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TITLE:  JAMAICA HUMAN RIGHTS PRACTICES, 1993                            
DATE:  JANAURY 31, 1994


Jamaica is a constitutional parliamentary democracy and a 
member of the Commonwealth of Nations.  The Governor General, 
appointed by the Crown on the advice of the Prime Minister, 
represents the Queen as Head of State.  The elected Prime 
Minister, the leader of the majority party in Parliament, is 
the head of government.  The Parliament is composed of an 
elected House of Representatives and an appointed Senate.  Two 
major political parties have alternated in power since the 
first elections under universal adult suffrage in 1944.  The 
People's National Party (PNP) holds 52 of the 60 seats in the 
House of Representatives.  The opposition Jamaica Labor Party 
(JLP), which formed the Government from 1980 to 1989, holds the 
remaining 8 seats.  The last general election, held in March, 
was marred by political violence and fraud.

The security forces consist of the Jamaica Constabulary Force 
(JCF--police), the Island Special Constabulary Force 
(ISCF--auxiliary police), and the Jamaica Defense Force 
(JDF--army, air wing, and coast guard).  The JCF and ISCF 
report to the Ministry of National Security.  The JDF is 
responsible to the Prime Minister in his capacity as Defense 
Minister.  The JCF has repeatedly and accurately been cited for 
human rights abuses and political partisanship; the JDF has 
been responsible for some, albeit fewer, abuses.  

Jamaica's economy is based on primary products (bauxite/alumina,
sugar, bananas), services (tourism), and light manufacturing 
(garment assembly).  The Government has promoted private 
investment to stimulate economic growth and modernization, 
pursuing in the process a sometimes painful program of 
structural adjustment.  Side effects of this program have 
included inflation, currency devaluation, and large-scale 
layoffs in the public sector.

Jamaica's principal human rights abuses are extrajudicial 
killings and beatings by police and prison guards and, to a 
lesser extent, members of the army.  Such killings are often 
carried out with impunity.  While a few police and army 
personnel were prosecuted for manslaughter or murder, the local 
media and human rights groups attributed new execution-style 
killings to members of the security forces.  Other abuses 
include violence against women, including attacks by police; 
searches without warrants; indefinite detention; brutal 
treatment of detainees; and vigilantism.  Conditions in 
Jamaican jails and prisons remain appalling, with serious 
overcrowding, awful sanitary conditions, and inadequate diet 
the norm.  An inefficient and overburdened judiciary was 
responsible for lengthy delays in trials, sentencing, and 


Section 1  Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including 
           Freedom from:

     a.  Political and Other Extrajudicial Killing

The March 30 general election was preceded by a brief but 
violent campaign during which between 14 and 22 persons were 
killed by political partisans and/or members of the security 
forces in February and March.  In the only pre-election killing 
with political overtones allegedly committed by security 
forces, a JDF lieutenant and a lance corporal were charged with 
the March 27 killing of JCF constable Rupert Sinclair, who was 
acting as a bodyguard for JLP candidate for Parliament Ernest 
Smith.  Eyewitnesses reported that Sinclair, who identified 
himself as a policeman, was shot in the stomach while being 
questioned by the soldiers.  A trial was set to begin on 
October 11, but had not begun by year's end.

On March 26, election official Dennis Brooks was shot and 
killed in Old Harbour, St. Catherine.  The suspected killer, a 
PNP supporter, was later found dead of multiple gunshot wounds 
one day after his arrest, and subsequent unexplained release, 
for the killing of a JLP supporter.

There continue to be credible reports that the JCF engages in 
the summary execution of suspects under the guise of 
"shoot-outs."  Local media accounts disputing JCF claims of 
shoot-outs (often quoting eyewitness accounts in direct 
contradiction) appeared with increasing frequency in 1993.  One 
case which drew particular media attention concerned the July 
16 shooting death of two robbery suspects at Nuttall private 
hospital in Kingston.  While initial JCF reports indicated the 
two men, Alfredo Bell and Leroy Chin, were killed in a 
shoot-out, eyewitness accounts from health professionals and 
other credible witnesses maintained that Bell was chased into 
the hospital, taken outside by JCF personnel, forced to lie 
prone and shot in the back of the head.  One of six JCF 
officers involved was charged with capital murder and suspended 
while the investigation and prosecution proceeded.  

Statistics collected over several years from the JCF show that 
the number of people shot and killed by the police routinely 
exceeds the number shot but only wounded.  In 1993 the JCF 
listed 67 people shot and wounded by police officers, while 91 
were shot and killed.  For 1992 the figures were 69 shot and 
wounded, 107 shot and killed.  Prosecutions of security 
officials for extrajudicial killings appeared to increase.  
Overall, seven JCF members were charged, suspended, or 
prosecuted for murder or manslaughter in 1993, compared with 
four in 1992.  

The new Commissioner of Police, Army Colonel (ret) Trevor 
MacMillan, the first chosen from outside the ranks of the JCF 
since 1966, was appointed with a mandate to reform the police.  
In October he ordered the disbanding of the Special Operations 
Unit and the restructuring of the Protective Service Unit, both 
of which had been responsible for much political partisanship.

Extrajudicial killings of persons in official custody continued.
Four JCF inspectors and a superintendent were charged on April 
2 with manslaughter in connection with the deaths of three 
detainees in the Constant Spring police jail in October 1992.  
The trial of the five had not begun by the end of 1993.  In 
another incident, the death of detainee John Headley in the 
Ramble jail in November 1992, a detective constable and another 
JCF officer were charged with manslaughter in late May.  
According to eyewitness accounts from fellow detainees, Headley 
died under interrogation from repeated beatings as the accused 
officers sought a confession in the case of a stolen cow.  The 
accused had not been tried by year's end.

Vigilantism, involving spontaneous mob executions, occurred 
with some frequency in Jamaica in 1993.  Residents often 
complained that help from the police, particularly in rural 
areas, was tardy or nonexistent; in many such cases, the 
response to crimes from agricultural larceny to armed robbery 
was the rapid formation of a local mob which beat, stoned, or 
"chopped" (with machetes) the alleged criminals to death.  
Police rarely brought charges against vigilantes, and 
acquittals were common in the few cases that did go to court.

     b.  Disappearance

There was no evidence of politically related abduction or 
disappearances perpetrated by the security forces or others in 

     c.  Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading 
         Treatment or Punishment

Torture and other abuse of prisoners and detainees are 
prohibited by law.  Nonetheless, there were numerous credible 
complaints of beatings, in many cases to obtain confessions, by 
guards and security personnel of inmates held in jails and 
prisons.  The Jamaica Council on Human Rights (JCHR) reported 
that the beating of detainees on the soles of the feet in order 
to obtain confessions was a common practice; in one incident, 
it said, police forced one detainee to beat the soles of a 
friend and fellow detainee.  In recent years, the Government 
has paid out hundreds of thousands of dollars in civil damages 
to settle suits brought against security personnel for brutal 
treatment; the most recent available figure, for 1991, was 

The Police Public Complaints Authority (PPCA), a nonpartisan 
civilian body which began operations in April, received over 
150 complaints in its initial months of operation.  Most 
complaints charged excessive use of force or abuse of power.  
The PPCA's chairman told local media in August that the 
authority's work was being hampered by a lack of reliable 
witnesses.  The PPCA may refer cases to the Commissioner of 
Police; if not satisfied with the Commissioner's actions, the 
Authority may report on the matter to the Governor General.  At 
year's end, however, no JCF personnel had been charged or 
prosecuted for matters arising from PPCA complaints.

There were no significant changes in conditions in maximum 
security prisons and police jails, which remain abysmal.  
Sanitary conditions are appalling and dangerous, food 
inadequate at best, and overcrowding the rule rather than the 
exception.  Several police jails were temporarily closed during 
the year in an effort to cope with raw sewage running through 
the grounds; others, including Central jail in Kingston and 
Barnett Street jail in Montego Bay, remained open under 
substantially the same conditions.  At the general penitentiary 
in Kingston, up to six men are held in the 7- by 10-foot cells 
in the remand section, in near total darkness, for 16 to 20 
hours a day.

The failure to provide adequate and timely medical attention is 
a further problem, especially given the degrading sanitary 
conditions.  Prisoners and detainees who can afford to pay find 
access to medical treatment, supplemental food, and other 
amenities.  Prisoners without access to money from family 
members and friends must subsist on the $0.60 a day per inmate 
budgeted for food.  

A 1992 amendment to Jamaica's Offenses Against the Person Act, 
which separated murder into capital and noncapital categories, 
elicited a great deal of comment on the revised Act and on the 
death penalty in general during 1993.  A number of 
commentators, including the JCHR, questioned the propriety of 
allowing 10- to 15-year delays in executions for a large number 
of convicted murderers.  They charged that, the question of the 
rightness or wrongness of the death penalty aside, such lengthy 
delays themselves constituted cruel, inhuman, and degrading 
punishment.  In November the Privy Council commuted the death 
sentences of two convicted murderers, saying their 14 years on 
death row amounted to inhuman treatment.  There have been no 
executions in Jamaica since 1988 and no ex post facto 
applications of the death penalty.

     d.  Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile

The Suppression of Crimes Act (SOCA), adopted in 1974 and still 
in force in Kingston, St. Andrew, and St. Catherine parishes, 
allows police to make arrests and conduct warrantless searches 
of the homes and property of persons "reasonably" suspected of 
having committed a crime.  It has also been used as 
justification for curfews in urban areas.  The Government 
promised on several occasions during 1993 to repeal the SOCA; 
by the end of the year, however, the law was still on the books.

Detention of suspects without a warrant occurs regularly, 
particularly in poor neighborhoods.  Many detainees are held 
for several weeks without being brought before a judge or 
magistrate, in contravention of the law, which sets a maximum 
of 48 hours for detention without a hearing.  For Jamaican 
suspects charged with a crime, there is a functioning bail 
system.  Foreign detainees, however, are regularly denied 
bail.  Persons unable to post bail while waiting for a judicial 
hearing are often detained for long periods.  Detainees 
constitute 15 percent of the maximum security prison 
population; the average length of detention before trial has 
not been determined but ranges from 6 to 52 weeks.  

Some 80-100 persons are currently awaiting trial "at the 
pleasure of the Governor General," usually for capital offenses 
committed as minors.  They are subject to indefinite detention; 
many have been held for more than 10 years.  Others in the 
group, mostly mentally ill, have been judged unfit to plead.  A 
man held for 24 years without trial was released in September 
to the care of his family after a public outcry stemming from 
media reports of his plight.  Other such cases were under 
review by the Governor General at year's end.

Under a 1992 joint police-military campaign called "Operation 
Ardent," the Government established rapid response units in 
three locations to combat increasingly violent crime.  By 
mid-1993, however, the Anti-Crime Investigation Detachment 
(ACID) replaced Operation Ardent as the latest anticrime 
initiative.  ACID members were almost immediately linked to 
reports of summary executions (see Section 1.a., the Nuttall 
hospital incident).  The three military detention centers which 
were to be used to house Operation Ardent detainees, meanwhile, 
were constructed but never used.

     e.  Denial of Fair Public Trial

There is a well-established right to counsel for persons 
charged with criminal offenses; indigents, however, must have 
been accused of a "serious offense" (e.g., murder, rape, 
robbery, firearms offenses) to qualify for court-appointed 
counsel.  Many offenses, including wounding with intent (to 
cause great bodily harm), are not considered "serious," and 
many defendants are thus convicted without benefit of counsel.  
The Court of Appeal and the Parliament may refer cases to the 
judicial committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom 
(see Section 1.c.).

A special gun court, established in 1974, considers all cases 
involving the illegal use or possession of firearms and 
ammunition.  Public attendance is restricted, and cases are 
heard by a panel of three judges, with less rigorous rules of 
evidence than in regular court proceedings.  In capital cases, 
hearings before the gun court serve as preliminaries to jury 
trials under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.

The judicial system, although independent, is overburdened and 
operates with inadequate resources.  Budgetary shortfalls have 
resulted in a steady attrition of trained personnel, causing 
further delays.  Many cases take years to come to trial, and 
others have had to be dismissed because case files could not be 
located.  One case required 50 visits to court by the parties 
before a decision was reached; another has been on the books of 
the May Pen district court since 1972.  The Government in 
recent years took some steps to reverse the deterioration of 
the legal system, which included raising judicial salaries, 
increasing training for judicial personnel, upgrading court 
house facilities, and providing technical assistance to 
institutionalize an improved court administration system.  The 
effects on caseloads and average length of proceedings have so 
far been minimal, however.

There are no political prisoners in Jamaica.

     f.  Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or 

The Constitution prohibits arbitrary intrusion by the State 
into the private life of the individual.  Under the SOCA, 
however, homes or businesses believed to be occupied by persons 
"reasonably" suspected by the police of having committed a 
crime may be searched without a warrant.  This authority is 
frequently abused.

Although the use of telephone taps without a court order is 
officially limited to cases involving the drug trade, 
terrorism, and subversion of the Government, charges have been 
raised in recent years by political and trade union officials 
that their telephones were being tapped.  These charges have 
not been addressed by the authorities.  

Section 2  Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

     a.  Freedom of Speech and Press

Freedom of speech and press are provided for in the 
Constitution and are observed in practice within the broad 
limits of libel laws and the Official Secrets Act.

The Jamaica Broadcasting Company (JBC), largely freed from 
government ownership in 1988, operates two radio stations and 
one of the island's two television channels.  A private 
television station went on the air in May, while two other 
privately owned FM radio stations also began operation during 
the year.  The Government's broadcast commission has the right 
to regulate programming during emergencies.  Foreign television 
transmissions are unregulated and available to a sizable number 
of Jamaicans through satellite antennas.

Jamaica's four largest newspapers, all privately owned, 
regularly report on alleged human rights abuses, particularly 
those involving the JCF.  Foreign publications are widely 
available.  There is no censorship or interference in academic 

     b.  Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

The Constitution provides for freedom of assembly and 
association.  Public rallies are staged by all political 
parties.  Such events require a police permit, which is 
normally granted.  Large numbers and varieties of professional, 
business, service, social, and cultural associations function 

     c.  Freedom of Religion

Freedom of religion is provided for by the Constitution and is 
well established.  More than 80 percent of the population 
belongs to various Christian denominations, and religious 
groups of all kinds operate freely.  Evangelical Christian 
movements have gained a significant following, and foreign 
evangelists visit regularly.

     d.  Freedom of Movement Within the Country, Foreign 
         Travel, Emigration, and Repatriation

The Constitution provides Jamaican citizens freedom of movement 
and immunity from expulsion from the country.  Apart from 
persons under criminal investigation, there are no restrictions 
on foreign travel or emigration.  Citizenship is not revoked 
for political reasons.

Those who apply for refugee status are handled on a 
case-by-case basis.  In coordination with the U.N. High 
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1991, the Jamaican 
Government established a facility which processed more than 100 
Haitian boat people, who were housed, clothed, and fed 
throughout 1992.  By the end of 1993, some 30-35 remained in 
Jamaica, the rest having been voluntarily repatriated to 
Haiti.  There were occasions when the Jamaican Government 
refused the disembarcation of Cuban asylum seekers.

Section 3  Respect for Political Rights:  The Right of Citizens 
           to Change Their Government

Jamaicans have, and freely exercise, the right to change their 
government.  All citizens aged 18 and over have the right to 
vote by secret ballot.  The March 30 general election was 
marred, however, by fraud which occurred on a large scale 
within the urban constituencies of Kingston, and to a lesser 
but still significant extent in nearby parishes.  In an April 2 
statement, Professor Gladstone Mills, chairman of the electoral 
advisory committee, called the theft and stuffing of ballot 
boxes and repeat voting by hundreds of people "a terrible and 
sad travesty of the democratic process."  Observers found 
particularly troubling the involvement of elements of the 
security forces:  in addition to the murder of Rupert Sinclair 
(Section 1.a.), members of the JCF were observed by the local 
and international media assisting in the takeover of polling 
stations by one party or the other.  Indeed, the results from 
some stations depended on which party was able to bring the 
greater threat of force to bear.

According to Professor Mills, the murder 3 days before the 
election of electoral official Dennis Brooks also had a 
substantial effect on the willingness of electoral officials to 
do their jobs on election day, contributing to delays in 
opening and the premature closing of some polling stations.  
Such action effectively disenfranchised thousands of voters, 
either by shortened polling hours or by threats of violence 
from armed political gangs.  Nevertheless, observers, including 
the opposition JLP, conceded that the overall result of the 
election was not altered by the fraud which took place, even 
though individual seats may have been decided as a result of 

The JLP boycotted a by-election in late November, charging that 
appropriate electoral reforms were not in place.  The election, 
won overwhelmingly by the PNP candidate, was contested by one 
independent and two small-party candidates, who charged that 
voter turnout figures were inflated, and that some of their 
votes were lost owing to electoral irregularities.  The 
security forces appeared to have performed their duties 
professionally on election day; no charges of violence or 
malfeasance were raised against members of the army or police.  

There are no de jure limitations to the participation of women 
in politics at any level.  In practice, women constitute a 
small minority of national parliamentarians and an only slightly

higher proportion of local council members.  Women in politics, 
as in Jamaican business, hold few leadership positions; they 
tend, on the other hand, to dominate in administrative areas.

Section 4  Governmental Attitude Regarding International and 
           Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations 
           of Human Rights

There are no restrictions on human rights organizations in 
Jamaica.  The JCHR, the country's only formal human rights 
organization, has vigorously protested abuses by the police and 
has called for corrective reforms.  Its work was hampered, 
however, by a lack of adequate resources.  There was no 
official followup on the August 1992 break-in and fire at the 
JCHR headquarters, which effectively shut the organization down 
for 3 months.  The JCHR's coordinator, chairman, and 
vice-chairman continued to receive death threats in 1993.  

Section 5  Discrimination Based on Race, Sex, Religion, 
           Disability, Language, or Social Status


While Jamaican women are theoretically accorded full equality 
under the Constitution and under the 1975 Employment Act, in 
practice they suffer from economic discrimination, sexual 
harassment in the workplace, and cultural and social traditions 
which do little to discourage violence against women.

Sexual assault reports increased from 1,091 in 1991 to 1,155 in 
1992.  According to the authorities, reports of violence 
against women increased again in 1993, although figures were 
unavailable at year's end.  Complaints filed with the JCHR 
alleging police attacks on women have increased dramatically in 
the last few years, leading the organization to focus formally 
on women's issues for the first time since its creation in 
1968.  A police instructor allegedly raped a young woman 
recruit at the police academy on August 16; he was arrested the 
same day.  By year's end, his trial had not begun.

The Women's Crisis Center and Sistren (a women's resource 
collective) both reported increases in the number of, and level 
of violence involved in, attacks against women.  Women remain 
reluctant to bring assault charges against their domestic 
partners when jail is seen as the likely result.  The 
Government, which promised legislation to introduce noncustodial
sentencing for nonweapon offenses, had not done so by the end 
of 1993.


The Government has gone on record several times over the past 
decade as supporting the rights and welfare of children.  
Limited resources, however, make it difficult for the 
Government to monitor the status of children at school, in the 
workplace, or at home.  The only legislation which specifically 
addresses the rights of children is the Juvenile Act (see 
Section 6.d.).

The treatment of children in Jamaican society received 
increased public attention in 1993.  Sexual abuse and child 
labor practices were particular areas of concern.  A University 
of the West Indies study released in April showed that 
13 percent of eighth-grade girls questioned had faced attempted 
rape, while 4 percent had actually been raped, often by a 
family member.  Additionally, 22 percent had witnessed acts of 
violence involving weapons at home, while 40 percent had 
witnessed similar acts at school.

     Indigenous People

While there are no indigenous peoples remaining in Jamaica, 
several community groups descended from freed and escaped 
slaves, called Maroons, live in separate communities in the 
interior of the island.  Since British colonial times, the 
Maroons have enjoyed a degree of autonomy granted by treaty.  
There were no charges of political or other discrimination made 
by Maroon leaders in 1993.  However, they continue to press 
claims for land rights which they say the Government has not 

     Religious Minorities

The Rastafarians, a sect dedicated to black repatriation to 
Africa, have repeatedly charged the Government with religious 
persecution over the years; often, however, the charges stem 
from criminal prosecutions brought for possession and use of 
marijuana, the smoking of which the Rastafarians regard as a 

     People with Disabilities

There have been no organized campaigns to make structures and 
facilities accessible to disabled persons, and there are no 
laws mandating provision of accessibility for people with 
disabilities.  A government-sponsored "disabilities week," held 
in September, helped raise public awareness of the problems 
which confront disabled Jamaicans.

Section 6  Worker Rights

     a.  The Right of Association

The Constitution specifically provides for the right to form or 
join a trade union.  There are no categories of workers who do 
not have the right to form unions.  Labor unions function 
freely and independently of the Government.  The Labor 
Relations and Industrial Disputes Act (LRIDA) codifies worker 
rights.  There is a spectrum of national unions, some of which 
are associated with political parties.  Approximately 
15 percent of the labor force is organized.

Jamaican law neither authorizes nor prohibits the right to 
strike, but unions and workers do strike.  Striking workers can 
interrupt work without criminal liability but cannot be assured 
of keeping their jobs.  Workers in 10 broad categories of 
"essential services" are prohibited from striking, a provision 
of the LRIDA which the International Labor Organization (ILO) 
has repeatedly condemned as overly inclusive.  There was a 
major increase in workdays lost to industrial action in 1993, 
as workers attempted to regain buying power lost to inflation 
over the preceding 3 years.  No strikes were declared illegal 
in 1993.  

Jamaican unions maintain a wide variety of regional and 
international affiliations.

     b.  The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively

The Constitution provides for the right to organize and belong 
to labor unions, and LRIDA provisions include guidelines for 
labor, management, and government on issues such as organizing 
work sites, negotiating agreements, and conflict resolution.  
The Government rarely interferes with union organization 
efforts, and judicial and police authorities effectively 
enforce the LRIDA and other labor regulations.  

Labor, management, and the Government remain firmly committed 
by law and in practice to collective bargaining in contract 
negotiations and conflict resolution, even in some nonunion 
settings.  When labor and management fail to reach an 
agreement, cases may be referred to an independent Industrial 
Disputes Tribunal (IDT), which forms the first appeal level 
above the Ministry of Labor.  Any cases not resolved by the IDT 
pass to the civil courts.

The LRIDA prohibits antiunion discrimination:  for example, 
employees may not be fired solely for union membership.  
Employees unlawfully fired for union activities may choose to 
be reinstated or receive appropriate compensation, under the 
direction of the Industrial Disputes Tribunal.  This law has 
been effectively enforced.  On the other hand, union 
affiliation may not be a prerequisite for employment.

Domestic labor laws apply in the "free zones" (export processing
zones); however, there are no unionized companies in any of 
them.  Union organizers attribute this to resistance by foreign 
owners in the zones to organizing efforts and government 
reluctance to allow union access.  Nonetheless, the free zones 
were hit by labor unrest in July and attempts to organize 
plants within the zones continue.  Company-controlled "workers' 
councils" handle grievance resolution at most free zone 
companies.  Wages and conditions within the free zones, set by 
management, are generally as good as or better than those in 
similar industries outside the zones.  The Labor Ministry, 
however, discontinued inspections of the zones in mid-1992 due 
to budget cutbacks.

     c.  Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor

The Constitution does not specifically address the matter of 
forced or compulsory labor.  However, Jamaica is a party to 
both ILO conventions that prohibit compulsory labor, and there 
have been no allegations that this practice exists in Jamaica.

     d.  Minimum Age for Employment of Children

The Juvenile Act provides that children under the age of 12 
shall not be employed except by parents or guardians, and that 
such employment may be only in domestic, agricultural, or 
horticultural work.  However, enforcement is erratic.  Children 
under 12 years of age can be seen peddling goods or services on 
city streets.  There is no evidence of widespread illegal 
employment of children in other sectors of the economy.  The 
Educational Act stipulates that all children aged 6 to 11 must 
attend elementary school.  Industrial safety, police, and 
truant officers are charged with enforcement.  Given the 
difficult economic circumstances of the past few years, 
however, thousands of children were kept home for varying 
periods to help with housework and to keep expenses down.

     e.  Acceptable Conditions of Work

The minimum wage, $10 (J$300) per week, is widely considered 
inadequate.  Most salaried workers are paid more than the legal 
minimum wage.  Work over 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day 
must be compensated at overtime rates, a provision which is 
widely observed.  The law provides for a 24-hour rest day per 
week, during which workers may choose to work in exchange for 
double pay.  The Labor Ministry's Industrial Safety Division is 
charged with setting and enforcing industrial health and safety 
standards, which outside experts consider adequate.  Industrial 
accident rates were once again low in 1993.  The Ministries of 
Labor, Finance, the Public Service and National Security are 
charged with enforcing labor laws and regulations; again, 
however, the reduction of the public service in 1992 had a 
grave impact on the ability of those ministries to enforce the 
law.  Workers are guaranteed the right to remove themselves 
from dangerous work situations without jeopardy to their 
continued employment if they are trade union members or covered 
by the Factories Act; other categories of workers are not 
specifically protected by law in those circumstances.  

[end of document]


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