 
ventures, licensing, or foreign government procurement bids.  
Opportunities are publicized by the Department of Commerce through the 
NTDB and other avenues. 
 
    9.  Market Research and Reporting 
 
FCS Australia reports continually on industry sector developments, major 
projects, program and policy developments.   These reports are available 
through the Department of Commerce and the NTDB (see Appendix D for a 
list of available documents). 
 
    10. Commercial News USA 
 
This monthly publication provides summary information on new U.S. 
products being offered to the export market.  CS Australia distributes 
the publication free of charge to over 1,600 potential agents and 
distributors throughout Australia.  Interested companies contact the 
U.S. firm directly. 
 
E.  FRANCHISING 
 
Franchising is changing the face of the Australian retail industry.  
Increasing at a rate of 15 percent a year since 1991, and representing 
11 percent of the country's gross domestic product, this rapidly 
growing, dynamic field had a turnover of nearly US$32 billion in FY 
1993-94 with a workforce of 280,000.   This gives Australia the highest 
rate of franchised business per capita in the world, with an estimated 
26,000 franchise outlets, accounting for nearly 25 percent of all 
retailing.  Furthermore, franchises have a very high survival rate.  
Opportunities exist now for new investment.  
 
It should be noted that although franchising is booming under the 
present voluntary Code of Practice (introduced in 1993), the Federal 
Government is considering a tougher regulatory policy following the 
release in May, 1995, of the Gardini Report that examined the operation 
of the Code. The Code does not yet apply to foreign franchisors selling 
a master franchise in Australia.  Further information is available from 
the Franchisors' Association of Australia and New Zealand Ltd.  (See 
Appendix E.3.)  
 
F.  DIRECT MARKETING 
 
Australia's direct marketing industry (mail order catalogs, direct mail, 
direct response advertising, and telephone marketing) is estimated at 
US$3.5 billion.  Although the industry still can be considered at the 
early stage of take-off when compared to the U.S., there is increased 
consumer understanding and acceptance of contemporary direct marketing 
(in contrast to the old-style catalog supply sales).  The reduction of 
import duties on many goods, and the introduction of new postal and 
telephone infrastructure services to support the industry, are 
contributing to good growth for direct marketing in Australia.  The 
realization of pay television also will carry with it advanced direct 
marketing techniques. 
 
Despite the untapped potential of an affluent consumer market with a 
taste for American goods, few of the big U.S. mail order companies have 
yet entered this market in a systematic way.  A local company, Myer 
Direct (a subsidiary of the Myer-Grace Bros. department store chain) is 
presently the only mail order service that is comparable with those in 
the U.S.  Myer Direct's turnover of about US$ 870 million has grown from 
nothing six years ago, and now reaches 2.5 percent of the group's total 
sales.  New market entries include a leading Australian fashion 
retailer, a cosmetics company, and a high-quality lifestyle magazine.  
There are some specific mail order catalogues, for example, scholastic 
books, collectibles, thermal underwear, health and outdoor lifestyle 
products.  There are also a variety of cheap to medium-priced and 
independently sourced products (anything from electric toothbrushes to 
home fitness centers, pocket spellers, personal breath analyzers, and 
more) sold through mail flyers and on television.  These moves are 
indicators of the future.  
 
G.  JOINT VENTURES AND LICENSING 
 
    1.  JOINT VENTURES 
 
Joint ventures are a common feature of Australia's commercial and legal 
environment.  While there are some differences in the treatment of joint 
ventures between Australia and the U.S., they are similar enough for 
U.S. investors to understand easily.  They include: 
 
a) Unincorporated Joint Ventures may, in colloquial terms, be described 
as "contractual joint ventures" that do not create a separate corporate 
entity, and which lack equity capital, i.e., no shares are allotted for 
the consideration of a payment of money or money in kind.  Such joint 
ventures look much like partnerships - because partnerships are also 
forms of contractual association that do not create a separate corporate 
entity or equity capital. 
 
b) Incorporated Joint Ventures are companies.  The shareholders in the 
company are the joint venture participants.  Unlike in an unincorporated 
joint venture or partnership, the shareholders have no rights in 
relation to the company's assets, and they can participate in the 
profits (distributed as dividends), but not in losses. 
 
c) Unit Trusts are devices that enable the separation of legal and 
beneficial interests in assets and the income derived therefrom.  In a 
joint venture situation, the participants wish to insure that their 
entitlements are fixed rather than discretionary.  A unit trust is a 
configuration where the entitlement of beneficiaries is expressed in 
units relative to the total number of fixed units. 
 
d) Limited Partnerships are creations of statute.  They remain a 
partnership at general law and, therefore, do not give rise to the 
existence of a separate legal entity.  A limited partnership structure 
requires at least one general partner to have unlimited liability and 
limited partners who have liability limited to the extent of their 
investment in the partnership.  They are used rarely in Australia. 
 
e) Hybrid Forms are forms of joint venture comprising elements of each 
of the preceding.  They can also be created to suit the needs of the 
particular participants.  For example, one participant in an 
unincorporated joint venture could be the trustee of a unit trust, while 
one shareholder in an incorporated joint venture could also be the 
trustee of a unit trust. 
 
    2.  LICENSING 
 
On the whole, there are few legal and administrative requirements 
governing the field of licensing in Australia.  Exclusive licenses of 
patents, copyrights and other statutory rights require compliance with 
minor formalities.  The Trade Mark Act in Australia provides for the 
registration of licensees or "users" as they are called in the 
legislation.   
 
A license agreement involving an Australian licensee should contain the 
usual terms one would find in a license in the United States. These 
include:  type of license being granted (i.e., sole, exclusive or non-
exclusive); territory being covered; license fee or royalty; licensee's 
duties and obligations; period of grant and field of use of the 
technology involved; maintenance of quality control; ownership of rights 
in improvements and innovations made by the licensee; warranties and 
indemnities; technical assistance and confidentiality; sub-licensing and 
assignments, and termination. 
 
Prior to entering into a licensing agreement, both firms should 
ascertain that the product or service name to be licensed is not already 
registered to another company in Australia.  This relatively simple, but 
essential, check closes a door to potential legal problems about brand 
names, names of services, etc., and protects the product or service from 
litigation under the Trade Practices Act. 
 
H.  STEPS TO ESTABLISHING AN OFFICE 
 
Business rules are set by the Federal Government and administered by the 
Australian Securities Commission (ASC).  The requirements for starting a 
business are identical in each state, and the same rules apply for local 
and overseas companies.   
 
Because Australian business practices are similar to those in the United 
States, it is easy for foreign investors, either in partnership with 
local companies or on their own account, to set up a business in 
Australia.  A foreign company has a wide range of business structures 
from which to choose. The most common forms of business organizations 
are:  representative offices;  branches of parent companies; 
subsidiaries; sole traders; partnerships; trusts; companies; and joint 
ventures.  Overseas investors may set up an operation as any of these, 
irrespective of the business structure they have elsewhere. 
 
Most significant businesses operating in Australia are incorporated as 
private or public companies.  Under the Corporations Law the entity is 
registered automatically as an Australian company enabling it to conduct 
business throughout Australia without further registration in individual 
states or territories. Local companies may be fully controlled by 
foreign owners. 
 
All registered companies must conform to Australian company law 
administered by the ASC, including:  accounting; financial statements; 
annual returns; auditing and general meeting requirements; and the 
necessity to maintain a registered office open to the public. 
  
While the procedure to establish an office is fairly straightforward, as 
in the U.S. it often is done best with expert legal and financial advice 
readily available from Australian and multinational service providers.   
 
Fees for company registration are in the order of US$350.  
Application forms are available from ASC Business Centers which operate 
in each state and territory.  (See Appendix E.4) 
 
 
I.  SELLING FACTORS/TECHNIQUES 
 
While Americans find it easy to do business in Australia because of the 
similarities in cultural and business practices, to understand the 
market better, there are some precautions to be observed, and some key 
selling factors to be considered. Australians are very quality 
conscious.  The principles that apply to all sales methods are:  product 
quality, company integrity, and good ongoing service.  With a history of 
geographic isolation, and reliance on imported manufactured goods, 
Australians are very sensitive to product reliability and assurances of 
back-up product service, where necessary. 
 
    1.  Market Research 
 
Before entering the market, U.S. firms should evaluate their proposed 
selling technique thoroughly to ensure that it is responsive to market 
demand in Australia for their product, technology, or service.  An 
effective way to evaluate the situation is to do some basic market 
research, followed by a personal visit.  There is no substitute for a 
first-hand look.  Refer to the Section D, above, on the U.S. Commercial 
Service's Australian market entry assistance programs. 
 
    2.  Common Sales Arrangements 
 
The use of agents and distributors is the most common way for U.S. 
companies to sell products in Australia, as discussed in more detail in 
Section B., above.  Because of market size, it is common practice for 
Australian distributors to ask for exclusive geographic and/or product 
rights. 
 
Franchising, licensing, joint ventures, and direct marketing, as 
discussed in Sections E.-G., above, are all good alternative market 
entry techniques.  These methods entail more investment and commitment 
than simply appointing an agent or distributor, but they may be more 
appropriate in the long run. 
 
J.  ADVERTISING AND TRADE PROMOTION THROUGH MAJOR NEWSPAPERS 
    AND BUSINESS JOURNALS 
 
U.S. companies can promote their products in the major newspapers of 
each Australian state and/or national and state trade and industry 
magazines.  The Commercial Service in Australia publicizes Trade 
Missions and Seminars by advertising in the financial sections of the 
major newspapers, in industry magazines, and in newsletters of 
associations.  It also compiles industry-specific mailing lists, sourced 
from a variety of business directories, both print and electronic, to 
send material by post or faxstream, using automated mailing list 
products and search techniques.   
 
(Contact information for leading newspapers, periodicals and business 
directories is found in Appendix E.11) 
 
K.  PRODUCT PRICING 
 
Australia is a free enterprise economy, and basic market factors of 
supply and demand apply in product pricing.  When adopting pricing 
methods, exporters should be aware of inherent local market 
characteristics.  In order to complete successfully in this small, but 
generally highly competitive market, U.S. exporters to Australia must be 
prepared to offer flexible prices, with, perhaps, lower than usual 
profit margins, and for smaller minimum quantities.  Some factors to 
consider are: 
 
    1.  SELLING COSTS AND PRICE COMPETITIVENESS   
 
There are important elements for U.S. firms to bear in mind when pricing 
products for export to Australia.  To structure prices competitively, 
suppliers should consider all the cost elements imported products have 
to bear.  The key factors are freight rates, handling charges, import 
tariffs, marketing costs such as advertising and trade promotion, sales 
tax, plus agent or distributor commissions of up to 30 percent.   
 
Imports from competing European nations and some Asian nations including 
Japan, face the same tariff rates as those from the United States.  
Tariff rates on imports from nations designated as developing countries 
are five percent less.  Sea freight shipping costs from the U.S. to 
Australia are high when compared with those from Asia, and even from 
Europe.  Sales tax is applied to most imported and locally made products 
at the wholesale level.  This can make a difference to the end price of 
imported products, where sales tax is applied at a nominal wholesale 
value.  If this nominal wholesale value is more than the mark-up 
generally applied by local manufacturers, imported products may be 
outpriced.   
 
    2.  VOLUME BUYING/SELLING AND DISCOUNT PRICING   
 
Australian wholesalers and retailers traditionally have sought the 
highest markup the market would bear, rather than thinking of volume 
buying or selling.  This pattern is changing as open markets and the 
influx of franchisers and other high-volume businesses have alerted the 
increasingly cost-conscious consumer to competitive discount sales and 
services.  Suppliers need to be able to deliver quality products and/or 
services at attractive prices.  To compete successfully, exporters 
should consider granting maximum wholesale discounts, preferably based 
on marginal export pricing.  However, what is seen as volume buying to 
the Australian buyer, may only be a small order to the U.S. exporter. 
 
    3.  INDUSTRIAL PRICING   
 
Australians respect the concept of "value for money".  Factors of price, 
quality, reliability and support in the way of service, are prime 
considerations when selling industrial products or capital equipment.  
While price is certainly a major factor, a purchaser may decide to pay 
more for a piece of equipment known to be of better quality and more 
reliable than a competing product.  However, U.S. exporters still must 
be prepared to negotiate on price, or other aspects of the purchase. 
 
In general, Australians are conservative when purchasing capital 
equipment to upgrade their manufacturing processes.  They take time to 
make purchasing decisions, weighing them carefully against their 
perceived pay off - to increase bottom line profits.  If the bottom line 
does not appear to offer much gain, they may simply defer their 
purchase.  Constrictive labor agreements sometimes deter a manufacturer 
from investing in equipment that would result in operational 
efficiencies because resultant labor savings could not be translated 
into bottom line profit.  While labor reform is changing this situation 
in many plants, union restrictions can still be a real constraint. 
 
    4.  PRICE CONTROLS    
 
There is little formal price control.  The Federal Government has 
established a Prices Surveillance Authority (PSA) to examine the pricing 
systems of companies and authorities that have a major impact on the 
economy, and which have few market competitors.   
 
Certain industries are required to notify the PSA of any proposed price 
increases.  These include oil and petrol, steel mill products, beer, 
cigarettes, glass containers, harbor towage, such as tug boats, and 
steel welded pipes. 
 
The PSA makes pricing recommendations, and endeavors to mobilize 
community pressure by publicizing pricing cases.  There have been cases 
where companies surveyed have adjusted their prices downward as a result 
of the PSA's recommendations.  Recent PSA studies have included 
biscuits, tea, instand coffee, banks and credit cards, cement, breakfast 
cereals, steel mill products and book prices.   
 
The PSA has little effect on the overall conduct of business, which 
generally responds well to market forces.  It is moving generally toward 
monitoring prices in the public (government) sector, and is doing less 
in the corporate sector, due to increasing private sector competition.  
State governments also can set price controls, but do so rarely. 
 
L.  SALES SERVICE AND CUSTOMER SUPPORT 
 
Generally, doing business in Australia is simple for U.S. exporters, 
when compared with other foreign markets.  Culture, language and 
business practices are remarkably common.  However, subtle cultural 
differences do exist that can either invigorate or undermine a business 
relationship.  In their dealings, both Americans and Australians are 
wise to take the time and effort to confirm that their perceptions and 
expectations about roles and expectations are consistent with those of 
their counterparts. 
 
Depending on the product or service to be exported, Australian 
agents/distributors expect support from their U.S. suppliers.   Examples 
of this support include product warranty for a specified time, training, 
advertising, and promotion. 
 
Timely delivery of goods, including spare parts, is expected and is 
rarely a problem, as major U.S. freight forwarders have offices in 
Australia.  Air freight is used commonly for smaller items.  Shipping 
schedules are reliable.  Where necessary, U.S. firms should ensure that 
their representatives can service the imported equipment or that there 
are service arrangements in place. 
 
M.  SELLING TO THE GOVERNMENT AND LOCAL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT 
    ENCOURAGEMENT 
 
While Australia's government procurement regime generally is considered 
to be well documented and fair, with few restrictions to foreign 
bidders, there are a number of qualitative decision factors relating to 
local industrial development. It is very important for U.S. bidders on 
major public sector projects to understand, and to take these factors 
into account, in their bid structuring.  This applies particularly to 
their consideration of whether to team with Australian industry 
partners, or to go it alone.  A more detailed discussion of some of 
these factors is in Chapter VII, Investment Climate, Section F:  
Performance Requirements and Incentives in Support of Local Industry 
Development. 
 
Australia has not yet signed the GATT Government Procurement Code, which 
means that it is not bound by conditions prohibiting specification of 
locally-made product in tenders.  However, with the conclusion of the 
Uruguay Round, the GOA is reviewing the Code.   
 
Although the Federal Government has abandoned the Civil Offset Program, 
it actively encourages local industry participation.  A 1994 policy 
statement, strengthened its efforts to use government procurement policy 
to encourage local industry development.  However, it stops short of 
directing its agencies to give preference to local suppliers.  Bidders 
and purchasing agencies are required to submit separate industry impact 
statements.   
 
Federal information technology projects involving systems integration 
purchases over $0.7 million are sourced from members of a Restricted 
Systems Integration Panel (RSIP) comprised of 20-25 private companies 
selected by the Government.  Although panel membership is not closed, 
access for domestic or foreign firms is dependent on government-
determined eligibility.  The U.S. Government and the Australian 
Information Industry Association strongly oppose the RSIP, regarding it 
as having the potential to hinder open competition. 
 
Foreign information technology companies with annual sales to the 
Australian Government of between $7 and $30 million "are encouraged" to 
enter into fixed-term arrangements.  Those with sales greater than $30 
million are encouraged to participate in the Partnership for Development 
Program, requiring them to meet local research and development, 
investment, export, and local content targets.  Since 1992, this scheme 
has been extended progressively to telecommunications companies. 
 
Some Australian purchasing preferences still exist in State Government 
procurements.  These mostly are holdovers from the times when offsets 
were a significant feature of both Federal and State Government 
procurement.  The States now are following the Federal lead in 
dismantling offsets as their perceived benefits have been discredited.  
However, as in Federal procurement, the States actively encourage local 
industry develop activities as components of major procurements.   
 
N.  PROTECTING YOUR PRODUCT FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (IPR) 
    INFRINGEMENT   
 
Copyrights, patents, trademarks, industrial designs and integrated 
circuits are protected under Australian law; and, Australia is a member 
of the major global intellectual property protection organizations and 
conventions.  American patent holders planning extensive sales or 
manufacturing in Australia should not assume that a U.S. patent provides 
comparable protection in Australia, and should seek legal advice as to 
the advisability of registering their patent under Australian law. 
 
For a full discussion of Intellectual Property Rights.  (See Chapter 
VII, Investment Climate, H.) 
 
Copyrights are protected under the Copyright Act of 1968 for the life of 
the author, plus 50 years.  Parallel importation of overseas sound 
recordings is not allowed and regarded as an infringement of copyright 
except in the case of an individual importing product for his own use. 
 
Conversely, limited parallel importation is permitted for books in cases 
where the original editions are not made available in Australia in a 
timely fashion.  In the case of computer software, both industry and the 
Copyright Law Review Committee (CLRC) agree that parallel imports of 
legal copies of computer software should be permitted.  However, a 
decision will not be made until 1996 on the issue, because of the need 
to determine the best means of preventing imports of pirated software 
into Australia.  (See Chapter V. A. 1.)  
 
Patents are available for inventions in all fields of technology under 
the Patent Act of 1990.  Trade secrets are protected by registration 
under the Designs Act for one year, with extensions.  Trade names and 
marks may be protected for seven years and renewed at will by 
registration under the Trademark Act of 1955.  Once used, trade names 
and marks may also, without registration, be protected by common law. 
 
The Australian Patent, Trademarks and Designs Office of the Australian 
Industrial Property Organization handles inquiries regarding laws, 
regulations and procedures applicable to patents, trademarks, other 
industrial property rights protection, and copyrights.  (See Appendix 
E.4., for contact information) 
 
O.  NEED FOR A LOCAL ATTORNEY 
 
As in the United States, in Australia it is common practice - and good 
business sense - to retain the services of a reputable attorney familiar 
with local business conditions, local law, and regulations.  Legal 
expertise is needed to execute legal documentation, interpret laws and 
regulations, and ameliorate disputes.  Most businesses also use the 
services of a professional accounting firm.   
 
Many well-known local and international law and accounting firms 
practice in Australia, some with offices throughout Asia and the United 
States.  The Commercial Service in Australia and the American Chamber of 
Commerce maintain lists of law and accounting firms, as do legal and 
accounting associations. 
 
 
CHAPTER V:  LEADING SECTORS FOR U.S. PRODUCTS AND INVESTMENTS 
            ("BEST PROSPECTS") 
 
Best Export Prospect Sectors at a Glance: 
 
1.    COMPUTER SOFTWARE (CSF) 
2.    COMPUTERS & PERIPHERALS (CPT) 
3.    MEDICAL EQUIPMENT (MED) 
4.    AUTOMOTIVE PARTS & ACCESSORIES (APS)  
5.    EDUCATION & TRAINING SERVICES (EDS) 
6.    TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT (TEL) 
7.    TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES (TES) 
8.    HEALTH CARE SERVICES (HCS) 
9.    DEFENSE EQUIPMENT (DFN) 
10.   SAFETY & SECURITY EQUIPMENT (SEC) 
11.   AIRCRAFT & PARTS (AIR; APG; AVS) 
12.   LABORATORY & SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT (LAB) 
13.   BIOTECHNOLOGY (BTC) 
14.   FOOD PROCESSING/PACKAGING EQUIPMENT (FPP) 
15.   CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT (ENGINEERING AND NON- 
      RESIDENTIAL (CON) 
 
 
A.    EXPORTS 
 
All statistics are calculated using the following conversion rates: 
    1994 USD1 = AUD 1.35 
    1995 USD1 = AUD 1.37 
    1996 USD1 = AUD 1.30 
 
RANK:  1 - COMPUTER SOFTWARE (CSF) 
 
a)  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
The Computer Software market accounts for over 20 percent of the 
Information Technology (IT) industry.  It is one of the fastest growing 
sectors of IT, with an estimated growth rate of around 13.5 percent over 
the next twelve months.  The software category comprises three parts:  
Solutions, 45 percent of total market size; Tools, 28 percent; and 
Systems, 27 percent.   
 
While hardware performance improvements have been of considerable 
importance in overall IT industry growth in Australia, software has been 
the real key to the increased capability of computer systems generally.  
As the range of software applications and tools continues to grow, the 
opportunities for U.S. software developers/exporters will increase in 
Australia.   
 
b)  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports   
 
U.S. imports dominate the overall packaged software market, as well as 
the major growth areas, including:  client/server application solutions; 
client/server database management systems and application development 
tools; client/server oriented systems management software; middleware 
software for connectivity and inter-operability in client/server 
environments; UNIX-based tools, solutions and, to lesser extent, systems 
management software.   
 
c)  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
The software market is regarded as the most diverse and fragmented of 
any IT market segment, with hundreds of multinationals and domestic 
vendors vying for market share.  Very few players are leaders in more 
than one of the systems/utilities, application tools, and application 
solutions sub-sectors.  
 
Local companies, historically, have excelled in the development of 
applications software.  The concentration of domestic developers and 
multinational suppliers of packaged software has meant that the market 
has been consistently strong.  As business moves to computerize more 
complex applications, this growth is expected to be sustained.    
 
Total imports vary according to the software category.  Imports 
represent 56 percent of Solutions; 97 percent of Tools;  and, 98 percent 
of Systems. 
 
d)  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
Import Tariffs:  There is no duty imposed on imported computer software.  
However, the carrying medium (diskette, CD) is subject to 22 percent 
sales tax. 
 
Intellectual Property:  Computer software has copyright protection.  The 
parallel importing of software (imports other than by the licensed 
distributor) is not permitted, and is treated as an infringement of 
copyright.  The issue has been reviewed recently by the Copyright Law 
Review Committee (CLRC) and the Prices Surveillance Authority (PSA), 
both of which concluded that parallel imports of legal copies of 
computer software should be permitted.  However, the two organizations 
had different views about the best means of curtailing imports of 
pirated software.  A decision will be made in 1996.      
 
e)  Most Promising Sub-Sectors    
 
Opportunities for new players are almost totally within the domain of 
application solutions, as tools and systems software is already 
dominated by foreign developers.  In the solutions marketplace, existing 
(legacy) application solutions are being migrated (converted, replaced) 
and integrated with new types of "information access" applications on 
the desktop.   
 
Best prospects by major end-users include: 
 
-  BANKING (customer information systems and service 
   applications); 
-  INSURANCE (especially investment and superannuation); 
-  MANUFACTURING (fully integrated solutions); 
-  WHOLESALE (logistics, warehousing, routing, inventory 
   management, forecasting); 
-  RETAIL (integrated management systems); 
-  ACCOUNTING (planning, analysis, EIS systems); 
-  SERVICES (workflow-style, multimedia, and integrated 
   technology and advanced solutions). 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                            1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE       1,277        1,421        1,620 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION    294          327          373 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS             166          185          211 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS           1,149        1,279        1,458 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.   1,124        1,250        1,426 
 
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  2 - COMPUTERS & PERIPHERALS (CPT) 
 
a)  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports   
 
The Australian computer hardware market represents 40 percent of the 
Information Technology (IT) industry.  Australia ranks as second top per 
capita user of personal computers (PCs) and laptops in the world (after 
the U.S.), with the ratio of one pc/single-user computer for every 6.3 
Australians.  There are an estimated 2.75 million business computers and 
30 supercomputers in Australia. PCs account for over 70 percent of 
computer hardware sales in Australia, and experience around 10 percent 
average annual growth rate.  The extremely high penetration of PCs in 
business, government, and the home consumer segment is a result of the 
users' desire to connect PCs in networks, and to link existing networks 
to other networks.  As in the U.S., much of the growth is driven by the 
notebook category, and the move to single-user systems linked through 
data communications.  
 
Single-user systems (PCs, single-user workstations, associated 
peripherals), which account for over 71 percent of the hardware market, 
has a high growth rate because of the growing demand for computer power 
at an individual user level; the increase in networking; and the high 
acceptance of single-user platforms. 
 
Data communications hardware (network interface cards, hubs, bridges, 
routers, modems, multiplexers, packet switching equipment), which 
accounts for over 13 percent of the hardware market is growing at a high 
rate due to the growing demand for networking of PCs and mid-range 
server systems.   
 
The multi-user systems market (mainframe, mid-range systems, associated 
peripherals), which represents 15 percent of the total hardware market, 
is declining due to the decreased costs of multi-user systems equipment, 
and the shift to lower-value, networked architectures.   
 
b)  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports   
 
American products are well regarded and received in Australia.  They 
dominate the local market, despite competition from Japan (particularly 
Fujitsu and Toshiba).  The major U.S. hardware suppliers are represented 
in Australia already, and some are involved in local manufacturing.  
Attractive attributes of Australia for computer hardware firms include 
Australia's strategic regional location in the Asian time zones; an 
advanced IT skills base; and the availability of a highly skilled, 
English-speaking and multicultural IT workforce.         
 
c)  Major Local and Third Country Competitors   
 
The domestic industry consists mainly of small companies, aiming for 
niche markets.  There is a reasonable amount of assembly work undertaken 
in Australia, using imported components.   
 
Multinationals from Europe and Asia also are represented.  According to 
IDC, the Australian market is a microcosm of the U.S. market.  
Therefore, Australia is often used as a testing ground for some products 
from European and Japanese vendors, providing Australia with early 
access to the latest technology. 
 
The leading multinational vendors include the multi-user suppliers such 
as IBM, Digital Equipment Corp, Fujitsu, and HP; and leading PC vendors 
such as Apple Computer, Compaq Computer Corp, and Toshiba.   
 
d)  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market: 
 
Import Tariffs:  Imports classified as computer hardware are duty free.  
Telecommunications components are not.  Therefore, as computer and 
telecommunications technologies increasingly converge, the tariff 
anomaly is becoming an issue, and is currently the subject of a federal 
inquiry.   
 
The Bounty Scheme:  A bounty, paid at the rate of 8 percent of factory 
cost, is available to domestic producers of eligible hardware.  The 
scheme has been in effect since 1984 (at a rate of 25 percent of factory 
cost), is scheduled to expire in December, 1995, but may be extended 
until June, 1996.  In accordance with government policy to remove 
protection, the rate of bounty has been reduced in tandem with general 
reductions in assistance to Australian industry.  However, there is a 
steady increase in the number of firms (including many multinationals) 
claiming the bounty, including many firms undertaking low value-added 
assembly work.  Multinationals that have established their regional 
headquarters and manufacturing or assembly work in Australia are 
benefiting from this scheme. See Chapter VII, F.2. on bounties.  
 
e)  Most Promising Sub-Sectors:   
 
Strong growth in sales of single-user systems between 1993 and 1998, 
driven by increasing demand for notebook computers in the business 
market, and by increasing demand in the home consumer market is 
forecast. 
 
Technology trends in Australia include: interactive multimedia; printers 
with scanning capabilities; client/server computing (desktop systems, 
networking hardware); mobile computing (PCs). 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                                     1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE                3,882        4,658        5,590 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION           1,153        1,379        1,660 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS                      765          918        1,101 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                    3,494        4,192        5,031 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.            1,500        1,845        2,264 
      
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  3 - MEDICAL EQUIPMENT (MED) 
         
a)  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
U.S. products enjoy a major share of the Australian market for imports 
of medical equipment (56%).  Growth, however, is likely to remain 
relatively static in the short term due to budgetary constraints imposed 
by government on public hospitals.  The major end-users of medical 
equipment are public hospitals (56%), followed by private hospitals 
(21%), other professional outlets (10%), retail (6%), other (7%).  In 
1992, there were 705 public hospitals, 320 private hospitals and 79 day 
hospitals in Australia.  This represents 1,104 hospitals with a total of 
78,811 beds, or 4.5 beds per 1000 population.   
 
b)  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
American medical equipment is traditionally well-received in Australia 
due to its perceived high quality and usually competitive pricing.  U.S. 
equipment dominates imports, followed by Europe with 33% (mainly from 
Germany), and Japan (8%). 
 
c)  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
A number of U.S. firms have Australian subsidiaries including Baxter 
Healthcare, Becton Dickinson, Johnson & Johnson Medical Pty. Ltd., 
Abbott Laboratories, Bard and William Cook.  The Pacific Dunlop group is 
the major Australian producer of medical equipment.  The Telectronics 
(pacemakers) and Ansell (consumables) divisions both now manufacture 
off-shore.  The Nucleus division products include ECG monitors, and 
defibrillators.  Most other Australian manufacturers are smaller firms 
producing medical furniture, wheelchairs, orthopaedic and rehabilitation 
equipment, pacemakers and consumables. 
 
d)  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
Currently, medical equipment from all sources may require approval from 
the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration before it can be 
marketed in Australia.  Europe and Australia are well advanced towards 
signing a Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) on conformity assessment in 
a number of industry sectors, including medical devices and 
pharmaceuticals.  This means, in effect, that goods originating in the 
European Union will be able to be assessed for conformity to Australian 
requirements in Europe, thereby eliminating the need for additional and, 
in part, duplicative evaluation by Australian authorities.  The new 
medical devices agreement may become effective from early 1996 and, when 
finalized, may provide a market entry advantage for European companies.  
The U.S. and Australia do not yet have a similar agreement. 
 
e)  Most Promising Sub-Sectors 
 
Capital equipment, diagnostics products, sophisticated consumable items 
such as cardiac catheters. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                                   1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE                795        787        847 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION           333        345        371 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS                    185        208        223 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                    647        650        699 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.            320        335        375 
      
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  4 - AUTOMOTIVE PARTS & ACCESSORIES (APS) 
   
a)  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
Prospects for U.S. Automotive Parts and Accessories in Australia 
continue to improve with U.S. exports presently holding 26% of the total 
import market, second only to Japan. 
 
b)  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
Australia has one of the highest vehicle ownership rates in the world, 
with 10.5 million vehicles registered in 1994 in a country with a 
population of about 18 million.  Australians also keep their cars for a 
long time - the median vehicle age is 9.4 years - guaranteeing a healthy 
market for replacement parts and accessories.   
 
The automotive parts and accessories market is extremely active and 
competitive.  Importers and distributors are always searching for new 
products to add to existing product ranges.  U.S. exporters must be 
prepared to make sales of relatively small numbers (compared with the 
U.S.), and at competitive prices.  U.S. companies, such as Monroe, 
Federal Mogul, Eaton, Cummins, and Echlin, have offices and elaborate 
distribution systems in Australia.  However, there is still room for 
more players.  U.S. exporters are encouraged to look to this lucrative 
market. 
 
The yen's high present rate is forcing some companies to consider 
servicing replacement parts elsewhere, including the U.S.  This is not 
so with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) exports to Australia, 
which are not expected to change much in the foreseeable future. 
 
c)  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
Japan is the major competitor to U.S. exports, followed by Taiwan and 
Korea.  Often, however, parts from these countries do not compete 
directly with parts from the U.S., as many are vehicle-specific. 
 
d)  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
In most cases today, replacement parts must adhere to the ISO 9002 
quality standard.  Manufacturers of OEM parts must be accredited with a 
quality standard known as QS9000, which originated in the United States, 
and which incorporates the ISO 9000, and other requirements.  The four 
Australian car manufacturers, General Motors, Ford, Mitsubishi and 
Toyota, recently agreed to this common standard, which replaces the 
international quality ratings of their own companies.  As QS9000 has 
been announced only recently, a transition period applies whereby OEM's 
have until December, 1997 to come into compliance and must, until they 
receive QS9000 accreditation, have been accredited with individual 
quality rating by the particular car maker.  QS9000 also is being 
adopted by Ford and Holden commercial vehicles, but not by other 
commercial vehicle (mainly heavy duty trucks) assemblers yet in 
Australia. 
 
Import tariffs remain at about 15%.  Some U.S. products may be less 
saleable on the Australian market due to Australia's Design Rules 
(ADR's), that most affect external fixtures such as headlights, 
indicator lights and mirrors.  Increasingly, replacement parts must 
adhere to the ISO 9002 quality standard. 
 
e)  Most Promising Sub-Sectors  
 
U.S. products that are competitive include performance springs, shock 
absorbers, carburetors, brake components, gear boxes and gear box 
components, and a wide variety of parts and accessories. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                                     1994         1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE                3,853        4,317        4,750 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION            2,115        2,368        2,700 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS                      668          804          950 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                    2,406        2,753        3,000 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.              626          721          810 
      
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  5 - EDUCATION & TRAINING SERVICES (EDS) 
 
a)  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
The vocational education and training market is extremely diverse.  The 
increasing demand for training - in particular, information technology, 
literacy and numeracy, professional and personal development - coupled 
with Australia's open market policy, and America's well known expertise 
in the field, translates into real opportunities for the US exporter of 
training services and expertise.   
 
The following major developments have enhanced opportunities in an open 
training market:   
- increased allocation of funds to competitive tendering  
(More than A$12 million was made available for open tender in 1994, 
increasing to A$21 million in 1995.);  
- policies to encourage participation from private enterprises in 
tendering for training courses ;  
- an increase in registered private providers to around 1,000; 
- access for private providers to publicly recognized credentials; 
- access to publicly-developed courses and materials for private and 
industry providers in some States and Territories;  
- increased industry investment in structured training;  
- encouragement of joint government/industry projects;  
 
In 1995, enterprises (or group training companies on behalf of 
enterprises) will be able to choose, in consultation with employees, the 
most appropriate publicly-funded, off-the-job training for apprentices 
and trainees.    
 
b)  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
American expertise in the training field is recognized in Australia and 
well received, provided the training material/presentation is adapted to 
Australian style English and culture, including Australian 
language/spelling and weights/measures.  Australia looks to U.S. 
expertise, in industrial training, computer training, motivational and 
personal development skills, and on-off site seminars, as well as for 
textbooks and manuals.  Americans are seen as leading in more 
theoretical training, and as prolific writers, developing instruments 
and models for the training industry.  With the exception of one-time 
seminars and training in sales, it is most common for U.S. training 
programs to be conducted by local trainers, not expatriates.   
 
c)  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
Within the private training sector of the market, there are over 4,500 
companies and individuals registered with the Australian Institute of 
Training and Development (the largest Australian association for private 
trainers and training companies).  There are other, smaller training 
associations as well. 
 
The training market is led by Australian training providers, with very 
few third country training establishments.  With the exception of a 
couple of Swiss and French hotel management schools, and foreign 
language trainers, such as the Goethe Institute, l'Alliance Francaise, 
Dante Alighieri Society and several Japanese language/culture schools, 
there are no readily identifiable registered third country training 
companies offering industry, business or computer training.    
  
d)  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
The Australian government's process of structural micro-economic reform 
includes education and training in industry to address technological and 
structural change.  The goal is to develop a multi-skilled and efficient 
workforce.  Once seen as a social policy issue, vocational education now 
is regarded as an economic necessity.  The Australian Federal Government 
has contributed to the expansion of the training industry through 
legislation and budget allocations.   
 
The growing need of all employees, both old and new, to be conversant 
with constantly evolving technology ensures that the need for efficient 
training programs will be an ongoing one.  Approximately 75 percent of 
the existing workforce is expected still to be in the employment pool at 
the turn of the century.  However, only 30 percent of the skills and 
knowledge they possess will be applicable in the year 2000.  
 
e)  Most Promising Sub-Sectors  
 
Industrial/Factory Training (including communication skills/literacy; 
collaborative quality management; preparation for multi-skilling and new 
technologies, particularly in the computerized workplace; and total 
quality management); 
 
Business/Office Training (including report writing for the services 
sector; speech and language consultancy; customized videos, and training 
programs; computer skills, especially word processing and spreadsheet; 
marketing/sales skills; and management training); and, 
 
Information Technology Training (including networking skills; desktop 
applications; UNIX skills; and training in Microsoft's window NT). 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                                   1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL SALES                    3,800        4,200        4,700 
B. SALES BY LOCAL FIRMS*          3,610        3,990        4,420 
C. SALES BY LOCAL FIRMS*           n/a          n/a          n/a 
D. SALES BY FOREIGN- 
   OWNED FIRMS*                     190          210          280 
E. SALES BY US-OWNED FIRMS*         100          110          190 
      
*  NB: the above figures are based on sales by the training provider 
(usually a local firm/trainer), rather than by the country of origin of 
the training program/courseware. 
  
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
          
RANK:  6 - TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT (TEL) 
 
a)  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
U.S. exports of telecommunications equipment to Australia have the 
potential to grow at about 20% annually.  Telecommunications products 
must be broken into two sectors, namely network equipment, and Customer 
Premises Equipment (CPE) such as telephone handsets.   
 
Australia has three telecommunications carriers, the government-owned 
corporation of Telstra, and privately-owned Optus and Vodaphone.  
Telstra is presently the only nation-wide carrier for local calls, while 
Telecom MobileNet, which is part of Telstra, Optus and Vodaphone all 
compete for mobile phone services.  The Australian telecommunications 
market as a whole was valued at $12 billion in 1994, with Telstra 
accounting for $9.5 billion sales revenue.  Almost every Australian 
household has a telephone, and there are an estimated 1.6 million mobile 
phone users in a population of 18 million. 
 
b)  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
During the past year, the highly competitive Australian 
telecommunications equipment market has shifted somewhat for products 
from the U.S., with opportunities for advanced network equipment gaining 
ground and those for CPE, such as handsets and mobile phones, losing 
some.  This relates directly to the declining import of analog mobile 
phones from the U.S. as the European GSM digital standard begins to take 
over, and more phones come from Europe. 
 
U.S. products, including advanced network equipment such as ATM 
switches, call processing and managing equipment, modems and routers, 
are highly competitive in Australia.  A number of U.S. companies 
including Scientific Atlanta, ADC Communications, Digital Equipment and 
North American company Nortel, have contracts to supply network 
equipment to telecommunications and Pay (Cable) TV operators. 
 
c)  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
Major network equipment competitors include Ericsson of Sweden, and 
Alcatel of France.  There are also many quality local suppliers, most of 
which are subsidiaries of international companies including Ericsson and 
Alcatel.  Motorola is a major player, with products coming from the U.S. 
and Europe. 
 
d)  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
Industry Development Arrangements (IDA's) apply to CPE, requiring some 
local content of the CPE itself, a related telecommunications product, 
or requiring R & D on the part of the IDA participant.  CPE suppliers 
are less limited than previously by joining federal government programs 
such as Fixed Term Arrangements (FTA's) or Partnerships For Development 
(PFD's), which more generally require the participant to provide a local 
content that is agreed to jointly. 
 
CPE and products that connect to the customer side of the network must 
be approved by the telecommunications regulator, Austel.  Austel-
approved testing houses are located in Australia, Europe and the U.S. 
 
Telecommunications competition is expected to increase after June 30, 
1997, when the present industry program ends, and doors are expected to 
open for additional carriers and private operators.  The market for U.S. 
products is expected to expand further as Cable TV operators lay their 
foundations, which for some, include the intention to operate local 
telephone calls along their Cable TV lines.  This would be possible only 
after July 1, 1997. 
 
e)  Most Promising Sub-Sectors  
 
Digital Network Equipment, routers, mobile phones. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                                     1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE                1,678        2,043        2,349 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION            1,022        1,213        1,395 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS                      270          378          435 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                      926        1,208        1,389 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.              276          337          400 
      
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  7 - TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICES (TES) 
 
a)  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
U.S. exports of Telecommunications Services are expected to grow by 15-
20% annually.  After June 30, 1997, easing of restrictive Federal 
government conditions imposed on the telecommunications services 
industry will encourage growth further in a more free market 
environment.  These conditions relate to the general areas of class 
licenses and international switching.  Details are still under 
consideration by the government. 
 
b)  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
U.S. exports are extremely competitive, presently holding approximately 
50% of total sales.  Major players include AT&T, U.S. Sprint, MCI, and a 
host of international Callback suppliers. 
 
c)  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
The rest of the market share is held by prominent local companies such 
as AAP Telecommunications and Anixcorp, and by international firms 
including Singcomm, BT Australia, Telecom New Zealand, and more recently 
Telecom Italia. 
 
d)  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
Presently there are two types of service providers - simple re-sellers 
of excess network capacity - and, value-added service providers who 
provide voice and data services including EMail, Frame Relay, Voice 
Mail, Callback, enhanced fax services, and more.  Simple re-sellers may 
set up business at any time after arranging for the lease of excess 
network capacity, usually from Telstra, Australia's dominant 
telecommunications operator.  Value-added service providers must apply 
to the telecommunications regulator, Austel, for an International 
Service Provider's Class License prior to establishing a service.  This 
is a relatively simple procedure. 
 
The telecommunications service industry presently is limited in that all 
international services must use an existing carrier's international 
switch.  This is expected to change, allowing more open international 
access after June 30, 1997.  Telstra and Optus are the only two carriers 
that now have international switches. 
 
e)  Most Promising Sub-Sectors 
  
There are numerous simple re-sellers, and as of February 1, 1995, there 
were 46 holders of International Service Providers Class Licenses.  The 
growth of Callback services has mushroomed during the past 12 months, 
with at least 15 representatives of mostly U.S.-based callback companies 
active in Australia.  This market is expected to peak during the next 12 
months.  Other growth areas include Frame Relay, Electronic messaging, 
and EMail. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                                         1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL SALES                          1,201        1,364        1,569 
B. TOTAL SALES BY LOCAL FIRMS             488          531          611 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS BY LOCAL FIRMS           300          341          392 
D. TOTAL SALES BY FOREIGN-OWNED FIRMS   1,013        1,174        1,350 
E. SALES BY U.S.-OWNED FIRMS              638          682          784 
      
The above statistics are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  8 - HEALTH CARE SERVICES (HCS) 
 
a)  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
In 1993, health expenditure by Australian governments and individuals 
was A$35 billion, an average of A$1,944 per person.  This represented 
8.6% of gross domestic product, an increase of 0.8 percentage points 
from recent years.   Preliminary figures for 1994 health expenditure are 
38 billion which is 8.8 percent of GDP.  For the period 1975 to 1993 
there was an average annual increase of 2 percent spent per year on 
health.  This was due partly to the ageing of the population, and partly 
because of greater use of health services by people of all ages.  Health 
expenditure has grown at a relatively steady rate, and is much less 
dependent on the business cycle than are other sectors of the economy. 
 
b)  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
Statistics on Health Care Services are limited.  However, U.S. products 
and services are accepted readily in this market.  There are 320 private 
hospitals in Australia.  There is only one foreign-owned hospital group, 
Australian Medical Enterprises, whose parent company is Tenet, a 
recently formed company in the U.S., following the amalgamation of NME 
and AMI hospital groups.  Australian Medical Enterprises operates nine 
hospitals in Australia with 636 beds.  Earlier this year, the Victorian 
State Government signed a contract worth A$160 million with the U.S. 
subsidiary, Integraph Australia, to provide Melbourne's emergency 
services with a centralized communication system. 
 
c)  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
The majority of health care services are provided by state governments, 
with religious and other charitable institutions fulfilling a 
substantial subsidiary role.  This is changing as all state governments 
are in the process of privatizing parts of their health care sectors.  
The companies involved in this process largely are locally-based. 
 
d)  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
Both Federal and State Governments have policies that require Public 
Hospitals to operate within a limited budget.  All governments are 
privatizing hospital services where they can, e.g. food, cleaning and 
waste disposal services.  Approval from the various State Departments of 
Health is required for health care services.   
 
e)  Most Promising Sub-Sectors  
 
Because of the state governments' privatization policies, at present, 
the market is in a state of flux.  U.S. firms should seek niche markets, 
such as computer software with medical applications - hospital 
management systems, patient tracking systems, software packages for 
general practitioners, and remote area diagnostic systems. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                                   1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL SALES                     8,273        8,204        9,453 
B. TOTAL SALES BY LOCAL FIRMS      8,162        8,095        9,337 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS BY LOCAL FIRMS      189          190          206 
D. SALES BY FOREIGN-OWNED FIRMS      300          299          322 
E. SALES BY U.S.-OWNED FIRMS         264          263          282 
      
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  9 - DEFENSE EQUIPMENT (DFN) 
 
a.  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
The most recent Australian Defense White Paper, "Defending Australia" 
(November 1994), contains three main defense priorities for the 
Australian Government:  To increase public recognition of the tasks 
performed by the defense forces; to emphasize investment in high 
technology capabilities; and to continue to pursue a more effective 
partnership between defense and Australian (and New Zealand) industry.  
A closer dialogue is developing between defense and industry in 
Australia.  Those firms willing to take part in the consultative process 
early in the life of projects will be best placed in the bidding 
process.  The White Paper forecasts that defense spending will be 
sustained at 2% of GDP over the next few years to meet the objectives of 
the White Paper, and beyond that, modest real increases will be needed. 
 
b.  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
The U.S. has advanced technology in most areas, and enjoys a strong 
position in the market, particularly with regard to air assets, combat 
systems, and information technology.  Early consultation, particularly 
with the military, is essential. Commitment to the market - especially 
demonstrated commitment - is very important. 
 
The Commercial Service in Australia follows developments in the defense 
section closely, and publishes a quarterly newsletter "Defense Focus".  
(See Appendix E.4.) 
 
c.  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
There is constant and capable competition from local companies, as well 
as from British, Swedish, French, Israeli, Italian and German.  
Indonesia recently began making overtures with a STOL aircraft.  
 
Domestic production of strategically important goods and services is 
supplied largely from six industry sectors - information technology 
(IT); electronics and communications; shipbuilding and repair; 
aerospace; ordnance; and vehicles.  In electronics and communications, 
defense demand for software development and systems integration has 
caused a local industry-wide expansion; shipbuilding and repair is 
sustained almost solely by defense requirements; in aerospace, defense 
has played a significant role in supporting local industry; ordnance is 
supplied to defense by Australian Defense Industries, at a premium if 
strategically justifiable; and, vehicle requirements are met by a mix of 
import and local production. 
 
d.  Local Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
There are no barriers to selling general items through a local 
distributor on a regular commercial basis.  However, there are important 
purchasing policies and procedures applying to defense purchases with 
which suppliers should be familiar before submitting a tender.  This 
information is available readily from the Department of Defence. 
 
e.  Most Promising Sub-sectors 
 
Sensors for detection, definition, target tracking and acquisition, 
electronic self-protection and surveillance.  Precision weapons, UAVs, 
submarine-launched missiles, AEW&C, and, increasingly, upgrades are 
considered to be most promising. 
 
In the most recent list of major capital equipment projects proposed by 
the Department of Defence for government funding, the highest value 
prospects are:  offshore patrol combatants; AEW&C; the soldier as a 
combat system; ground-based air defense weapons system; tactical 
airlift; frigate progressive upgrade; lead-in-fighter; field vehicles & 
trailers; naval helicopters; aerial reconnaissance and surveillance; 
F/A-18 upgrade; HF radio modernization; space based surveillance; 
infantry mobility vehicles; and heavyweight torpedoes. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD) 
 
                                     1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE 
(capital budget)                    2,757        3,070        3,150 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION           1,797        1,995        2,016 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS                       60           75           90 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                      960        1,075        1,134 
E. IMPORTS FROM U.S.                  670          750          790 
 
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  10 - SAFETY & SECURITY EQUIPMENT (SEC) 
 
a.  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
Prospects for U.S. companies in the Australian security and safety 
industry remain encouraging with the steady demand for state of the art 
products in surveillance equipment, perimeter control and monitoring, 
identification devices, access control equipment, electromagnetic locks, 
digital signal processing CCTVs, and computer security systems. Market 
growth is around 5% per annum. 
 
b.  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
Australia is a mature market for safety and security equipment and 
systems.  There is indigenous production and research, combined with 
imports from the U.S., Europe and Japan.  The U.S. is in a strong 
position, supplying needed equipment such as access control systems, 
closed circuit television systems, general alarm systems, security 
doors, etc.  The Australian Security Industry Association Limited 
(ASIAL) maintains close contact with its U.S. counterpart.  With the 
advances in processor technology, the market is likely to become 
increasingly competitive.  As U.S. military technology becomes 
decontrolled further and/or becomes commercially available, the market 
for these technologies - as in the U.S. - will grow for civilian safety 
and security applications. 
 
c.  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
Japan is a major competitor in CCTV and video systems.  Local 
manufacturers pose a significant challenge in the marketplace for most 
types of safety and security equipment.  Countries with a reputation for 
quality of manufacture enjoy stronger positions because of the need for 
reliability in this type of equipment. 
 
d.  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
Incapacitating or repellent sprays are illegal in Australia, preventing 
the use of mace-type and Oleoresin Capsicum sprays, which are popular in 
the U.S.  There are strict firearm laws in all Australian States 
restricting possession of firearms, concealable weapons and electronic 
stun devices.  
 
e.  Most Promising Sub Sectors 
 
Personal protection items such as stab and needle-proof gloves and non-
ceramic body armor; computer network security systems; neural network 
computing systems; environmental monitoring; surveillance systems. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD) 
 
                                    1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE                 806         847         897 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION            260         282         302 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS                      50          55          62 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                     596         620         655 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.             355         365         380 
 
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  11 - AIRCRAFT AND PARTS (AIR; APG; AVS) 
 
a.  Growth Potential for U.S. Products 
 
Prospects for the aviation market are good in Australia due to the 
soundly based general aviation market; the commitment of the Government 
to a modern, well equipped air force; and, its determination to promote 
Australia as an international hub for the Asia-Pacific region. 
Australia's population of just under 18 million is clustered in six 
major urban areas remote from one another; its agricultural community 
extends over vast distances; and access to regional neighbors is by air.  
Australians travel by commercial aircraft routinely and often.  In 
addition, Australia has one of the highest per capita uses of light 
aircraft in the world.    
 
The market is fairly small by world standards.  Aviation industry 
turnover is estimated to be about one percent of that of the U.S.  
However, it is a highly diversified and fairly deregulated market, 
facilitating imports.  There are around 9,500 aircraft registered in 
Australia, representing 150 different manufacturers and a wide range of 
models.  Almost all aircraft, and many of the associated parts and 
accessories, are imported. The U.S. holds market share of up to 90 per 
cent in some subsectors.  The market is relatively constant.  Annual 
growth in the number of aircraft over the past five years has varied 
between one and two per cent, and is expected to grow by between 2 and 3 
per cent per annum until 2000.  As there is no indigenous aircraft 
production, market demand is driven by the need for maintenance, 
replacements, retrofitting, spare parts and service.  
 
b.  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
American corporations can maximize business through sole 
distributorships.  Multiple distributors tend to compete strongly with 
each other in the market and thereby reduce profitability. Factors that 
give a competitive edge are product performance and functional ability, 
after-sales service and spares.  Good distribution is a prerequisite for 
new entrants, along with competitive price, quality and reliability. 
 
c.  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
Australian firms are not offered incentives to manufacture locally.  
Therefore, competition from local manufacturers for much of this 
equipment is negligible.  However, there are some niche areas, such as 
ground-based guidance systems, where local expertise poses strong 
competition. 
 
Third country competitors include the U.K. (British Aerospace); France 
(Thomson, Airbus); Sweden (CelsiusTech), and Japan (Sony, Matsushita). 
 
d.  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
Australia is a signatory to the international Civil Aviation 
Organization (ICAO), and has adopted the U.S. Airworthiness Codes and 
the Operational and Airworthiness Regulations, which are published in 
the Air Navigation Order (ANO).  The U.S. Technical Standards Order 
(TSO) is accepted in Australia.  Due to the lack of local production, 
there is no import duty or sales tax on most imported aviation and 
avionics products. 
 
e.  Most Promising Sub-sectors 
 
Defense:   
 
In the breakdown of potential major capital equipment projects proposed 
for funding by the Australian Department of Defence, a number of 
projects present opportunities for the inclusion of avionics, aviation, 
or ground support equipment. For example, GPS/Navstar for forces general 
aviation; aerial surveillance and fire support equipment; an AEW&C 
system; a lead-in fighter/trainer aircraft; tactical air defense radars; 
upgrades of communications, radar and navigation equipment in military 
aircraft.  
 
Civil:   
 
GPS has experienced recent growth rates approaching 15 percent annually.  
Former Chairman of the Civil Aviation Authority, Dick Smith, predicts 
that the demand will move toward GPS with ground-based reference.  Fuel 
management systems linked to GPS, which enable close management of fuel 
loads and fuel consumption projections and usage, are likely to be the 
next best prospect subsector because of the usefulness in general 
aviation cost control. 
 
The Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System may have potential, 
although Australia does not now regulate this requirement. 
 
General aviation is moving towards the installation of data storage 
devices (equivalent to ramdrives) to accept database overlays that are 
provided internationally by Jeppeson. 
 
Aircraft radios currently are in strong demand in the north of 
Australia. 
 
DATA TABLE  (Millions USD) 
 
                                     1994        1995        1996 
 
TOTAL MARKET SIZE                     730         745         756 
TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION                 70          75          82 
TOTAL EXPORTS (INCL. REEXP.)           20          30          38 
TOTAL IMPORTS                         680         695         710 
IMPORTS FROM U.S.                     538         545         554 
 
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  12 - LABORATORY & SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT (LAB) 
 
a.  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
In common with most industrialised economies, the Australian scientific 
sector is focusing increasingly on applied research aimed at improving 
economic output.  The introduction by the GOA of Cooperative Research 
Centres (CRCs), with the purpose of merging the research and managerial 
talents of universities, government research organizations, and industry 
to produce industry-specific results has reinforced this trend.  In the 
1995 Australian Budget, $US 100 million was allocated to 61 CRCs, with 
particular attention being paid to energy and mineral research,  medical 
and health, food and agriculture, and manufacturing industries.  In this 
climate, the market for U.S.- manufactured sophisticated scientific 
equipment will continue to grow significantly. 
   
b.  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
Most laboratory equipment is imported, with U.S. products having a high 
acceptance on technical and cultural grounds.  There is no significant 
price advantage or disadvantage attached to U.S. products, when compared 
with third country suppliers. 
 
c.  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
Although Australia traditionally has been a highly inventive nation, 
with many new scientific patents being awarded to Australian 
researchers, the local manufacturing sector is slow to take advantage of 
these developments.  Much local manufacture is conducted by subsidiaries 
of multi-national corporations.  Apart from the U.S., the main suppliers 
to the Australian market are Germany, the U.K. and Japan.   
 
d.  Local Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
The market for laboratory equipment is growing at approximately 6% 
annually.  The National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) 
estimates there are more than 10,000 laboratories in Australia.  Of 
these more than 25% are NATA certified, comprising laboratories from the 
medical, wool, construction materials, minerals and energy research 
areas.  U.S. suppliers should be particularly aware of the requirement 
that equipment conform to Australian electrical standards.    
 
e.  Most promising sub-sectors   
 
The Australian laboratory equipment market is scientifically 
sophisticated, with a demand for the latest technology in analytical and 
monitoring instruments and systems.  The most promising areas include 
energy and mineral research, medical and health, food and agriculture, 
and materials testing equipment. 
 
DATA TABLE  (Millions USD) 
 
                                   1994        1995        1996 
 
TOTAL MARKET SIZE                   962        1,133        1,216 
LOCAL PRODUCTION                    321          337          352 
EXPORTS (INCL. RE-EXPORTS)          178          189          201 
TOTAL IMPORTS                       819          985        1,062 
IMPORTS FROM U.S.                   316          341          382 
 
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  13 - BIOTECHNOLOGY (BTC) 
 
a.  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
The Australian biotechnology industry is experiencing steady growth for 
biological products (12 percent annually), with significant (but 
immeasurable) increases in research, development and commercialization 
activities over the past three years. Future growth of the biotechnology 
sector in Australia will be based on specialized products and related 
R&D funding made available by federal and state agencies and private 
enterprises.  Australia is not in a position to challenge multinational 
companies, but rather to work with them to bring their products to 
market.  Australia's strength in scientific research puts it in a 
leading position to participate in the exploitation of what is a 
resurgent domestic biotechnology industry.  The industry is undergoing a 
transition towards increased commercialization, and is uniquely placed 
for rapid growth in development, given the right impetus from 
international, market-oriented partners.     
 
b.  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
Because of Australia's advanced state of development in this industry 
sector, only the latest, top quality biotechnology products and R&D 
skills are in demand.  As such, the U.S. stands in a leading position to 
maintain its competitive edge over European rivals.  The U.S. has more 
enterprises and scientists and engineers involved in biotechnology R&D; 
it has an enviable industrial base; a strong basic research capability 
in biomedical sciences; and, excellent research universities.  As these 
strengths are well known, local industry prefers to draw from U.S. 
resources as a first choice.  The favorable rate of exchange between the 
U.S. And Australia adds further impetus for prospective buyers, despite 
the practice of price cutting by suppliers anxious to penetrate the 
market.  
 
c.  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
Though not large in numbers, Australia has a comprehensive, albeit 
compact, resource base of professionals engaged in biotechnology 
activities.  There are an estimated 60 manufacturers of biotechnology 
products and 36 importers and distributors, with an extensive number of 
companies providing support services to the industry.  The market for 
traditional biological products is so well supplied by local 
manufacturers that there is little room left for any effective 
competition from the U.S. or third country suppliers.  Opportunities, 
however, do exist for non-traditional biological products (such as amino 
compounds, diagnostic reagents, blood fractions, antisera, cell and 
tissue culture, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and diagnostic kits for 
human and animal use).  The U.S. is the leading supplier in this field.  
While this position is being held comfortably, some challenges are 
emerging from Germany, France and Sweden. 
 
d.  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
There are no major impediments to market entry, nor are there 
difficulties in product distribution.  Some requirements, such as 
stringent certification standards and acceptance of testing data, are 
perceived by those engaged in biological pharmaceutical trade to be non-
tariff barriers.  U.S. origin products, however, enjoy more 
acceptability than do those from other European sources.  While product 
approval must be obtained from various regulatory bodies, overall, the 
government has acted to provide an internationally competitive 
regulatory environment for biotechnology.  Approvals of biological 
products originating from the U.S. usually are granted readily because 
Australian regulations are based on U.S. requirements.  In addition to 
regulatory compliance, it is imperative that intellectual and/or 
industrial property protection be sought for any R&D work undertaken.  
In other words, "patent or perish".   
 
e.  Most Promising Sub-Sectors  
 
Present trends for product development that would lend themselves best 
to commercial opportunities are in the areas of manufacturing 
technology, agriculture- and rural-based manufacturing, the environment, 
and medical science and technology. In the field of biological products, 
the following items continue to be in demand: enzymes and amino acids; 
primary metabolites; emulsifiers; antiparasitic vaccines; peptides and 
antibodies; cultures; kits for production of monoclonal antibodies; and 
diagnostic reagents and kits. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD) 
 
                                   1994       1995       1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE                905        940        965 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION           466        545        615 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS                    402        494        575 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                    841        889        939 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.            112        118        126 
 
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  14 - FOOD PROCESSING/PACKAGING EQUIPMENT (FPP) 
 
a.  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
 
With predictions that by 2000, Asia will have nearly as many affluent 
consumers (230 million) as the U.S. or Western Europe, the growing Asian 
processed food markets are seen as very lucrative for Australian food 
processors.  Exports of highly processed foods to Asia are expected to 
play a major role in an Australian export goal of US$ 4.9 billion by 
2000.  New processing facilities, packaging techniques, and more 
sophisticated market skills will be required to meet this potential and 
to remain competitive.  Export growth in both the food processing and 
packaging sectors is expected to drive Australian based-firms to invest 
heavily in new plant and equipment.  This investment in capital 
expenditure, estimated to be growing at 12-15 percent annually for both 
domestic and export requirements, represents a key growth market for 
exports of technologically advanced U.S. equipment and American direct 
investment will be welcomed. 
 
b.  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
Some Australian industry sources interviewed expressed the opinion that 
U.S. food processors had gained U.S. market share through merger and 
acquisition activities, and not through technological improvement of 
their basic food processing and packaging equipment.  This was cited as 
a contrast to the European competitors who were regarded to be striving 
constantly to improve their equipment offerings.  Whether or not this 
opinion has merit, it is interesting to note that, compared with other 
technology sectors, such as telecommunications or computers, U.S. market 
share in the food processing and packaging sectors is relatively small, 
at 20 percent.  While U.S. equipment is top-rated on functionality, 
reliability and price competitiveness, European equipment, which is 
sleeker and more modern in design, often wins the final bid. 
 
c.  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
There is a relatively small number of major domestically owned food 
processing companies, but there are several well- established packaging 
firms.  Significant competition comes from European imports that are 
favored as more reliable and technologically advanced.  The leading food 
processing and packaging suppliers in Australia are:  Germany, with 
around 25 percent market share; Italy, following the U.S. with 19 
percent; Japan, with 6 percent; and Switzerland, with 5 percent.  Other 
players in niche segments are the U.K., Sweden and the Netherlands.  A 
major contributing factor to the relatively low U.S. market share is 
that U.S. firms generally are unaware of sales potential in Australia, 
and haven't marketed themselves vigorously enough. 
 
d.  Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
American exports are free to enter Australia and there are no hidden 
barriers to entry through non-tariff trade barriers or difficulties in 
distribution.  Australia has a clearly defined tariff policy that 
applies to the importation of capital goods from developed and 
developing countries.  A sales tax of 21 percent is levied on the value 
of imported goods.  However, depending on the relationship of the 
importer to the end customer via the distribution channel, the importer 
is not necessarily responsible for paying this tax.   
 
e.  Most Promising Sub-Sectors  
 
Most promising sub-sectors that have been identified include: food 
scanners, printers, robotics, software, consulting, microwaves, ultra 
high temperature and extended shelf life packaging, and biotechnology.  
Additional equipment includes packaging machinery, weighing machinery, 
dairy machinery (especially milk preparation for packaging), milling, 
sorting and grading machinery; and machinery for the industrial 
preparation or manufacture of food and drink, especially new packaging 
techniques and processing technology. 
 
DATA TABLE (Millions USD)                           
 
                                     1994        1995        1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE                  168         192         216 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION              40          46          51 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS                       83          97         109 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                      211         243         269 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.               43          50          54 
      
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
RANK:  15 - CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT (ENGINEERING AND NON-RESIDENTIAL 
(CON) 
 
a.  Growth Potential for U.S. Exports 
   
With the Australian economy again rapidly expanding, the outlook for the 
construction industry (engineering and non-residential) is for a return 
to steady overall growth.  Engineering construction activity for year 
ended June, 1995, is estimated at US$8.7 billion, and forecast at US$8.9 
billion for 1996.  Infrastructure accounts for about 80 percent of all 
engineering construction work.  A number of longer-term programs are 
being undertaken by State Government authorities.  The balance is 
construction for mining and industry.  Further growth in heavy 
industrial construction is expected, although not across such a wide 
range of industrial activity as in the past.   
 
The non-residential construction industry is on course for a period of 
sustained overall growth.  Activity for the fiscal year ended June, 
1995, is estimated at US$6.45 billion, with US$6.8 billion forecast for 
1996.  Hotel, retail, and industrial sectors are expected to maintain 
strong growth, particularly in South Australia, New South Wales, and 
Queensland.  However, counter to the overall trend, some reduction in 
office building prospects is likely once outstanding projects are 
completed (except in Queensland where the office vacancy rate is lower).  
Government construction growth is expected to be limited as all levels 
of Government attempt to reduce their budget deficits. 
 
Logically, the market for construction equipment depends on the state of 
the construction industry and, accordingly, the outlook for this 
subsector is good.  Imports dominate the Australian market and the U.S. 
has a 32 percent market share.  Imports from the U.S. for 1995 are 
estimated at US$172.2 million, with US$193.6 million estimated for 1996.  
Due to increased construction activity (both private and public), new 
opportunities are emerging and creating room for new U.S. entrants to 
the Australian market.  While three recent interest rate rises totalling 
2.75 percent may affect confidence in some building sectors, these are 
not expected to have a great effect on the construction industry in the 
longer term.    
 
b.  Competitiveness of U.S. Exports 
 
In the import market, the U.S. competes actively with Japan, which has a 
market share of 39 percent.  The market image of U.S. manufacturers is 
good, and their spare parts support is considered to be the best in the 
world.  However, there is a wider range of Japanese-made equipment 
available, some more technologically advanced than American, and Japan 
currently holds the number one sales position in this market. 
 
c.  Major Local and Third Country Competitors 
 
Australia is strongly dependent on imports, which account for 
approximately 90 percent of the entire market.  Domestic production 
largely comprises attachments such as buckets, tractor tires, wheels and 
rims, and cabs.  Caterpillar is the only international company 
manufacturing equipment in Australia.   Local firm Favelle Favco Cranes 
Pty. Ltd. designs and manufactures very heavy cranes (tower, offshore, 
and special application cranes).  Mobile cranes under 15 tons capacity 
are also manufactured in Australia, principally by Franna Cranes. 
 
Major Japanese suppliers are Komatsu, Hitachi, Kobelco, Kawaski, Kato, 
and Furuka.  Germany has an import share of seven percent, the main 
supplier being Liebherr.  The United Kingdom has a market share of six 
percent, led by JCB and MF Industrial.  Korean firms such as Daiwoo, 
Hyundai, and Samsung are starting to make inroads into this market.    
 
d.  Local Regulatory/Demand Issues Impacting Market 
 
No tariff or other non-tariff barriers exist for imported construction 
equipment.  Import licenses are no longer obligatory for all used 
earthmoving equipment and replacement parts.  This requirement was 
removed in 1990, enabling used equipment to penetrate the Australian 
market with greater ease. 
 
e.  Most Promising Sub-Sectors 
 
Hydraulic excavators, wheel loaders/articulated four-wheel drive front 
end loaders, and backhoe loaders are considered to have the best 
prospects.  These three categories currently comprise 75 percent of the 
total market for construction equipment and should have further growth 
potential. 
  
DATA TABLE (Millions USD) 
 
                                      1994         1995         1996 
 
A. TOTAL MARKET SIZE *                419.8        458.3        513.1 
B. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION *            31.5         32.8         35.5 
C. TOTAL EXPORTS *                     60.2         65.6         73.6 
D. TOTAL IMPORTS                      448.4        588.6        549.4 
E. IMPORTS FROM THE U.S.              158.0        172.2        193.6 
      
The above figures are unofficial estimates. 
 
* Local production figures are lower than exports because some firms 
operating in Australia tend to import complete units, or add to, and 
then re-export, using Australia as a springboard to Pacific Island 
regions.  Consequently, the total market figures are also lower than 
imports because of this re-export activity. 
 
B.  AGRICULTURE BEST PROSPECTS 
 
Australia has educated, affluent consumers, willing to try new products.  
The population has a growing number of newly arrived immigrants from all 
over the world, bringing with them expanded and diverse dietary tastes.  
Foreign travel is relatively common, especially by the generation now 
entering the work force, and these consumers have broadened their 
culinary horizons.  Australian demographics are similar to those in the 
United States, with a large number of two income families and a 
consequent need for more highly processed and consumer-ready foods.  
Ownership of microwave ovens also is very widespread.  Australian 
consumers are oriented towards the same factors that U.S. consumers seek 
- freshness, wholesomeness and healthy lifestyles.  To a large extent, 
they are prepared to pay extra for these qualities. 
 
Not surprisingly, given Australia's large agricultural base, market 
prospects for U.S. food products are best in areas drawing on innovative 
products, economies of scale, and the U.S. position as a counter-
seasonal supplier of fresh product.   Total exports of U.S. food, 
forestry and fishery products reached almost $500 million in 1994, yet 
another record.  The nature of commodities exported from the United 
States has changed in recent years, moving towards increased levels of 
intermediate and consumer- oriented food products. 
 
The United States faces competition in this market from European and 
Canadian suppliers, as well as from speciality suppliers in other Asian 
countries.  Domestic production also is well established, and growing in 
product lines.  There is considerable foreign investment in the 
Australian food sector, with many large multinational companies present.  
The Australian dollar tends to track closely movements of the U.S. 
dollar, so recent swings in exchange rates should favor U.S. exporters 
over European competitors. 
 
In the bulk commodity area, Australia has had to import significant 
quantities of feed grains, oilseeds and oilseed meal and other prepared 
animal feedstuffs in response to severely reduced domestic 
availabilities after a severe drought.  Imports of these commodities in 
1995 should exceed the levels of 1994, and reach around U.S. $150 
million.  With the return of rain, imports of these commodities should 
fall back in 1                  1994      1995      1996 
996 to a more normal level of around U.S. $50 million.  In the longer 
run, changes in the domestic feeding industry will open up prospects for 
increased trade in these products.  But, this will require additional 
time, and reform in the domestic grain industry. 
 
BEST PROSPECT SECTORS FOR U.S. EXPORTERS TO AUSTRALIA 
    (figures in metric tons and US$1000) 
 
EXCHANGE RATE:    1994 A$1.36 = US$1.00 
                  1995 A$1.37 = US$1.00 
                  1996 A$1.30 = US$1.00 
 
RANK:  1  FROZEN VEGETABLES 
 
                                         1994      1995        1996 
 
a. TOTAL MARKET SIZE (MT)       305,619    318,000    334,000 
b. LOCAL PRODUCTION (MT)        271,430    279,430    290,000 
c. TOTAL EXPORTS (US$)            4,900      5,047      5,551 
d. TOTAL IMPORTS (US$)           25,124     26,128     27,173 
e. TOTAL IMPORTS FROM U.S.(US$)   3,205      3,526      4,000 
 
RANK:  2  BEVERAGE BASES 
a. TOTAL MARKET SIZE (MT)           300,000    312,000    325,000 
b. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION (MT)      182,142    187,606    193,234 
c. TOTAL EXPORTS (US$)                3,661      3,700      3,811 
d. TOTAL IMPORTS (US$)              152,100    158,200    166,100 
e. TOTAL IMPORTS FROM U.S. (US$)    113,176    119,000    125,000 
 
RANK:  3  SNACK FOODS 
a. TOTAL MARKET SIZE(US$)           480,000    500,000    520,000 
b. TOTAL LOCAL PRODUCTION NOT AVAILABLE 
c. TOTAL EXPORTS (US$)               35,557     36,624     37,700 
d. TOTAL IMPORTS (US$)               67,685     70,392     73,208 
e. TOTAL IMPORTS FROM U.S.(US$)      12,303     13,500     14,900 
 
 
C.  SIGNIFICANT INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES 
 
1.  PRIVATIZATION 
 
Privatization and the accompanying deregulation of government-owned and 
-operated enterprises, as well as corporatization, are now a reality at 
the federal level, and in every Australian state.  As a political 
consensus has developed to sell-off public assets, major business and 
investment opportunities are emerging.  The agenda for asset sales 
varies, and invariably tends to reflect each state's financial status.  
Between now and 1998, major privatization initiatives are expected in 
industries as diverse as financial services, pharmaceutical, prisons, 
public utilities (electricity, gas, water, roads), shipping, airlines 
and aerospace technology.  These federal and state government asset 
sales are valued at an estimated US$7.9 billion.   
 
After a long history of government involvement in, and ownership of, 
public facilities and services, privatization currently is in vogue at 
both the national and state levels in Australia.  Over the next few 
years, opportunities for U.S. business will include equity participation 
in public offerings or private placements; contracting of services 
formerly provided by government; and development of infrastructure.   
 
The funds raised or released by privatization will improve government 
ability to finance continuing social and economic commitments, or to 
retire debt.  They also will be used in the revitalization of 
Australia's infrastructure. 
 
2.  MAJOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS 
 
The Commercial Service in Australia monitors closely plans for 
privatization, corporatization, upgrades and major infrastructure 
development projects and reports opportunities regularly in the National 
Trade Data Bank (NTDB). 
 
a.  AIR TRANSPORT 
 
Sydney's second airport, at Badgery's Creek in the rapidly 
expanding Western Sydney region, has been fast-tracked for development 
by the Department of Transport.  There is potential for U.S. companies 
to supply equipment and systems for the new airport and terminal, to be 
operating by the year 2000.  The estimated cost is $400 million, plus 
associated road and rail infrastructure.  The new airport may operate as 
a private airport under a Federal Government proposal to sell off its 
airports on a phased basis. 
 
The staging in Sydney of the Olympic Games in the year 2000 is expected 
to boost air transport movements through airports on the east coast of 
Australia, particularly through Sydney, already the major international 
gateway.  Up to 1.3 million extra tourists are expected as a result of 
the 2000 Olympics, stimulating the demand for accommodation and tourism 
infastructure. 
 
The Australian airline, Qantas, will be offered for sale in August, 
1995, with a float of 1 billion shares in an estimated $1.5 billion 
float.  British Airways owns 25 per cent of Qantas, and a further 24 per 
cent will be available for foreign ownership under recently amended 
regulations, 10 percent to a single foreign airline. 
 
b.  RAIL/ROAD TRANSPORT 
 
New South Wales 
 
North Coast Road Tollways 
The Government has committed to a project to finance, design, construct, 
operate and maintain the tollways on the New South Wales north coast 
road corridor.  Cost is estimated at US$462 million. 
 
Light Rail 
 
Tenders have closed for the provision of a light rail transit system to 
serve near-city suburbs of Sydney. The light rail will service 300 
hectares of land adjacent to the central business district, the Sydney 
Casino site, residential and retail areas, and a proposed heliport. The 
land has been targeted for development under the City West Urban 
Strategy plan. 
 
Sydney City-Airport Link 
 
A dedicated rail link between the Sydney central business district and 
the international airport is being negotiated between CRI/Transfield and 
the New South Wales Government. The project is expected to cost in the 
region of US$500 million. 
 
Queensland 
 
Queensland Railways 
The Ensham Coal Rail Project will enable efficient transportation of 
coal to the port of Gladstone.  Stage 1 has been completed, with stages 
2 and 3 due for completion 2000.  Total project cost is US$105 million. 
 
Victoria 
 
Melbourne City Road Link Project 
City Link will connect Melbourne's major arterial roads - Tullamarine 
Freeway, West Gate Freeway, and the South-Eastern arterial road.  This 
US$1.3 billion project, which will involve two tunnels, a new bridge, 
demolition of existing buildings, construction of new roads, and 
electronic toll equipment, will take five years to complete.   
 
c.  SEA TRANSPORT 
 
Queensland 
 
Port of Brisbane Authority 
Fisherman Islands port development will double the general cargo and 
container berth lengths and improve other facilities, including 
efficient road and rail linkages to the port.  The project will be under 
development until the year 2005. 
 
d.  TELECOMMUNICATIONS 
 
The telecommunications carriers of Telstra, Optus and Vodaphone continue 
to consolidate their networks by expanding and upgrading.  None of these 
companies go to public tender for the work.  Telstra has announced a 
list of "preferred suppliers" from which it sources network equipment 
and other infrastructure.  Telstra works closely with its preferred 
suppliers to implement long-term network strategies.  Optus invites 
companies to tender privately for future development, normally requiring 
the selected company to sign a nondisclosure agreement for some time 
after selection.  Vodaphone also requests companies to tender privately 
for the development of its network infrastructure. 
 
Telstra is the only telecommunications carrier in Australia operating a 
public domestic network.  It continues to digitize this network, 
planning to spend $2.8 billion over 5 years.  Telstra also operates an 
analog and digital mobile phone network.  The analog network is well 
established, and will be phased out gradually over five years.  The 
digital network is under construction, with most major centers having 
some digital coverage at this stage.  In a venture known as Foxtel, 
Telstra, in partnership with Rupert Murdoch's News Ltd., is also 
building a cable TV network in major Australian centers.  Several other 
cable TV networks also are under development. 
 
Optus leases part of Telstra's analog mobile phone network and is 
presently constructing its own digital network that will operate 
Australia-wide alongside Telstra's.  Optus Vision is constructing a 
cable TV network using fiber optic cable and digital technology.  Optus 
hopes to run domestic phone lines along its cable TV service after June 
30, 1997, when the present, reasonably restrictive, telecommunications 
structure is expected to be liberalized. 
 
Vodaphone is establishing a digital mobile phone system in Australia's 
major cities and surrounding areas. 
 
The Federal Government is expected to announce Australia's future 
telecommunications industry strategy toward the end of 1995. This, in 
turn, should prompt additional telecommunications projects as industry 
competition increases. 
 
e.  ENERGY 
 
The traditional (state) government-owned utilities in Australia are in 
the midst of unprecedented changes.  Reforms in electricity, gas, water, 
and pipelines are being embraced in almost every State.  As part of the 
reform process, many assets have been earmarked for sale (both trade 
sale and initial public offerings).  The following is a brief outline of 
the extensive changes occurring in each industry across Australia that 
may result in significant investment opportunities.  Total value of 
sales of utility assets is estimated to be approximately $8.7 billion. 
 
Victoria 
 
Electricity reform in Victoria is the most advanced.  Of the five 
electricity distribution businesses in Victoria, United Energy, is 
expected to be sold via a trade sale by July, 1995, with a subsequent 
partial float expected within 12-18 months.  The remaining four 
businesses will be sold by December, 1995.  At least one of the five 
generation assets in Victoria will be sold before the end of 1995 
(possibly Yallourn W).  A trade buyer will purchase the two natural gas 
turbine power stations of Jeeralang and Newport D.  Power Net Victoria, 
and the Victorian Power Exchange also are to be sold. 
 
Following the disaggregation of the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria 
into the Gas Transmission Company (high pressure gas pipelines) and 
Gascor (distribution and marketing operations) it is likely that the 
distribution and marketing activities will be sold.  Privatization plans 
for GFE Resources Ltd (formerly Gas and Fuel Exploration) were prepared 
for a float but it was deferred due to adverse conditions.  
Privatization initiatives have been revisited, and sale is expected by 
December, 1995.  A new 132km gas pipeline between Victoria and New South 
wales will be on line by the year 2000.  
 
The Melbourne Water Corporation has been separated into three regional 
distribution companies and ultimately will be privatized. 
 
Queensland 
 
The Queensland Government has developed a US$1.8 billion strategy for 
meeting future energy demands that will involve significant new 
infrastructure developments in both electricity and gas, coupled with a 
range of energy conservation measures, and several renewable energy 
projects.  The Government has separated the generation of electricity 
from the transmission and distribution functions.  Generation is now 
Austa Electric, and transmission and distribution is Queensland 
Transmission and Supply Corp.  Gas distribution is held by Allgas Energy 
Ltd. and the Gas Corporation of Queensland (Boral).  There are four gas 
pipelines planned for Queensland.   Private sector involvement in 
generation has been encouraged, and two power stations have been sold - 
Gladstone (NRG Australia) and Collinsville (NRG and Transfield).  Sithe 
Energies is planning a 300-660 MW station, and Energy Equity, a 38MW gas 
fired power station. 
 
New South Wales 
 
The new Labor government in New South Wales plans to reform its power 
industry.  The changes will close most existing electricity distribution 
companies.  Pacific Power will be split into three competing generator 
companies.  The number of distribution companies will be slashed from 
25, to 7 or 8.  The changes will prepare NSW for the start of the 
National Electricity Grid connecting NSW, Victoria and South Australia.  
A Moomba-to-Sydney pipeline is already under construction. 
 
Western Australia 
 
The State Energy Commission was responsible for both electricity and 
gas.  Western Power now handles the separation of generation, 
transmission and distribution.  There are four private generation 
companies, BHP-Port Headland, Goldfields Power JV, BP and Mission 
Energy, and Pacific Hydro-Lend Lease.  AlintaGas handles the separation 
of transmission and distribution, and is expected to be privatized 
within two years.  Eastern Goldfields in building their own pipeline, 
but many others are being built by private industrial companies.  
 
South Australia 
 
The State Government has announced its plans to encourage private sector 
involvement in the provision of traditional government provided 
services, particularly in the electricity and water industries.  
Electricity is still provided by the government-owned Electricity Trust 
of South Australia.  Tenneco recently bought into the South Australia 
Pipeline authority with other consortium partners.  Government has 
issued expressions of interest for the provision of private Build Own 
Operate (BOO) water treatment plants.  
 
Northern Territory 
 
The Northern Territory Power and Water Authority (PAWA) is a "one-stop" 
utility.  It was formed in 1987 as a result of the amalgamation of the 
NT Electricity Commission and the NT Water Authority, and is responsible 
for the provision of electricity; water and sewage services; water 
resource management; and, advisory services.  It also manages the 
purchase and sale of gas, and investment in NT Gas Pty Ltd and Amadeus 
Gas.  The PAWA of NT have been proactive in encouraging private sector 
involvement in the utility industry.  Private sector participants 
include NT Gas Pty Ltd (96 per cent AGL, 4 per cemt PAWA); NT Power Pty 
Ltd; NT Power Pty. Ltd; AGL Pipelines; Energy Developments Ltd; Energy 
Equity Corp Ltd; and Powercorp Pty Ltd. 
 
Tasmania 
 
The Hydro-Electric Commission (HEC) of Tasmania launched a major 
commercialization program on March 1, 1992.  The HEC has been split into 
six business units comprising generation, transmission, retail, 
corporate, engineering, and operations support.  Construction of large 
hydropower stations has been completed. Thus, the State's role in the 
future development of generation capacity should diminish.  The issue 
dominating electricity reform in Tasmania is the ADols 410 million Bass 
Link proposal.  The Rivers and Water Supply Commission is responsible 
for the water industry, and there are no signs of altering this 
structure.  
 
Australian Capital Territory (ACT) 
 
The ACT Electricity and Water Authority (ACTEW) was established in 1988.  
Its primary functions are to supply and manage electricity and water, 
collect and treat sewage, and provide sewage services.  There are no 
current plans for privatization, but it has operated on a commercial 
footing for a number of years. 
 
f.  WATER AND SEWERAGE 
 
Australian State Governments are restructuring government-owned water 
and sewerage enterprises.  For example, Sydney Water has been renamed, 
and is in the process of corporatization.  Four water filtration plants 
are being constructed on a Build Own Operate (BOO) basis by three 
consortiums.  There are significant opportunities for private sector 
participation, as follows: 
 
New South Wales 
   
- US$183 million upgrade of the Warragamba dam, Australia's  
  largest water dam;  
- Continuing upgrade of water treatment plants to improve drinking  
  water quality and supply 
- Upgrade of ocean sewerage outfall plants. 
 
Victoria 
 
- Supply of 900 multi-unit remote onsite water metering systems for  
  new multi-unit apartment complexes. 
 
Queensland 
  
- US$7.3 million major urban wastewater management study of the  
  state's rivers and creeks;  
- US$163 million allocation of funds for the development of water 
  infrastructure to meet priority water needs throughout the State. 
 
South Australia 
  
- US$73 million development of water filtration plants;  
- US$511 million progressive development scheme up until 2000, covering 
  the state's water-resource needs, sewage plant upgrade, and mains 
  network programs. 
 
Western Australia 
  
- the Water Authority of Western Australia has an annual capital works 
  program of approximately US$185-200 million for water and sewerage 
  management and upgrade. 
 
G.  BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 
 
A number of major projects are timed to be completed before the year 
2000, with a surge of construction activity expected in Sydney in the 
two years leading to the Olympic Games.   Hotel, retail, and industrial 
construction is expected to maintain strong growth, particularly in 
South Australia, New South Wales, and Queensland.  Major projects 
include: 
 
New South Wales 
 
- Sydney Casino. The Sydney construction and property management company 
Leighton Holdings, in conjunction with Las Vegas company Showboat Inc., 
will build, own, and operate Sydney's first Casino.  The complex will 
include a 350-room five-star hotel, 139 luxury serviced apartments, 14 
restaurants, convention facilities, theater, and retail outlets.  
Estimated cost: US$729 million.  Due for completion in 1997. 
 
- Film Studio Complex.  Proposed film studio complex to be built on a 
nine hectare site at the Royal Agricultural Showground.  The complex is 
expected to include at least three sound stages and additional 
facilities, e.g. film processing laboratories and post production areas. 
 
- Broadway Regional Shopping Centre.  A former department store site 
will be transformed into a regional shopping centre incorporating a 
supermarket, cinemas, specialty shops, jazz club, and student housing.  
Estimated cost:  US$109 million.  Due for completion early 1997. 
 
- Office/Hotel Complex at General Post Office.  Australia Post will add 
a 24-level office building and a 16-level 337-room hotel complex to its 
General Post Office Building at No. 1 Martin Place.  Estimated cost:  
US$109-145 million.  Due for completion early 1999. 
 
Victoria 
 
- Melbourne Casino.  Proposed casino and entertainment complex.  
Estimated cost:  US$546 million.  Due for completion late 1996. 
 
- Exhibition Centre, Southbank, Melbourne.  Proposed center of 
approximately 30,000 square meters.  Estimated cost:  US$87 million.  
Due for completion late 1995. 
 
- Museum of Victoria.  New building to be constructed adjacent to the 
present Royal Exhibition Building.  Estimated cost:  US$182 million.  
Due for completion in 2000. 
 
Queensland 
 
- Reef Casino, Cairns.  Incorporating a 128-suite five-star hotel.  
Estimated cost:  US$160 million.  Due for completion in 1996. 
 
- Cairns Convention Centre and Hotel.  Proposed convention center 
consisting of seating for at least 2,500 people, function rooms, and 
exhibition facilities;  five-star hotel to be built next to the 
Convention Centre consisting of eight levels.  Estimated cost:  US$83 
million.  Due for completion in 1996. 
 
South Australia 
 
- Westfield Shoppingtown Plazas.  Proposed refurbishment and extensions 
of existing centers, plus new facilities to include a cinema, department 
store, supermarket, and specialty shops.  Estimated cost: US$182 
million.  Due for completion in 1997. 
 
Western Australia 
 
- Port Geographe Marina Resort, Busselton.  Proposed resort to be built 
around a system of canals consisting of a 200-room hotel, apartments and 
houses, 5000 square meters of retail space, and a 300 berth marina.  
Estimated cost: US$116 million. 
 
- FAI Residential, Commercial, and Hotel Complex.  Estimated cost: 
US$218 million.  Due for completion around 2001.    
 
H.  SYDNEY OLYMPIC GAMES FACILITIES 
 
The New South Wales Government is keen to obtain private sector 
involvement in the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games facilities and services.  
It is encouraging overseas participation with the aim of identifying and 
maximizing opportunities by urging overseas bidders for major contracts 
to team with local industry participants.  Opportunities include a 
number of major Games venues with potential for long-term entertainment, 
sporting, exhibition and convention facilities.  Direct investment, 
ownership and/or management, maintenance and operation of these 
facilities are all possible. 
 
Facilities offered for private sector involvement include: 
 
- main Olympic Stadium, for opening and closing ceremonies, track and  
field, football, paralympics; proposals requested; 
 
- velodrome, for track cycling and paralympics; proposals requested; 
 
- equestrian center, for dressage, show jumping, and three-day events, 
proposals requested; 
 
- baseball and tennis centers; proposals requested; 
 
- shooting center, indoor/outdoor; proposals requested; 
 
- athletes' village international and residential sectors; proposals to 
be requested August, 1995. 
 
Under review by the government to determine the mix of public and 
private sector investment are:  the coliseum, for gymnastics, handball, 
volleyball, paralympics; international broadcast center; infrastructure 
services; technical officials' village; media villages; and sports halls 
for volleyball, handball, badminton, and rhythmic gymnastics.  (See 
Appendix E.C.) 
 
3.  OPPORTUNITIES ARISING FROM MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANK-FUNDED 
PROJECTS 
 
Some of the best business opportunities in the nineties could come from 
major contracts in developing markets financed by the multilateral 
development banks (MDBs).  MDBs support clearly defined projects 
designed to foster economic and social progress within their specified 
geographic regions.  Australia, like the United States, is a donor 
nation to the MDBs, not a recipient of funds.   
 
Australian companies are becoming increasingly active in seeking to 
become MDB project contractors, for both goods and services.  Contracts 
are with the banks themselves, or with recipient governments.  In Asia, 
particularly, Australia has a historical base of involvement, and 
projects funded by the Asian Development Bank are of particular 
interest.  A number of Australian companies are seeking joint ventures 
with U.S. firms to bid for some of these projects, as such partnerships 
combining knowledge, products, and contacts within the Asia region can 
provide greater competitive advantage.   
 
U.S. firms and their subsidiaries are eligible to bid on procurement 
opportunities funded by MDBs and are encouraged to investigate the 
substantial business opportunities in the Asia-Pacific region through 
loans offered by the Asian Development Bank (contact:  Senior Commercial 
Officer and Liaison to the Asian Development Bank, APO AP 96440; Tel: 
632-890-9364; Fax: 632-890-9713). 
 
4.  OUTWARD FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT 
 
The Government of the United States acknowledges the contribution that 
outward foreign direct investment makes to the U.S. economy.  U.S. 
foreign direct investment is increasingly viewed as a complement or even 
a necessary component of trade.  For example, roughly 60 percent of U.S. 
exports are sold by American firms that have operations abroad.  
Recognizing the benefits that U.S. outward investment brings to the U.S. 
economy, the Government of the United States undertakes initiatives, 
such as Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) programs, 
investment treaty negotiations and business facilitation programs, that 
support U.S. investors. 
 
 
 
CHAPTER VI.  TRADE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 
 
 
A.  TRADE BARRIERS 
 
1.  TARIFFS 
 
Australia's long-standing policy of using tariffs to protect its local 
industry began changing in the early 1970s, and was accelerated in 1988 
by the Federal Government's program of economic reform directed toward 
moving the country toward a globally competitive economy.  Initially 
general in scope, the program now is focused on microeconomic changes to 
help business become more competitive.  The strategy has three principal 
premises:  tariffs and other forms of protection must be reduced; 
industry must drop its preoccupation with protection and turn its 
attention to becoming more competitive; and, improvements must come from 
both labor and management. 
 
On a trade-weighted basis, Australian duties on manufactured goods 
average just over 4 percent, with 94 percent of its industrial tariff 
lines GATT-bound. 
 
In unilateral measures taken in 1991, the Government pledged that, 
except for textiles, clothing, and footwear (TCF), and certain 
automotive products, all other tariffs will be reduced in stages to 5 
percent by 1996.  By 2000, apparel and certain finished textile tariffs 
will be reduced to 25 percent; footwear, sheeting and certain other 
fabrics to 15 percent; and existing non-quota TCF products to 10 
percent.  Nonetheless, tariff rates do affect competitive pricing of 
imported goods. 
 
The tariff rate on passenger motor vehicles and their original equipment 
components, currently 27.5 percent, will be reduced in stages to 15 
percent by 2000.  Tariffs on light commercial and four-wheel drive 
vehicles and components will be reduced to 5 percent by 1996.  
Replacement components for passenger vehicles will remain at 15 percent 
from 1996 until 2000, with special provisions for automobile 
manufacturers.  Under the terms of the government's export facilitation 
scheme, automobile manufacturers may also offset tariffs payable on the 
importation of specified automotive products by exporting Australian-
made automotive products. 
 
2.  NON-TARIFF BARRIERS 
 
Although Australia became a signatory to the GATT Standards Code on 
March 1, 1992 (and has now acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO) 
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade), it maintains some restrictive 
standards requirements and design rules that have an impact on the free 
flow of goods.  However, Australian standards are being rewritten in a 
number of areas to bring them into conformity with Australia's new 
international obligations under various trade agreements. 
 
3.  IMPORT TAXES AND SALES TAXES 
 
There are no import taxes in Australia. 
 
The Australian government does, however, impose a tax on the sale of 
both domestically manufactured and imported goods.  Generally speaking, 
for domestic consumption, the tax is imposed on the last wholesale sale.  
The wholesaler or manufacturer, upon whom the tax is imposed, can, in 
turn, pass the tax on to the retailer who, in turn, passes it to the 
consumer.  There is no additional retail sales tax imposed at last 
retail point of sale.  Manufacturers and wholesale merchants are 
required to register for sales tax.  Importers of goods who are not 
manufacturers or wholesalers are not required to register, but are 
liable for sales tax on the entry of goods into Australia. 
 
The general rate of this tax is 21% of the sale value (broadly equal to 
the fair wholesale value) of the goods.  There are a large number of 
exempt goods set out in a schedule to the Sales Tax (Exemptions and 
Classifications) Act.  There are also categories of goods subject to tax 
at 11% (household goods) and 31% (luxury goods).  Exporters should 
clarify with their agent, distributor, or representative the tax level 
to be imposed on their goods and take this into consideration in 
calculating product pricing. 
 
Australia's anti-dumping legislation defines dumping as occurring when 
the FOB price at which goods are exported to Australia (the "export 
price") falls below the price at which the same goods are sold 
domestically in the country of export.  When dumping is found to occur, 
dumping duties are imposed on the importer. 
     
Further information on tariffs and anti-dumping regulation can be 
obtained from the Australian Customs Service, the Embassy of Australia, 
or the Anti-Dumping Authority.  (See Appendix E.4.) 
 
B.  CUSTOMS VALUATION 
 
The Australian customs valuation system is based on self-assessment, 
i.e., the importer is responsible for valuing imports correctly.  While 
Australian legislation conforms generally with the terms of the GATT 
Code on customs valuation, there are important differences.  Imported 
goods are valued under one of nine different methods of valuation in a 
sequence established in the legislation.  The first and most common is 
the transaction value method.  There are alternative methods, e.g., 
where goods are exported to Australia on consignment. 
 
The United States believes that the Australian Customs Act of 1901, as 
amended July 1, 1989, is inconsistent with the GATT Agreement on customs 
valuation, because its treatment of royalties and buying commissions, 
could lead to certain impermissible additions being made to the dutiable 
value of merchandise. 
 
The amendment also increases the amount of inland freight that can be 
included in the dutiable value of the goods.  While not inconsistent 
with the GATT Agreement on customs valuation, the amended Australian law 
may impair or nullify tariff concessions on products that are exported 
on an ex-factory basis.  Customs and quota information is available from 
the Australian Customs Service.  (See Appendix E.4.) 
 
C.  IMPORT LICENSES 
 
Australia has phased out its import licensing requirements.  Effective 
March 1993, import quotas were terminated, except for cheese and curd. 
   
D.  EXPORT CONTROLS 
 
Australia exports over one million individual consignments each year, 
40% of which are subject to some kind of restriction. Controls are 
applied through permits issued by the Department of Defence and licenses 
issued by various Government agencies. Export Clearance Numbers are 
issued by the Customs Service based on export data lodged by shippers. 
Consignments are checked by computer against required permits and 
licenses (97% of export consignments are entered electronically).  Cargo 
may not leave Australian points of departure unless allocated an Export 
Clearance Number. 
 
Australia was a member of COCOM until its conclusion, and is a signatory 
to the Missile Technology Control Regime.  Permits are issued for the 
export of military and dual-use goods, and technology as formerly 
defined by COCOM, and in keeping with Australia's international 
agreements.  Revised guidelines were issued in March, 1994. 
 
Australia's controls on exports are documented in the publications 
"Australian Controls of the Export of Technology with Civil and Military 
Applications" and "Australian Control of Defence and Related Goods - a 
Guide for Exporters", available through the Acquisition and Logistics 
Branch of the Department of Defence.  (See Appendix E.4 for contact 
information.) 
 
E.  IMPORT/EXPORT DOCUMENTATION 
 
1.  IMPORTS 
 
Importers are responsible for obtaining Customs clearance for 
consignments of goods above set value limits.  The minimum documentation 
required includes an air-way bill or bill of lading, invoices, and any 
other papers relating to the shipment. 
 
2.  EXPORTS 
 
Goods may not be exported until all necessary export permits, including 
an Export Clearance number, are obtained from the relevant permit 
issuing agency (See Section D. above.) 
 
F.  TEMPORARY ENTRY 
 
Goods may be imported into Australia duty free for a temporary period if 
they are for display purposes in a trade show certified by the 
Australian Customs Service.  The ATA Carnet is a special international 
customs document accepted in 46 countries, used for temporary 
imports/exports, particularly professional equipment and commercial 
samples.  The Carnet, issued in lieu of the usual customs documents, 
eliminates value-added taxes, duties and temporary import bonds. 
 
G.  LABELING, MARKING REQUIREMENTS 
 
U.S. suppliers need to be aware of Australian legislation regulating the 
packaging, labelling, ingredients, marketing, and sale of specific 
products, and of general weights and measures.  Legal import and sale of 
products packaged and labelled overseas may not be possible without 
modification.  U.S. exporters should ask their Australian importer to 
ensure that products comply with Australian Federal and State Government 
labeling regulations. 
 
H.  PROHIBITED IMPORTS 
 
Australia has stringent prohibitions and/or quarantines imposed against 
a number of products, particularly those considered to be of potential 
public danger, and agricultural products that are considered to have the 
potential to introduce contamination or disease.  Restricted items 
include drugs, steroids, weapons/firearms, heritage items, and cordless 
telephones and CB radios (unless they have been approved by the 
Department of Communications and the Arts), food, plants and animals and 
protected wildlife.  (Contact information for Australian Customs is 
found in Appendix E.4.  Contact information for USDA and the Embassy's 
Agricultural Counselor is found in Appendix E. 1 and 10) 
 
1.  PHYTOSANITARY RESTRICTIONS AFFECTING IMPORTS OF FRESH FRUIT AND 
VEGETABLES 
 
Australia has stringent phytosanitary restrictions affecting imports of 
fresh fruit and vegetables and other requirements affecting imports of 
meat and poultry products.  A phytosanitary barrier to the importation 
of fresh and frozen salmon is in the process of being lifted. 
 
Appendix C., Part II contains information on a partial listing of fruits 
and vegetables and their import status relative to Australian 
phytosanitary import regulations.  This list is constantly changing and 
U.S. exporters should check with Australian Quarantine officials to make 
sure that their product is, or is not, allowed entry to Australia. 
 
All produce should have an Australian import permit and a U.S. 
phytosanitary certificate.  The import permit can be requested from the 
Australian Department of Primary Industries and Energy in Canberra, or 
from appropriate State Departments of Agriculture located in the State 
capitals.  The permit may specify additional import requirements to 
those noted below.  (See Appendix E. 4. and 10 for contact information.) 
 
When applying for import permits, as much detail as possible should be 
provided as to where the product is grown and how it is processed, so 
that the appropriate advice on treatments, etc. can be given without 
having to request additional information from the U.S. exporter.  
Products falling under the Fruit Fly Rule must be accompanied by a 
phytosanitary certificate endorsed to indicate that no species of fruit 
fly which attacks this product has been trapped within 80 km (50 miles) 
of the area of production within the last 12 months. 
 
All meat and poultry products must be accompanied by an Australian 
Import Permit and appropriate USDA Animal Health Certificates and must 
originate from a plant approved for export to Australia.  Appendix C., 
Part II contains further information on requirements. 
 
Livestock imports, with the exception of horses, are limited under 
quarantine regulations.  Breeder, feeder and slaughter steers may be 
imported on quarantine grounds, but all must undergo the same tests as 
breeders.  U.S. poultry cannot be imported due to phytosanitary 
restrictions.  Restrictive plant health regulations prohibit or limit 
the entry of many fruits. 
 
I.  STANDARDS (E.G. ISO 9000 USAGE) 
 
Australia became a signatory to the GATT Standards Code in 1992. Use of 
quality standards such as the IS0 9000 series is increasing.  Standards 
Australia has a Quality Assessment section attached to it and can 
provide a list of those companies adhering to the IS0 9000 series. 
 
Australia still has in place some standards that can restrict product 
entry.  In particular, the Australian standards for telecommunications 
Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) such as telephones usually require a 
product's modification prior to market entry; automotive parts and 
accessories mainly for external positioning on a vehicle, or for 
environmental (EPA) compliance, must adhere to Australian Design Rules; 
certain medical equipment also must be approved prior to use.   
 
Australian electrical voltage is 220-240 Volts, 50 cycle, meaning 
electrical equipment, and machines running on electrical cycles must be 
modified or made for use at this higher (than the U.S. and Europe) 
voltage level.  Alternatively, for electrical equipment, transformers 
can be purchased, but this is not common. 
 
Imported consumer products, mainly foodstuffs, should comply with state 
packaging regulations.  States agree that any product, including 
imports, meeting the legal requirements of one state, may be sold in all 
other states and territories. 
 
Standards Australia and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 
in New York have full information on Australian Standards. 
 
J.  FREE TRADE ZONES/WAREHOUSES 
 
The only Trade Development Zone (TDZ) in Australia is located in Darwin, 
Northern Territory.  The Darwin TDZ is concentrating, particularly, on 
developing Australia's trading relationships with its Asian neighbors to 
the north and west.  Since 1986, the TDZ has fostered close working 
relationships with other Industrial Estates and Export Processing Zones 
within Asia, particularly the Eastern States of Indonesia.  Industries 
established include manufacturers of: knitted textiles; cardboard and 
packaging; color repro-graphics; computer software development; brewery 
supplying beer to Asia; fish emulsion and plant food; plastics extrusion 
injection blow molding; and engineering-based manufactures.  The Zone 
also has access to the services of international financial consultants 
and customs agents, and other industries are scheduled to be 
established.  (See Appendix E.4.B for contact information.) 
 
There are no bonded warehouses. 
 
K.  SPECIAL IMPORT PROVISIONS 
 
There are no special import provisions in Australia. 
 
L.  MEMBERSHIP IN FREE TRADE ARRANGEMENTS 
 
Australia is a key member of the evolving Asia Pacific Economic 
Cooperation (APEC) process. 
 
The Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement 
(ANZCERTA - usually abbreviated as CER) entered into force in January, 
1983.  Bilateral trade in all products originating in the two countries 
is free of tariffs, quantitative restrictions, anti-dumping measures, 
and production subsidies and like measures.  A 1988 protocol on trade in 
services provides for market liberalization, national and MFN treatment 
and free choice of commercial presence.  The two countries backed away 
from establishing a unified civil aviation market under the CER in 1994.  
The merger now underway between Air New Zealand and Ansett may lead to 
its creation in 1995. 
 
 
 
CHAPTER VII.  INVESTMENT CLIMATE 
 
 
A.  OPENNESS TO FOREIGN INVESTMENT 
 
1.  ENCOURAGING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT CONSISTENT WITH NATIONAL GOALS 
 
The Australian Government welcomes foreign investment, and the United 
States is the country's largest source of foreign capital.  Total U.S. 
investment in Australia, including both direct and portfolio investment, 
exceeds US$54 billion.  Australia's policy, as first enunciated by 
former Treasurer John Dawkins in the introduction to a 1992 pamphlet 
entitled "Australia's Foreign Investment Policy, a Guide for Investors" 
is: 
 
"to encourage foreign direct investment consistent with the needs of the 
Australian community, including the expansion of private investment, the 
development of internationally competitive and export-oriented 
industries and the creation of employment opportunities...Administration 
of the policy is based on guidelines rather than inflexible rules; it is 
intended to be practical and non-discriminatory." 
 
Takeovers of domestic firms by foreign investors (while occasionally 
generating nationalistic public reaction when a cultural icon is 
involved, as was the case with a biscuit company recently) generally are 
not interfered with.  They are treated under the same guidelines as any 
other foreign investment. 
 
2.  REGULATION IN SOME SECTORS:  MEDIA, CIVIL AVIATION, URBAN REAL 
ESTATE 
 
The Federal Treasury regulates foreign investment with the assistance of 
the Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB).  The Board screens 
investment proposals for conformity with Australian law and policy. (See 
section I below.)  Regulation of foreign investment is based on the 
Foreign Acquisitions and Takeovers Act, 1975 (amended in 1989), and on 
1991 regulations issued pursuant to the Act.  Foreign investment in 
three sectors is severely limited.   
 
a.  MEDIA:  The Broadcasting Services Act of 1992 provides that a 
foreign person may not exercise control of a television license, or have 
company interests in such a license exceeding 15 percent; and, two or 
more foreign persons may not have company interests in such a license 
exceeding 20 percent in the aggregate.  Foreign investors are limited to 
a 20 percent share individually, and a 35 percent share in the 
aggregate, of any subscription TV broadcaster.  Foreign investment in 
mass circulation newspapers is limited.  A single foreigner may hold a 
minor share of 25 percent, and unrelated foreign interests may hold an 
additional 5 percent.   
 
Both the cross-media and foreign ownership limitations have proven 
controversial.  Some argue they are becoming obsolete as the 
distinctions between communications media blur with the arrival of the 
information superhighway.  However, the Government has stated its 
intention to maintain the restrictions. 
 
b.  CIVIL AVIATION:  Foreign airlines flying to Australia generally can 
expect approval to acquire up to 25 percent of the equity in a domestic 
carrier individually, or up to 40 percent in the aggregate.  All other 
foreign investors (including those that do not operate an airline 
service to Australia) may acquire up to 100 percent of a domestic 
carrier, or establish a new aviation business.  In the case of Qantas, 
foreign voting equity is restricted to 49 percent, with individual 
holdings limited to 25 percent (British Airways currently owns 25 
percent of Qantas.)  Ansett, Australia's other domestic/international 
carrier, is in the process of negotiating with Air New Zealand regarding 
the sale of a substantial stake of the Australian airline to the Kiwi 
carrier.  Many commentators believe that ANZ will be allowed to buy up 
to 49 percent of Ansett, thereby forming the first true trans-Tasman 
carrier. 
 
c.  URBAN REAL ESTATE:  The purchase of urban real estate by foreign 
interests is regulated closely.  Prior to April 1, 1993, Australia 
sought to assure 50 percent equity participation by Australians in all 
such ventures.  Where such participation was not available on reasonable 
terms and conditions, however, applications for up to 100 percent 
foreign ownership were considered.  Effective that date, however, the 50 
percent requirement for developed, non-residential, commercial real 
estate was abolished.  All proposals by foreign investors to acquire 
developed residential real estate are to be examined.  They normally are 
not approved except in the cases of foreign companies buying residences 
for their senior executives living in Australia, and of foreign 
nationals temporarily resident in Australia for more than twelve months 
buying a principal residence for their own use, to be sold upon their 
departure. 
 
3.  INCENTIVES FOR INVESTMENT 
 
Like the U.S., Australia provides no direct federal tax incentives for 
investment in the country.  Those incentives which are available apply 
equally to foreign and domestic investors.  Examples include: 
 
- research and development tax concessions for companies incorporated in 
Australia; 
- the discretionary grants scheme, which can cover up to 50 percent of 
research and development tax losses; 
- the national procurement development program, which provides grants to 
underwrite the development of Australian products required by the public 
sector that have export potential; 
- the generic technology scheme, and the advanced manufacturing 
technology development program, which provide development grants for 
selected new technologies; and, 
- the investment promotion program, which encourages investment in 
greenfield resource processing projects, and links with global markets. 
 
Each of the state governments has an aggressive investment promotion 
program and is willing to negotiate investment incentives on a case-by-
case basis.  They often offer concessionary packages to attract 
companies to establish themselves in their state. 
 
4.  PREFERENTIAL TARIFF ARRANGEMENTS WITH SOME COUNTRIES 
 
Australia traditionally has accorded a uniform 5 percent tariff 
preference to developing countries.  In addition, it maintains a 
preferential arrangement with Pacific Forum Islands, and has bilateral 
trade agreements with Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Malaysia and 
Canada.  The developing country rate for all but the least developed 
countries, including the South Pacific Island Territories, is being 
phased out, and will be brought in line with other tariffs in 
conjunction with Australia's overall program of tariff reduction.  
Products affected are chemicals, plastics, rubber, textiles, clothing 
and footwear. 
 
While the 1983 Closer Economic Relations (CER) agreement with New 
Zealand continues in force, it does not yet include a formal investment 
agreement.   
 
Investors, both foreign and domestic, operating in export-oriented 
industries can obtain duty free import privileges on finished goods 
under certain conditions.  This practice is most visible in the 
automobile industry.  Several firms in Australia both manufacture and 
import vehicles for sale on the domestic market.  Two of them, Ford and 
Mitsubishi, also export finished vehicles and/or components.  These two 
companies receive, in accordance with the value of their exports, 
exemption from import duties on the equivalent value of finished 
vehicles they import for sale here.  In effect, they can obtain duty 
free import privileges not available to competitors without export 
capability.  This import duty exemption is available to all auto 
importers on a non-discriminatory basis. 
 
5.  EFFICIENT CAPITAL MARKETS AND PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT 
 
Australia has a well developed and sophisticated financial market 
regulated in accordance with international norms.  The stock and 
commodities exchanges have corresponding arrangements with other world 
exchanges.  Credit is allocated on market terms.   
 
B.  CONVERSION AND TRANSFER POLICIES 
 
The Australian dollar is a fully convertible currency.  The government 
does not maintain currency controls or limit remittance, loan and lease 
payments.  Such payments are processed through standard commercial 
channels without governmental interference or delay. 
 
C.  EXPROPRIATION AND COMPENSATION 
 
Private property can be expropriated for public purposes in accordance 
with established principles of international law.  Due process rights 
are established and respected, and prompt, adequate and effective 
compensation is paid. 
 
D.  DISPUTE SETTLEMENT 
 
1.  INVESTMENT DISPUTES 
 
Property and contractual rights are enforced through the Australian 
court system, which is based on English common law.  There have been no 
investment disputes involving foreign companies in recent years.  
However, in 1994, the Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB) exercised 
its authority to block a proposed investment involving a U.S. firm that 
wanted to expand its Australian health care operations.  The FIRB based 
its decision on concerns regarding the firm's U.S. parent, and legal 
difficulties it experienced in the U.S.  The FIRB has a history of 
interpreting foreign investment regulations flexibly.  For example, in 
1991, it approved a foreign-led takeover of Australia's second largest 
newspaper group, John Fairfax Group Pty., even though post-takeover 
foreign ownership totalled 27 percent. 
 
Australia is not a member of the International Center for the Settlement 
of Investment Disputes (ICSID).  
 
2.  COMMERCIAL DISPUTES 
 
Australia has an established legal and court system for the conduct or 
supervision of litigation and arbitration, as well as alternate dispute 
processes.  The traditional approach to commercial dispute resolution 
involves litigation and, more recently, arbitration.  Modern methods of 
alternative dispute resolution, however, are becoming increasingly 
popular. Australia is a world leader in the development and provision of 
non-court dispute resolution mechanisms. It is a signatory to all the 
major international dispute resolution conventions, and has 
organizations which provide international dispute resolution processes. 
 
Dispute resolution clauses are used frequently in contracts between 
Australian and U.S. commercial entities. In some areas, such as 
construction, clauses are inserted routinely into contracts providing 
provide that a dispute resolution process will be used to settle any 
disputes that arise.  The clauses may specify the particular process to 
be used (e.g., mediation, followed by arbitration), or simply state that 
should a dispute emerge, the parties will seek the assistance of the 
American Arbitration Association and/or the Australian Commercial 
Disputes Centre.  These clauses are upheld by the courts. 
 
E.  POLITICAL VIOLENCE AFFECTING INVESTMENT 
 
Various ethnic groups hold vociferous public protests from time to time 
on their special interest issues occurring around the world (e.g., 
Greeks protesting the adoption of the name Macedonia by a former 
Yugoslav state), and environmental groups, "greenies", are particularly 
tenacious when taking on politicians, polluters, and despoilers (as with 
recent protests regarding logging of old growth forest).  However, such 
protests rarely, if ever, degenerate into violence. 
 
F.  PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS AND INCENTIVES TO SUPPORT LOCAL INDUSTRY 
DEVELOPMENT 
 
1.  SELLING TO THE GOVERNMENT (Also see Section IV. M.) 
 
There are no performance requirements affecting investment per se.  
Until recently, the GOA had been in the habit of levying performance 
requirements and incentives (especially in the form of offsets) on firms 
attempting to sell goods to the federal government.  Until the end of 
1992, it had imposed a 30 percent offset requirement on the cumulative 
imported value of products for most government contracts awarded to any 
one firm exceeding A$S 2.5 million in any one year, whenever the 
imported content of the purchased products exceeded 30 percent. 
 
However, except for defense procurement and the Industrial Development 
Arrangements (IDA's) in telecommunications, offsets have not been 
required on new contracts for federal level, civilian government 
procurement since June 30, 1991.  The civil offsets policy was 
terminated officially on December 31, 1992.   The use of offsets in 
defense procurement is being phased out in favor of a policy emphasizing 
"Australian Industrial Involvement" and "Through Life Support" concepts. 
 
2.  BOUNTIES 
  
Bounties (production assistance) help domestic manufacturers maintain or 
increase their market share through price discounting.  Bounties are now 
in place on the following products (scheduled expiration dates are 
indicated in parentheses):  shipbuilding (June 30, 1997); computers and 
certain computer equipment, including certain circuit boards (December 
31, 1995); machine tools and robots (June 30, 1997); and books (December 
31, 1997).  The bounty on bedsheets, and textile yarns ended on June 30, 
1995, after which date 5% customs duty was levied on imported yarns. 
 
All bounties are set at rates which decrease automatically over time.  
Eligibility thresholds for most bounties were established (if none 
existed), or raised effective July 1, 1991.  All bounties are reviewed 
before expiration.  Some could be extended, as occurred with the bounty 
for book publishing in 1993, or converted into tariffs as with yarns.  
  
Australia is not a member of the GATT government procurement code, but 
the Government has said it will examine the code for possible adherence 
now that the Uruguay Round is complete.  
 
3.  SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND 
TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES  
 
Since 1991, foreign information technology companies with annual sales 
to the GOA of US$7-30 million (A$10-40 million) have been asked to enter 
into fixed term arrangements (FTAs), and those with sales greater than 
US$30 million (A$40 million) to enter into Partnerships for Development 
(PDs).  The FTA program was originally for overseas firms, and had 
minimum threshold of US$7 million (A$10 million).  The minimum threshold 
has been removed and Australian firms are permitted to participate since 
the introduction of the Endorsed Supplier Arrangement.  The ESA has 
added a step in the procurement process whereby, before access to 
government IT business will be considered, firms must undertake long-
term value-adding in Australia and demonstrate a commitment to "world 
best practice".  Other endorsement criteria relate to "world best 
practice" matters, such as reference sites, compliance with government 
policies, quality, standards, services, and financial viability.  This 
may be an obstacle to new firms seeking to enter the market, as it can 
prevent firms from testing the market with imports prior to undertaking 
a more long-term commitment.     
 
Under FTAs, a foreign company, or its subsidiary, as with local 
companies, commits to undertake local industrial development activities 
worth 15 percent of its projected amount of government sales over a four 
year period. 
 
Under a PD, the headquarters of the foreign firm agrees:  to invest 5 
percent of its annual local turnover on research and development in 
Australia; to export goods and services worth 50 percent of imports (for 
hardware companies) or 20 percent of turnover (for software companies); 
and to achieve 70 percent local content across all exports within the 
seven year life of the PD. 
 
In 1992, this scheme was extended into the telecommunications customer 
premises equipment (CPE) sector, replacing, in large measure, the 
requirement that suppliers of cellular mobile telephones, PABX, small 
business systems, and first telephones have industrial development 
arrangements (IDAs) in place before obtaining licenses to connect their 
equipment to the public switched network.  The IDA program now is 
scheduled to be eliminated in June, 1996.  
 
4.  RESTRICTED SYSTEMS INTEGRATION PANEL FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 
 
In 1992, the Government implemented a Restricted Systems Integration 
Panel (RSIP) scheme.  The RSIP is a panel of 15 private companies, 
selected by a government evaluation process through which all 
Commonwealth information technology requirements involving systems 
integration activity are to be sourced, except for purchases with an 
estimated value of less than A$S 1 million.  Firms applying for panel 
membership are evaluated on "demonstrated competence, commercial 
viability, and potential to contribute to government policy objectives, 
including expansion into Asian-Pacific markets, particularly those of 
North and South-East Asia".   
 
The net effect of the panel could be to hinder non-member participation 
in government systems integration contracts.  Technically, panel 
membership will not be closed.  However, access will remain restricted.  
In order to be eligible to bid on a contract, a new applicant (domestic 
or foreign) would have to demonstrate its eligibility to become a 
member; or clearly be able to offer expertise not available within the 
panel.  However, several U.S. firms were named initial members of the 
panel and the U.S. Government and the Australian Information Industry 
Association have opposed strongly the panel's establishment, believing 
the restrictive nature of the panel membership has the potential to 
hinder open competition.  However, no complaints have been received from 
U.S. industry over the past year.  
 
5.  GOVERNMENT BUSINESS ENTERPRISES 
 
A number of qualitative factors are important in procurement decisions 
made by the Australian federal and state governments and by Government 
Business Enterprises.  American companies are advised to consider these 
factors seriously in all of their business development and bidding 
activities.  (See Chapter IV. M.) 
 
Since Australian FY 1993-94, the Australian Government has required 
Government Business Enterprises (GBEs are central government-owned 
companies such as Telecom and the Civil Aviation Authority) to consider 
"industrial development objectives" such as local content and export 
potential in their procurement activities.  The objective is to allow 
"local companies the maximum opportunity to compete for government 
business consistent with the commercial objectives of GBEs and the need 
to obtain value for money".   
 
The new policy stops well short of directing GBEs to give preference to 
local suppliers.  However, it does bias them toward buying locally, and 
toward favoring one major-project bidder over another if its package of 
incentives for the development of local industry is superior to that of 
its competitor.  The December, 1993, decision of the Civil Aviation 
Authority to award the contract for the Australian Advanced Air Traffic 
Control System to a French firm, Thomson, rather than to Hughes Aircraft 
was made explicitly on that basis. 
 
6.  LOCAL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IMPACT 
  
The Federal Government's May, 1994, employment and industry policy 
statement strengthens its effort to use government procurement policy to 
encourage local industrial development.  It requires industry impact 
statements to be drafted for procurements of A$10 million or more, and 
establishes a two-envelope system for such tenders.  Bidders are 
required to submit detailed information regarding Australian industrial 
development separately (in "envelope 2"), and bids are judged on both 
price/product specifications, and on industrial development components. 
 
7.  EXPORT MARKET DEVELOPMENT SCHEME GRANTS 
  
Access to Export Market Development Scheme grants is determined, in 
part, by the degree of local content contained in the product to be 
exported.  To qualify, goods manufactured, produced, or assembled in 
Australia must contain at least 50 percent local content.  Goods 
produced outside Australia must have at least 75 percent Australian 
content.  
 
G.  RIGHT TO PRIVATE OWNERSHIP AND ESTABLISHMENT 
 
As a general rule, foreign firms establishing themselves in Australia 
are accorded national treatment.  They do not have to seek government 
permission to establish and own businesses unless their proposed 
activity meets tests established in law and regulation that triggers 
notification/review by the Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB).  
These FIRB requirements are a matter of public record and are available 
upon request to FIRB. (See I.1. below for discussion of FIRB.  See 
Appendix E.4. for contacts.) 
 
Firms may, if they wish, seek "naturalization" (conversion to full 
Australian, as opposed to foreign, status).  To be naturalized, a firm 
must be at least 51 percent Australian-owned; its articles of 
association must provide that a majority of its board be Australian 
citizens; and it must reach an agreement with the Government regarding 
the exercise of voting powers in respect of the firm's business in 
Australia.  The only practical advantage of naturalization is relief 
from the requirement that the FIRB be notified of proposed investment 
activities. 
 
In general, participation in privatization schemes is regulated in 
accordance with overall investment policy.  The Qantas privatization, 
for example, will be limited by the restrictions on foreign investment 
in civil aviation discussed above.  Most sectors are uncontrolled and 
are open to foreign participation. 
  
As discussed above, Australia maintains percentage limits on foreign 
ownership in civil aviation, broadcasting, media, and urban real estate.  
 
H.  PROTECTION OF PROPERTY RIGHTS 
 
Patents, trademarks, designs and integrated circuits copyrights are 
protected by Australian law.  The Attorney General monitors the 
effectiveness of laws and regulations regarding the illegal use of 
copyright material.  Australia is a member of the World Intellectual 
Property Organization, the Paris Convention for the Protection of 
Industrial Property, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary 
and Artistic Works, the Universal Copyright Convention, the Geneva 
Phonogram Convention, the Rome Convention for the Protection of 
Performers, Producers of Phonograms, and Broadcasting Organizations, and 
the Patent Cooperation Treaty. 
 
1.  PATENTS, TRADE SECRETS, DESIGNS 
  
Patents are available for inventions in all fields of technology (except 
for human beings and biological processes for their production).  They 
are protected by the Patents Act, 1952, which offers coverage for 16 
years, subject to renewal.  However, patents for pharmaceutical 
substances may have the term of protection extended to 20 years.  Trade 
secrets are protected by common law, such as by contract.  Design 
features such as shape or pattern can be protected from imitation by 
registration under the Designs Act, 1906 for up to 17 years.  The design 
must be new or original.    
 
2.  TRADE NAMES AND TRADE MARKS; PARALLEL IMPORTS  
 
Trade names and trade marks may be protected for seven years and renewed 
at will by registration under the Trademark Act, 1955.  Once used, trade 
names and trade marks may also, without registration, be protected by 
common law.  It is wise for any U.S. exporter intending to market 
product in Australia to check with the Office of Trade Marks that the 
name is not already in use. 
 
Some protection also extends to parallel importing; that is, imports of 
legally manufactured products ordered by someone other than a person or 
firm having exclusive distribution rights in Australia.  Some parallel 
importation is allowed for books, under strictly limited conditions 
(cases in which newly-published works are not made available in 
Australia within 30 days of publication).  In 1994, the Australian 
Cabinet explicitly rejected allowing parallel imports of compact discs 
(CDs).  The Prices Surveillance Authority had recommended such imports 
to increase competition in the market, and to put downward pressure on 
CD prices.  In September, 1993, the Australian Copyright Law Review 
committee recommended that parallel importation of computer software be 
allowed under strict limitations.  No action has yet been taken on that 
recommendation. 
  
Copyrights are protected under the Copyright Act, 1968.  Works do not 
require registration and copyright automatically subsists in original 
literary, artistic, musical and dramatic works, film and sound 
recordings.  Computer programs are considered legally to be literary 
works.  Copyright protection is for the life of the author plus 50 
years.  
 
The Australian Copyright Act provides protection regarding public 
performances in hotels and clubs, and against video piracy and 
unauthorized third-country imports.  No complaints about unauthorized 
public showings of films have been received for over five years.   
 
In late 1993, a loophole in the copyright act regarding unauthorized 
live ("bootleg") recordings was discovered.  The Government has adopted 
legislation closing the loophole, and it is expected that the flow of 
such recordings into the market will cease gradually.  At present, no 
protection is accorded against the commercial rental of sound recordings 
without royalty payments.  However, this and other forms of enhanced 
copyright protection will enter into force when the GOA ratifies the 
Uruguay Round Final Act and the related TRIPS agreement.  The Attorney-
General's Department monitors the effectiveness of laws and regulations 
curbing the illegal use of copyright material.    
 
I.  REGULATORY SYSTEM: LAWS, AND PROCEDURES AND TAXES 
 
Both Australian law and government practice foster transparency and 
favor competition.  Taxation policy does not impede the efficient 
mobilization and allocation of investment, although there are a number 
of differences between the U.S. and Australian tax systems that have 
potential implications for business.  Businesses are advised to seek 
counsel from accounting and law firms familiar with the tax policies of 
both countries.   
 
In early 1990, the Australian Taxation Office and the Internal Revenue 
Service formalized a simultaneous audits agreement to investigate 
suspected non-compliance with tax laws of both countries.  The U.S. and 
Australia Double Taxation Treaty affects business investment between the 
two countries.  The treaty applies to federal income tax of the U.S., 
excluding accumulated earnings tax and personal holding company tax, and 
Australian income tax. Separate agreements apply to gift and estate 
taxes. 
The Controlled Foreign Corporation and Controlled Foreign Trusts 
legislation, effective July 1, 1991, provides for taxing income that 
accrues to corporations or trusts established after residency is 
established. 
 
J.  FOREIGN INVESTMENT REVIEW BOARD (FIRB) 
 
Australia has an investment screening mechanism administered by the FIRB 
which tracks foreign investment developments through a notification 
system, and, if certain criteria are present, examines specific 
proposals.  The FIRB must be notified of investment proposals in the 
following categories: 
 
- acquisitions of substantial interests in existing Australian 
businesses with total assets over $3.7 million ($2.2 million for rural 
properties); 
 
- plans to establish new businesses involving a total investment of over 
$7.3 million; 
 
- investments in the media, irrespective of size; 
 
- direct investments by foreign governments or their agencies, 
irrespective of size; 
 
- acquisitions of non-residential commercial real estate valued over 
$3.7 million; 
 
- acquisitions of residential real estate, irrespective of size (unless 
exempt under the regulations); 
 
- takeovers of offshore companies whose Australian subsidiaries or 
assets are valued over $14.5 million or account for more than 50 percent 
of the target company's global assets; and, 
 
- proposals where any doubt exists as to whether they are notifiable. 
 
Most foreign investment proposals notified to the FIRB are granted 
automatically without examination.  Proposals above the $35 million 
threshold are examined, but FIRB policy is to approve them unless they 
are found contrary to the national interest.  The criteria governing 
that decision follow: 
 
- the proposal involves one of the following sectors: rural properties; 
agriculture; forestry; fishing; resource processing; oil and gas; mining 
(excluding uranium); manufacturing; non-bank financial intermediaries; 
insurance; stockbroking; tourism (hotels and resorts); and most other 
services; and 
 
- the proposal is an acquisition of 15 percent or more of a company or 
business with total assets below $ 35 million; or 
 
- the proposal is to establish a new project or business with a total 
investment below $35 million, or to takeover an off-shore company with 
Australian subsidiaries or assets valued below $35 million. 
 
The above policy does not apply to uranium mining, civil aviation, the 
media, and urban real estate, all of which have separate limitations on 
foreign investment.  Nor does it alter the notification requirements of 
the Foreign Acquisitions and Takeovers Act.  During FY 1993-94, 5,287 
proposals for investment in Australia were submitted to the FIRB:  4,819 
were approved (3,085 with conditions);  384 were withdrawn; and only 84 
(1.7%)were rejected.  While the FIRB does appear to make judicious use 
of its screening and rejection powers, the U.S. has objected to the 
continued utilization of the screening mechanism.  
 
K.  BILATERAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS 
 
Australia subscribes to the 1976 declaration of the Organization for 
Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) concerning international 
investment and multinational enterprises.  The instruments cover 
national treatment and investment incentives and disincentives, and 
spell out voluntary guidelines for the conduct of multinational 
enterprises in member countries.  Australia also subscribes to two OECD 
codes of liberalization, one covering capital movements and the other 
invisible transactions.  It maintains a limited reservation under the 
Capital Movements Code, because FIRB practice historically favored the 
use of Australian contractors and consultants when reviewing foreign 
investment proposals. 
 
Australia is bound by the Nara Treaty not to discriminate against Japan 
in the investment area.  This has proved a sticking point in bilateral 
negotiations on an investment agreement with New Zealand. 
 
L.  OPIC AND OTHER FOREIGN INVESTMENT INSURANCE PROGRAMS 
 
Australia provides foreign investment insurance to its firms investing 
abroad through the Export Finance and Insurance Corporation (EFIC).  
OPIC does not extend coverage to Australia, as it is not a high risk, or 
developing, country. 
 
M.  LABOR 
 
1.  WORK FORCE CHARACTERISTICS 
 
A key factor affecting Australia's future competitiveness in the world, 
and in the Asia - Pacific region, is the characteristics of its work 
force.  Because Australia is an industrialized, technologically-
sophisticated, English speaking country with a western culture, yet with 
a diverse, multicultural population, it offers unique advantages 
unmatched in the Asia-Pacific region.  Any industry requiring an 
educated, native-English speaking, highly skilled labor force, with 
western work habits and values, can find it in Australia.  Australia has 
been moving toward more flexible, enterprise-based labor agreements.  
This has reduced the complexity of labor negotiations, but labor market 
rigidities still can distort the economics of investment.   
 
Australia's population has grown at an average annual rate of 1.3 
percent over the past decade, with immigration accounting for just under 
half of this growth.  Around 63 percent of Australians over the age of 
15 are part of the labor force (8.9 million people at the end of 1994).  
Of this number, around 69 percent are employed on a full-time basis;  22 
percent are employed part-time;  and 9 percent are registered as being 
unemployed. 
 
Australia's unemployment rate has declined from its recession high of 11 
percent.  This is due largely to stronger economic growth, and solid 
business performance.  However, this improvement has not been as rapid 
as the government had hoped, partially due to workforce productivity 
improvements.  Unemployment is expected to be around 8 percent in mid-
1996.  In the longer term, a more important factor may be Australia's 
concerted effort to upskill its workforce.  For example, the percentage 
of students graduating from high school has risen from 34 percent in 
1983, when reforms were first launched, to over 80 percent in 1995.  The 
Australian business community is playing a much more active role in 
educational reform today than it did in the past. 
 
2.  LABOR RELATIONS 
 
Australia maintains a unique, highly centralized national wage and 
benefit scheme that has no counterpart in the U.S.  The framework of the 
Australian industrial relations system has, since 1904, involved a 
federally-based system of compulsory conciliation and arbitration to 
establish minimum rates of pay and conditions, coupled with equivalent 
state-based systems.   
 
The system is based on a series of "awards", and registered industrial 
agreements, that are legally binding on employees, governments, 
employers and unions alike.  Awards cover approximately 85 percent of 
the labor force, and, increasingly, are made on the basis of 
productivity.  The Australian Industrial Relations Commission (AIRC) 
issues federal awards.  Usually there is one "national wage case" per 
year that determines the wage pattern for a determined, or indefinite, 
period.  The system also provides a means of setting and preventing 
industrial disputes by industrial tribunals - the AIRC at the federal 
level, and its state counterparts which usually adopt the federal 
pattern. The Industrial Relations Court enforces the minimum standards, 
certified agreements, enterprise flexibility agreements, the secondary 
boycott provisions, and legal sanctions for strike action. 
   
In addition to awards, the past few years have witnessed the 
introduction of legally-registered certified agreements (CA's) that are 
a result of collective or "enterprise" bargaining at the company level.  
Since 1994, a new Act also provides for Enterprise Flexibility 
Agreements (EFA's), reached by companies with mainly non-union 
employees.  There are 4,500 certified agreements (CA's) registered 
federally, but only 59 enterprise flexibility agreements (EFA's) to 
date.  
 
More broadly, the Federal Government's new legislation clarifies the 
role of the changing award system;  seeks to promote greater bargaining; 
and, maintains an enforcement system.  In the new Act: 
 
- the role of the AIRC in exercising all its functions is guided by the 
objects of the Act; 
 
- the role of the AIRC with respect to awards is made much more 
explicit; 
 
- the AIRC is given new powers in respect of sanctions; 
 
- the need for the AIRC to take family responsibilities into account in 
awards and agreements is highlighted; 
 
- enterprise bargaining is promoted; and rights to bargain, and the 
requirement to bargain in good faith subject to minimum entitlements, 
are provided. 
 
The legislation provides minimum entitlements including: 
 
- minimum wages for groups of employees; 
- equal pay for men and women for work of equal value; 
- termination of employment rights: 
    - minimum period of notice; 
    - protection against unfair dismissal; 
    - severance pay; 
    - notification to CES; 
- parental leave. 
 
N.  FOREIGN-TRADE ZONES AND FREE PORTS 
 
The Darwin Trade Development Zone, Northern Territory, is Australia's 
attempt to increase exports via a geographically defined free trade 
zone.  Incentive packages, individually tailored for each prospect 
company, include subsidies for many up-front property, plant, and 
equipment costs, as well as relocation assistance.  In practice, the 
Darwin initiative is focused almost exclusively on its Asian neighbors 
to the North and West. 
 
O.  CAPITAL OUTFLOW POLICY 
 
Private foreign investment decisions are left to the discretion of 
private sector firms.  There are no prohibitions on overseas investment 
or capital repatriation. 
 
P.  MAJOR FOREIGN INVESTORS 
 
Hundreds of major foreign firms in many industry sectors invest in 
Australia.  
  
The Australian Federal Government, and each of the State Governments, 
vigorously encourages investment by offering incentives to multi-
national companies to set up regional headquarters for financial and 
other services and manufacturing operations.  At first aimed at 
attracting information technology companies, the campaign has widened in 
scope to include manufacturing and provision of financial and 
administrative services for the Asia Pacific region. The Government 
touts the benefits of Australia's safe, stable business environment, 
skilled work force and lower facility, site and operating costs in 
comparison to other regional centers such as Singapore, Hong Kong and 
Taiwan. As a result of its efforts, the Government claims to have 
attracted more than 130 companies in the past 18 months.  Examples 
include large corporations such as American Express, AT&T, British 
Aerospace, Campbells Soup, Coca-Cola, HJ Heinz, Kellogg, Microsoft, 
Phillip Morris, Thomson CSF and Toys 'R' Us. 
 
There is an increasing flow of investment funds into Australia from the 
Asian region, although, because of the overvalued yen, Japanese direct 
investment is predicted to fall drastically below previous record highs. 
There are increasing capital investments from Hong Kong in particular, 
as Hong Kong Chinese relocate in anticipation of 1997.  British and 
American investment remains at traditionally high levels. 
 
 
    CHAPTER VIII:  TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCING 
 
 
A.  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE BANKING SYSTEM 
 
The Reserve Bank of Australia regulates Australia's financial markets, 
not unlike the Federal Reserve does in the U.S.  It also guarantees 
deposits of all authorized banks that operate under Commonwealth 
legislation, primarily the Banking Act of 1959.  While the banking 
system in Australia is reliable and, essentially, transparent, there are 
structural and operational differences between it and the American 
system.  Historically, Australian banks have not operated under the 
restrictions that have limited U.S. bank operations since 1933.  In 
Australia, the distinction between retail banks and investment banks is 
blurred.  
The Australian banking system is undergoing progressive deregulation and 
privatization.  Beginning with deregulation of the financial markets in 
the 1980s, foreign banks have been allowed to enter the market.  Retail 
banks, in general, now provide a wider range of financial services, 
including life and general insurance, stock brokering and security 
underwriting to their retail customers, in addition to making corporate 
and consumer loans.  This places them in competition with brokerage 
houses and merchant banks.   
 
In early 1992, the government further liberalized the banking system by 
abolishing limitations on the number of foreign bank licenses.  This 
permits non-Australian banks to operate as branches to serve the 
wholesale market.  However, retail banking activities may be conducted 
only through a locally incorporated subsidiary.   
 
With Australia's economic reforms that focus on asset sales of 
government-owned facilities and services, by the end of 1998, 
government-owned banks will no longer exist.  The State Bank of New 
South Wales was sold in December.  The South Australian Government 
accepted an offer in 1995 from the Advance Bank and the Western 
Australian Government is seeking to privatize Bank West.  The Federal 
Government announced in the FY 1995-96 budget, that it would sell off 
its remaining stake (50.4 percent) in the Commonwealth Bank by 1997-98.  
 
Australia has 44 authorized banking groups, 29 of which are foreign-
owned.  Of the latter, 15 are incorporated locally and 14 are branch 
operations.  There are 7 American licensed banks:   Bank of America 
(both as a locally-incorporated subsidiary and a branch operation); 
Bankers Trust; The Chase Manhattan Bank; Citibank; First National Bank 
of Chicago; Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York; and State Street 
Bank and Trust Company  Another 20 U.S. banks have local representative 
offices.  The major Australian commercial banks are Westpac Banking 
Corporation, ANZ Bank, National Australia Bank, and the Commonwealth 
Bank of Australia.  (See Appendix E.6.)  Momentum is in the banking 
sector to use Australia as a regional financial services center. 
 
B.  FOREIGN EXCHANGE CONTROLS AFFECTING TRADING 
 
Australia does not restrict the flow of currency into, or out of, the 
country.  There are, however, cash reporting obligations under the Cash 
Transaction Reports Act (CTRA).  International currency transfers of 
A$5,000 or more, or A$50,000 in any form in one year, must be reported 
to the Cash Transaction Reports Agency.  The purpose is to control tax 
evasion and money laundering, and does not inhibit currency transfers 
associated with international trade.  
 
The Australian dollar has been allowed to float since 1983.  The 
currency is freely convertible and exchange rates are determined by 
international demand and supply.  Official policy is not to defend any 
particular exchange rate level.  Intervention by the Reserve Bank is 
minimal, and is exercised to accommodate government economic policy 
adjustments.  Transactions in foreign exchange are made through 
authorized foreign exchange dealers, including trading banks and most 
merchant banks.  There are no specific restrictions regarding the 
remittance of profits, dividends, and capital. 
 
C.  GENERAL FINANCING AVAILABILITY 
 
Banking is the dominant player in the Australian finance industry, 
accounting for 75% of total financial sector assets.  The major finance 
companies, which control about three-quarters of the total assets of the 
industry, are owned wholly or predominantly by the major trading banks.  
Commercial banks are the major source of medium-term loans.  A wide 
range of merchant banks operate in Australia, many of which are 
associated with some of the world's largest financial institutions.  
They also provide short-to-medium term funding.  Venture capital finance 
usually is available from management and investment companies, which are 
funded by tax-deductible capital subscriptions.  Other alternatives 
include obtaining funds from finance companies (including leasing 
arrangements), building societies, credit co-operatives or unions, 
insurance companies, pension and superannuation funds and cash 
management trusts.   
 
The larger finance companies obtain their funds mainly by public issues 
of debentures and unsecured notes with terms of up to five years.  Long-
term financing, generally, is supplied by syndicated Australian and 
overseas bank lending.  A specialized market exists for direct borrowing 
and lending on an unsecured basis between large, well established 
companies.  Factoring of book debts also can be arranged with finance 
companies, but is not widespread. 
 
Unlike their U.S. counterparts, Australian banks are free to participate 
in virtually all forms of financial services, including overdrafts (a 
traditional form of borrowing), fixed-term loans, commercial bills of 
exchange, letters of credit, domestic and international debt and equity 
issues, underwriting, leasing and Euro currency borrowing.  Financial 
services to business also are provided through a wide range of non-bank 
institutions.   
 
D.  HOW TO FINANCE EXPORTS AND METHODS OF PAYMENT 
 
As in other industrialized countries with mature financial systems, 
Australia has a range of export finance methods available.  The method 
chosen should depend upon the individual circumstances of a transaction. 
 
1.  Cash in Advance:  The exporter demands cash in advance before 
exporting.  This is the least popular method used.  It is acceptable if 
the client does not have access to other forms of financing. 
 
2.  Letter of Credit:  Payment is guaranteed by the issuing bank.  A 
confirmed letter of credit guarantees payment by a foreign bank as well.  
This is a very secure form of payment and is used frequently for unknown 
clients, or those perceived to be risky accounts. 
 
3.  Commercial Bills of Exchange (sight and time drafts; cash against 
documents):  These bills of exchange are processed through the 
exporter's and importer's banks.  The banks do not guarantee payment, 
but they will not release shipping documents until the terms of the bill 
of exchange are met.   
 
This is the most widely used form of trade finance, but the risk is 
higher, as the importer may refuse to pay.  The exporter should obtain 
credit references, or have had a long standing relationship with the 
importer, before offering this form of financing.  Importers prefer this 
method because it does not affect their cash flow or tie up their 
commercial credit lines. 
 
4.  Open Account:  The exporter ships the goods and sends a bill for 
payment.  These accounts are used widely, particularly with shipments to 
U.S. subsidiary operations in Australia.  Because this is the least 
secure form of financing, it is also used for the very best and long 
established accounts.   
 
Eighty percent of Australian imports from the U.S. carry payment terms 
of 30 to 180 days from the date of the shipping documents.  Importers 
normally will request terms, the cost of which should be built into the 
export price.  Importers prefer extended terms to allow them to receive, 
inventory and sell the goods before paying.  They may also wish to use 
exporters' credit. 
 
E.  TYPES OF AVAILABLE EXPORT FINANCING AND INSURANCE 
 
Several U.S. government agencies, as well as state and local ones, offer 
programs to assist exporters with their financing needs.  Some are 
guarantee programs that require the participation of an approved lender; 
others provide loans or grants to the exporter, or to a foreign 
government.  Many financing and guarantee programs apply only to high 
risk or developing countries.  Therefore, business dealings with 
Australia do not qualify for coverage.  However, some programs do extend 
to Australia.  Exporters should seek counseling on availability.  
 
The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Eximbank) is the federal 
government's trade finance agency, offering numerous programs to finance 
and facilitate U.S. exports by making loans and providing guarantees and 
insurance for loans from commercial sources.  Although Australia does 
participate in Eximbank programs for some major projects such as 
commercial aircraft sales, there is relatively little EXIM activity in 
Australia. 
 
Other organizations fill various market niches.  The Private Export 
Funding Corporation (PEFCO) is owned by a group of large banks, and 
makes EXIM-guaranteed loans to foreign purchasers of U.S. goods.  The 
Department of Agriculture offers a variety of programs to foster 
agricultural exports.  The Small Business Administration addresses the 
needs of small exporters.   
 
In Australia, various industrial banks have been established to 
encourage the development of local industry and resources.  The 
government-owned Australian Industry Development Corporation (AIDC) 
provides development finance, equity funding and financial advisory 
services.  The Primary Industry Bank provides, or refinances, loans to 
primary producers for longer terms than normally are available. 
 
Because it is an industrialized country, and a donor nation to the 
multilateral development banks (MDBs), these lending institutions, such 
as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, do not operate in 
Australia.  Like other prosperous countries, Australia has a large 
market of private funding available for debt financing of projects.   
 
World Bank and Asian Development Bank support for development projects 
in the developing countries of Asia provides opportunities for 
American/Australian consortia to compete for MBD-funded contracts in 
these countries.  Australian companies often have established 
relationships in the region and are in a strong position when teamed 
with U.S. companies to offer very competitive bids and performance 
qualifications.  (See Appendix E.7 for MBD contact information.)   
 
F.  PROJECT FINANCING AVAILABLE 
 
A number of national and international financial management companies 
practice in Australia.  They provide the complex financial structuring 
services required to fund projects, using the most competitive financial 
package available for a particular project.  Long-term debt can be 
financed from a variety of sources and methods.  These include: 
-- Banks 
-- Financial institutions 
-- Retail investors 
-- Government loans 
-- Export credit agencies  
-- Credit enhancement agencies 
-- Bonds         
-- Formation of national and international banking consortia 
-- BOOT (build, own, operate and transfer)   
-- Direct investment by local and international companies 
-- Formation of loan syndications 
-- Formation of joint ventures   
 
Project financing includes both finance made available by non-
participants (i.e., loan funds by financial institutions), and finance 
provided by participants (i.e., shares in a stock company), as well as a 
host of hybrid arrangements.  U.S. companies participate actively in all 
types of project financing in Australia. 
 
Banks traditionally have provided project finance term debt and, 
currently, are the only source of project credit.  While other sources 
might fund project loans, funding is undertaken only on the basis of 
bank credit enhancement through a bank guarantee or letter of credit.  
However, the development of new and innovative funding mechanisms is a 
key element in financing projects and infrastructure development as 
public projects at the federal, state and local levels are made 
available for privatization.   
 
G.  BANKS WITH CORRESPONDENT U.S. BANKING ARRANGEMENTS 
 
All major  banks in Australia have correspondent relationships with U.S. 
banks.  (See Appendix E.6.) 
 
 
 
    CHAPTER VIII:  TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCING 
 
 
A.  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE BANKING SYSTEM 
 
The Reserve Bank of Australia regulates Australia's financial markets, 
not unlike the Federal Reserve does in the U.S.  It also guarantees 
deposits of all authorized banks that operate under Commonwealth 
legislation, primarily the Banking Act of 1959.  While the banking 
system in Australia is reliable and, essentially, transparent, there are 
structural and operational differences between it and the American 
system.  Historically, Australian banks have not operated under the 
restrictions that have limited U.S. bank operations since 1933.  In 
Australia, the distinction between retail banks and investment banks is 
blurred. 
  
The Australian banking system is undergoing progressive deregulation and 
privatization.  Beginning with deregulation of the financial markets in 
the 1980s, foreign banks have been allowed to enter the market.  Retail 
banks, in general, now provide a wider range of financial services, 
including life and general insurance, stock brokering and security 
underwriting to their retail customers, in addition to making corporate 
and consumer loans.  This places them in competition with brokerage 
houses and merchant banks.   
 
In early 1992, the government further liberalized the banking system by 
abolishing limitations on the number of foreign bank licenses.  This 
permits non-Australian banks to operate as branches to serve the 
wholesale market.  However, retail banking activities may be conducted 
only through a locally incorporated subsidiary.   
 
 
With Australia's economic reforms that focus on asset sales of 
government-owned facilities and services, by the end of 1998, 
government-owned banks will no longer exist.  The State Bank of New 
South Wales was sold in December.  The South Australian Government 
accepted an offer in 1995 from the Advance Bank and the Western 
Australian Government is seeking to privatize Bank West.  The Federal 
Government announced in the FY 1995-96 budget, that it would sell off 
its remaining stake (50.4 percent) in the Commonwealth Bank by 1997-98.  
 
Australia has 44 authorized banking groups, 29 of which are foreign-
owned.  Of the latter, 15 are incorporated locally and 14 are branch 
operations.  There are 7 American licensed banks:   Bank of America 
(both as a locally-incorporated subsidiary and a branch operation); 
Bankers Trust; The Chase Manhattan Bank; Citibank; First National Bank 
of Chicago; Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York; and State Street 
Bank and Trust Company  Another 20 U.S. banks have local representative 
offices.  The major Australian commercial banks are Westpac Banking 
Corporation, ANZ Bank, National Australia Bank, and the Commonwealth 
Bank of Australia (see Appendix E.6 for contact details).  Momentum is 
in the banking sector to use Australia as a regional financial services 
center. 
 
B.  FOREIGN EXCHANGE CONTROLS AFFECTING TRADING 
 
Australia does not restrict the flow of currency into, or out of, the 
country.  There are, however, cash reporting obligations under the Cash 
Transaction Reports Act (CTRA).  International currency transfers of 
A$5,000 or more, or A$50,000 in any form in one year, must be reported 
to the Cash Transaction Reports Agency.  The purpose is to control tax 
evasion and money laundering, and does not inhibit currency transfers 
associated with international trade.  
 
The Australian dollar has been allowed to float since 1983.  The 
currency is freely convertible and exchange rates are determined by 
international demand and supply.  Official policy is not to defend any 
particular exchange rate level.  Intervention by the Reserve Bank is 
minimal, and is exercised to accommodate government economic policy 
adjustments.  Transactions in foreign exchange are made through 
authorized foreign exchange dealers, including trading banks and most 
merchant banks.  There are no specific restrictions regarding the 
remittance of profits, dividends, and capital. 
 
C.  GENERAL FINANCING AVAILABILITY 
 
Banking is the dominant player in the Australian finance industry, 
accounting for 75% of total financial sector assets.  The major finance 
companies, which control about three-quarters of the total assets of the 
industry, are owned wholly or predominantly by the major trading banks.  
Commercial banks are the major source of medium-term loans.  A wide 
range of merchant banks operate in Australia, many of which are 
associated with some of the world's largest financial institutions.  
They also provide short-to-medium term funding.  Venture capital finance 
usually is available from management and investment companies, which are 
funded by tax-deductible capital subscriptions.  Other alternatives 
include obtaining funds from finance companies (including leasing 
arrangements), building societies, credit co-operatives or unions, 
insurance companies, pension and superannuation funds and cash 
management trusts.   
 
The larger finance companies obtain their funds mainly by public issues 
of debentures and unsecured notes with terms of up to five years.  Long-
term financing, generally, is supplied by syndicated Australian and 
overseas bank lending.  A specialized market exists for direct borrowing 
and lending on an unsecured basis between large, well established 
companies.  Factoring of book debts also can be arranged with finance 
companies, but is not widespread. 
 
Unlike their U.S. counterparts, Australian banks are free to participate 
in virtually all forms of financial services, including overdrafts (a 
traditional form of borrowing), fixed-term loans, commercial bills of 
exchange, letters of credit, domestic and international debt and equity 
issues, underwriting, leasing and Euro currency borrowing.  Financial 
services to business also are provided through a wide range of non-bank 
institutions.   
 
D.  HOW TO FINANCE EXPORTS AND METHODS OF PAYMENT 
 
As in other industrialized countries with mature financial systems, 
Australia has a range of export finance methods available.  The method 
chosen should depend upon the individual circumstances of a transaction. 
 
1.  Cash in Advance:  The exporter demands cash in advance before 
exporting.  This is the least popular method used.  It is acceptable if 
the client does not have access to other forms of financing. 
 
2.  Letter of Credit:  Payment is guaranteed by the issuing bank.  A 
confirmed letter of credit guarantees payment by a foreign bank as well.  
This is a very secure form of payment and is used frequently for unknown 
clients, or those perceived to be risky accounts. 
 
3.  Commercial Bills of Exchange (sight and time drafts; cash against 
documents):  These bills of exchange are processed through the 
exporter's and importer's banks.  The banks do not guarantee payment, 
but they will not release shipping documents until the terms of the bill 
of exchange are met.   
 
This is the most widely used form of trade finance, but the risk is 
higher, as the importer may refuse to pay.  The exporter should obtain 
credit references, or have had a long standing relationship with the 
importer, before offering this form of financing.  Importers prefer this 
method because it does not affect their cash flow or tie up their 
commercial credit lines. 
 
4.  Open Account:  The exporter ships the goods and sends a bill for 
payment.  These accounts are used widely, particularly with shipments to 
U.S. subsidiary operations in Australia.  Because this is the least 
secure form of financing, it is also used for the very best and long 
established accounts.   
 
Eighty percent of Australian imports from the U.S. carry payment terms 
of 30 to 180 days from the date of the shipping documents.  Importers 
normally will request terms, the cost of which should be built into the 
export price.  Importers prefer extended terms to allow them to receive, 
inventory and sell the goods before paying.  They may also wish to use 
exporters' credit. 
 
E.  TYPES OF AVAILABLE EXPORT FINANCING AND INSURANCE 
 
Several U.S. government agencies, as well as state and local ones, offer 
programs to assist exporters with their financing needs.  Some are 
guarantee programs that require the participation of an approved lender; 
others provide loans or grants to the exporter, or to a foreign 
government.  Many financing and guarantee programs apply only to high 
risk or developing countries.  Therefore, business dealings with 
Australia do not qualify for coverage.  However, some programs do extend 
to Australia.  Exporters should seek counseling on availability.  
 
The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Eximbank) is the federal 
government's trade finance agency, offering numerous programs to finance 
and facilitate U.S. exports by making loans and providing guarantees and 
insurance for loans from commercial sources.  Although Australia does 
participate in Eximbank programs for some major projects such as 
commercial aircraft sales, there is relatively little EXIM activity in 
Australia. 
 
Other organizations fill various market niches.  The Private Export 
Funding Corporation (PEFCO) is owned by a group of large banks, and 
makes EXIM-guaranteed loans to foreign purchasers of U.S. goods.  The 
Department of Agriculture offers a variety of programs to foster 
agricultural exports.  The Small Business Administration addresses the 
needs of small exporters. 
 
In Australia, various industrial banks have been established to 
encourage the development of local industry and resources.  The 
government-owned Australian Industry Development Corporation (AIDC) 
provides development finance, equity funding and financial advisory 
services.  The Primary Industry Bank provides, or refinances, loans to 
primary producers for longer terms than normally are available. 
 
Because it is an industrialized country, and a donor nation to the 
multilateral development banks (MDBs), these lending institutions, such 
as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, do not operate in 
Australia.  Like other prosperous countries, Australia has a large 
market of private funding available for debt financing of projects.   
 
World Bank and Asian Development Bank support for development projects 
in the developing countries of Asia provides opportunities for 
American/Australian consortia to compete for MBD-funded contracts in 
these countries.  Australian companies often have established 
relationships in the region and are in a strong position when teamed 
with U.S. companies to offer very competitive bids and performance 
qualifications.  (See Appendix E.7 for MBD contact information.)   
 
F.  PROJECT FINANCING AVAILABLE 
 
A number of national and international financial management companies 
practice in Australia.  They provide the complex financial structuring 
services required to fund projects, using the most competitive financial 
package available for a particular project.  Long-term debt can be 
financed from a variety of sources and methods.  These include: 
-- Banks 
-- Financial institutions 
-- Retail investors 
-- Government loans 
-- Export credit agencies  
-- Credit enhancement agencies 
-- Bonds         
-- Formation of national and international banking consortia 
-- BOOT (build, own, operate and transfer)   
-- Direct investment by local and international companies 
-- Formation of loan syndications 
-- Formation of joint ventures   
 
Project financing includes both finance made available by non-
participants (i.e., loan funds by financial institutions), and finance 
provided by participants (i.e., shares in a stock company), as well as a 
host of hybrid arrangements.  U.S. companies participate actively in all 
types of project financing in Australia. 
 
Banks traditionally have provided project finance term debt and, 
currently, are the only source of project credit.  While other sources 
might fund project loans, funding is undertaken only on the basis of 
bank credit enhancement through a bank guarantee or letter of credit.  
However, the development of new and innovative funding mechanisms is a 
key element in financing projects and infrastructure development as 
public projects at the federal, state and local levels are made 
available for privatization.   
 
G.  BANKS WITH CORRESPONDENT U.S. BANKING ARRANGEMENTS 
 
All major banks in Australia have correspondent relationships with U.S. 
banks (see Appendix E.6 for contact information). 
 
 
 
    CHAPTER IX:  BUSINESS TRAVEL 
 
A.  BUSINESS TRAVEL  
 
American business travelers to Australia should not encounter any 
particular difficulties.  Visitors should make preparations as they 
would when traveling in the U.S., using normal reservation services for 
travel and accommodation, plus taking into account the requirement to 
have a valid Australian visa.   
 
Despite the old image of being a far distant shore, travel time from the 
U.S. to Australia is comparable to that to other Asian destinations, a 
14 hour non-stop flight from the West Coast, with a choice of flights on 
several reliable U.S. and international airlines.  Most departures from 
the U.S. leave in the evening and arrive in Australia early in the 
morning (with a day skipped at the international date line).  Some 
morning departures are available.  Travel to or from the rest of Asia, 
Europe, South America and South Africa also is convenient.  Around 30 
international airlines fly into Australia every week from 37 countries 
around the globe.   
 
Frequent interstate flights connect the five major Australian cities.  
Savings are available on internal air fares when purchased in 
conjunction with international tickets.  Australia has a very extensive, 
efficient domestic transportation system including air, rail, coach, 
sea, chauffeured and rental cars, and urban public transport between 
cities and country areas, and within the urban areas. 
  
Australia's many attractions as a tourist and holiday destination 
finally are becoming well known, and the country has a tourism boom that 
surpasses that of any other western country.  In the past ten years, 
tourism has become Australia's largest export earner, with the number of 
international visitors increasing from 1.1 million in 1985 to 3.3 
million in 1994.  The Australian Tourist Commission is Australia's 
national tourist office, and has locations in Los Angeles and New York 
(see Appendix E, Section 4A).  They can assist with travel advice, and 
information on where to go and what to see. 
 
Australia is a desired international destination for conventions and 
corporate meetings, and corporate incentive travel.  Its convention 
centers and trade show facilities in capital cities and resort areas 
offer state-of-the-art technology, some accommodating as many as 10,000 
delegates.   Many executives and conference delegates extend their stay 
in Australia with a holiday.  
 
B.  BUSINESS CUSTOMS  
 
Doing business in Australia is comfortable for American companies 
because the language, the cultural environment, business practices and 
customer expectations are very similar.  Business etiquette is familiar 
to Americans, with attention paid to advance planning, promptness, 
punctuality, and follow through.   
 
Australians are personally gracious, yet informal and direct in their 
business dealings.  Very soon after meeting, Australians do business on 
a first name basis.  Business cards are exchanged for information 
purposes, but without any special ceremony.  Token gift exchange is not 
common.  Luncheon meetings are common, but Australians do not usually 
schedule business functions during the evening or on week-ends, which 
are dedicated to family and friends.  Normal business attire is worn in 
the cities, with country areas being more informal. 
 
C.  TRAVEL ADVISORY AND VISAS 
 
1.  TIME ZONES    
 
Australia's three time zones, Eastern, Central and Western, are parallel 
to those in Asia.  Eastern Time, (Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra Brisbane, 
Cairns), is one hour ahead of Tokyo.  The reversal of the seasons (and 
hence of daylight saving time in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres) 
complicates the time zone calculation.  Between the months of April-
October, when it is 8:00 am in New York and 11:00 am in Los Angeles, it 
is 10:00 pm in Sydney and 8:00 pm in Perth. From November-March, at 8:00 
am in New York it is 12:00 pm in Sydney and 10:00 pm in Perth.   
 
2.  INTERNATIONAL AIR TRAVEL TIMES 
 
Los Angeles to Sydney 14 hrs 20 mins 
New York to Sydney (via Los Angeles) 21 hrs 30 mins 
(via Japan) 25 hrs 20 mins 
Honolulu to Sydney 9 hrs 55 mins 
Tokyo to Sydney 9 hrs 20 mins 
Hong Kong to Sydney 9 hrs 00 mins 
Singapore to Sydney 7 hrs 50 mins 
 
3.  AIR TRAVEL TIMES WITHIN AUSTRALIA 
     
Sydney to Melbourne 1 hr 25 mins 
Sydney to Brisbane 1 hr 25 mins 
Sydney to Perth 4 hrs 50 mins 
Sydney to Canberra 35 mins 
Melbourne to Brisbane 1 hr 50 mins 
Melbourne to Perth 4 hrs 00 mins 
Brisbane to Perth 6 hrs 20 mins 
 
4.  VISAS   
 
A valid U.S. passport and visa are required for Americans traveling to 
Australia.  Visas are issued by Australian Embassies and Consulates and 
by some airlines.  Business visitor visas and tourist visas are the most 
common types and generally are issued without problem.  Requirements for 
work and resident visas are more stringent.  The nearest Australian visa 
office should be contacted well in advance.  (The addresses of 
Australian Government offices in the U.S. are listed in Appendix E.4A.) 
 
D.  HOLIDAYS 
 
Australians tend to take their long annual holiday in December and 
January, combining Christmas/New Year celebrations with the long summer 
school holidays.  Consequently, business slows down and it is sometimes 
difficult to make appointments.  Business travelers should be sure their 
contacts will be available during this period before scheduling their 
trip.   
 
Listed below are the national public holidays observed in Australia.  
Some dates may vary from state to state and individual states have their 
own additional public holidays.  For example, all states have a public 
holiday for the Queen's Birthday, but the date varies. 
 
New Year's Day    January 1 
Australia Day    January 26 
Good Friday    varies 
Easter Monday    varies 
Anzac Day    April 25 
Christmas Day    December 25 
Boxing Day    December 26 
 
E.  BUSINESS INFRASTRUCTURE  
   
1.  BUSINESS HOURS AND BANKING 
 
Office business hours generally are 9:00 am- 5:00 pm, Monday through 
Friday.  Retail shops increasingly keep longer business hours and all 
city centers have evening shopping at least one day per week along with 
Saturday.   However, Australia has not yet gone to the 7 day/24 hour 
shopping mode of parts of the U.S.   Banks keep normal business hours 
Monday through Friday, with 7 day/24 hour ATM service.  Restaurants and 
convenience stores are open long hours.    
 
2.  CURRENCY  
 
Australia's unit of currency, the Australian dollar (A$), is freely-
traded.  The conversion rate is variable.  In 1993, the average rate was 
$1 Australian to $0.68 U.S. but as of June, 1994 the rate was $1 
Australian to $0.73 U.S., an average that is likely to continue in the 
near term.  Travelers checks are accepted widely.  Currency can be 
exchanged easily at international airports and most major banks, and ATM 
machines are everywhere.  There are no major restrictions on importing 
or exporting currency or travelers checks to/from Australia, although a 
customs declaration is filed when taking out large amounts of cash. 
 
3.  CREDIT CARDS/ATMS 
 
Most international credit cards are accepted in Australia and, as in the 
U.S., can be used for purchases of goods and services, and to confirm 
hotel and other travel arrangements.  ATM machines have most 
international cash access systems available so travellers can draw cash 
directly from their U.S. accounts.   
 
4.  TELEPHONES AND FACSIMILES 
 
Australia's telecommunications infrastructure is excellent, and rates 
have reduced to become more competitive than prior to 1992, when there 
was only one network operator.  Services to businesses include ISDN, 
Frame Relay, Email, voice messaging, electronic mail boxes, and 
faxstream.  A number of companies provide call-back services by leasing 
excess capacity lines from the telecommunications operators, then 
offering national or international calls.  The use of phone cards is 
common, and most major international phone cards can be used.  Phone 
cards are available from numerous retail outlets. 
 
For international travelers wanting to use a mobile phone, it is easier 
to rent one in Australia.  Business visitors from the U.S. can use only 
Analog AMPS mobile phones in Australia, and even then, they must obtain 
a compliance certificate from the local manufacturer, plus an Electronic 
Serial Number (ESN).  Compliance certificates cost between A$100 and 
A$400.  Local manufacturers may say that phones may be used without a 
compliance certificate for a short period of time by going to phone 
shops who could connect short term users to the network directly.  But 
phone shops, in turn, advise they will connect a mobile phone only if it 
has a compliance certificate and ESN, and then only if the account will 
be paid by an Australian resident.   
 
Facsimile services are available for public use in Post Offices, hotels, 
and some copying shops. 
 
5.  POSTAL AND COURIER SERVICES 
 
The Australian Postal Corporation supplies modern and efficient postal 
services within Australia, and between Australia and overseas.  Express 
delivery and insured service is available.  Domestic and international 
faxes can be sent from Post offices. 
Several international courier services operate from major cities 
offering express world-wide delivery of documents and packages. 
 
6.  HOTELS AND BUSINESS SERVICES 
 
The business traveler to Australia can choose from a full range of 
hotels, from budget to international standard.  Bookings for major 
chains can be made before leaving the U.S.  Accommodations range from 
rooms, to elaborate suites.  Serviced apartment hotels with kitchens and 
living rooms are available.  Most large hotels offer a full range of 
business and communications services including fax, word processing and 
copying.  Temporary serviced office suites are available for short term 
rent. 
 
7.  RENTAL CARS AND LOCAL TRANSPORTATION 
 
As in Britain and most of Asia, Australians drive on the left side of 
the road.  Major U.S. and Australian car rental agencies operate 
throughout the country.  Reservations can be made through airports, 
hotels, travel agents, or directly, using a credit card and a U.S. or 
international driver's license.  Throughout the urban areas, public 
transportation is well developed and safe.  Urban crime is not a common 
fear.  Comfortable and convenient bus, rail, and air services are 
available between cities and country towns. 
 
8.  ELECTRICAL POWER 
 
Voltage in Australia is 220-240V, 50 cycles.  Three prong conversion 
plugs are available widely in retail stores.  Voltage transformers to 
convert American 110V appliances are available, but not found so easily.  
Dual voltage devices are more practical. 
 
9.  TAXES AND CUSTOMS DUTIES 
 
There is no retail sales tax in Australia.  Instead, wholesale taxes are 
levied at either manufacturer or wholesaler level by the Commonwealth 
Government and passed along to the consumer as part of the retail price.  
Passengers with airline tickets can buy items at duty-free shops in 
major cities and airports, although sometimes the prices are better in 
regular shops.  It pays to compare.  Customs information is available 
from the Australian Customs Service.  (See appendix C.1.) 
 
10. HEALTH 
 
Australia is a healthy place, with no notable problems.  Public water is 
safe everywhere.  There are active campaigns to get people to protect 
themselves from the sun, skin cancer, and AIDS, and visitors should be 
no exception.  Medical and dental services, and all types of health 
facilities are comparable to those in the U.S.  Visitors needing medical 
attention can receive it easily, but may be required to pay for services 
immediately by cash or credit card.  Therefore, visitors should have 
their own health insurance arrangements in the U.S. from which to seek 
reimbursement.  
 
11. FOOD AND DRINK 
 
Australia's reputation as a world gourmet destination is growing, as 
understanding spreads of Australia's abundance in fresh, pure, and prime 
quality fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy products, specialty 
cheeses and fine wine.  Australia's cultural diversity means a broad 
choice of cuisines from many national origins, and modern Australian 
chefs are reaching new heights of creativity.  The coastal cities are 
renowned for fresh seafood, and the traditional Australian barbecue is a 
way of life.  Australia is winning international wine awards; and its 
wine industry export earnings are growing exponentially.  Of course - 
the Aussies' traditional dedication to their beer is legendary. 
 
12.  CULTURAL OPPORTUNITIES 
 
Australia's vibrant, multi-cultural society offers cultural events to 
suit every preference.  In major cities opera, ballet, and theater 
companies have full seasons.  There is a myriad of art exhibitions, 
classical,rock, and country and western music festivals and concerts.  
Books and movies are current.  Country areas hold folk, historic and 
food and wine festivals.  Ethnic groups stage their own celebrations.  
Sport of all types is a national obsession - whether as a participant, 
or stadium fan, or television viewer.  After sampling some of these 
attractions, most business visitors decide they want to spend their next 
holiday in Australia! 
 
 
 
CHAPTER X:  APPENDICES 
 
 
                      TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 
 
APPENDIX A:  AUSTRALIA COUNTRY DATA 
 
1.    POPULATION  
2.    POPULATION GROWTH RATE (%) 
3.    RELIGION(S)  
4.    GOVERNMENT SYSTEM  
5.    LANGUAGE(S) 
6.    WORK WEEK 
     
APPENDIX B:  AUSTRALIAN DOMESTIC ECONOMY STATISTICS FOR 1994, 1995, 1996 
 
1.    GDP 
2.    GDP GROWTH RATE (%) 
3.    GDP PER CAPITA 
4.    GOVERNMENT SPENDING AS A % OF GDP 
5.    INFLATION (%) 
6.    UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (%) 
7.    FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES 
8.    AVERAGE EXCHANGE RATE FOR USD1.00 
9.    NET FOREIGN DEBT  
10.   DEBT SERVICE RATIO (%) 
11.   U.S. ECONOMIC MILITARY/ASSISTANCE 
 
APPENDIX C:  U.S. AND AUSTRALIAN TRADE STATISTICS FOR 1994, 1995, 1996 
 
PART I:    GOODS AND SERVICES TRADE STATISTICS  
 
    1.    TOTAL AUSTRALIA EXPORTS (G&S) 
    2.    TOTAL AUSTRALIA IMPORTS (G&S) 
    3.    AUSTRALIA'S EXPORTS OF MERCHANDISE GOODS 
    4.    AUSTRALIA'S IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE GOODS  
    5.    U.S. SHARE OF MERCHANDISE IMPORTS (PERCENT) 
    6.    AUSTRALIA'S IMPORTS OF MANUFACTURED GOODS 
    7.    U.S. SHARE OF MANUFACTURED IMPORTS (PERCENT) 
    8.    MANUFACTURED GOODS TRADE BALANCE WITH U.S. 
    9.    TRADE BALANCE WITH THREE LEADING PARTNERS 1994 
    10.   PRINCIPAL U.S. EXPORTS TO AUSTRALIA 1994 
    11.   PRINCIPAL U.S. IMPORTS FROM AUSTRALIA 1994 
 
PART II:  AGRICULTURAL TRADE STATISTICS 
 
    1.    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL IMPORTS 
    2.    AGRICULTURAL TRADE BALANCE WITH U.S. 
    3.    AGRICULTURAL TRADE BALANCE WITH 3 TOP PARTNERS 
    4.    PRINCIPAL AUSTRALIAN EXPORTS TO THE U.S. 
    5.    PRINCIPAL AUSTRALIAN IMPORTS FROM THE U.S. 
 
APPENDIX D: FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT STATISTICS 
 
    1.    TABLE 1:    FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA 
    2.    TABLE 2:    STOCK OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA AT 
FYE BY SELECTED COUNTRIES 
    3.    TABLE 3:    STOCK OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA AT 
FYE BY INDUSTRY 
    4.    TABLE 4:    TOTAL EXPECTED INVESTMENT BY COUNTRY OF INVESTOR 
AND INDUSTRY SECTOR 
    5.    TABLE 5:    AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD 
 
APPENDIX E:  KEY CONTACTS IN THE U.S. AND AUSTRALIA 
          
    1.    U.S. GOVERNMENT OFFICES IN AUSTRALIA 
    2.    AMCHAM AND BILATERAL BUSINESS COUNCILS 
    3.    KEY AUSTRALIAN TRADE ORGANIZATIONS AND INDUSTRY 
          ASSOCIATIONS (by industry sector) 
    4.    KEY AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICES  
    5.    SOURCES OF MARKET RESEARCH AND BUSINESS FACILITATION SERVICES  
    6.    COMMERCIAL BANKS IN AUSTRALIA  
    7.    NEWSPAPERS, PERIODICALS AND BUSINESS DIRECTORIES 
 
APPENDIX F:  MARKET RESEARCH 1995 - 1996  
 
    1.    KEY INDUSTRY SECTOR MARKET RESEARCH 
    2.    AGRICULTURAL MARKET RESEARCH  
 
APPENDIX G.  1996 TRADE EVENT SCHEDULE (by industry sector) 
 
 
                    APPENDIX A:  COUNTRY DATA 
 
 
1. Population    17.9 million  
 
2. Population Growth Rate    1.1%  
 
3. Religions (approximate)    Anglican 25% 
    Roman Catholic 25% 
    Other Christian 20% 
    Unspecified 30% 
 
4. Government System: A Democratic Federal and State parliamentary 
system, recognizing the British Monarch as Sovereign 
 
5. Languages: English is the official language, with modern Australian 
English a conglomerate of British, American, and their own phraseology 
and spelling.  Because Australia is one of the most multicultural 
nations in the world it is possible to find vibrant ethnic communities 
using almost every other world language.  Australian school children 
have the highest rate of learning Asian languages, particularly Japanese 
and Chinese, of any industrialized western nation - in recognition of 
their future as a member of the Asia-Pacific region. 
 
6. Work Week: The normal business work week is Monday-Friday, 38 hours, 
usually ranging between 8 a.m. - 6 p.m. with an hour or so for lunch.  
Most shops close by 6 p.m. most days but keep some evening, Saturday, 
and, increasingly, Sunday hours. 
 
 
               APPENDIX B.  DOMESTIC ECONOMY STATISTICS 
               (all figures in millions of U.S. dollars*) 
 
 
Calendar Year                   1994          1995      1996  
                                               (e)       (p) 
 
 1.    Gross Domestic Product    298,613    309,038    337,700 
        89-90 prices) 
 2.    GDP Growth Rate (%)**           5.1        4.2        3.6 
 3.    GDP per Capita             16,682     17,074     18,449 
 4.    Government Spending            26.7       25.1       25.0 
       (% of GDP) 
 5.    Inflation (%)                   2.5        3.5        4.2 
 6.    Unemployment Rate (%)           9.7        8.5        8.0  
 7.    Foreign Exchange Reserves  10,130     12,400     13,500 
       (year end) 
 8.    Avg. Exchange Rate              1.36       1.37       1.30 
       (US$=1.00) 
 9.    Net Foreign Debt (yr end) 119,291    118,300    123,200 
10.    Debt Service Ratio (%)          11.4       12.1       12.4 
11.    U.S. Economic/Military          NA         NA         NA 
       Assistance 
 
*    Exchange rate fluctuations must be considered when analyzing data. 
**    Percent changes are calculated in Australian dollars. 
(e)    Estimate 
(p)    Projection 
 
 
              APPENDIX B.  DOMESTIC ECONOMY STATISTICS 
             (all figures in millions of U.S. dollars*) 
 
 
Calendar Year      1994      1995     1996  
                             (e)       (p) 
 
 1.    Gross Domestic Product    298,613    309,038    337,700 
       (89-90 prices) 
 2.    GDP Growth Rate (%)**        5.1        4.2        3.6 
 3.    GDP per Capita             16,682     17,074     18,449 
 4.    Government Spending         26.7       25.1       25.0 
       (% of GDP) 
 5.    Inflation (%)                2.5        3.5        4.2 
 6.    Unemployment Rate (%)        9.7        8.5        8.0  
 7.    Foreign Exchange Reserves  10,130     12,400     13,500 
       (year end) 
 8.    Avg. Exchange Rate           1.36       1.37       1.30 
       (US$=1.00) 
 9.    Net Foreign Debt (yr end) 119,291    118,300    123,200 
10.    Debt Service Ratio (%)      11.4       12.1       12.4 
11.    U.S. Economic/Military       NA         NA         NA 
       Assistance 
 
*    Exchange rate fluctuations must be considered when analyzing data. 
**    Percent changes are calculated in Australian dollars. 
(e)    Estimate 
(p)    Projection 
 
 
            APPENDIX C:  U.S. AND AUSTRALIAN TRADE STATISTICS 
                (All figures in millions of U.S. dollars*) 
 
 
PART I.  GOODS AND SERVICES TRADE STATISTICS 
 
Calendar Year     1994     1995     1996 
                            (e)      (p) 
 
 1.  Total Australian    60,960    64,500    75,500 
     Exports (G&S)**                      
 2.  Total Australian    64,723    72,300    79,300 
     Imports (G&S)**                      
 3.  Exports of Merchandise Goods (a)  
     (1)  Total (to World)    47,763    50,200    59,100 
     (2)  To the U.S.     3,410     3,500     4,100 
 4.  Imports of Merchandise Goods (a) 
     (1)  Total (from World)    50,056    56,200    62,400 
     (2)  From the U.S.    10,907    11,520    11,850 
 5.  U.S. Share of Merchandise 
     Imports (%)      21.8      20.5      19.0 
 6.  Imports of Manufactured Goods (b) 
     (1)  Total (from World)    30,439    34,160    38,500 
     (2)  From the U.S.    10,068     8,540     9,200 
 7.  U.S. Share of Manufactured 
     Imports (%)      33.0      25.0      24.0 
 8.  Manufactured Goods Trade Balance  
     with U.S.    (8,586)    (5,840)    (5,400) 
     (1)  Growth Rate from World (%)       8.5      13.0       6.8 
     (2)  Growth Rate from U.S. (%)      14.5      14.6       2.6 
 9.  Trade Balance with Three Leading Partners in 1994 
     Japan     2,874 
     U.S.    (7,497) 
     New Zealand       736 
10.  Principal U.S. Exports to Australia in Calendar 1994 
     (1)  Aircraft and Associated 
          Equipment     806.5 
     (2)  Computers     754.1 
     (3)  Computers and Office  
          Mach. Parts etc.     560.8 
     (4)  Measuring and Checking  
          Equipment     389.9 
     (5)  Telecommunications  
          Equipment     339.3 
11.    Principal U.S. Imports from Australia 
     (1)  Bovine Meat f.c.f.     546.0 
     (2)  Computers and Office  
          Mach. parts etc.     199.5 
     (3)  Aircraft and Associated  
          Equipment     134.5 
     (4)  Crude Petroleum and Oils     123.3 
     (5)  Wool and Animal Hair  
          (inc. wool tops)     117.0 
 
 
PART II.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE STATISTICS 
 
                          1994    1995    1996 
                                   (e)     (p) 
 
1. Australian Agricultural Imports 
 
Total from World    2977   3126    3300 
Total from U.S.     381     410     495 
U.S. Share of Market (%)      9.4    13.0    15.0 
 
2. Agricultural Trade Balance with U.S. 
 
Aust. Agr Exports to U.S.     868     990    1200 
Aust. Agr Imports from U.S.   382     410     495 
Balance                       486     580     705 
 
3. Agricultural Trade Balance with top three trading partners 
 
Aust. Agr. Export to Japan       2767    2700    2800 
Aust. Agr. Imports from Japan      68      65      70 
Balance                          2699    2635    2730 
 
Aust. Agr. Exports to Taiwan     451     500     600 
Aust. Agr. Imports to Taiwan      33      40      50 
Balance                          418     450     550 
 
Aust. Agr. Exports to Singapore  253     275     300 
Aust. Agr. Imports from Singapore 61      60      65 
Balance                          192     215     235 
 
4. Principal Australian Exports to the U.S. (Top 5) 
 
(1) Meat and Meat Preparations      769     750    1000 
(2) Vegetables and Fruit             23      30      50 
(3) Dairy Products and Birds Eggs    20      25      30 
(4) Sugar, & Preparations, Honey     16      16      20 
(5) Cereals and Cereal Preparations   1       1      10 
 
5. Principal Australian Imports from the U.S. (Top 5) 
 
(1) Cork and Wood                     53      50      50 
(2) Vegetables and Fruit              71      75      80 
(3) Oilseeds and Oleaginous Fruits    57     100      75 
(4) Beverages                         35      50      65 
(5) Tobacco and Tobacco Manufactures  25      25      25 
 
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 
 
Footnotes: 
*    Exchange rate fluctuations must be considered when analyzing data.  
**    Total Trade and Manufactured Trade are recorded on a balance of 
payments basis.  Merchandise Trade is recorded using FOB data from the 
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 
 
(a) Data on total bilateral trade with the U.S. is not available due to 
lags in data for services trade.  
(b) Manufactured Goods include total major commodity imports, apart 
from: food and live animals; animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes; 
mineral fuels and lubricants; and gold, coins and special commodities 
transactions. 
(e) Estimate.  
(p) Projection.  
 
 
        APPENDIX C:  U.S. AND AUSTRALIAN TRADE STATISTICS 
             (All figures in millions of U.S. dollars*) 
 
 
PART I.  GOODS AND SERVICES TRADE STATISTICS 
 
Calendar Year                   1994     1995     1996 
                                          (e)      (p) 
 
 1.  Total Australian          60,960    64,500    75,500 
     Exports (G&S)** 
 2.  Total Australian          64,723    72,300    79,300 
     Imports (G&S)**                      
 3.  Exports of Merchandise Goods (a)  
     (1)  Total (to World)     47,763    50,200    59,100 
     (2)  To the U.S.           3,410     3,500     4,100 
 4.  Imports of Merchandise Goods (a) 
     (1)  Total (from World)   50,056    56,200    62,400 
     (2)  From the U.S.        10,907    11,520    11,850 
 5.  U.S. Share of Merchandise 
     Imports (%)                   21.8      20.5      19.0 
 6.  Imports of Manufactured Goods (b) 
     (1)  Total (from World)   30,439    34,160    38,500 
     (2)  From the U.S.        10,068     8,540     9,200 
 7.  U.S. Share of Manufactured 
     Imports (%)                  33.0      25.0      24.0 
 8.  Manufactured Goods Trade Balance  
     with U.S.                         (8,586)    (5,840)    (5,400) 
     (1)  Growth Rate from World (%)        8.5      13.0       6.8 
     (2)  Growth Rate from U.S. (%)        14.5      14.6       2.6 
 9.  Trade Balance with Three Leading Partners in 1994 
     Japan     2,874 
     U.S.     (7,497) 
     New Zealand 736 
10.  Principal U.S. Exports to Australia in Calendar 1994 
     (1)  Aircraft and Associated 
          Equipment                 806.5 
     (2)  Computers                 754.1 
     (3)  Computers and Office  
          Mach. Parts etc.          560.8 
     (4)  Measuring and Checking  
          Equipment                 389.9 
     (5)  Telecommunications  
          Equipment                 339.3 
11.   Principal U.S. Imports from Australia 
     (1)  Bovine Meat f.c.f.        546.0 
     (2)  Computers and Office  
          Mach. parts etc.          199.5 
     (3)  Aircraft and Associated  
          Equipment                 134.5 
     (4)  Crude Petroleum and Oils  123.3 
     (5)  Wool and Animal Hair  
          (inc. wool tops)          117.0 
 
PART II.  AGRICULTURAL TRADE STATISTICS 
 
                        1994    1995    1996 
                                (e)     (p) 
1. Australian Agricultural Imports 
 
Total from World        2977    3126    3300 
Total from U.S.          381     410     495 
U.S. Share of Market (%)   9.4    13.0    15.0 
 
2. Agricultural Trade Balance with U.S. 
 
Aust. Agr Exports to U.S.     868     990    1200 
Aust. Agr Imports from U.S.   382     410     495 
Balance                       486     580     705 
 
3. Agricultural Trade Balance with top three trading partners 
 
Aust. Agr. Export to Japan       2767    2700    2800 
Aust. Agr. Imports from Japan      68      65      70 
Balance                          2699    2635    2730 
 
Aust. Agr. Exports to Taiwan     451     500     600 
Aust. Agr. Imports to Taiwan      33      40      50 
Balance                          418     450     550 
 
Aust. Agr. Exports to Singapore     253     275     300 
Aust. Agr. Imports from Singapore    61      60      65 
Balance     192     215     235 
 
4. Principal Australian Exports to the U.S. (Top 5) 
 
(1) Meat and Meat Preparations     769     750    1000 
(2) Vegetables and Fruit            23      30      50 
(3) Dairy Products and Birds Eggs   20      25      30 
(4) Sugar, & Preparations, Honey    16      16      20 
(5) Cereals and Cereal Preparations  1       1      10 
 
5. Principal Australian Imports from the U.S. (Top 5) 
 
(1) Cork and Wood                     53      50      50 
(2) Vegetables and Fruit              71      75      80 
(3) Oilseeds and Oleaginous Fruits    57     100      75 
(4) Beverages                         35      50      65 
(5) Tobacco and Tobacco Manufactures  25      25      25 
 
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 
 
Footnotes: 
*    Exchange rate fluctuations must be considered when analyzing data.  
**    Total Trade and Manufactured Trade are recorded on a balance of 
payments basis.  Merchandise Trade is recorded using FOB data from the 
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 
(a)    Data on total bilateral trade with the U.S. is not available due 
to lags in data for services trade.  
(b)    Manufactured Goods include total major commodity imports, apart 
from: food and live animals; animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes; 
mineral fuels and lubricants; and gold, coins and special commodities 
transactions. 
(e)    Estimate.  
(p)    Projection.  
 
 
           APPENDIX D:  FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT STATISTICS 
 
 
TABLE 1.  FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA 
(All figures in U.S.$ Billion (a)) 
 
Foreign Investment Flows: 
- Direct Investment  
- Total Foreign 
 
Fiscal Year    Equity    Other    Total    Investment 
  
1989-90     4.0    -0.2     5.8     19.5 
1990-91     5.7    -0.2     6.5     17.0 
1991-92     3.2     0.1     5.2     11.6 
1992-93     4.3     0.1     3.4     12.6 
1993-94     3.5     0.1     3.5     15.2 
 
Source:  Foreign Investment Review Board Report 1993-94, Table 3.1.  
 
TABLE 2.  STOCK OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AT FYE (JUNE 30) IN 
                    AUSTRALIA BY SELECTED COUNTRIES 
                  (All figures in U.S.$ Millions (a)) 
 
Country    Fiscal Year    Equity    Other    Total 
 
USA 
    1988-89    13,577    3,477    17,053 
    1989-90    16,332    3,492    19,824 
    1990-91    17,202    3,924    21,126 
    1991-92    17,416    4,346    21,762 
    1992-93    18,618    4,928    23,546 
  
Japan 
    1988-89     4,073    4,265     8,338  
    1989-90     5,614    5,642    11,256  
    1990-91     6,447    5,966    12,412  
    1991-92     6,826    6,610    13,436  
    1992-93     5,806    5,868    11,675 
 
UK  
    1988-89    17,053    2,035    19,089  
    1989-90    18,179    2,635    20,814  
    1990-91    16,508    2,344    18,852  
    1991-92    16,100    2,529    18,628  
    1992-93    15,115    2,183    17,298 
 
Source:  ABS 5305.0 Foreign Investment Australia 1992-93, Table 22 
(published August 1994).  
 
 
 
TABLE 3.  STOCK OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AUSTRALIA 
             AT FISCAL YEAR END (JUNE 30) BY INDUSTRY 
                (All figures in U.S. Millions (a)) 
 
Industry             1989-90    1990-91    1991-92    1992-93 
 
Mining               11,347      9,897     10,479      9,934 
Manufacturing        21,224     22,058     22,593     23,559 
Wholesale & Retail  
 Trade               12,412     11,849     12,644     11,413 
Finance, Prop. 
 & Business          24,153     28,022     28,183     24,432 
Agriculture, Forest, 
 Fish & Hunting         972      1,232        903        973  
Other         np      1,068         np      1,997  
Total                73,005     75,535     78,643     74,765  
 
Source:  ABS 5305, Table 29 (published August 1994).  
 
np - not available for separate publication but included in totals where 
applicable. 
 
TABLE 4.  TOTAL EXPECTED INVESTMENT ASSOCIATED WITH PROPOSALS APPROVED 
BY THE FIRB, BY COUNTRY OF INVESTOR AND INDUSTRY SECTOR (FY 1993-94) 
                  (All figures in U.S. Millions (a)) 
 
Industry Sector      Total       USA        UK        NZ 
 
Agriculture, Forestry 
 & Fishing                 111        34         4        11 
Mining                   2,661       790       340        34 
Resource Processing        182        66        81        na 
Manufacturing            1,441       467       110        82 
Finance & Insurance        525        85        67       138 
Services (excl. Tourism) 1,257       440       190       148 
Tourism                  3,024       428        33       158 
Real Estate              7,908       894       343        32 
Total                   17,107     3,202     1,169       603 
No. of Proposals         4,920       264       330        46 
 
 
Industry Sector           Germany     Japan    Australia 
 
Agriculture, Forestry  
 & Fishing                   na         4        na 
Mining                        2       222       905 
Resource Processing          na         3         9 
Manufacturing                56       150       294 
Finance & Insurance         131        18         2 
Services (excl. Tourism)     21        45        58 
Tourism                     273       456       549 
Real Estate                  49       230       586 
Total                       533     1,127     2,404 
No. of Proposals             92       244       109 
 
Source:  FIRB Annual Report 1993-94. 
 
TABLE 5.  AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ABROAD (FY 1992-93) 
                 (All figures in U.S. Millions (a)) 
 
Destination/Flow/Level of Investment 
            (FYE 6/30/93) 
 
USA                609         7,438  
NZ                 859         4,801  
UK                  np         8,911  
Total OECD       1,648        23,727  
ASEAN              251         2,371  
Papua New Guinea    93         1,387  
Others              np            np  
Unallocated         np            np  
Total            2,169        30,334  
 
Source:  ABS 5305.0 Table 24, 26 (published August 1994).  
 
Footnotes: 
 
(a) Exchange rate fluctuations must be considered when analyzing data. 
(np) not available for separate publication but included in totals where 
applicable.  
 
Exchange Rates: 
FY 1988-89:  A$1.00 EQUALS US$0.755 
FY 1989-90:  A$1.00 EQUALS US$0.790 
FY 1990-91:  A$1.00 EQUALS US$0.768 
FY 1991-92:  A$1.00 EQUALS US$0.749 
FY 1992-93:  A$1.00 EQUALS US$0.672 
FY 1993-94:  A$1.00 EQUALS US$0.729 
 
 
             APPENDIX E:  U.S. AND AUSTRALIA CONTACTS 
 
 
Contents at a Glance: 
 
1.    U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS IN AUSTRALIA 
    A.    U.S. Embassy/Commercial Service/Agricultural Service  
          Offices in Australia 
    B.    Washington-based USG Contacts Dealing with Australia 
2.        AMCHAM & BILATERAL BUSINESS COUNCILS 
    A.    The American Chamber of Commerce in Australia 
    B.    Australian-American Chambers of Commerce 
    C.    Australian Chambers of Commerce         
3.        KEY AUSTRALIAN CONTACTS 
4.        AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 
    A.    In the U.S. 
    B.    Federal Government Agencies 
    C.    State Economic Development Agencies 
5.        AUSTRALIAN MARKET RESEARCH AND BUSINESS SERVICE PROVIDERS 
6.        COMMERCIAL BANKS 
    A.    Australian Banks 
    B.    American Banks with Representation in Australia 
10.       AUSTRALIAN PUBLICATIONS 
    A.    Newspapers 
    B.    Periodicals 
    C.    Leading Business Directories 
 
     
1.  U.S. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS 
 
A.  EMBASSY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
Moonah Place 
Canberra ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 270 5000 
Fax:  61 6 270 5970 
 
For mail from the U.S.: 
American Embassy Canberra 
PSC 277 
APO AP 96549 
 
The U.S. Embassy, with its subsidiary Consulates General, is responsible 
for all of the functions of the U.S. diplomatic mission to Australia.  
The Ambassador is the senior U.S. government official in Australia.  
Embassy Officers with primary responsibility for trade policy, trade 
issues, and trade promotion programs include: 
 
*    Commercial Counselor (The Senior U.S. Commercial Service Officer 
for Australia, who is located at the U.S. Consulate General in Sydney - 
send inquiries to address below, not to Embassy) 
*    Economics Counselor 
*    Agricultural Counselor                   
*    Labor Attache 
*    Defense Attache 
 
B.  COMMERCIAL SERVICE OFFICES IN AUSTRALIA      
   
The Commercial Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce has offices at 
the American Consulates General in Sydney, Melbourne, and Perth.  These 
offices are staffed by American Commercial Service Officers, who are 
part of the Diplomatic Mission to Australia.  They manage all aspects of 
the trade promotion program, with an Australian staff of trade 
professionals.  
 
The Commercial Service in Australia works with the U.S. Department of 
Commerce District Offices throughout the United States to provide a full 
range of export facilitation services to U.S. business.  The first point 
of inquiry for an American company needing Commercial Service assistance 
is its nearest USDOC District Office in the United States.   
 
For general questions concerning trade policy or issues, or industry-
specific inquiries: 
Senior Commercial Officer for Australia 
Commercial Service 
U.S. Consulate General 
MLC Centre, Martin Place, Level 59 
Sydney, NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 373 9200 
Fax:  61 2 221 0573 
 
For inquiries concerning New South Wales, Queensland:       
Principal Commercial Officer 
Commercial Service 
U.S. Consulate General 
MLC Centre, Martin Place, Level 59 
Sydney, NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 373 9200 
Fax:  61 2 221 0573 
 
For mail from the U.S.: 
Principal Commercial Officer 
U.S. Consulate General Sydney 
Commercial Service 
PSC 280, Unit 11024 
APO AP 96554-0002 
 
For inquiries concerning Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and the 
Northern Territory: 
Principal Commercial Officer 
Commercial Service 
U.S. Consulate General 
553 St. Kilda Road, 6th Floor  
Melbourne, VIC 3004 
Tel:  61 3 9526 5900 
Fax:  61 3 9510 4660 
              
For mail from the U.S.: 
Principal Commercial Officer 
U.S. Consulate General Melbourne 
Commercial Service 
Unit 11011 
APO AP 96551-0002 
                 
For inquiries concerning Western Australia: 
Commercial Specialist 
U.S. Consulate General 
Commercial Service 
16 George's Terrace, 13th Floor  
Perth, Western Australia 6000 
Tel:  61 9 231 9400 
Fax:  61 9 231 9444 
 
For mail from the U.S.: 
Commercial Specialist 
U.S. Consulate General (Perth) 
Commercial Service 
U.S. Consulate General  
APO AP 96530 
 
C.  WASHINGTON-BASED U.S. GOVERNMENT OFFICES DEALING WITH AUSTRALIA 
 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Australia Desk Officer 
International Trade Administration 
Room 2308 HCHB 
Washington DC 20230 
Tel:  202 482 2471/2955 
Fax:  202 482 5330 
 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
Foreign Agricultural Service 
Foreign Agricultural Affairs 
East Asia Pacific Area Office 
Washington DC 20250 
Tel:  202 720 2690 
Fax:  202 720 6063 
 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE                  
East Asia Pacific/ANZ Desk 
Room 4209 
Washington DC 20520/6310 
Tel:  703 255 5138 
Fax:  202 647 4402 
  
U.S. INFORMATION AGENCY 
East Asia Desk 
301 4th Street, S.W., Room 766 
Washington DC 20547 
Tel:  202 619 5847 
Fax:  202 619 6684 
 
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 
Defense Security Assistance Agency 
East Asia Pacific Division 
Office of the Secretary of Defense 
Room 4B740 
The Pentagon 
Washington DC 20301 
Fax:  703 604 6541 
 
MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANK OFFICE 
U.S. Department of Commerce 
14th and Constitution Avenue, N.W. 
Room H-1107 
Washington, D.C. 20007 
Tel:  202 482 3399 
Fax:  202 273 0927 
 
Australia is a donor country to multilateral development banks, not a 
recipient.  There are no MDB offices in Australia.  The Australian 
government liaises with the MDBs through its Embassies in the cities 
where the banks are located:  Asian Development Bank, Manila; World 
Bank, Washington.   
 
TRADE INFORMATION CENTER (TIC) 
Tel:  1-800-USA-TRADE (1 800 872 8723) 
    202 482 5455 (TPCC Secretariat) 
Fax:  202 482 4473 
     
TIC specialists provide basic export counseling and information on 
export services and programs offered by 19 federal agencies of the Trade 
Promotion Coordinating Committee (TPCC).  The annual report of the TPCC, 
"The National Export Strategy", designates "the Trade Information 
Center, situated in Commerce, as the single TPCC-wide information office 
that will coordinate specialized non-agricultural export information 
offices".   
 
2.  AMCHAM AND BILATERAL BUSINESS COUNCILS 
     
A.  THE AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE IN AUSTRALIA (AMCHAM) 
 
AmCham is the premier organization supporting the U.S. - Australian 
business community. The Chamber has more than 1500 member companies and 
works very closely with the U.S. Embassy and U.S. Commercial Service in 
Australia.  It has a full program of business information and advisory 
services, business community networks, business forums, etc.  It 
represents views of the business community to both the Australian and 
American governments and is active in the Asia-Pacific Association of 
Chambers and the Asia-Pacific Cooperation Forum (APCAC).  It publishes 
an annual directory of all members. 
 
The American Chamber of Commerce in Australia 
Ste 4, Gloucester Walk 
88 Cumberland Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 241 1907 
Fax:  61 2 251 5220 
 
B.  AUSTRALIAN/AMERICAN CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE (AACC) 
 
These organizations conduct a variety of activities ranging from trade 
promotion and facilitation, to information programs, to social and 
cultural activities, depending upon the interests of their members.  
They also are affiliated loosely with the Australian Embassy and the 
Australian Trade Commission (AUSTRADE) in the U.S.  There are AACCs in 
the following cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL; Dallas, TX; Denver, CO; 
Honolulu, HI; Houston, TX; Los Angeles, CA; Minneapolis, MN; Orlando, 
FL; Pittsburgh, PA; St. Louis, MO; San Diego, CA; San Francisco, CA.  
Contact AUSTRADE for further information (see Section 4A for address).  
 
C.  AUSTRALIAN CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE (BY STATE) 
 
Each Australian state has a Chamber of Commerce to promote business 
relations and investment, including imports and exports, in their state. 
 
NEW SOUTH WALES 
State Chamber of Commerce (NSW) 
GPO Box 4280 
Sydney, NSW 2001 
Tel:  61 2 350 8100 
Fax:  61 2 350 8199 
 
VICTORIA 
Victorian Employers Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
50 Burwood Road 
Hawthorn VIC 3122 
Tel:  61 3 9810 6333 
Fax:  61 3 9819 0139 
 
QUEENSLAND 
Queensland Chamber of Commerce and Industry Limited 
Industry House, 375 Wickham Terrace 
Brisbane QLD 4000 
Tel:  61 7 831 1699 
Fax:  61 7 832 3195 
 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA 
South Australian Employers Chamber of Commerce and Industry Inc. 
136 Greenhill Road 
Unley SA 5061 
Tel:  61 8 373 1422 
Fax:  61 8 272 9662 
 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA 
Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Western Australia 
PO Box 6209 
East Perth WA 6892 
Tel:  61 9 421 7555 
Fax:  61 9 325 6550 
 
TASMANIA 
Tasmanian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
GPO Box 793H 
Hobart TAS 7001 
Tel:  61 02 34 5933 
Fax:  61 02 31 1278 
 
3.  LEADING TRADE OR INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS 
    (Listed by Standard ITA Industry Codes) 
 
Australia, like the U.S., has active trade and industry associations 
that have various information and industry promotion programs to assist 
their members. 
 
GENERAL BUSINESS AND TRADE ASSOCIATIONS (ZEC; ZRG; ZSV) 
 
    ASEAN-Australia Business Council 
    PO Box E14 
    Queen Victoria Terrace 
    Canberra ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 273 2311 
    Fax:  61 6 273 3196 
 
    Asia Pacific Business Association 
    PO Box A2163 
    Sydney South NSW 2000 
    Tel:  61 2 235 1222 
    Fax:  61 2 221 8109 
 
    Association of Consulting Engineers 
    PO Box 1002 
    North Sydney NSW 2059 
    Tel:  61 2 922 4711 
    Fax:  61 2 957 2484 
 
    Australian Centre for American Studies 
    Building 2, University of Sydney 
    Sydney NSW 2006 
    Tel:  61 2 660 5865 
    Fax:  61 2 692 4817 
 
    Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 
    PO Box E14 
    Queen Victoria Terrace 
    Canberra ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 273 2311 
    Fax:  61 6 273 3286 
 
    Australian Chamber of Manufactures 
    GPO Box 1469N 
    Melbourne VIC 3001 
    Tel:  61 3 9698 4111 
    Fax:  61 3 9699 1729 
 
    Australian Commercial Disputes Centre 
    Level 4, 50 Park Street 
    Sydney NSW 2000 
    Tel:  61 2 267 1000 
    Fax:  61 2 267 3125 
 
    Australian Council for Infrastructure Development 
    Level 1, 1 Kent Street 
    Sydney NSW 2000 
    Tel:  61 2 247 3223 
    Fax:  61 2 247 3097 
 
    Australian Institute of Management 
    PO Box 112 
    St. Kilda VIC 3182 
    Tel:  61 3 9534 8181     
    Fax:  61 3 9534 5050 
 
    Business Council of Australia (policy advisory group) 
    PO Box 7225 
    Melbourne VIC 3004 
    Tel:  61 3 9274 7777 
    Fax:  61 3 9274 7744 
 
    Chamber of Manufactures of NSW 
    Private Bag No. 938 
    North Sydney NSW 2059 
    Tel:  61 2 957 5792 
    Fax:  61 2 923 1166 
 
    Customs Brokers Council of Australia (NSW) Inc 
    Ste 3, Level 6, Eastgardens 
    Bunnerong Road 
    Pagewood NSW 2035 
    Tel:  61 2 314 1711 
    Fax:  61 2 314 2484 
 
    Institute of Patent Attorneys of Australia 
    1st floor, Qantas House 
    2-6 Railway Parade  
    Camberwell VIC 3124 
    Tel:  61 3 882 8041 
    Fax:  61 3 882 8087 
 
    Institution of Engineers, Australia 
    Engineering House, 11 National Circuit 
    Barton ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 270 6555 
    Fax:  61 6 273 1488 
 
    Market Research Society of Australia Ltd. 
    Tower Building,  
    155 Miller Street 
    North Sydney, NSW 2060 
    Tel:  61 2 955 4830 
    Fax:  61 2 955 5746 
 
    Retailers Council of Australia 
    Illoura Plaza, 424 St. Kilda Road 
    South Melbourne VIC 3004 
    Tel:  61 3 9820 0466 
    Fax:  61 3 9866 5510 
 
    Standards Australia 
    PO Box 1055 
    Strathfield NSW 2135 
    Tel:  61 2 746 4700 
    Fax:  61 2 746 8450 
 
AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT (AGM) 
 
    Australian Agricultural Machinery Manufacturers Assn  
    GPO Box 1023 
    Adelaide SA 5001 
    Tel:  61 8 267 4722 
    Fax:  61 8 239 1329 
 
AIRCRAFT/PARTS (AIR) 
AIRPORT/GROUND SUPPORT EQPT (APG) 
AVIATION SERVICES (AVS) 
 
    Association of Australian Aerospace Industries  
    GPO Box 817 
    Canberra ACT 2601 
    Tel:  61 6 247 2233 
    Fax:  61 6 248 6157 
 
    General Aviation Association (Australia) GAA  
    PO Box 398 
    Manly NSW 2095 
    Tel:  61 2 238 2281 
    Fax:  61 2 976 2316 
 
APPAREL (APP) 
 
    Apparel Importers Association of Australia 
    PO Box E326, Queen Victoria Terrace 
    Canberra ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 281 0722 
    Fax:  61 6 282 5477 
 
AUTOMOTIVE PARTS/SERVICE EQUIPMENT (APS) 
 
    Auto Parts Recyclers Association of Australia (APRA) 
    263 Boundary Road 
    Mordialloc VIC 3195 
    Tel:  61 3 9587 2194 
    Fax:  61 3 9587 6556 
 
    Australian Automotive Aftermarket Association  
    26 Railway Avenue 
    Caulfield East VIC 3145 
    Tel:  61 3 9572 2686 
    Fax:  61 3 9572 2956 
 
    Australian Automobile Dealers Association 
    PO Box E368 
    Queen Victoria Terrace 
    Barton ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 273 4333 
    Fax:  61 6 273 2738 
 
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (CON) 
 
    Australian Construction Industry Council, The 
    Level 9, 50 Margaret Street 
    Sydney NSW 2000 
    Tel:  61 2 299 8011 
    Fax:  61 2 299 8010 
 
    Australian Constructors Association 
    C/o The Metal Trades Industry Association 
    MTIA House, 51 Walker Street 
    North Sydney NSW 2060 
    Tel:  61 2 929 5566 
    Fax:  61 2 929 5044 
 
    Australian Earthmovers & Road Contractors Federation 
    74 Burwood Road 
    Hawthorn VIC 3122 
    Tel:  61 3 9819 5170 
    Fax:  61 3 9819 6098 
 
    Master Builders Australia Inc. 
    3rd Floor, 217 Northbourne Avenue 
    Turner ACT 2601 
    Tel:  61 6 249 1433 
    Fax:  61 6 249 1373 
 
BOOKS/PERIODICALS (BOK) 
 
    Australian Booksellers Association Inc. (ABA)  
    P.O. Box 1088 
    Carlton VIC 3053 
    Tel:  61 3 663 7888 
    Fax:  61 3 663 7667 
 
BIOTECHNOLOGY (BTC) 
 
    Australian Biotechnology Association (ABA) 
    Suite 2, 112a Martin Street 
    Gardenvale VIC 3185 
    Tel:  61 3 596 8879 
    Fax:  61 3 596 8874 
 
    Australian Institute of Agricultural Science (AIGS) 
    1st Fl., 91 Rathdowne Street 
    Carlton VIC 3053 
    Tel:  61 3 662 1077 
    Fax:  61 3 662 2727 
 
    Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology      
    PO Box 319 
    Noble Park VIC 3174 
    Tel:  61 3 706 3837 
    Fax:  61 3 798 8842 
      
    Australian Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, Inc. 
    Level 2, 77 Berry Street 
    North Sydney NSW 2060 
    Tel:  61 2 922 2699 
    Fax:  61 2 959 4860 
 
    Australian Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 
    Department of Biochemisty 
    University of Sydney 
    Sydney NSW 2006 
    Tel:  61 2 351 2230 
    Fax:  61 2 351 4726 
 
    Environment Management Industry Association of Australia  
    Anzac Building, Cnr. Adelaide & Edward Streets 
    Brisbane QLD 4000 
    Tel:  61 7 229 8522 
    Fax:  61 7 229 8577 
 
    Medical Industry Association of Australia (MIAA) 
    126 Greville Street 
    Chatswood NSW 2067 
    Tel:  61 2 415 1151 
    Fax:  61 2 415 2130 
 
    Pharmaceutical Society of Australia 
    44 Thesiger Ct. 
    Deakin ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 281 1366 
    Fax:  61 6 285 2869 
 
CHEMICAL PRODUCTION MACHINERY (CHM) 
CHEMICALS, INDUSTRIAL (ICH) 
 
    Australian Chemical Industry Council 
    GPO Box 1601M 
    Melbourne VIC 3001 
    Tel:  61 3 9699 6299 
    Fax:  61 3 9699 6717 
 
COMPUTERS/PERIPHERALS (CPT) 
COMPUTER SOFTWARE (CSF) 
COMPUTER SERVICES (CSV) 
 
    Association for Computer Aided Design (ACADS) 
    Level 10, 91 York Street 
    Sydney NSW 2000 
    Tel:  61 2 299 5396 
    Fax:  61 2 299 5406 
 
    Australian Information Industry Association (AIIA)  
    12 Campion Street 
    Deakin ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 282 4700 
    Fax:  61 6 285 1408 
 
    Australian Computer Society  
    Ste 1, 200 Riley Street 
    Darlinghurst NSW 2010 
    Tel:  61 2 211 5855 
    Fax:  61 2 281 1208 
 
    Electronic Data Interchange Council of Australia (EDICA) 
    2nd Floor, 854 Glenferrie Road 
    Hawthorn VIC 3122 
    Tel:  61 3 9819 6860 
    Fax:  61 3 9818 3129 
 
    Information Industry Association 
    12 Campion Street 
    Deakin ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 282 4700 
    Fax:  61 6 285 1408 
 
DEFENSE INDUSTRY EQUIPMENT (DFN) 
 
    Defence Manufacturers Council  
    GPO Box 817 
    Canberra ACT 2601 
    Tel:  61 6 247 2233 
    Fax:  61 6 248 6157 
 
DIRECT MARKETING (DIR) 
 
    Australian Direct Marketing Institute 
    GPO Box 3982 
    Sydney NSW 2001 
    Tel:  61 2 247 7744 
    Fax:  61 2 247 4919 
 
EDUCATION/TRAINING (EDS) 
 
    Australian Association of Adult & Community Education (AAACE)  
    PO Box 308 
    Jamison Centre ACT 2614 
    Tel:  61 6 251 7933 
    Fax:  61 6 251 7935 
 
    Australian Institute of Training & Development (AITD)  
    Level 1, 2 Thomas Street 
    Chatswood NSW 2067 
    Tel:  61 2 415 2094 
    Fax:  61 2 415 2093 
 
    Austrailan National Training Association (ANTA)   
     GPO Box 3120 
    Brisbane QLD 4001 
    Tel:  61 7 246 2300 
    Fax:  61 7 246 2490 
 
ELECTRONICS (EIP) 
 
    Australian Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Assn  
    PO Box 1966 
    Canberra City ACT 2601 
    Tel:  61 6 247 4655 
    Fax:  61 6 247 9840 
 
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (ELP) 
 
    Australian Institute of Energy 
    PO Box 230 
    Wahroonga NSW 2076 
    Tel:  61 2 449 1800 
    Fax:  61 2 983 9665 
 
    Electricity Supply Association Australia (ESAA)  
    219-227 Elizabeth Street 
    Sydney NSW 2000 
    Tel:  61 2 267 8366 
    Fax:  61 2 267 2207 
 
FINANCIAL SERVICES (FNS) 
 
    Australian Bankers' Association 
    42nd Floor, 55 Collins Street 
    Melbourne VIC 3000 
    Tel:  61 3 9654 5422 
    Fax:  61 3 9650 1756 
 
    Australian Securities Commission (ASC) 
    135 King Street 
    Sydney NSW 2000 
    Tel:  61 2 911 2200 
    Fax:  61 2 911 2333 
 
    Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia 
    37 York Street 
    Sydney NSW 2000 
    Tel:  61 2 290 1344 
    Fax:  61 2 262 1512 
  
FOOD PROCESSING/PACKAGING EQUIPMENT (FPP) 
FOODS, PROCESSED (FOD) 
 
    Agri-Food Council Secretariat 
    GPO Box 9839 
    Department of Industry, Science & Technology 
    Canberra ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 276 1086 
    Fax:  61 6 276 2203 
 
    Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology (AIFST) 
    83 Pymble Avenue 
    Pymble NSW 2073 
    Tel:  61 2 449 8884 
    Fax:  61 2 983 9626 
 
    Council of Australian Food Technology Association Inc.       
    11th Floor, The Denison 
    65 Berry Street 
    North Sydney NSW 2060 
    Tel:  61 2 963 7670 
    Fax:  61 2 954 4327 
 
    CSIRO Division of Food Processing 
    PO Box 52 
    North Ryde, NSW 2113 
    Tel:  61 2 887 8333 
    Fax:  61 2 887 3107 
 
    Food and Beverage Importers Association  
    PO Box 209 
    South Melbourne VIC 3205 
    Tel:  61 3 9690 7600 
    Fax:  61 3 9699 8338 
 
    Food Industry Council of Australia (FICA)  
    PO Box E14, Queen Victoria Terrace 
    Canberra ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 273 2311 
    Fax:  61 6 273 3286 
 
    Packaging Council of Australia Inc. 
    GPO Box 1469 N 
    Melbourne VIC 3001 
    Tel:  61 3 608 4262 
    Fax:  61 3 690 3515 
     
FRANCHISING (FRA) 
 
    Franchisors Association of Australia and New Zealand 
    Unit 9, 2-6 Hunter Street 
    Parramatta NSW 2150 
    Tel:  61 2 891 4933 
    Fax:  61 2 891 4474 
     
HEALTH CARE SERVICES (HCS) 
 
    Australian Institute of Health (AIH)  
    GPO Box 570 
    Canberra ACT 2601 
    Tel:  61 6 243 5000 
    Fax:  61 6 257 1470 
 
INFORMATION SERVICES (INF) 
 
    Australian Information Industry Association (AIIA)  
    PO Box E434 
    Queen Victoria Terrace  ACT  2600 
    Tel:  61 6 282 4700 
    Fax:  61 6 285 1408 
 
    Australian Information Technology Society 
    PO Box 414 
    St Leonards NSW 2065 
    Tel:  61 2 901 3644 
    Fax:  61 2 906 8939 
 
JEWELRY (JLR) 
 
    Jewellers Association of Australia (JAA) 
    PO Box E446 
    Queen Victoria Terrace 
    Canberra ACT 2600 
    Tel:  61 6 282 3211 
    Fax:  61 6 282 2725 
 
LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS (LAB) 
 
    Australian Scientific Industry Association  
    580 Church Street 
    Richmond VIC 3121 
    Tel:  61 3 9428 8966 
    Fax:  61 3 9427 9824 
 
MACHINE TOOLS/METALWORKING EQUIPMENT (MTL) 
 
    Metal Trades Industry Association of Australia (MTIA)  
    PO Box 289 
    North Sydney NSW 2059 
    Tel:  61 2 929 5566 
    Fax:  61 2 956 5044 
 
MATERIALS HANDLING MACHINERY (MHM) 
 
    Australian Institute of Material Management  
    PO Box 112 
    St Kilda VIC 3182 
    Tel:  61 3 534 8181 
    Fax:  61 3 534 5050 
 
MEDICAL EQUIPMENT (MED) 
 
    Medical Industry Association of Australia (MIAA)  
    126 Greville Street 
    Chatswood NSW 2067 
    Tel:  61 2 415 1151 
    Fax:  61 2 415 2130 
 
MINING INDUSTRY EQUIPMENT (MIN) 
 
    Australian Mining Industry Council  
    PO Box 363 
    Dickson ACT 2602 
    Tel:  61 6 279 3600 
    Fax:  61 6 279 3699 
 
PACKAGING EQUIPMENT (PKG) 
 
    Packaging Council of Australia   
    PO Box 1469 N 
    Melbourne VIC 3001 
    Tel:  61 3 9698 4278/9 
    Fax:  61 3 9690 3514 
 
PLASTIC MATERIALS/RESINS (PMR) 
PLASTICS PRODUCTION MACHINERY (PME) 
 
    Plastics Industry Association  
    41-43 Exhibition Street 
    Melbourne VIC 3000 
    Tel:  61 3 9654 2199 
    Fax:  61 3 9654 2384 
 
SECURITY/SAFETY EQUIPMENT (SEC) 
 
    Australian Security Industry Association Limited (ASIAL)  
    104/2 Clarke Street 
    Crows Nest NSW 2065 
    Tel:  61 2 906 4780 
    Fax:  61 2 436 4247 
 
TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT (TEL) 
TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES (TES) 
 
    Australasian Teleconferencing Association Inc. (ATA)  
    PO Box 3151 
    South Brisbane QLD 4101 
    Tel/Fax:  61 7 300 9077 
 
    Australian Telecommunications Users Group (ATUG)  
    11th Floor, 80 Alfred Street 
    Milsons Point NSW 2061 
    Tel:  61 2 957 1333 
    Fax:  61 2 925 0880 
 
TEXTILES, CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR (TXP) 
 
    Council of Textile and Fashion Industries of Australia 
    4th Floor, 380 St Kilda Road 
    Melbourne VIC 3004 
    Tel:  61 3 9698 4470 
    Fax:  61 3 9698 4459 
 
    Fashion Industries of Australia 
    4th Floor, 380 St Kilda Road 
    Melbourne VIC 3004 
    Tel:  61 3 9698 4470 
    Fax:  61 3 9698 4472 
 
    Textile Clothing and Footwear Council of Australia Limited 
    380 St Kilda Road 
    Melbourne VIC 3004 
    Tel:  61 3 9698 4460 
    Fax:  61 3 9698 4459 
 
WATER RESOURCES EQUIPMENT/SERVICES (WRE) 
 
    Australian Water & Wastewater Association  
    PO Box 388 
    Artarmon NSW 2064 
    Tel:  61 2 413 1288 
    Fax:  61 2 413 1047 
 
    International Association on Water Quality  
    Australian National Committee 
    PO Box 388 
    Artarmon NSW 2064 
    Tel:  61 2 413 1288 
    Fax:  61 2 413 1047 
 
4.  AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 
 
A.  AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICES IN THE UNITED STATES 
 
The Embassy of Australia is responsible for all diplomatic relations 
between Australia and the United States.  Australian Consulates General 
are located in various U.S. cities and have representational, trade and 
consular functions. 
 
The Australian Trade Commission (AUSTRADE) is responsible for trade and 
investment promotion and has offices in the Australian Embassy in 
Washington, D.C. and at the Australian Consulates  General in Los 
Angeles, San Francisco, Atlanta, Houston, and New York. 
            
Embassy of Australia 
1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW 
Washington DC 20036 
Tel:  202 797 3000 
Fax:  202 797 3300 
 
Senior Trade Commissioner 
AUSTRADE 
c/o Embassy of Australia 
(as above) 
 
Senior Customs Representative 
Embassy of Australia 
(as above) 
 
Australian Tourist Commission  
2121 Avenue of the Stars, 
Suite 1200 
Los Angeles CA 90067 
Tel:  310 552 1988 
Fax:  310 552 1215 
        and 
100 Park Avenue, 25th Floor 
New York NY 10017 
Tel:  212 687 6300 
Fax:  212 661 3340 
 
B.  KEY AUSTRALIAN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 
 
Anti-Dumping Authority 
40 Allara Street 
Canberra City, ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 276 2458 
Fax:  61 6 276 1747 
 
AUSTEL (Telecommunications Regulatory Authority) 
5 Queens road 
Melbourne VIC 3004 
Tel:  61 3 828 7300 
Fax:  61 3 820 3021 
 
Broadcasting Authority, Australian 
Level 15, Darling Park 
201 Sussex Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 334 7700 
Fax:  61 2 334 7799 
 
Building Codes Board, Australian 
Mr. Lyall Dix, Executive Director 
51 Allara Street 
Canberra ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 276 2334 
Fax:  61 6 266 2281 
 
Bureau of Statistics, Australian  
PO Box 10 
Belconnen ACT 2616 
Tel:  61 6 252 7911 
Fax:  61 6 251 6009 
 
Civil Aviation Authority 
GPO Box 367 
Canberra ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 268 4111 
Fax:  61 6 248 5239 
 
Communications and the Arts, Department of 
Film and Licensed Broadcasting 
GPO Box 2154 
Canberra City ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 279 1644 
Fax:  61 6 279 1717 
 
Communication and the Arts, Department of 
Spectrum Management Agency 
(Radiofrequency Spectrum) 
PO Box 78 
Belconnen ACT 2616 
Tel:  61 6 256 5555 
Fax:  61 6 256 5200 
 
Communications and the Arts, Department of 
Telecommunications Industry Division 
GPO Box 2154 
Canberra City ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 279 1894 
Fax:  61 6 279 1890 
 
Construction Forecasting Committee 
Department of Industry, Science and Technology 
51 Allara Street 
Canberra ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 276 2277 
Fax:  61 6 276 1071 
 
Customs Service, Australian 
Customs House 
5 Constitution Avenue 
Canberra City, ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 275 6666 
Fax:  61 6 275 6999 
   
    Sydney ...... Fax:  61 2 213 4000 
    Melbourne ... Fax:  61 3 9244 8640  
    Brisbane .... Fax:  61 7 835 3499  
    Perth ....... Fax:  61 9 477 8851 
    Adelaide .... Fax:  61 8 47 9206 
    Tasmania .... Fax:  61 02 30 1264 
 
Defence, Department of 
Russell Offices 
Canberra ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 265 9111 
Fax:  61 6 265 3000 
 
Foreign Affairs and Trade, Department of 
Administrative Building 
Parkes ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 261 9111 
Fax:  61 6 261 3111 
 
Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB) 
c/o Department of the Treasury 
Parkes Place 
Parkes ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 263 3755 
Fax:  61 6 263 2940 
 
Health and Medical Research Council, National 
GPO Box 9848 
Canberra ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 289 1555 
Fax:  61 6 282 7802 
 
Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, Department of 
Benjamin Offices 
Chan Street 
Belconnen ACT 2617 
Tel:  61 6 264 1111 
Fax:  61 6 264 2670 
 
Industrial Property Organization, Australian 
PO Box 200 
Woden ACT 2606 
Tel:  61 6 283 2211 
Fax:  61 6 281 1841 
 
Industrial Supplies Office 
Level 1, 10 Moore Street 
Canberra ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 257 1881 
Fax:  61 6 257 1763 
 
Industry, Science and Technology, Department of 
51 Allara Street     
Canberra ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 276 1000 
Fax:  61 6 276 1111 
 
Primary Industries and Energy, Department of 
GPO Box 858 
Canberra ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 272 3933 
Fax:  61 6 272 5161 
 
Quarantine & Inspection Service, Australian             
Edmund Barton Building  
Broughton Street 
Barton ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 272 5455 
Fax:  61 6 272 5697 
 
Taxation Office, Australian 
PO Box 900 
Civic Square ACT 2608 
Tel:  61 6 216 1111 
Fax:  61 6 216 2538 
 
Trade Development Zone Authority 
Berrimah Road 
Berrimah NT 0828 
Tel:  61 89 47 0133 
Fax:  61 89 84 3417 
 
Transport, Department of  
22 Cooyong Street 
Canberra City ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 274 7111 
Fax:  61 6 257 2505 
 
Treasury, Department of the 
Parkes Place 
Parkes ACT 2600 
Tel:  61 6 263 3738 
Fax:  61 6 273 3360 
 
C.  AUSTRALIAN STATE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES 
 
Each Australian state has its own office that provides information on 
business location, communications and infrastructure, privatization, 
major projects, work force and skills base, regulations, planning and 
approval processes, and potential joint-venture opportunities and 
partners.  These offices actively promote foreign investment into their 
individual states.  They have a great deal of information available and 
offer a variety of business promotion services to corporations 
interested in establishing a business presence in their state. 
 
AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY 
 
Business Employment and Tourism Bureau 
Chief Minister's Department 
GPO Box 158 
Canberra ACT 2601 
Tel:  61 6 205 0667 
Fax:  61 6 205 0616 
 
NEW SOUTH WALES 
 
Department of State Development 
State Office Block, Level 27 
74-90 Phillip Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 228 5070 
Fax:  61 2 228 5752 
 
NSW Trade and Investment Initiative One Stop Shop 
Level 44, Grosvenor Place 
225 George Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 250 6900 
Fax:  61 2 250 6950 
 
Sydney Olympics 
 
Homebush Bay Corporation 
Private Bag 3 
PO Homebush NSW 2140 
Tel:  61 2 735 4800 
Fax:  61 2 735 2871 
 
NSW Department of Sport Recreation and Racing 
Level 2, MLC Building 
105-153 Miller Street 
North Sydney NSW 2060 
Tel:  61 2 923 4234 
Fax:  61 2 923 4345 
 
Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games 
GPO Box 2000 
Sydney NSW 2001 
Tel:  61 2 931 2000 
Fax:  61 2 931 2020 
 
NORTHERN TERRITORY 
 
Department of Industries and Development 
GPO Box NT 4160 
Darwin NT 0801 
Tel:  61 89 99 5210 
Fax:  61 89 99 5333 
 
QUEENSLAND 
 
Department of Business, Industry and Regional Development 
GPO Box 1141 
Brisbane QLD 4001 
Tel:  61 7 224 8568 
Fax:  61 7 229 5289 
 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA 
 
Economic Development Authority 
GPO Box 1264 
Adelaide SA 5001 
Tel:  61 8 303 2400 
Fax:  61 8 303 2410 
 
TASMANIA 
 
Tasmanian Development Authority 
GPO Box 646 
Hobart TAS 7001 
Tel:  61 02 335 888 
Fax:  61 02 335 800 
 
VICTORIA 
 
Department of Business and Employment 
228 Victoria Parade, 8th Floor 
East Melbourne VIC 3002 
Tel:  61 3 9412 8000 
Fax:  61 3 9419 0770 
 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA 
 
Department of Commerce and Trade 
PO Box 7234 
Cloisters Square 
Perth WA 6850 
Tel:  61 9 327 5666 
Fax:  61 9 327 5481 
 
5.  SOURCES OF MARKET RESEARCH AND BUSINESS FACILITATION IN AUSTRALIA 
 
There are many professional Market Research companies in Australia.  
Some have industry specializations.  Others offer a range of services 
from broad industry analyses, to financial checks, to tailored market 
entry assistance.  In addition, many national and international law 
firms, accounting firms, management consulting firms and financial 
services organizations offer market research and business facilitation 
as part of their services packages. 
 
The U.S. Commercial Service in Australia, the American Chamber of 
Commerce in Australia and the State Chambers of Commerce maintain lists 
of service providers and can advise companies on how to obtain 
assistance on specific needs (see Sections 1B and 2A and 2C for contact 
information). 
 
There are a number of new information products, in print and on CD-ROM 
discs, available to help American companies find prospective business 
contacts in Australia.  (See Section 7.C.) 
 
6.  COMMERCIAL BANKS IN AUSTRALIA 
 
A.  AUSTRALIAN BANKS 
 
Advance Bank Australia Limited 
PO Box R221 
Royal Exchange NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 964 5000 
Fax:  61 2 964 5111 
 
Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited 
GPO Box 537E 
Melbourne VIC 3001 
Tel:  61 3 9658 2955 
Fax:  61 3 9658 2909 
 
Commonwealth Bank of Australia 
GPO Box 2719 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 227 7111 
Fax:  61 2 227 3317 
 
National Australia Bank Limited 
GPO Box 84A 
Melbourne VIC 3001 
Tel:  61 3 9641 3500 
Fax:  61 3 9641 4916 
 
Westpac Banking Corporation 
GPO Box 1 
Sydney NSW 2001 
Tel:  61 2 226 3311 
Fax:  61 2 233 1990 
 
B.  AMERICAN BANKS 
 
Bank of America 
Level 18, Bank of America Centre 
135 King Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 931 4200 
Fax:  61 2 221 1023 
 
Bankers Trust Australia Limited 
38th Level, Tower Building 
Australia Square 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 259 3555 
Fax:  61 2 235 2882 
 
Chase Manhattan Bank Australia Limited 
Levels 32-36, World Trade Centre 
18 Jamieson Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 250 4111 
Fax:  61 2 250 4554 
 
Citibank Limited 
1 Margaret Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 239 9100 
Fax:  61 2 239 9193 
 
First National Bank of Chicago 
Level 24, Grosvenor Place 
225 George Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 250 2100 
Fax:  61 2 223 1686 
 
Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York 
Level 20, 1 O'Connell Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 551 6100 
Fax:  61 2 551 6353 
 
State Street Bank and Trust Company 
Level 64, MLC Centre 
19-29 Martin Place 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Tel:  61 2 323 6000 
Fax:  61 2 323 6333 
 
7.  AUSTRALIAN PUBLICATIONS AND DATABASES 
 
Australia has a full range of national, state and local general, 
business and special purpose newspapers and periodicals, and a range of 
comprehensive business directories and references. 
 
A.  NEWSPAPERS 
 
AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY 
 
The Canberra Times 
Federal Capital Press of Australia 
9 Pirie Street 
Fyshwick ACT 2609 
Fax:  61 6 280 4884 
 
NEW SOUTH WALES 
 
The Australian (national focus) 
News Ltd 
2 Holt Street 
Surry Hills NSW 2010 
Fax:  61 2 288 2370 
 
The Australian Financial Review (national focus) 
235 Jones Street 
Broadway NSW 2822 
Fax:  61 2 282-2484 
 
The Sydney Morning Herald 
John Fairfax Group Ltd 
235 Jones Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Fax:  61 2 282 3121 
 
NORTHERN TERRITORY 
 
Northern Territory News 
News Ltd 
3 Printers Place 
Darwin NT 0800 
Fax:  61 89 81 8392 
 
QUEENSLAND 
 
The Courier Mail 
Queensland Newspapers Ltd 
41 Campbell Street 
Bowen Hills Qld 4006 
Fax:  61 7 252 6698 
 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA 
 
The Adelaide Advertiser 
Advertiser Newspaper Ltd 
121 King Street 
Adelaide SA 5000 
Fax:  61 8 206 3622 
 
VICTORIA 
 
The Age 
250 Spencer Street 
Melbourne VIC 3001  
Fax:  61 3 670 7514 
 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA 
 
The West Australian 
WA Newspapers Ltd 
219 St Georges Terrace 
Perth WA 6000 
Fax:  61 9 481 2130 
 
TASMANIA 
 
The Mercury 
Davies Brothers Limited 
91-93 Macquarie Street 
Hobart Tasmania 7000 
Fax:  61 02 30 0766 
 
2.  NATIONAL PERIODICALS 
 
Business Review Weekly 
BRW Publications 
Level 2/469 La Trobe Street 
Melbourne Vic 3000 
Fax:  61 3 670 4328 
 
The Bulletin with Newsweek 
ACP Publishing Pty Limited 
54 Park Street 
Sydney NSW 2000 
Fax:  61 2 267 4359 
 
Business Council Bulletin 
Business Council of Australia 
15th Fl, 10 Queens Road 
Melbourne Vic 3000 
Fax:  61 3 274 7744 
 
The National Business Bulletin 
National Business Magazines Pty Ltd 
66 Foveaux Street 
Surry Hills N.S.W. 2010 
Fax:  61 2 212 3709 
 
Scitech 
Scitech Publications 
GPO Box 1915 
Canberra ACT 2601 
Fax:  61 6 249 6648 
 
The Land Newspaper (Agriculture/Country Life focus) 
159 Bells Line of Road 
North Richmond NSW  
Fax:  61 45 70 4650 
 
C.  BUSINESS DIRECTORIES 
 
Brylar's Australia on Disc 
Dependable Database Data 
70 Philip Street 
Parramatta  NSW  2150 
Fax:  61 2 787 3539 
Yellow Pages Business Directories of Australia on CD 
Annual 
 
"Australia on Disc - Business" is one of the most comprehensive, 
including more than one million business names, addresses and fax 
numbers throughout Australia. 
 
Searches can be made on a number of criteria.  Information can be 
exported to an ASCII format.  Customized data bases can also be built.  
The cost is about US$200 with updates twice a year.  A less 
sophisticated CD-ROM called "Green Pages" contains business and 
residential telephone book listings but no fax numbers.  Its cost is 
about US$60.  Contact the Commercial Service in Australia for more 
details. 
 
The Business Who's Who of Australia 
Riddell Information Services Pty Ltd 
A Dun & Bradstreet company 
19 Havilah Street 
Chatswood  NSW  2067 
Fax:  61 2 935 2777 
Available in CD-ROM or hard copy. 
Annual 
 
Directory of Australian Associations 
Information Australia 
45 Flinders Lane 
Melbourne  VIC  3000 
Fax:  61 3 650 5261 
Quarterly 
 
Kompass 
Peter Isaacson Publications Pty Ltd 
46-50 Porter Street 
Prahran  VIC  3181 
Fax:  61 3 245 7840 
Available in CD-ROM or hard copy 
Annual 
 
National Guide to Government 
Information Australia 
45 Flinders Lane 
Melbourne  VIC  3000 
Fax:  61 3 650 5261 
Quarterly 
 
 
    APPENDIX F:  MARKET RESEARCH 1995-1996 
 
 
1.  INDUSTRY SECTOR MARKET RESEARCH 
 
A full range of available market research, including a broad range of 
Industry Subsector Analysis (ISA) reports in best prospects and other 
sectors, as well as other special market research reports are available 
in the National Trade Data Bank (NTDB).  The following is a selected 
list: 
 
A.  INDUSTRY SUBSECTOR ANALYSES (ISAS) COMPLETED IN 1995: 
 
APS    Automotive Parts & Services (Replacement Parts) 
AGM    Irrigation Equipment 
AUV    Audio Visual (Media Equipment) 
BTC    Biotechnology Industry in Australia 
CON    Construction Machinery (Engineering and Non-                     
residential) 
CSF    Educational Software 
FPP    Packaging, including Food Processing 
HCG    Household Consumer Goods (Household Furniture) 
MED    Medical Equipment Disposables 
MHM    Materials Handling Equipment (Distribution Equipment) 
PGA    Printing & Graphic Arts (Graphics Equipment) 
POL    Environmental Industries 
TEL    Telecommunications (Frame Relay Products) 
TRN    Transportation Equipment 
 
B.  INDUSTRY SUBSECTOR ANALYSES (ISAS) SCHEDULED FOR FY1996 
 
ACR    Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (August) 
APS    Automotive Industry in Australia (March) 
AUV    Audio Visual Equipment (July) 
BTC    Biotechnology (April) 
CON    Building and Construction Trades (March) 
CPT    Printers (March) 
CSF    Multimedia (August)         
DFN    Defense Major Capital Equipment Projects (June) 
EDS    Personal/Professional Development Training (Dec)  
FPP    Food Processing & Packaging Equipment (September) 
GCG    Consumer Goods, Appliances, Housewares (June) 
MED    Medical Equipment (December) 
SEC    Security Surveillance Equipment (March) 
TEL    Telecommunications Equipment (August) 
TES    Telecommunications Services (January) 
TRN    Transportation Equipment (August)     
 
C.  INTERNATIONAL MARKET INSIGHT (IMI) REPORTS PROVIDE BASELINE 
INFORMATION ON MARKET TRENDS, GOVERNMENT POLICY AND REGULATORY 
DEVELOPMENTS, MARKET ENTRY OPPORTUNITIES, MAJOR PROJECTS, JOINT VENTURE 
AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE FOLLOWING INDUSTRY SECTORS.  SEE THE 
NTDB FOR A COMPREHENSIVE LISTING OF MARKET RESEARCH REPORTS ON 
AUSTRALIA.  A SELECTED LIST FOLLOWS: 
 
AIR    Aircraft/Parts 
    Space Industry Development 
 
APS    Automotive Parts and Accessories 
    Heavy Truck Market Entry 
    Auto Parts Tariff Revision 
 
APP    Apparel 
    Clothing, Textile Industry Development Plan 
 
AUV    Media Equipment and Services 
    FM Radio Investment Opportunity 
    TV Cable Production Joint Venture Project 
 
AVS    Aviation Services 
    Helicopter Service Contract 
    Aircraft Assembly Joint Venture Project 
 
CON    Building and Construction Trades 
    Construction Joint Venture Trends 
    Velodrome Project 
    Sports Center Project 
    Stadium Construction Project 
    Olympic Construction Project 
    Construction Project 
    Lightweight Concrete Research 
    Property Markets 
    Building Glass Research 
    Home Building Trends 
    Commercial Construction Trends 
 
CPT    Computer Hardware  
    Computer Market Trends 
    Multimedia Development Plans 
    Information Technology Market Trends 
    Information Technologies News 
    Government Computer Spending 
 
CSF    Computer Software 
    Educational Software Market Overview 
 
DFN    Defense Industry Equipment 
    Navy Ship Refit Project 
 
EDS    Education & Training Services 
    Training Services 
 
ENG    Energy 
    Power Plant Privatization 
    Privatization Progress 
    Electricity Company Privatization 
 
FNS    Financial Services 
    Bank Privatization 
    New South Wales Investment Program 
 
FOD    Foods - Processed 
    Food Labeling Guidelines 
    Health Food Market Profile 
 
FRA    Franchising 
    Franchising Policy Views 
 
GEN    General 
    Discount Superstore Trends 
    Queensland Economic Profile 
    Recording Copyright Laws 
 
INV    Investment Services 
    New South Wales Investment Program 
 
MIN    Mining Industry Equipment 
    Mining Industry Overview 
    Minerals and Petroleum Profile 
    Industrial Minerals Overview 
 
OGM    Gas Distribution 
    Natural Gas Power Trends 
 
PKG    Packaging Equipment 
    Packaging and Labeling Overview 
    Packaging, Labeling Regulations Study 
 
PMR    Plastic Materials/Resins 
    Plastics Industry Trends 
 
POL    Pollution Control 
    Greenhouse Gas Plans 
 
TEL    Telecommunications Equipment 
    Telecom Policy Views 
    Telecommunications Distribution License 
    Telecom Local-Content Regulations 
    Telemedicine Project 
    Mobile Telecom Standards 
 
TES    Telecommunication Services 
    Telecom Call-Back Services Project 
 
WRE    Water Resources Industry  
    Water Authority Profile 
 
2.  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE/FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE 
COMMODITY REPORTS AND MARKET BRIEFS 
 
AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY REPORTS (FY96) 
 
JANUARY        Fresh Deciduous Fruit - annual 
            Kiwifruit - annual 
 
FEBRUARY        Livestock - semi-annual 
            Tree Nuts - annual 
            Planting Seeds - annual 
 
MARCH        Grain and Feed - annual 
            Canned Deciduous Fruit - annual 
 
APRIL        Sugar - annual 
            Dried Fruit - annual 
 
MAY            Citrus - annual 
            Tobacco - annual 
            Dairy - semi-annual 
 
JUNE            Cotton - annual 
            Poultry - annual 
 
AUGUST        Livestock - annual 
 
SEPTEMBER        Fresh Deciduous Fruit - semi-annual 
            Canned Deciduous Fruit - semi-annual 
            Agricultural Situation - annual 
 
OCTOBER        Sugar - semi-annual 
            Dried Fruit - semi-annual 
            Forest Products - annual 
 
NOVEMBER        Dairy - annual 
 
 
    APPENDIX G:  1996 TRADE EVENT SCHEDULE 
 
 
Because Trade Event Schedules may change, firms should consult the 
Export Promotion Calendar on the NTDB, or contact the U.S. Commercial 
Service in Australia for the latest information. 
 
MAJOR AUSTRALIAN EXHIBITIONS (by Industry Sector): 
 
AUTOMOTIVE (APS) 
 
    NATIONAL TRUCK SHOW '96 
    Date:  May 9-12 1996 
    Location:  Darling Harbour, Sydney, New South Wales 
    Trade Show featuring trucks and truck components. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Exhibition Management, 193 Rouse Street, Port 
Melbourne, VIC 3207 
    Tel:  61 3 9646 4044 
    Fax:  61 3 9646 1828 
 
    THE AUSTRALIAN AUTOMOTIVE TRADE FAIR 
    Date:  June 21-23 1996 
    Location:  Darling Harbour, Sydney, New South Wales 
    Trade Show featuring automotive replacement parts,     accessories, 
chemicals, garage and repair shop equipment. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Trade Fairs Australia, 52 Kellett Sreet, 
Kings Cross, NSW 2011 
    Tel:  61 2 357 7022 
    Fax:  61 2 356 3834 
 
BIOTECHNOLOGY (BTC) 
 
    10TH INTERNATIONAL BIOTECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM 
    Date:  August 25-30, 1996 
    Location:  Sydney, New South Wales 
    Wide ranging International Conference that includes a trade 
exhibition. 
    Frequency:  Every four years 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Tour Hosts Conference & Exhibition 
    Tel:  61 2 262 2277 
    Fax:  61 2 262 2323 
 
    INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON YEAST 
    Date:  August 25-30, 1996 
    Location:  Sydney, New South Wales 
    Held in conjunction with the International Biotechnology Symposium, 
and includes a trade exhibition. 
    Frequency:  Every four years 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Australian Biotechnology Association 
    Tel:  61 3 596 8879 
    Fax:     61 3 596 8874   
 
BUILDING PRODUCTS (BLD) AND CONSTRUCTION (CON) 
 
    INTERBUILD AUSTRALIA  
    Date:  June 1996 
    Location:  Darling Harbour Convention & Exhibition Centre, Sydney, 
New South Wales 
    Trade Show featuring building products and builders' hardware. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Australian Exhibition Services Pty Ltd 
    Tel:  61 3 9867 4500 
    Fax:  61 3 9867 7981 
 
    CONCRETE 95 
    Date:  September 4-7, 1995 
    Location:  Convention & Exhibition Centre, Brisbane, Queensland 
    Trade Exhibition with the theme:  Toward Better Concrete     
Structures 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Concrete Institute of Australia 
    Tel:  61 7 831 3288 
    Fax:  61 7 839 6005 
 
COMPUTERS/PERIPHERALS/SOFTWARE/SERVICES (CPT/CSF) 
 
    PC '96 
    The PC Show, held annually in three cities (Sydney, Melbourne and 
Brisbane), is one of the biggest computer events in Australia, 
displaying every facet of the personal computing field. 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Australian Exhibition Services Pty Ltd 
    Tel:  61 3 9867 4500 
    Fax:  61 3 9867 7981 
     
        Sydney 
        Date:  March 5-8, 1996 
        Location:  Darling Harbour Convention & Exhibition Centre, 
Sydney, New South Wales 
 
        Melbourne 
        Date:  September 3-6, 1996 
        Location:  Melbourne Exhibition Centre, Melbourne, Victoria  
 
        Brisbane 
        Date:  May 14-16, 1996 
        Location:  Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre, Brisbane, 
Queensland 
 
 
    1995 QUEENSLAND COMPUTER EXPO/OFFICE TECHNOLOGY EXPO  
    Date:  October 18-21, 1995 
    Location:  Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre, Southbank, 
Brisbane, Queensland 
    This event has taken place since 1983 and is expected to attract 
25,000 visitors in 1995.   
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Woodland Exhibitions 
    Tel:  61 7 846 4777 
    Fax:  61 7 846 2811 
     
    COMTEC (COMPUTER AND TECHNOLOGY SHOW) 
    Date:  August 6-8, 1996 
    Location:  Adelaide Convention & Exhibition Centre 
    Adelaide, South Australia 
    Comtec is South Australia's computer and business technology 
exhibition targeted at the business and government sectors.  The 1995 
event displayed products and services of over 175 firms, with around 
18,000 visitors.   
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Australian Trade Exhibitions Pty Ltd 
    Tel:  61 3 9819 0211 
    Fax:  61 8 364 4717 or 
    Fax:  61 3 9818 8553 
     
    AUUG '96 (AUSTRALIAN UNIX USERS GROUP)  
    Date:  September 17-19, 1996  
    Location:  Melbourne World Congress Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 
    Australia's premier UNIX and Open Systems exhibition is  expected to 
attract 4,500 visitors and delegates. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Australian Convention Management Services 
    Tel:  61 2 332 4622 
    Fax:  61 2 332 4066 
     
    AUSCOM '96 (AUSTRALIAN COMPUTER & COMMUNICATIONS SHOW)  
    Date:  September 5-6, 1996 
    Location:  National Convention Centre, Canberra, ACT 
    AUSCOM '96 is the 8th annual computer and communications exhibition 
for government, with over 100 exhibitors.  It consistently attracts over 
4,000 visitors, of which 65 percent are expected government officials. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibiton Organizer:  Atek Holdings Pty Ltd 
    Tel:  61 6 257 4252 
    Fax:  61 6 248 5562 
 
 
EDUCATION/TRAINING (EDS) 
     
    NILLIA LANGUAGE & LITERACY EXPO '96 
    Date:  July 19-21, 1996 
    Location:  Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre, Brisbane, 
Queensland 
    This event draws professionals in the language and literacy 
industry, including workplace language/literacy training. 
    Frequency:  Twice yearly 
    Exhibiton Organizer:  Fauth Royale & Associates Pty Ltd 
    Tel:  61 2 954 4544 
    Fax:  61 2 954 4964 
     
    CPE '96 - INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL 
EDUCATION 
    Date:  May, 1996 (to be determined) 
    Location:  Opal Cove, Coffs Harbour, New South Wales 
    This conference brings together professionals/trainers in continuing 
professional education.   
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Department of Continuing Education 
    Tel:  61 67 733 226 
    Fax:  61 67 733 204 
 
    In addition, there are numerous conferences, seminars and workshops 
in the education and training services field conducted by various 
training organizations.  Contact:  
 
    Australian Association of Adult & Community Education, Inc  
    PO Box 308, Jamison Centre, Canberra, ACT 2614 
    Tel:  61 6 251 7933 
    Fax:  61 6 251 7935 
 
    The Australian Institute of Training and Development (AITD) 
    Level 1, 2 Thomas Street, Chatswood, NSW 2067 
    Tel:  61 2 415 2094 
    Fax:  61 2 415 2093 
 
    Australian Human Resources Institute 
    PO Box 508, Neutral Bay, NSW 2089 
    Tel:  61 2 908 3155 
    Fax:  61 2 953 9649 
 
 
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS (ELP) 
 
    ENERGY WISE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION '96 
    Date:  September 11-13, 1996 
    Location:  Melbourne, Victoria 
    Trade show focusing on immediate energy cost reducing measures, 
processes and systems for long term cost effective use of resources. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  The DGB Group 
    Tel:  61 3 9551 7200 
    Fax:  61 3 9551 7300 
 
    SOLAR ENERGY 
    Date:  November 29 - December 2, 1995 
    Location:  Hobart, Tasmania 
    Trade show featuring products and services for the solar energy 
industry. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Mures Convention Mangement 
    Tel:  61 02 34 1424 
    Fax:  61 02 34 4464 
 
FOOD PROCESSING/PACKAGING EQUIPMENT (FPP) 
 
    FINE FOOD 96 
    The 14th Australian International Food, Drink & Equipment 
Exhibition, endorsed by the Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, as being the premier food show in Australia. 
    Date:  September 8-11 
    Location:  Melbourne, Victoria 
    Featuring comprehensive range of food, drink and related equipment. 
    Frequency:  Annual (alternating between Melbourne and Sydney) 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Australian Exhibition Services Pty Ltd 
    Tel:  61 3 9867 4500 
    Fax:  61 3 9867 7981 
 
    FINE FOOD 96 also is staged annually in Brisbane, Queensland, on a 
smaller scale. 
    Date:  March 17-19 
    Exhibition Organizer:  as above 
 
    FOOD PRO-96 
    International Food Processing Machinery & Technology Exhibition & 
Conference 
    Date:  July 14-17, 1996  
    Location:  Sydney, New South Wales 
    Features raw materials, processing equipment, hygiene, food 
handling, testing, monitoring and lab equipment, and packaging. 
    Frequency:  Every two years 
    Exhibiton Organizer:  Riddell Exhibition Promotions 
    Tel:  61 2 565 1099 
    Fax:  61 2 550 4345 
 
MACHINE TOOLS/METALWORKING EQUIPMENT (MTL) 
 
    AIEE 96 (AUSTRALIA'S INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING EXHIBITION) 
    Date:  May 1996 
    Location:  Sydney, New South Wales 
    General engineering, machine tools, process control, electrical and 
electronics. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Thomson World Trade Exhibitions 
    Tel:  61 2 357 7555 
    Fax:  61 2 357 3020 
 
MEDICAL EQUIPMENT (MED) 
 
    HOSPITAL AND HEALTHCARE EXHIBITION 
    Date:  1997 
    Frequency:  Every two years 
    Exhibition Organizers:  Australian Trade Exhibitions 
    PO Box 192, Camberwell, VIC 3124 
    Tel:  61 3 9819 0211 
    Fax:  61 3 9818 8553 
 
MINING INDUSTRY EQUIPMENT (MIN) 
 
    AIMEX 95 (AUSTRALIA'S INTERNATIONAL MINING EXHIBITION) 
    Date:  October 1995 
    Location:  Sydney, New South Wales  
    Australia's largest mining exhibition 
    Frequency:  Every four years 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Thomson World Trade Exhibitions 
    Tel:  61 2 357 7555 
    Fax:  61 2 357 3020 
 
PACKAGING EQUIPMENT (PKG) 
 
    AUS PACK 95 
    International Exhibition for Packaging Machinery & Materials Date:  
October 31 - November 3, 1995   
    Location:  Sydney, New South Wales 
    Australia's key packaging machinery and materials exhibition, 
covering the following industries: automotive, food, beverages, 
household products, pharmaceuticals/medical, plastics and printing. 
    Frequency:  Every two years 
    Exhibition Organizer:  Exhibitions and Trade Fairs Pty Ltd 
    Tel:  61 2 413 3322 
    Fax:  61 2 413 3303 
 
SECURITY AND SAFETY (SEC)  
 
    ASIAL - Australia Security Industry Ltd Exhibition & Conference 
    Date:  August 6-8, 1996 
    Location:  Sydney, New South Wales 
    The annual conference and exhibition for Australia's security 
industry association. Presentation of achievement awards. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizer:  ASIAL, National Office, Sydney 
    Tel:  61 2 906 4780 
    Fax:  61 2 906 4202 
 
TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT (TEL) 
 
    MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS EXHIBITION 
    Date:  November 30 - December 2, 1995 
    Location:  Darling Harbour, Sydney, New South Wales 
    A relatively new trade show, held in Melbourne and Sydney as a forum 
for retailers and wholesalers to display their mobile phones and related 
products, and to advertise their mobile services. 
    Frequency:  Twice yearly 
    Exhibition Organizers:  High Profile Exhibitions, 1st Floor, 21 Swan 
St., Richmond, VIC 3121 
    Tel:  61 3 9428 0415 
    Fax:  61 3 9428 9508 
 
    Also:  Melbourne, April 18-20, 1996 
    Melbourne Exhibition Center, Southgate, Victoria 
 
    AUSTRALIAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS USERS' GROUP (ATUG) '96 
    Date:  April 30 - May 2, 1996 
    Location:  Melbourne Exhibition Centre, Victoria 
    Australia's largest telecommunications trade show, exhibiting a 
range of telecommunications products including network products, 
consumer products, and a range of services.  The show is held annually, 
one year in Sydney the next in Melbourne.  It is extremely well 
patronized, and grows larger each year.  The ATUG conference also runs 
coincidentally.  This is an excellent forum for international exhibitors 
planning to enter the Australian market. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizers:  Riddell Exhibitions, 135-141 Burnley St, 
Richmond, VIC 3121 
    Tel:  61 3 9429 6088 
    Fax:  61 3 9427 0829 
 
TEXTILES, APPAREL & FOOTWEAR (TXT) 
 
    TCF INTERNATIONAL 
    Date:  March 26-28, 1996 
    Location:  Melbourne Exhibition Centre, Southbank, Victoria 
    A new exhibition for the textile, clothing, footwear and fashion 
industry. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizers:  Australian Exhibition Services 
    424 St. Kilda Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004 
    Tel:  61 3 9867 4500 
    Fax:  61 3 9867 7981 
 
    INTERIOR DESIGNEX 
    Date:  April 25-28, 1996 
    Location:  Darling Harbour, Sydney, New South Wales 
    Trade show features commercial and domestic interior 
    design products and services. 
    Frequency:  Annual 
    Exhibition Organizers:  Australian Trade Exhibitions 
    PO Box 192, Camberwell, VIC 3124 
    Tel:  61 3 9819 0211 
    Fax:  61 3 9818 8553 
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