The State Department web site below is a permanent electronic archive of information released prior to January 20, 2001.  Please see www.state.gov for material released since President George W. Bush took office on that date.  This site is not updated so external links may no longer function.  Contact us with any questions about finding information.

NOTE: External links to other Internet sites should not be construed as an endorsement of the views contained therein.

Department Seal

flag
bar

Title:  Argentina Human Rights Practices, 1995
Author:  U.S. Department of State 
Date:  March 1996 
 
 
 
 
                             ARGENTINA 
 
 
Argentina is a federal constitutional democracy with an executive branch 
headed by an elected president, a bicameral legislature, and a separate 
judiciary.  The President, Carlos Saul Menem, was recently reelected to 
a second term which runs until July 1999.  His Justicialist Party won a 
majority of seats in both houses of Congress. 
 
The President is the constitutional commander-in-chief, and a civilian 
Defense Minister oversees the armed forces.  Since the end of 
conscription in 1994, the armed forces are composed of volunteers only.  
The responsibility for maintaining law and order is shared by several 
law enforcement agencies.  The Federal Police report to the Interior 
Minister and the Border Police and Coast Guard report to the Defense 
Minister.  Provincial police report to the individual provincial 
governors. 

Provincial policemen continued to commit human rights abuses. 
 
Argentina has a mixed agricultural, industrial, and service economy that 
continued a dramatic turnaround after decades of mismanagement and 
decline.  An economic reform and structural adjustment program, begun in 
1989, led to 3 years of high growth with sharply reduced inflation, and 
spurred competitiveness.  An extensive privatization program, largely 
completed at the federal level, is now underway in the provinces.  
However, as a result of privatization and private sector adjustment, the 
national rate of unemployment rose to a record 18.6 percent in 1995.  
The high cost of living has affected those on low fixed incomes the 
most, although the entire country benefited from the end of 
hyperinflation.  Poverty has sharply declined since implementation of 
the adjustment program. 
 
The Constitution, revised in 1994, incorporates nine international human 
rights conventions and also provides for a wide range of freedoms and 
rights which the Government generally protected.  There continue to be 
instances of extrajudicial killings and physical mistreatment of 
detainees by local police.  However, provincial authorities 
investigated, tried, and convicted a number of police officials for such 
abuses.  The judicial system is subject to inordinate delays, resulting 
in lengthy pretrial detention.  Societal discrimination and violence 
against women are also problems.  Revelations of extrajudicial killings 
by former military officers who served under the 1976-83 military 
government sparked a national debate over a full accounting for those 
who disappeared during that period.  The debate included an 
unprecedented public acknowledgement by the army commander that the army 
committed grave human rights violations at that time.  The Government 
and the armed forces said, however, that they have no information about 
those who disappeared beyond that collected by the National Commission 
on Disappeared Persons in 1984 and the Interior Ministry's 
Subsecretariat for Human Rights since then. 
 
RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS 
 
Section 1  Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom 
from: 
 
  a.  Political and Other Extrajudicial Killing 
 
There were no reports of politically motivated extrajudicial killings. 
 
However, provincial police were responsible for a number of other 
extrajudicial killings.  Under Argentina's federal system, the 
provincial police are not subject to federal government authority.  
Provincial governments have, however, investigated, and in some 
instances, detained and tried officials.  In January in the province of 
Buenos Aires, a local judge ordered the detention of two police officers 
and one other person in the shooting death of a 19-year-old youth who 
came upon the officers while they were stealing a tape player from an 
automobile.  In February a judge charged a policeman with manslaughter 
after he shot a 20-year-old youth fleeing arrest without giving him the 
opportunity to surrender.  In Villa Mercedes, a judge ordered the 
preventive arrest of five policemen accused of beating a 22-year-old to 
death while he was in police custody.  In another incident in Florencio 
Varela, a judge ruled that the death of a 16-year-old boy was due to 
resisting arrest and released a policeman accused of beating the youth.  
Police, however, opened an internal investigation into the matter.  
Another youth died from a beating in Batan Prison in Mar del Plata.  The 
authorities arrested six guards and a prison doctor in that incident. 
 
Several cases from previous years have remained in the public eye.  One 
army officer and two noncommissioned officers are standing trial in 
Neuquen for the 1994 murder of Omar Carrasco, a young army recruit who 
was beaten to death during a hazing incident.  Two other noncommissioned 
officers are accused of obstruction of justice and the investigation has 
widened to examine the role of higher ranking military officers in the 
case.  In January police captured an ex-policeman wanted for 
participating in the kidnaping and murder of a Bolivian woman suspected 
of drug trafficking; another former policeman and five others are being 
held for trial in Buenos Aires province.  In September the Cordoba 
policeman accused of killing Miguel Rodriguez in 1994 was convicted and 
sentenced to an 8-year prison term.  Ten days later, a key prosecution 
witness in the case, Sergio Perez, was killed in a confrontation with 
police officers.  The police say he was shot in a firefight, but friends 
of Perez who were at the scene say he was deliberately shot in the back 
at point-blank range.  A local judge is investigating. 
 
There were no new developments in the case of the 1994 death of Diego 
Rodriguez Laguens or in the 1987 murder of three teenagers. 
 
  b.  Disappearance 
 
There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances. 
 
In February a former navy lieutenant commander disclosed to the press 
that during the 1976-83 military regime, he and his fellow officers of 
the Navy Mechanics School had participated in drugging political 
prisoners and throwing them, still alive, out of airplanes over the 
Atlantic Ocean or the Rio de la Plata.  Although his revelations were 
not new, he was the first former military officer to publicize the 
story.  The resulting storm of controversy led to demands by human 
rights groups and relatives of victims of the "Dirty War" to demand a 
full disclosure of the identities of all those who disappeared at that 
time.  In March a federal court, responding to a petition brought by the 
families of two French nuns who were kidnaped and disappeared in 1977, 
ordered the executive branch, including the three branches of the armed 
forces, to provide lists of those who disappeared.  The navy officer 
convicted in absentia in France for the disappearance of the nuns was 
forced to request early retirement.  The Government and the individual 
branches of the armed forces replied that no such lists exist. 
 
However, on March 31 the Ministry of the Interior did release a list of 
290 names of persons who disappeared, supplementing the list of 8,961 
originally prepared in 1984 by the National Commission on Disappeared 
Persons.  The names on both lists were compiled based on voluntary 
public testimony from friends, relatives, and other witnesses.  
Nevertheless, human rights groups continued to accuse the Government of 
failing to produce a complete list of persons who disappeared.  In an 
unprecedented and widely praised speech on nationwide television in 
April, army commander Martin Balza acknowledged that the army committed 
reprehensible crimes during the military regime.  He stated that no one 
in the army should be obliged to carry out immoral orders, and those who 
do so should be severely punished. 
 
Under new legislation passed in 1995, the Subsecretariat for Human 
Rights began to process compensation claims by families of those who 
disappeared during the Dirty War.  Those whose claims are validated are 
eligible for one-time payments of $200,000. 
 
For the first time since the end of military rule, a federal judge 
ordered the detention of an ex-navy officer and his wife for the illegal 
adoption of a baby boy born in captivity to a Uruguayan couple abducted 
and killed by security forces in 1977.  The judge also issued a warrant 
for the arrest of a police doctor who allegedly arranged the delivery of 
the child to the couple.  The doctor, who was a fugitive for several 
months, surrendered to law enforcement authorities in September.  This 
case arose from an investigation by the Grandmothers of the Plaza de 
Mayo, a human rights group that has been working to reunite the 
offspring of disappeared couples with their nearest natural next-of-kin.  
The group is working with the National Commission on the Right to 
Identity, and the Interior Ministry's Subsecretariat for Human Rights in 
the search for children of couples who disappeared during the military 
regimes.  The grandmothers helped return 2 children to the families of 
their birth parents, bringing the year's total of reunited families to 
32. 
 
In a more recent case, investigators unearthed the remains of Andres 
Nunez, a La Plata youth who disappeared in 1990 after local police 
arrested him.  Seven policemen are in custody in this case; four others 
are fugitives. 
 
  c.  Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or 
Punishment 
 
The Constitution prohibits torture and the Criminal Code provides 
penalties for torture which are similar to those for homicide, from 8 to 
15 years in prison.  Nevertheless, police maltreatment of detainees 
remains a serious problem.  In Entre Rios province, a teenager accused 
local police of severely beating him while in custody following his 
detention in connection with a street brawl.  The case was being 
investigated.  In another instance of police misconduct, authorities 
arrested three Entre Rios policemen for having abducted and raped a 23-
year-old woman.  An additional 10 agents were dismissed from the force, 
the chief of the unit and his deputy were relieved of duty, and 33 other 
officers were transferred to other assignments as a result of the 
incident.  There were no new developments in the investigation of the 
1994 beating of Juan Carbajal. 
 
In order to reduce such abuses, the Interior Ministry conducted courses 
designed to heighten awareness about human rights issues for public 
officials, and the Justice Ministry attempted to educate the public 
about the legal rights of detainees.  The Interior Ministry's 
Subsecretariat for Human Rights and the United Nations Center for Human 
Rights sponsored courses to educate and sensitize federal law 
enforcement officials.  This human rights training first began in 1994. 
 
Prison conditions are poor in a number of overcrowded jails where the 
facilities are old and dilapidated.  In Buenos Aires province, for 
example, no new prisons have been built for 26 years, and the prisons 
are filled to a level that is 40 percent above capacity.  Human rights 
groups say this problem is serious and that some prisons are virtual 
powder kegs of discontent.  To help relieve the overcrowding, the 
Government has solicited bids for the construction of two new prisons in 
the province to be opened by late 1996 or early 1997.  The new prisons 
are designed to incorporate modern penal technology; they will be more 
secure and offer better living conditions for inmates. 
 
  d.  Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile 
 
The Penal Code places limits on the arrest and investigatory power of 
the police and the judiciary, but provincial police often ignored these 
restrictions as indicated in the cases cited above.  Human rights groups 
find it difficult to document such incidents, because victims are 
reluctant to file complaints. 
 
Police detain teenagers and young adults sometimes overnight, sometimes 
for an entire weekend, without formal charges.  They do not always 
provide such detainees the opportunity to call their families or an 
attorney.  These detainees are released only upon a complaint from 
relatives or legal counsel. 
 
The law provides for the right to bail, and it is utilized in practice.  
Nonetheless, the law allows pretrial detention, and the slow pace of 
criminal trials results in lengthy pretrial detention periods.  Many 
untried prisoners are serving more time in prison than they would have 
served if they had been convicted and had received the maximum sentence 
for the crime for which they were arrested.  In 1994 Congress passed a 
law that set a 2-year limit on pretrial detention.  After 2 years, 
detainees would be granted 2 days of credit toward their sentences for 
every 1 day served before sentencing.  In 1995 the Supreme Court ruled 
that the measure applies not only to those who had not been sentenced, 
but also to those whose pretrial detentions exceeded the stipulated 2 
years prior to their sentencing. 
 
The law does not permit involuntary exile, and it is not practiced. 
 
  e.  Denial of Fair Public Trial 
 
The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary.  While it is 
nominally independent and impartial, its processes are inefficient, 
complicated, and, at times, subject to political influence.  The 
judicial system is hampered by inordinate delays, procedural logjams, 
changes of judges, and incompetence.  Allegations of corruption are 
widely reported, especially in civil cases. 
 
Trials are public and defendants have the right to legal counsel and 
defense witnesses.  A panel of judges decides guilt or innocence.  In 
1992, some federal and provincial courts began deciding cases using oral 
trials in lieu of the practice of written submissions.  Oral trials are 
less time consuming, and they have helped to reduce the number of prison 
inmates awaiting trial (see Section l.d.).  A Ministry of Justice report 
indicates that 44 percent of those held in federal prisons have been 
tried and sentenced compared to 38 percent in 1991.  Nevertheless, 
lawyers and judges are still struggling to adjust to the new procedures, 
and substantial elements of the old system remain.  For example, before 
the oral part of a trial begins, judges receive written documentation 
regarding the case which, according to prominent legal experts, can bias 
a judge before oral testimony is heard. 
 
Constitutional reforms in 1994 provided for a blue-ribbon Council of 
Magistrates which would have responsibility for federal court 
administration and the selection and removal of judges.  However, due to 
disagreement over the composition of the Council, Congress missed the 
August 1995 deadline for the Council's enabling legislation. 
 
International human rights groups have alleged that Fray Antonio 
Puigjane, a Capuchin priest, is a prisoner of conscience.  Fray Puigjane 
was convicted and sentenced to prison as a co-conspirator in the 1989 
attack on the La Tablada military regiment when some 39 individuals were 
killed. 
 
There were no other reports of political prisoners. 
 
  f.  Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or 
Correspondence 
 
The Constitution prohibits such practices.  Government authorities 
generally respect these prohibitions, and violations are subject to 
legal sanction, although in practice, local police have the right to 
stop and search individuals without probable cause. 
 
Section 2  Respect for Civil Liberties, Including: 
 
  a.  Freedom of Speech and Press 
 
The Constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press, and the 
Government respects these rights in practice.  An independent press and 
a functioning democratic political system combine to ensure freedom of 
speech and of the press, including academic freedom. 
 
There was one reported attack on a journalist:  Guillermo Cherashny, a 
reporter for a weekly newspaper, El Nuevo Informador, was shot and 
wounded near his home in Buenos Aires.  The case has not been resolved, 
and the motive for the attack is unknown. 
 
The Government proposed legislation to stiffen libel and slander 
penalties and fines for those convicted of defamation.  However, media 
and political criticism of the legislation was so strong that the 
Government withdrew the proposal.  An attempt by a Justicialist Party 
senator to introduce legislation that would have imposed severe 
penalties on those convicted of disseminating "secrets of state" met a 
similar fate; the executive branch itself rejected the proposal. 
 
However, in September a federal judge issued a warrant for the search 
and seizure of documents from several leading Argentine newspapers, La 
Nacion, Cronica, and La Capital de Mar del Plata to obtain information 
about journalists' sources in a 2-year-old libel case.  The Association 
of Newspaper Organizations (ADEPA) condemned the action as a violation 
of constitutional guarantees of freedom of the press but also noted that 
it was an exception to the rule of judicial prudence in press freedom 
cases. 
 
  b.  Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association 
 
The Constitution and law provide for these rights and the Government 
respects them in practice. 
 
  c.  Freedom of Religion 
 
The Constitution provides for freedom of religion and the Government 
respects this right in practice. 
 
  d.  Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign Travel, 
Emigration, and Repatriation 
 
The Constitution and law provide for these rights, and the Government 
respects them in practice. 
 
The Government recognizes as refugees those persons who meet the 1951 
U.N. Convention on Refugees as modified by its 1967 Protocol.  The 
Refugee Eligibility Committee is responsible for determining a refugee's 
status, and a U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees representative can 
attend and participate in Committee hearings but cannot vote. 
 
Section 3   Respect for Political Rights:  The Right of Citizens to 
Change Their Government 
 
Since its return to democratic government in 1983, Argentina has held 
periodic free and fair elections to choose federal, provincial, and 
municipal office holders.  Universal suffrage for those age 18 and over 
is obligatory in national elections.  Political parties of varying 
ideologies operate freely and openly.  The revised Constitution provides 
that all adult citizens shall enjoy full participation in the political 
process, and they do so in practice. 
 
In May President Carlos Menem was reelected; this time to a 4-year term.  
His Justicialist Party won a majority of seats in the Chamber of 
Deputies and the Senate.  The election campaign was conducted in a fair 
and open manner; all political parties had full access to the 
communications media.  Representatives from the major parties were 
stationed at polling places to insure an honest vote count. 
 
A September gubernatorial election in Santa Fe province was marred by 
technical problems, and the leading opposition candidate for the Radical 
Civic Union Party denounced irregularities.  The Santa Fe election 
tribunal thereafter conducted a vote count by hand to determine the 
winners. 
 
The Constitution stipulates that the internal regulations of political 
parties and party nominations for elections be subject to affirmative 
action requirements to assure that women are represented in elective 
office.  A 1993 decree implementing a 1991 law required that a minimum 
of 30 percent of all political party lists of candidates be female.  As 
a result, the presence of women officials is increasing.  The number of 
women in the Chamber of Deputies doubled from 34 to 63 when the new 
Chamber was installed in December.  Between 1991 and 1995, the number of 
women representatives increased 420 percent (from 15 members to 63).  
Two women, or 4 percent, are members of the Senate, which is in the 
process of adopting direct election procedures under the 1994 
Constitution.  Women are also assuming positions of greater authority in 
provincial and local governments. 
 
Section 4  Governmental Attitude Regarding International and 
Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights 
 
A wide variety of human rights groups operate without government 
restriction, investigating human rights cases and publishing their 
findings.  Government officials are generally cooperative and responsive 
to their views. 
 
Section 5  Discrimination Based on Race, Sex, Religion, Disability, 
Language, or Social Status 
 
The Constitution and federal law guarantee equality for all citizens.  
The 1988 Antidiscrimination Law establishes a series of penalties 
ranging from 1 month to 3 years' imprisonment for anyone who arbitrarily 
restricts, obstructs, or restrains a person based on "race, religion, 
nationality, ideology, political opinion, sex, economic position, social 
class, or physical characteristics."  There is no evidence of any 
systematic effort to abridge these rights by the Government or private 
groups. 
 
  Women 
 
Violence and sexual harassment against women is a problem; insensitivity 
among police and judges sometimes discourages women from reporting 
assaults, especially in domestic violence cases.  In response, the 
Congress approved a law aimed at helping victims of family violence by, 
among other things, excluding the perpetrator from his home for up to 48 
hours.  The National Women's Council has been working with the 
enforcement authorities to include material on handling cases of 
violence against women in their police training curriculum.  More than 
40 public and 80 private institutions offer educational programs of 
prevention and provide support and treatment for women who have been 
abused.  In November 1993, President Menem signed a decree against 
sexual harassment in the Federal Government. 
 
Women still encounter economic discrimination, a situation that has been 
aggravated by the infusion of large numbers of women into the workplace 
in the last 10 years.  According to a 1994 government report, women 
occupy a disproportionate number of lower paying jobs.  Within each job 
category, women are concentrated in the lower ranks and receive the 
lowest salaries.  Often they are paid less than men for equal work, even 
though this is explicitly prohibited by law.  Female labor leaders 
pressed their male counterparts for affirmative action programs within 
the trade union movement to counteract this.  Women are also found 
disproportionately in the informal sector which effectively denies them 
work-related economic and social benefits enjoyed by those in the formal 
sector. 
 
The National Women's Council and the Presidential Women's Advisory 
Cabinet, created in 1992 and 1993 respectively, worked on a 3-year 
government action plan (1993-95) to promote equal opportunity and 
participation of women in society.  Provisions in the revised 
Constitution have greatly increased women's participation in politics. 
 
  Children 
 
The 1994 Constitution incorporates the U.N. Convention on the Rights of 
the Child.  The Ministry of Interior's Human Rights Subsecretariat works 
with United Nations Children's Emergency Fund and other international 
agencies to promote children's rights and well-being. 
 
Historically, Argentina has had numerous programs to provide public 
education, health protection, and recreational services for all 
children, regardless of class or economic status.  Child abuse and 
prostitution are problems but have not increased in recent years, 
although the National Council on Children and the Family believes that 
those affected tend to be younger than previously.  The Council, which 
the Government  
 
established in 1990, works actively with federal and local agencies to 
improve child protection programs.  Sixteen out of 24 provinces, the 
federal capital, and the Federal Government have child protection laws 
on the books. 
 
  People with Disabilities 
 
A 1994 law aimed at eliminating physical barriers to disabled persons 
regulates standards regarding access to public buildings, parks, plazas, 
stairs, and pedestrian areas.  An increasing number of street curbs in 
Buenos Aires have been modified to accommodate wheel chairs.  However, 
few buildings and public areas in the capital or other cities offer easy 
access to persons with disabilities.  Federal law also prohibits 
discrimination against people with disabilities in employment.  Since 
the establishment of the National Program Against Discrimination in 
August 1994, the largest single group of complainants has been disabled 
persons. 
 
  Indigenous People 
 
The revised Constitution provides for the right of minorities to be 
represented in government and incorporates international agreements 
intended to promote their economic, social, and cultural rights.  
Estimates of the size of the indigenous population vary from 60,000 to 
150,000, but the National Statistical Institute put the figure at below 
100,000 as of 1992.  Most live in the northern and northwestern 
provinces and in the far south.  Their standard of living is 
considerably below the average, and they have higher rates of 
illiteracy, chronic diseases, and unemployment.  Indigenous groups are 
sometimes involved in disputes over tribal lands which tend to be 
prolonged due to an inefficient court system unable to expedite 
conflicting land title claims. 
 
  Religious Minorities 
 
Although ongoing concerns over anti-Semitism exist, overt acts of 
religious discrimination decreased during the year.  The Government 
extradited Erich Priebke to Italy to stand trial for crimes committed as 
a Nazi officer.  The investigation into the July 1994 bombing of a 
Jewish cultural center continued.  In December an investigating judge 
ordered the arrest of new suspects, including some active duty military 
personnel suspected of connections to an arms and explosives sales 
operation. 
 
Section 6  Worker Rights 
 
  a.  The Right of Association 
 
With the exception of military personnel, all workers are free to form 
unions.  Estimates regarding union membership vary widely.  Most union 
leaders believe it to be about 40 percent of the work force; government 
figures indicate union membership at 30 percent.  Trade unions are 
independent of the Government or political parties, although most union 
leaders are affiliated with President Menem's Justicialist Party.  
Unions belong to either the General Confederation of Labor, its 
dissident wing the Movement of Argentine Workers, or the Independent 
Congress of Argentine Workers. 
 
Unions have the right to strike, and members who participate in strikes 
are protected by law.  From August 1994 through July 1995, there were 
327 strikes or other forms of labor conflict.  Approximately 70 percent 
were in the public sector, most of them as a result of delay or 
nonpayment of salaries by local governments.  The General Confederation 
of Labor and a number of nonaffiliated unions staged a partial general 
work stoppage and mass rally to protest the record level of unemployment 
(18.6 percent) and the Government's labor and social policies.  The 
Government recognized the unions' right to protest and did nothing to 
interfere. 
 
Unions are members of international labor associations and international 
trade secretariats and participate actively in their programs. 
 
  b.  The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively 
 
The law prohibits antiunion practices, and the Government enforces it.  
The trend towards bargaining on a company level, in contrast to 
negotiating at the national level on a sectoral basis continued, but the 
adjustment has not been easy for either side.  Both the Federal 
Government and a few highly industrialized provinces are working to 
create mediation services to promote more effective collective 
bargaining and dispute resolution. 
 
The Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and 
Recommendations of the International Labor Organization (ILO) asked the 
Government to comment on a number of complaints brought by the Union of 
United Maritime Workers and the Congress of Argentine Workers over 
hiring practices, workers' compensation, rest periods, and wage 
protection. 
 
There are no export processing zones. 
 
  c.  Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor 
 
The Constitution prohibits forced labor, and there were no reports that 
it was practiced. 
 
  d.  Minimum Age for Employment of Children 
 
The law prohibits employment of children under 14 years of age, except 
in rare cases where the Ministry of Education may authorize a child to 
work as part of a family unit.  A small number of children work with 
their parents harvesting fruits and vegetables.  Minors aged 14 to 18 
may work in a limited number of job categories but not more than 6 hours 
a day or 35 hours a week.  The law is effectively enforced except in 
some isolated rural areas where government enforcement capabilities are 
poor. 
 
  e.  Acceptable Conditions of Work 
 
The national monthly minimum wage of $200 (200 pesos) is insufficient to 
sustain a family of four. 
 
Federal labor law sets standards relative to health, safety, and hours 
of work.  The maximum workday is 8 hours and workweek 48 hours.  As part 
of its economic restructuring program, the Government has enacted into 
law reforms aimed at giving small and medium enterprises greater 
flexibility in the management of their personnel.  The Government is 
also proposing to modernize the system of worker compensation. 
 
Occupational health and safety standards are well developed, but federal 
and provincial governments lack sufficient resources to fully enforce 
them.  In spite of union vigilance, the most egregious cases of inhuman 
working conditions concern illegal immigrants who have little 
opportunity or sufficient knowledge to seek legal redress.  In March, 
for example, provincial authorities of Entre Rios province discovered a 
camp of illegal agricultural workers, most of whom were from Paraguay, 
working under deplorable conditions for minimal pay.  The authorities 
provided medical and other forms of temporary assistance and disbanded 
the illegal camp. 
 
Workers have the right to remove themselves from dangerous or 
unhealthful work situations, after having gone through a claim 
procedure, without jeopardy to continued employment.  Nevertheless, 
workers who leave the workplace before it has been proven unsafe run the 
risk of being fired; in such cases, the worker has the right to judicial 
appeal, but this process can be very lengthy. 
 
 
(###)

[end of document]

flag
bar

Department Seal

Return to 1995 Human Rights Practices report home page.
Return to DOSFAN home page.
This is an official U.S. Government source for information on the WWW. Inclusion of non-U.S. Government links does not imply endorsement of contents.