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Title:  Namibia Human Rights Practices, 1995   
Author:  U.S. Department of State    
Date:  March 1996    
 
 
 
 
                              NAMIBIA 
 
 
Namibia is a multiparty, multiracial democracy, headed by President Sam 
Nujoma, leader of the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), 
which won Namibia's first free elections in November 1989.  President 
Nujoma and the SWAPO party received just over 70 percent of the vote in 
the December 1994 presidential and National Assembly elections, which 
despite some irregularities, were generally regarded as free and fair. 
 
The Namibian police, supervised by the Ministry of Home Affairs, and the 
Namibian Defense Force (NDF), supervised by the Ministry of Defense, 
share responsibility for internal security.  The Government continued 
its policy of detaining civilians trying to cross the border from 
Angola, occasionally shooting at those who did not respond to orders to 
"stop."  There continued to be unconfirmed reports that NDF forces 
murdered several persons along this border.  Police officers 
occasionally committed human rights abuses.   
 
Namibia's modern market sector produces most of its wealth while a 
traditional subsistence agricultural sector (mainly in the north) 
supports most of its labor force.  Mining, ranching, and fishing, the 
mainstays of the market sector, are still largely controlled by white 
Namibians and foreign interests.  However, government policy is to 
"Namibianize" the increasingly important fishing sector, so that more 
indigenous entrepreneurs are able to participate, and to provide 
opportunities for black Namibians in the potentially lucrative and 
labor-intensive tourism industry.  There remains a wide disparity 
between income levels of blacks and whites which perpetuates social and 
economic tensions in the country.  The Government began implementing 
land reform legislation, enacted late in 1994.   
 
Citizens enjoy a wide range of constitutionally provided civil, 
political, and economic liberties.  Nevertheless, there continued to be 
credible reports that police abused criminal suspects.  SWAPO continued 
to delay providing a complete accounting for missing detainees held 
during the preindependence period.  Prison conditions remain harsh.  
Abiding by a High Court ruling that Namibian citizens had the 
constitutional right to return to their homeland, the Government 
permitted former counterinsurgency fighters--"Koevoets"--to return to 
Namibia.  Inherited problems of racial discrimination and glaring 
disparities--especially in education, health, employment, and working 
conditions--continued in 1995, despite sustained efforts by the 
Government to reduce them.  Although the Constitution prohibits 
discrimination based on race and gender, in practice women continued to 
experience serious legal and cultural discrimination.  Violence against 
women and children, including rape and child abuse, has risen to 
alarming levels.  Societal discrimination against indigenous people 
persists.   
 
RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS 
 
Section 1   Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom 
from: 
 
   a.   Political and Other Extrajudicial Killing 
 
There were no confirmed reports of political or other extrajudicial 
killings.  However, there were repeated, though unconfirmed, reports 
that NDF members murdered between three and five civilians along the 
country's northeastern border with Angola.  NDF members were reportedly 
enforcing a "shoot to kill" order from the President effectively sealing 
the border with National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 
(UNITA)-held territory in Angola.  There is no indication that the 
Government has taken any action to investigate NDF officers accused of 
the 1994 shooting of civilians along the border.   
 
In January the Prosecutor General decided to reopen the 1989 inquest 
into the death of SWAPO activist Anton Lubowski.  Although in 1994 the 
court determined that he had been killed at the behest of the former 
South African Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB), the Attorney General later 
ruled there was insufficient evidence to prosecute successfully 
Lubowski's assassins.   
 
   b.   Disappearance 
 
There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.  
Nevertheless, the public and political parties continued to focus on the 
unexplained disappearances of persons detained by SWAPO prior to 
independence.  Roughly 200 former SWAPO detainees are still unaccounted 
for.  In 1994 senior SWAPO officials promised a complete accounting of 
everyone who had died or disappeared during the liberation struggle, but 
at year's end this document had not been produced.  This issue will 
likely remain controversial until the Government conducts a full 
investigation and releases its results. 
 
   c.   Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or 
Punishment 
 
The Constitution states that "no persons shall be subject to torture or 
to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment."  There were 
credible reports, however, that members of the police beat or otherwise 
abused civilians, primarily during arrest and initial interrogation.  
Human rights organizations maintain that complaints of police brutality 
are not taken seriously by police officials in the northern part of the 
country, and that these officials have refused to accept criminal 
complaints against police officers.  The case against three NDF soldiers 
who were accused of an unprovoked attack on two persons in Outjo in 1993 
was dropped and the policemen were reinstated.  The 1994 court case 
involving four police officers accused of beating prisoners in Oshakati 
police cells was similarly dropped; the police officers in question were 
reportedly reinstated during the year.   
 
Prison conditions are harsh, but do not generally threaten the life or 
health of prisoners.  Human rights organizations continued to complain 
about overcrowded prisons and severe disciplinary action taken against 
prisoners.  The Government admitted serious resource constraints leading 
to overcrowded detention facilities, but in March it began important 
administrative reforms by creating a Ministry of Prisons and 
Correctional Services.  This new Ministry, charged with administering 
the country's prisons and jails, has put special emphasis on 
correctional and rehabilitation functions, including vocational 
training.  The Government also took an important step by deciding to end 
the practice of holding youthful offenders in the same cells as adult 
criminals.  At year's end, the new policy had been put into effect only 
in the Windhoek area.  It also stepped up the training of police and 
prison officials and continued to grant legal counsel, nongovernmental 
organizations (NGO's), and diplomatic officials regular access to 
prisoners. 
 
   d.   Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile 
 
The Constitution forbids arbitrary arrest or detention, and the 
Government generally respected these provisions in practice.  According 
to the Constitution, persons who are arrested must be informed of the 
reason for their arrest, and must be brought before a magistrate within 
48 hours of their detention.  A trial must take place within "a 
reasonable time," or the accused must be released.  The accused are 
entitled to defense by legal counsel of their choice; the State provides 
counsel for the indigent. 
 
Some traditional leaders reportedly continued to detain and imprison 
persons accused of minor offenses without recourse to police or judicial 
review.  The Government repeatedly condemned these actions and called 
upon the public to report such practices to the authorities.  It also 
continued training traditional leaders on the legal limits to their 
authority. 
 
The Government does not use exile for political purposes, but until a 
court ruling, it temporarily blocked the return of former members of the 
preindependence counterinsurgency group, Koevoets who were in self-exile 
in South Africa (see Section 2.d.).  
 
   e.   Denial of Fair Public Trial 
 
The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary, and the 
Government respects this provision in practice.   
 
The formal court system has three levels:  magistrate's court, the High 
Court, and the Supreme Court.  The latter also serves as the court of 
appeals and as a constitutional review court.  Most rural Namibians 
first encounter the legal system through the traditional courts, which 
deal with minor criminal offenses, such as petty theft and infractions 
of local customs, among members of the same ethnic group.  A special 
commission, created to make recommendations on the prospective 
jurisdiction of traditional courts, concluded that traditional cultural 
practices and structures should be maintained, provided they were 
consistent with constitutional protections and existing laws.  At year's 
end, the Government had not yet presented its draft enabling legislation 
to Parliament. 
 
The constitutional right to a fair trial, with a presumption of 
innocence until proven guilty, is generally afforded by the judiciary.  
However, problems in the traditional system and the long delays in 
hearing some cases in the regular courts limit this right in practice.   
 
The lack of qualified magistrates and other court officials has resulted 
in a serious backlog of criminal cases.  There is also a shortage of 
attorneys; there were only about 140 lawyers engaged in private practice 
in Namibia in 1995.  As a result, the courts continued to have a backlog 
of over 2,400 cases, which in some instances translated into a 6-month 
or longer delay between arrest and trial.  To address these problems, 
the Government, together with the University of Namibia, provided in-
service legal training to magistrates and other court officials at the 
University's training center. 
 
There were no reports of political prisoners.   
 
   f.   Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or 
Correspondence 
 
The Constitution provides all citizens with the right to privacy and 
requires arresting officers to secure a judicial warrant for certain 
listed offenses before conducting a search.  The authorities respected 
these rights in practice. 
 
Section 2   Respect for Civil Liberties, Including: 
 
   a.   Freedom of Speech and Press 
 
The Constitution provides for these fundamental freedoms, including 
academic freedom, and the Government respected them in practice. 
 
The government-owned Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) operates 
most radio and television services.  Although the NBC provides 
significant coverage of the opposition and airs viewpoints critical of 
the Government, there were growing complaints that the NBC, in 
particular the television service, became less balanced in its coverage 
of sensitive issues.  Human rights groups complained that reporters 
engaged in self-censorship and felt pressure to portray the Government 
favorably.   
 
NBC radio has a much wider listenership than the television service and 
is acknowledged to be much more balanced in its reporting, but there 
have been allegations that Herero language programs have been taken off 
the air because of antigovernment rhetoric.  There are three private 
radio stations and a private television cable service which broadcasts 
Cable News Network and South African news programs.  A variety of 
privately owned newspapers operate without government restriction and no 
apparent self-censorship. 
 
   b.   Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association 
 
The Constitution provides for freedom of assembly and association, and 
the Government respects these rights in practice.  During 1995 various 
organizations, including political parties and religious groups, held 
large meetings and public gatherings without interference.   
 
In October police forces in the capital used tear gas and rubber bullets 
on a demonstration by ex-independence fighters injuring 12 persons.  The 
ex-PLAN (People's Liberation Army of Namibia) fighters had taken a 
deputy minister hostage for several hours while pressing their demands 
for jobs and monetary payments from the Government (see Section 6.e.). 
 
   c.   Freedom of Religion 
 
The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government 
respects this right in practice.   
 
   d.   Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign Travel, 
Emigration, and Repatriation 
 
The Constitution provides citizens with the rights to travel freely, 
both domestically and abroad, to reside and settle in any part of the 
country, and to repatriate.  In practice, the Government respected these 
freedoms.  Following a High Court ruling, the Government permitted 
former counterinsurgency fighters and dependents (Koevoets) who could 
document their Namibian citizenship, to return home.  Koevoets, members 
of a notorious counterinsurgency unit organized by the South African 
army, were believed to have committed egregious human rights abuses 
during the preindependence period. 
 
U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees officials have observed a marked 
improvement in the Government's policy with respect to refugees.  Those 
in the refugee camps have been permitted to leave the facilities and 
some have been allowed to work or study; however, some refugees' status 
had not yet been decided.  The Government urged the Namibian public to 
contribute to refugee assistance activities and to treat refugees 
humanely.  Some 92 percent of the 1,320 recognized refugees in Namibia 
are Angolans. 
 
Section 3   Respect for Political Rights:  The Right of Citizens to 
Change Their Government 
 
Citizens exercised this constitutional right for the second time in 
December 1994 in what were generally agreed--despite some 
irregularities--to be free and fair presidential and parliamentary 
elections.  The Government printed and distributed useful and 
informative voter guides with lists of government and opposition 
candidates and requested international election observers.  There were 
televised debates and the opposition parties were able to campaign 
freely and seek voter support.   
 
The Constitution establishes a bicameral Parliament and provides for 
general elections every 5 years and regional elections every 6 years.  
Incumbent President Nujoma was reelected to a second 5-year term of 
office during the country's first postindependence elections for the 
National Assembly and president in December 1994.  The ruling SWAPO 
party won 53 of the 72 elected National Assembly seats, the Democratic 
Turnhalle Alliance (DTA, the major opposition party) secured 15 seats, 
and three smaller parties obtained a total of 4 seats. 
 
The DTA challenged the results of the election in January, based on 
discrepancies in four constituencies in northern Namibia where votes 
cast exceeded the number of registered voters.  In March the three-
member Namibian High Court rejected the DTA's challenge, ruling 2-to-1 
that Namibia's 1992 Electoral Act does not empower the judiciary or 
Electoral Commission to order the inspection of ballots in civil cases.  
The High Court did, however, permit the DTA to appeal to the Supreme 
Court.  At year's end, the Court had not ruled on the case. 
 
Women are increasingly involved in the political process, but remain 
seriously underrepresented.  During 1995 women held six positions at the 
Cabinet or subcabinet level and six seats in the two houses of 
Parliament.  An additional three women were elected to the National 
Assembly in the December 1994 elections.   
 
Historic economic and educational disadvantages have served to limit the 
participation of the indigenous San ethnic group in politics.  The only 
San member of the National Assembly died recently, and at year's end had 
not yet been replaced.   
 
Section 4   Governmental Attitude Regarding International and 
Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights 
 
Local organizations, such as the National Society for Human Rights 
(NSHR) and the Legal Assistance Centre, operated freely, criticizing the 
Government's handling of the SWAPO detainee issue, the treatment of 
refugees, misconduct by members of the police, and other matters.  In 
addition, other human rights organizations such as the Namibia Institute 
for Democracy, the Human Rights Documentation Center, the Center for 
Applied Social Sciences, and the Media Institute for Southern Africa 
worked openly on a variety of human rights problems affecting women, 
ethnic minorities, students, and other groups. 
 
In January, however, the Government brought charges against the leaders 
of the NSHR, for allegedly contravening a section of the Racial 
Discrimination Prohibition Act of 1991.  The charges arose from a report 
NSHR published that sought to demonstrate the relationship between 
ethnicity and voting patterns in Namibia.  In February the Government 
dropped the charges. 
 
Represntatives of international human rights organizations traveled to 
Namibia and discussed human rights issues with governmental and 
nongovernmental representatives.  The Government also invited 
international observers to witness the December 1994 elections. 
 
Section 5   Discrimination Based on Race, Sex, Religion, Disability, 
Language, or Social Status 
 
The Constitution prohibits discrimination based on race, creed, gender, 
or religion, and specifically prohibits "the practice and ideology of 
apartheid."  Individual members of the Government have actively decried 
discrimination against women, the disabled, and those afflicted with 
AIDS, but little concrete action has been taken to end effectively 
discrimination in these and other areas.   
 
   Women 
 
Violence against women, including beatings and rape, is a widespread and 
growing problem.  Because of traditional attitudes regarding the 
subordination of women, many incidents of abuse are never reported to 
the authorities.  However, in those few grave abuse cases where legal 
action has been initiated, the courts often sentenced male offenders, 
including spouses, to long terms of imprisonment.  The courts sentenced 
convicted rapists to prison terms averaging 6 to 9 years.  During the 
year, the police opened another Women and Child Abuse Centre in the town 
of Rehoboth, adding to existing centers in Oshakati, Windhoek, and 
Keetmanshoop.  The centers are staffed with specially trained female 
officers to assist victims of sexual assaults. 
 
Despite constitutional protections, women faced persistent 
discrimination in both formal and customary law and, most importantly, 
in deep-rooted societal practices by all ethnic groups.  A number of 
preindependence statutes continued to discriminate against women in such 
areas as property, business, and employment.  For example, a married 
woman may not open a bank account without the approval of her husband or 
other close male relative.  Also, under existing community property 
laws, married women of all groups are defined as legal minors and need 
the written consent of their husbands before they may legally acquire or 
purchase property.  Traditional practices also permit family members to 
confiscate the property of deceased men from their widows and children, 
particularly in northern Namibia. 
 
The Government, prodded by women's groups, began to address these 
inequalities, and on December 4 the National Assembly passed the Married 
Persons Equality Bill which would effectively abolish a husband's 
marital right as sole head of household and legal guardian of the 
children of a marriage.  Upon passage by the National Council (the other 
house of the bicameral legislature), women in civil marriages may own 
property, take a job, and open a bank account without their husband's 
written consent.   
 
   Children 
 
Children's rights, including those of protection from economic 
exploitation and from work that is hazardous or harmful to their health, 
education, mental, spiritual, moral, or social development, are 
enumerated in the Constitution.  In practice, the Government has been 
able to commit only limited resources to the protection of children's 
welfare.  Child abuse is a serious and growing problem.  The authorities 
vigorously prosecuted cases involving crimes against children, 
particularly rape and incest, and encouraged discussion and the issuance 
of printed materials in the schools.  The Women and Child Abuse Centres 
also worked to reduce the trauma suffered by abused children and 
provided training to police officials on handling this problem.  In 
August the Ministry of Basic Education issued new directives instructing 
schools to readmit teenage mothers.  Previously, pregnant schoolgirls 
were expelled and not permitted to continue their education.  The 
problem of teenage pregnancy as a result of sexual contact between 
teachers and students is widespread and has led to calls for 
disciplinary action against teachers who engage in sexual relations with 
students. 
 
   People with Disabilities 
 
There were no reports of official discrimination on the basis of 
disability, and the Government continued its efforts to provide the 
disabled with appropriate treatment and education.  The Government does 
not legally require special access to public buildings for the disabled.  
However, some municipal governments have installed ramps and special 
curbing at street crossings for the disabled.  Disabled rights groups 
have complained, however, about a lack of rehabilitation facilities. 
 
   Indigenous People 
 
The San people, Namibia's earliest known inhabitants, historically have 
been exploited by other ethnic groups.  The Government has taken a 
number of measures to end this societal discrimination against the San, 
including seeking their advice about proposed legislation on communally 
held lands and increasing their access to primary education.  By law, 
all indigenous groups are able to participate equally in decisions 
affecting their lands, cultures, traditions, and allocations of natural 
resources.  Nevertheless, the San and many other indigenous Namibians 
have been unable to exercise fully these rights as a result of 
historically minimal access to education and economic opportunities 
under colonial rule, coupled with their relative isolation in remote 
areas of the country. 
 
   National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities 
 
The Constitution prohibits discrimination based on race and other 
factors and specifically prohibits "the practice and ideology of 
apartheid."  Nevertheless, as a result of more than 70 years of South 
African administration, societal, racial, and ethnic discrimination 
persists, and some apartheid-based statutes have not yet been repealed 
or replaced by the Parliament.  Many nonwhites continued to complain 
that the Government was not moving quickly enough to lessen the 
continuing and serious inequalities in education, health, housing, 
employment, and access to land. 
 
Also, some opposition parties, including members of the Herero and Nama 
ethnic groups, claimed that the SWAPO-led government provided more 
development assistance to the numerically dominant Ovambo ethnic group 
of far northern Namibia than to other groups or regions of the country.  
In June the application by the "Baster" community for the Government to 
return its traditional land in the Rehoboth area was denied by the High 
Court which ruled that the community's "traditional lands" reverted to 
the central Government upon independence.   
 
The Basters have appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, which in 
October announced that it needed more time to consider the case. 
 
Section 6   Worker Rights 
 
   a.   The Right of Association 
 
The Constitution provides for freedom of association, including freedom 
to form and join trade unions.  The 1992 Labor Act extended that right 
to public servants, farm workers, and domestic employees.  Trade unions 
have no difficulty registering, and there are no government restrictions 
on who may serve as a union official.  No union has been dissolved by 
government action.  The Government's intention to prohibit both labor 
unions and the application of the 1992 Labor Act within the export 
processing zone (EPZ) in Walvis Bay was successfully challenged by the 
National Union of Namibian Workers (NUNW). 
 
Unions are independent of government and may form federations.  The two 
principal trade union umbrella organizations are the National Union of 
Namibian Workers, and the Namibia People's Social Movement (NPSM).  The 
larger NUNW continues to maintain its strong affiliation with the ruling 
SWAPO party.  Roughly half of the wage sector is organized to some 
degree, although less than 20 percent of full-time wage earners are 
organized. 
 
Except for those providing essential services (e.g., jobs related to 
public health and safety), workers enjoy the right to strike once 
conciliation procedures have been exhausted.  Under the Labor Act, 
strike action can only be used in disputes involving specific worker 
interests, such as pay raises.  Disputes over worker rights, including 
dismissals, must be referred to a labor court (which is convened on an 
ad hoc basis in the existing magisterial districts) for arbitration.  
The Labor Act protects legally striking workers from unfair dismissal. 
 
Unemployment, which is near 40 percent, remained a significant problem 
in Namibia, affecting largely the black majority.  Apartheid-era 
attitudes among employers contributed to a Namibian labor scene 
characterized by growing tensions and turmoil.  The deteriorating state 
of labor-management relations is evidenced by the spate of actual or 
threatened strikes, and an atmosphere of mistrust.   
 
Trade unions are free to exchange visits with foreign trade unions and 
to affiliate with international trade union organizations.  Unions have 
exercised this right without interference.  The American Federation of 
Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations, through its African-American 
Labor  
 
Center representative in South Africa, provided technical assistance to 
the NUNW during regular visits to Namibia in 1995.   
 
   b.   The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively 
 
The 1992 Labor Act guarantees employees the right to bargain 
individually or collectively.  Collective bargaining is not widely 
practiced outside the mining and construction industries; wages are 
usually set by employers.  As unions become more active, however, 
informal collective bargaining is becoming more common. 
 
The Labor Act provides a process for employer recognition of trade 
unions and protection for members and organizers.  The law also empowers 
the labor court to remedy unfair labor practices and explicitly forbids 
unfair dismissals, which may be appealed to the labor court. 
 
The Labor Act now applies to the prospective EPZ in Walvis Bay, after a 
compromise was reached by the Government and NUNW representatives in 
August.  The original EPZ legislation, enacted by Parliament early in 
1995, exempted the new EPZ from the provisions of the Labor Act, thereby 
outlawing trade union activity within the zone.  The compromise calls 
for revision of the EPZ act to allow application of the 1992 Labor Act, 
but still precludes strikes and lockouts.  Labor-related issues in the 
EPZ would be referred to a special "EPZ Dispute Settlement Panel," 
composed of employers and workers, for expeditious resolution. 
 
As business activity in the Walvis Bay EPZ has yet to get under way by 
year's end, the effectiveness of this compromise in securing the rights 
of workers in the EPZ could not be determined.  Many trade unionists 
continued to challenge the constitutionality of the compromise, which 
effectively bars the fundamental right to strike in the EPZ.   
 
   c.   Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor 
 
Forced labor is prohibited by law.  Although there were no formal 
complaints filed with the Ministry of Labor, there were ongoing reports 
in the media that farm workers often receive inadequate compensation for 
their labor and are subject to strict control by farm owners.  Ministry 
of Labor inspectors sometimes encountered problems in gaining access to 
Namibia's expansive, privately owned commercial farms in order to 
document possible Labor Code violations.  A Wage Commission 
investigation into the plight of farm workers was started in 1995, but 
was not completed because funds to conduct the survey were reprogrammed 
for drought relief. 
 
   d.   Minimum Age for Employment of Children 
 
Under the 1992 Labor Act, the minimum age for employment is 14 years, 
with higher age requirements for certain sectors such as mining, 
construction, and night work.  Ministry of Labor inspectors generally 
enforce minimum age regulations, but children below the age of 14 often 
work on family and commercial farms and in the informal sector.  Boys in 
the rural areas traditionally start herding livestock at age 7. 
 
   e.   Acceptable Conditions of Work 
 
There is no statutory minimum wage law.  In Windhoek's nonwhite 
townships, many workers and their families have difficulty maintaining a 
minimally decent standard of living.  White Namibians earn significantly 
more on average than their black compatriots, in large part because 
whites own most of the country's productive resources and had access to 
education that enabled them to take advantage of the skilled labor 
shortage. 
 
In 1995 former members of the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) 
demonstrated on several occasions to demand jobs and financial 
assistance.  Although the Government established a special commission to 
find suitable employment for the ex-PLAN fighters, PLAN frustrations 
boiled over in October when the veterans, dissatisfied with the 
Government's compensation package, detained a deputy minister for 
several hours against his will.  At least a dozen ex-PLAN fighters were 
injured when police used tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse the 
unruly crowd (see Section 2.b.). 
 
After independence, the standard legal work week was reduced from 46 to 
45 hours, and includes at least one 24-hour rest period per week.  An 
employer may require no more than 10 hours per week of overtime.  The 
law mandates 24 consecutive days of annual leave, at least 30 workdays 
of sick leave per year, and 3 months of unpaid maternity leave.  In 
practice, however, these provisions are not yet rigorously observed or 
enforced by the Ministry of Labor. 
 
The Government mandates occupational health and safety standards.  The 
Labor Act empowers the President to enforce them through inspections and 
criminal penalties.  The law requires employers to ensure the health, 
safety, and welfare of their employees and provides for their right to 
remove themselves from dangerous work situations. 
 
(###)

[end of document]

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