U.S. State Department Geographic Bureaus: Latin America Bureau


Summit of the Americas


Contact Points for the Private Sector and Non-Governmental Organizations

The Plan of Action adopted at the Summit of the Americas contains twenty-three initiatives grouped in four broad categories: strengthening democracy, promoting prosperity through economic integration and free trade, eradicating poverty and discrimination, and guaranteeing sustainable development and the conservation of our natural environment. The Summit leaders called for "the participation of all elements of our civil society" in implementing the Plan of Action. Below are brief summaries of each initiative, including a sketch of the U.S. implementation strategy. The public at large is encouraged to participate in the "Miami process." For more information on individual action items, please contact the persons listed below.


The Summit of the Americas 1994 was an opportunity to celebrate and consolidate the remarkable democratic transformation of the Western Hemisphere since the last summit of 1967. Sharing the recognition that participatory democracy is required for and supported by economic prosperity and sustainable development, the leaders endorsed the following actions to be taken by governments and multilateral organizations.

Strengthening Democracy: The leaders agreed to support an expansion of efforts by the Organization of American States (OAS) to promote and consolidate democracy in the hemisphere. OAS actions will include providing technical assistance in electoral, legislative, and judicial matters; encouraging the exchange of experiences among member states' democratic institutions; and fostering political dialogue and reconciliation at the request of the affected state.

The U.S. will strongly support Secretary Gaviria's initiatives to strengthen democracy, including bolstering the OAS Unit for Democracy. The OAS effort will concentrate on strengthening democratic institutions and on promoting democratic values and practices.

Contact: Mark Feierstein/William Millan Permanent Mission of the U.S. to the Organization of American States Department of State, Rm. 6494 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 647-9376 FAX (202) 647-0911

Promoting and Protecting Human Rights: The governments agreed to promote policies that guarantee and protect human rights and universal access to justice. They will give serious consideration to adherence to international human rights instruments to which they are not already party. They agreed to specific actions in support of the rights of women, minority groups, indigenous people, people with disabilities, children, prisoners, and migrant workers and their families.

The U.S. will review its own performance on human rights and will support OAS and IDB efforts to establish or to reinforce programs to support national projects for the promotion and observance of human rights in the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. will cooperate with other Summit governments in the development of law enforcement and security force training and other programs to reduce the potential for human rights violations. On February 16, the U.S. signed the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Contact: Fay Armstrong Office of Policy Planning, Coordination and Press/Bureau of Inter- American Affairs Department of State 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 647-5333 FAX (202) 736-7450

Contact: Marshall Carter Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor Department of State 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 647-2551 FAX (202) 647-9519

Invigorating Society Community Participation: The governments agreed to review national regulations in order to facilitate the operations of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and promote their ability to raise private funds, while emphasizing their accountability. Governments will also encourage participation in society by marginalized groups and consider the creation of a Civil Society Program at the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).

The U.S. will initiate a national review of the rules governing NGOs. Consulting with NGOs both at home and abroad, the U.S. will seek to strengthen the ability of NGOs to participate effectively and efficiently in their societies. USAID will initiate a project to strengthen NGO networks throughout the hemisphere.

Contact: Ramon Daubon Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean U.S. Agency for International Development, Rm. 4529A Washington, D.C. 20523 (202) 647-9184 FAX (202) 647-9671

Promoting Cultural Values: The leaders agreed to encourage dynamic relations among public and private cultural institutions and to facilitate cultural exchanges through the OAS and the IDB.

The U.S., through the U.S. Information Agency, will fund and facilitate numerous exchanges of artists, writers, and other professionals in the arts and humanities. USIA will develop and broadcast media products on cultural themes. The U.S. will cooperate with hemispheric governments to enhance appreciation of indigenous cultures and cultural artifacts. On March 8, the U.S. and El Salvador signed a bilateral agreement on the protection of cultural patrimony.

Contact: Jerome J. Oetgen U.S. Information Agency, Rm. 750 301 4th St., SW., Washington, D.C. 20547 (202) 619-6873 FAX (202) 619-5172

Combating Corruption: The Plan of Action commits governments to establish transparency and accountability in government by ensuring proper oversight of government functions and by establishing conflict- of-interest standards for public employees. The Plan calls on the governments of the world to adopt and enforce measures against bribery in all financial and commercial transactions with the hemisphere. Summit governments will also develop cooperative mechanisms in the judicial and banking areas and within the OAS to assist in investigation and restitution in corruption cases.

The U.S. is supporting OAS efforts to develop a hemispheric approach to acts of corruption and to work with the OECD on the corruption problem. A hemispheric anti-corruption convention proposed by Venezuela is currently being considered. The U.S. is also supporting IDB efforts to address corruption, e.g., through the modernization and streamlining of fiscal administration.

Contact: Fay Armstrong Office of Policy Planning, Coordination and Press/Bureau of Inter- American Affairs Department of State 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 647-5333 FAX (202) 736-7450

Combating the Problem of Illegal Drugs and Related Crimes: The leaders agreed to formulate a broad coordinated hemispheric strategy to reduce drug production, trafficking, and consumption. Governments that have not done so will ratify the Vienna Convention Against the Illicit Traffic in Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances, and they will make it a criminal offense to launder the proceeds of all serious crimes. Governments will enact legislation to permit the freezing and forfeiture of the proceeds of money laundering, and they will implement existing anti-money laundering regulations and recommendations. The Summit participants decided to hold a ministerial conference to consider a coordinated hemispheric response to the money laundering problem. They will convene a hemispheric-wide conference of donors to seek resources for alternative development programs.

The U.S. and Mexico have produced a draft Counter-narcotics Strategy for the 21st Century, to which many governments have already agreed and which the U.S. hopes will be signed by all 34 Summit governments by mid- 1995. The U.S. will support anti-drug and anti-money laundering efforts through a wide range of cooperative projects in the Hemisphere.

Contact (anti-drug element): James Dandridge Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Department of State, Rm. 7811 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 647-8984 FAX (202) 646-4291

Contact: (anti-money laundering element): Carlos Correa Department of the Treasury, Rm. 4317 Washington, D.C. 20220 (202) 622-1458 FAX (202) 622-7154

Contact: (anti-money laundering element): Lester M. Joseph Department of Justice, Rm. 8403 1400 New York Ave., NW., Washington D.C. 20005 (202) 514-1758 FAX (202) 616-1344

Eliminating the Threat of National and International Terrorism: The governments reaffirmed their determination to combat and eliminate terrorism, which they described as not only a violation of the rights of individuals but an assault on democracy itself. They will convene a Special Conference of the OAS to address the terrorism problem.

The U.S. will work closely with other Summit governments on the problem of terrorism, and will support an OAS conference on the prevention of terrorism to be held in Washington in the fall.

Contact: Joseph Reap Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism Department of State, Rm. 2507 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 647-8682 FAX (202) 647-0221

Building Mutual Confidence: Governments agreed to encourage a regional dialogue on building mutual confidence in security matters. They will hold a conference on confidence and security building measures (CSBMs) in Chile in 1995.

The U.S. will support activities within the Organization of American States to foster security confidence. In preparation for the CSBM conference in Chile, the U.S. will consult with hemispheric governments and non-governmental organizations.

Contact: Giovanni Snidle Bureau of Non-Proliferation and Regional Arms Control U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency 320 - 21st St., NW., Washington, D.C. 20451 (202) 647-3799 FAX (202) 736-4833


Recognizing that economic progress depends on sound economic policies, sustainable development, and dynamic private sectors, and that the key to prosperity is trade without barriers and an increasing flow of productive investments, the leaders resolved to construct the Free Trade Area of the Americas, in which barriers to trade and investment will be progressively eliminated. They further agreed to encourage investment by cooperating to build more open and transparent markets.

Free Trade in the Americas: The leaders agreed to set in motion immediately a process to construct "The Free Trade Area of the Americas" and to maximize market openness through agreements that reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers. They resolved to conclude the negotiation of the FTAA no later than 2005. They agreed to have ministers responsible for trade meet to decide in June 1995 on next steps and again in March 1996 to determine further work, vowing to make concrete progress toward the free trade area by the end of this century.

Intensive consultations are being held to prepare for the meeting of Trade Ministers in Denver in June. Immediately following the trade ministerial, the U.S. will host a Hemispheric Trade and Commerce Forum involving the public and private sectors.

Contact: Michaelle Burstin Office of the United States Trade Representative 600 17th St. NW., Rm. 100, Washington D.C. 20506 (202) 395-6120 FAX (202) 395-3692

Capital Markets Development and Liberalization: The leaders agreed to form a Committee on Hemispheric Financial Issues to promote the liberalization and progressive integration of capital markets, possibly negotiating common guidelines on capital movements. Opportunities for increased cooperation to advance regulatory reform will be explored. The Committee will also review debt problems in the hemisphere.

The U.S. will be a member of the Committee and will also support the work of the regional associations of banking and securities regulators.

Contact: Bruce Juba Office of Latin American and Caribbean Nations Department of Treasury 1500 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Rm 5413, Washington 20220 (202) 622-1282 FAX (202) 622-1273

Hemispheric Infrastructure: The leaders charged multilateral development banks to develop mechanisms to deal with lending and investment issues. Governments may voluntarily commit to regulatory practices to encourage private investment in national and transborder infrastructure projects.

The U.S. will be working with interested governments, private financial interests, the international financial institutions, and national export credit agencies to develop new mechanisms to foster private investment in areas that have traditionally been the province of the public sector.

Contact: Glen Rase Office of International Energy Policy Department of State 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 647-2875 FAX (202) 647-4037

Energy Cooperation: The leaders agreed to convene a follow-up hemispheric officials' meeting in early 1995 to study ways to encourage cooperation to develop an energy industry consistent with least-cost strategies, efficiency, and the use of renewable energy sources.

The U.S. is consulting with the government of Venezuela on planning for this meeting.

Contact: Aimee Christensen Office of International Energy Policy U.S. Department of Energy P. O. 73 1000 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, D.C. 20585 (202) 586-4576 FAX (202) 586-6148

Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure: The leaders agreed to undertake efforts to improve access to international networks that facilitate trade and improve education and access to health care. They also tasked the Inter-American Telecommunications Commission (CITEL) of the OAS to take actions to upgrade telecommunications in the hemisphere.

The U.S. participates actively in CITEL, which will prepare a report in June on its work. The U.S. is also organizing a ten-nation public/private conference on telecommunications.

Contact: Leslie Padilla Office of International Communication and Information Policy Department of State, Rm 2533A 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 647-9340 FAX (202) 647-0158

Cooperation in Science and Technology: The leaders agreed to convene a Science and Technology ministerial in 1995 to improve scientific partnerships and technological ventures and explore the possibility of establishing a council on science and technology.

Preparations for the meeting of science officials is underway.

Contact: Linda Staheli Executive Office of the President Office of Science & Technology Policy Old Executive Office Building, Rm. 435, Washington, D.C. 20500 (202) 456-6105 FAX (202) 456-6028

Tourism: The leaders agreed to explore ways of expanding tourism development in the hemisphere.

The U.S., in consultation with the other nations of the hemisphere, will prepare for a Meeting of Ministers in Argentina this fall.

Contact: Wanda Barquin U.S. Travel and Tourism Administration Department of Commerce 14th and Constitution Ave., NW. Washington, D.C. 20230 (202) 501-8105 FAX (202) 482-2887


Recognizing that strong democracies depend on the health and well-being of their people, the leaders affirmed support for strategies to provide health services and to curtail the devastating effects of poverty. Further noting that governments and economies flourish when all segments of the population participate fully in society, leaders agreed to invest in education and small business.

Universal Access to Education: The leaders made a commitment to refocus existing resources more effectively toward universal quality education, literacy programs, and employment training through reforms in financing and decentralization. The goal is to achieve 100% primary school completion rates and 75% secondary school enrollment by the year 2010, paying particular attention to the unmet needs of women, indigenous people and other disadvantaged groups.

The U.S. Government's centerpiece for education reform will be USAID's Partnership for Education Reform in the Americas (PERA) project. It is planned to be launched by the First Lady, Hillary Rodham Clinton, in October, prior to the opening in Paraguay of the next Meeting of the Wives of Heads of States and Governments of the Americas.

Contact: David Evans Education and Human Resources/Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean U.S. Agency for International Development, Rm. 2239 NS Washington, D.C. 20523 (202) 647-7921 FAX (202) 647-8151

Equitable Access to Basic Health Services: Governments decided to expand access to basic health services, with minimum goals for the year 2000 of reducing the region's child mortality rate by one-third and maternal mortality rate by one-half from 1990 levels. Leaders endorsed the provision of basic health services recommended by international organizations and the development of national plans encompassing accessible essential services for poor and indigenous groups, stronger public health infrastructure, and advancing alternative means of financing and providing services, involving community resources and greater use of non-governmental organizations.

The U.S. will continue its support for health care services through the Pan-American Health Organization, funding agencies, and the Inter- American Network on Health Economics and Financing. A national action plan will be developed as described above, and will include the First Lady, Hillary Rodham Clinton, launching in April the campaign for Measles Elimination in the Americas.

Contact: Glenn Post Population, Health, and Nutrition/Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean U.S. Agency for International Development, Rm. 2247 NS Washington, D.C. 20523 (202) 647-9484 FAX (202) 736-4867

Strengthening the Role of Women in Society: The leaders committed their governments to promote policies to ensure that women enjoy full legal and civil rights protection and participate in decision-making at all levels. Leaders also agreed to support the work of multilateral fora on women's issues.

The U.S. will support progressive positions at the World Conference on Women and will seek to secure ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.

Contact: Pat Martin Women in Development/Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean U.S. Agency for International Development, Rm. 2248 Washington, D.C. 20523 (202) 647-9171 FAX (202) 647-4790

Encouraging Microenterprises and Small Businesses: The leaders decided to support and strengthen microenterprises and small businesses by means of improved legal and regulatory environments and simplified administration, strengthened financial-sector support from national and international sources, enhanced access to training and technical assistance, increased public-private cooperation, and involvement by non-governmental organizations.

Domestically, the U.S. will focus on making operational the Administration's various initiatives designed to aid microenterprises and creating a new broad consultative mechanism. The backbone of international action will consist of implementation of USAID's existing programs in the area and encouragement of World Bank and IDB activities in the microenterprise sector.

Contact: Constance Dunham (Domestic) Economic and Policy Analysis, Room 6-6 Comptroller of the Currency Washington, D.C. 20219 (202) 874-4793 FAX (202) 874-5394 E-mail: 76532.1017@compuserv.com

Contact: Robert Navin (International) Economic Growth/Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean U.S. Agency for International Development, Rm. 2242 Washington, D.C. 20523 (202) 647-5688 FAX (202) 647-8098

White Helmets Emergency and Development Corps: Countries decided to establish, on a voluntary basis, a national corps of volunteers dedicated to reducing the effects of natural disasters and to meeting social and developmental needs and emergencies. They would respond to calls from the region, and would eventually be at the disposal of the United Nations. Each government will be responsible for their training and financing.

The U.S. will continue to support Argentina, author of the initiative, in developing this project under the auspices of the United Nations framework. It also examining ways in which the U.S. can contribute its own expertise.

Contact (Temporary): Ramon Daubon Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean U.S. Agency for International Development, Rm. 4529A Washington, D.C. 20523 (202) 647-9184 FAX (202) 647-9671


Seeing the need for wise management of the hemisphere's environmental resources to ensure their use by future generation, the leaders agreed to promote partnerships in the fields of energy, pollution prevention, and the sustainable use of biological resources.

Partnership for Sustainable Energy Use: The participating countries made a commitment to increase access to reliable, clean, and less costly energy services.

The U.S. is developing a National Energy Policy Plan, pursuing least- cost energy strategies, and promoting market-oriented pricing. The U.S. Department of Energy is organizing a symposium of hemispheric partners to advance implementation of the Partnership. The U.S. is working with the multilateral development banks to increase their financing for sustainable energy use projects within their energy-related lending.

Contact: Aimee Christensen Office of International Energy Policy U.S. Department of Energy P. O. - 73 1000 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, D.C. 20585 (202) 586-4576 FAX (202) 586-6148

Partnership for Biodiversity: The participating countries committed themselves to build capacity (indigenous, local, and national) for the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity resources within the policy framework of existing international agreements, and the resources of the Inter-American Development Bank and the newly replenished Global Environmental Facility.

The U.S. is building strategies to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity in economic development, strengthen park and reserve management, and promote hemispheric technical and scientific cooperation through a "Decade of Discovery."

Contact: Suzanne Fleeck Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs U.S. Department of State 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520 (202) 208-4948 FAX (202) 208-4867

Partnership for Pollution Prevention: The participants decided to strengthen technical and institutional capacity to address environmental priorities such as control of pesticides, reducing lead contamination, improved water and air quality, and urban environmental problems. They will use existing institutions such as the OAS and the resources of the multilateral development banks to develop legal frameworks, environmental compliance and enforcement capacity, and public participation.

The U.S. hosted an "International Workshop on Phasing Lead out of Gasoline" (Washington, March 14-15), and it is planning to present short, professional training courses on environmental management, beginning with a course on risk management to be held in Venezuela (July 1995) that will be sponsored by the Pan-American Health Organization. The U.S. is working with Central American representatives to develop a legal network and technical assistance projects to implement CONCAUSA, the U.S.-Central American agreement on sustainable development.

Contact: Cam Hill-Macon Office of International Activities Environmental Protection Agency 401 M St. SW. (2621), Washington, D.C. 20460 (202) 260-6009 FAX (202) 260-4470

Note: Copies of the complete Summit documents Declaration of Principles and Plan of Action may be obtained from:

Summit Coordinating Office Department of State, Rm. 3250 2201 C Street NW., Washington, D.C. 20520

(202) 736-7533/FAX (202) 736-7618

Prepared by the Summit Coordinating Office, U.S. Department of State, April 14, 1995


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