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U.S. Department of State 
96/08/19 Notice to the Press 
Office of the Spokesman 
 
The Department of State is releasing today Foreign Relations of 
the United States, 1961-1963, volume XIX, South Asia, a volume 
in the Department's long-standing historical documentary 
series.  Volume XIX is one of 25 volumes documenting the 
foreign policies of the administration of John F. Kennedy. 
 
The volume includes documentation on U.S. policy toward India, 
Pakistan, and Afghanistan.  A major theme of the volume is the 
administration's effort to establish closer relations with 
India without undermining the established alliance with 
Pakistan.  The deep-seated animosity between India and Pakistan 
over Kashmir made the achievement of that policy a difficult 
balancing act. 
 
U.S. policymakers saw the provision of generous funding for 
economic development for the subcontinent as the key component 
in their effort to blunt communist inroads in South Asia, to 
encourage a pro-Western orientation in India, and to reassure 
Pakistan.  Extensive U.S economic assistance for India and 
Pakistan flowed through the India and Pakistan consortiums. 
 
Other aspects of U.S. policy documented in the volume include 
the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union 
for influence in India through the provision of military 
equipment for the Indian armed forces.  The India-China border 
war of October 1962 prompted Indian Prime Minister Nehru to 
turn to the United States with an urgent request for military 
assistance and led to a military assistance agreement between 
the United States and India.  The volume also documents the 
concerted but fruitless U.S. efforts to promote a settlement of 
the Kashmir dispute. 
 
U.S. policy toward Afghanistan focused on efforts to keep 
Afghanistan out of the Soviet embrace.  In addition to 
providing economic aid, the administration undertook an 
unsuccessful mediation effort to resolve a border dispute 
between Afghanistan and Pakistan, which led to the closing of 
the Afghan-Pakistan border.  The dispute was finally resolved 
through the efforts of the Shah of Iran with U.S. support. 
 
An announcement and summary of the contents of volume XIX are 
available in the Press Office.  Ordering information is 
included in the announcement.  A copy is available for reading 
and consultation in the Press Office, and other copies are 
available for consultation in the Office of the Historian. 
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