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U.S. Department of State
93/02/05 Message to Department Employees




Department of State Reorganization

Secretary of State Warren Christopher
Message to State Department Employees and 
Implementation Directive on Reorganization
Washington, DC
February 5, 1993 

Secretary's Message to State Department Employees

As I join all of you in the challenging job of shaping and directing 
America's foreign policy, it is clear that we must make changes in the 
way the State Department is organized.

The organization of our Department has evolved over the years in 
response to unique circumstances in the international environment.  We 
serve in a State Department that is far better organized for the decades 
past than for the special challenges America faces in the post-Cold War 
era.

I want our Department to be able to deal more effectively with the new 
issues of critical importance to our nation's foreign policy:  
strengthening democratization efforts in the former Soviet Union and 
around the world, halting the proliferation of weapons of mass 
destruction, strengthening peace-keeping capabilities, dealing more 
effectively with global environmental problems, elevating our concern 
about the global population explosion, fighting international crime and 
terrorism, and penetrating new markets for American business.

We cannot hope to respond to these and other new challenges unless we 
improve the way we deal with tough and complex problems which cut across 
the traditional boundaries of our bureaus.  We must design creative ways 
to both increase the efficiency of the policy process and enhance the 
administration of the many programs we manage.  This will mean:

--  Designating five Under Secretaries together with the Deputy 
[Secretary] as my principal foreign policy advisers;

--  Creating new focal points for key foreign policy initiatives;

--  Eliminating redundancies and concentrating greater decision making 
responsibility within the bureaus;

--  Reducing excessive layering to streamline information flow and 
decision making;

--  Enhancing communication in all directions by asking most bureaus to 
report to me through a designated Under Secretary who will coordinate 
the activities of related bureaus and facilitate needed access to me and 
the Seventh Floor; and

--  Creating a streamlined Office of the Secretary to provide me and the 
Deputy Secretary with a more effective means to receive information and 
make decisions.

Over the past weeks, the transition has afforded us an extended 
opportunity to examine closely the organization of the Department in 
light of President Clinton's foreign policy priorities.  We were not 
alone in this endeavor, since work was well underway by the Department's 
own Management Task Force "State 2000" as well as by other groups of 
qualified professionals.  The changes I ask to be implemented emerge 
from what I believe is a growing consensus for change within and outside 
the Department.

I do not seek these changes merely for the sake of change itself.  When 
undertaking a degree of reorganization, we must be mindful that change 
can be disruptive.  Thus, it must be carefully planned so as not to 
interfere with the orderly functioning of the Department.  While some of 
the changes outlined in the attached directive can be achieved quickly 
by administrative action subject to congressional consultation, others 
will require legislation which we plan to seek in the very near future.  
We have initiated the process of discussion with Congress and have, thus 
far, received a positive reaction to our approach.

There is great talent in the Department of State among those who have 
devoted themselves to careers of public service.  President Clinton and 
I wish better to harness this talent so critical to the interests of our 
nation.  We must change to do this.  I am convinced that the measured 
changes we now undertake can enable us to deal with both the problems 
and opportunities of a new era in foreign policy.

Secretary's Implementation Directive for Reorganization

In order to implement the foreign policy priorities of the President of 
the United States and to more effectively and efficiently carry out the 
foreign policy responsibilities of the Department of State, I ask that 
the following changes be implemented to occur upon passage of 
legislation or by this directive upon completion of congressional 
consultations.

1.  The Under Secretaries shall be the principal foreign policy advisers 
to the Secretary and directly in the chain of command.

I wish to strengthen the role of the Under Secretaries.  They shall 
serve as my principal foreign policy advisers and assist me and the 
Deputy Secretary in executing and coordinating the activities of the 
Department.  They will be given line responsibility to manage and 
coordinate the operations of the bureaus which will report to them.

The use of Under Secretaries as senior advisers to the Secretary should 
be accompanied by a realignment of the chain of command.  In the future, 
Assistant Secretaries will report directly to the designated Under 
Secretary.  Changes in reporting responsibility will not alter the 
important role of the Assistant Secretaries in the formulation of 
foreign policy or their access to the Office of the Secretary.

The major benefits from this change are creating a better system of 
information flow from the bureaus to the Under Secretary and the Office 
of the Secretary, achieving greater efficiency in Departmental decision- 
making, permitting more extensive coordination of key cross-cutting 
issues at the bureau and Under Secretary levels, and strengthening the 
Under Secretaries in the interagency process.

Listed elsewhere in this directive are the groupings of bureaus in 
specific clusters and the designated lines of reporting to specific 
Under Secretaries.

2.  Creation of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs.

I shall ask Congress to create a fifth Under Secretary for Global 
Affairs (G) needed to manage and redirect critical global issues now 
found at the heart of post-Cold War foreign policy.  These issues cut 
across nearly every boundary of the geographic and functional bureaus.  
We must insure that they are given high-level attention in a new and 
strengthened system of Under Secretaries.  The substantive concerns of 
the Under Secretary for Global Affairs shall reside in bureaus dealing 
with the environment, science, oceans policy, democracy promotion, human 
rights, international labor issues, refugees, population, counter-
terrorism, international narcotics, and other international criminal 
issues.  Better coordination of the programs managed by these bureaus 
across many agencies and departments will be a critical role for this 
new Under Secretary.

Given the pressing need to have an Under Secretary for Global Affairs in 
place in the very near future, President Clinton intends to initially 
nominate his candidate for this post as Counselor and then have Congress 
reconstitute this position as the new Under Secretary.  I will also ask 
the Congress to establish a new Counselor position at Executive Level 
IV, thereby maintaining the current number of Executive Level III posts 
in the Department.

3. Creation of three new bureaus to streamline policy and consolidate 
functions.

I shall ask Congress to define three new bureaus derived from existing 
bureaus and functions in the Department to streamline the formulation of 
policy in these important areas and to better manage the substantial 
programs operated by these organizations.

a.  Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL)--This bureau will 
be created by combining the current Bureau of Human Rights and 
Humanitarian Affairs and the Office of Special Assistant to the 
Secretary and Coordinator for Labor Affairs; the latter shall be 
relocated in the new bureau in a Deputy Assistant Secretary position.  
This bureau will provide an organizational home for initiatives and 
policies which promote democracy.  By combining associated activities 
related to human rights and labor affairs, the bureau will play a major 
role in formulating policies designed to build and strengthen democratic 
institutions.  The Assistant Secretary for Democracy, Human Rights, and 
Labor will be nominated as Assistant Secretary for Human Rights and 
Humanitarian Affairs until legislation can be enacted to reconstitute 
and rename that position.

b.  Bureau of Narcotics, Terrorism, and Crime (NTC)--This bureau will be 
created by expanding the mandate of the Bureau for International 
Narcotics Matters to include counter-terrorism and international crime.  
The Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism will be relocated in the new 
bureau at the Deputy Assistant Secretary level.  A new office of 
international crime will be created to act as a policy and coordinating 
office for all of the Department's activities in this area.  The 
operational responsibility for the Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program 
(ATA) will be moved to the new bureau from the Bureau of Diplomatic 
Security, thus placing policy and implementation together.

President Clinton and I place great priority on the activities 
encompassed by this new bureau in view of the threats posed to our 
nation by terrorist groups, narco-traffickers, and international 
criminal organizations.

The Assistant Secretary for Narcotics, Terrorism, and Crime will be 
nominated initially as the Assistant Secretary for International 
Narcotics Matters until a statutory name change can be enacted.

c.  Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM)--In order to 
consolidate all Departmental responsibility for refugee matters and to 
upgrade policy focus on refugee issues in a single bureau, I will ask 
Congress to create a new bureau headed by an Assistant Secretary.  This 
bureau will also be responsible for coordinating the Department's policy 
on population and migration issues.  The positions and functions of 
Ambassador-at-Large and Coordinator for Refugee Affairs and the Bureau 
of Refugee Programs will be subsumed in the new bureau.  The nominee for 
Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and Migration 
Affairs will be confirmed as Ambassador-at-Large and Coordinator for 
Refugee Affairs and will hold that position until legislation can be 
enacted reconstituting and renaming the position as Assistant Secretary 
for PRM.

4.  Rename offices in order to indicate a new policy emphasis or changed 
mandate.

I will ask Congress to change the names of the following Departmental 
units:

a.  Under Secretary for Economic and Agricultural Affairs to be changed 
to Under Secretary for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs (E).  
This change reflects the need to underscore that this office will have 
as a major responsibility harnessing the assets of the Department to 
assist the competitive position of US companies.

b.  Under Secretary for International Security Affairs to be changed to 
Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security Affairs (A).  
This change reflects new arms control priorities of the Clinton 
Administration to deal with the heightened threat of proliferation of 
weapons of mass destruction.  The change also recognizes that the Bureau 
of Political-Military Affairs will have new non-proliferation functions 
as a result of consolidations discussed in this directive.  (The Bureau 
of Administration [formerly A] will be designated AD.)

5.  Create an Office of Secretary of State.

It is necessary to streamline and reorganize the office and functions 
which relate directly to the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary in order 
to rationalize critical policy support services, to provide a framework 
for high-level decision making and to enable the Secretary and the 
Deputy to establish an operational agenda for Under Secretaries, 
Assistant Secretaries, and other senior officials.

There is hereby established an Office of Secretary of State which 
consists of the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary, and the Executive 
Secretary as well as their personal staffs.  Reporting directly to the 
Office of the Secretary shall be:

--  Ambassador-at-Large and Special Adviser to the Secretary of State 
for the New Independent States(S/NIS);

--  The Policy Planning Staff (S/P);
--  The Bureau of Legislative Affairs (H);
--  The Bureau of Public Affairs (PA);
--  The Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR);
--  The Legal Adviser (L);
--  The Chief of Protocol (CPR);
--  Secretariat Staff and Operations Center (S/S);
--  The Ombudsman (S/CSO);
--  The Inspector General (OIG);
--  The Foreign Service Grievance Board (FSG); [and]
--  Equal Employment Opportunity and Civil Rights (EEOCR).

The Deputy Secretary shall share major policy responsibilities with the 
Secretary and in the absence of the Secretary shall serve in an acting 
capacity.  In addition, the Deputy Secretary shall:

--  Coordinate the management of international affairs resources, 
especially on an interagency basis;
--  Oversee the process of ambassadorial appointments; [and]
--  Assume other tasks and responsibilities at the request of the 
Secretary of State, such as reviews of organizational structures.

To achieve the efficient operation of the Office of the Secretary, 
Ambassadors-at-Large, Special Advisers, Coordinators, and independent 
offices hitherto reporting to the Secretary are abolished, merged with, 
or relocated in appropriate bureaus as set out below (to occur upon the 
passage of legislation or by this directive upon completion of 
congressional consultations).

To be abolished by legislation:
--  Ambassador-at-Large and Coordinator for Refugee Affairs, with 
functions subsumed in the Bureau of Refugee Affairs as discussed 
previously; and
--  Special Envoy to the Afghan Resistance.

Abolished in this directive with functions relocated as indicated:

--  Special Assistant to the Secretary and Coordinator for International 
Labor Affairs (S/IL), with functions assumed by the Bureau of Democracy, 
Human Rights, and Labor (DRL);
--  Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism (S/CT), with functions included in 
the Bureau of Narcotics, Terrorism, and Crime (NTC);
--  Ambassador-at-Large and Special Adviser on Non-Proliferation Policy 
and Nuclear Energy Affairs (S/NP), with functions transferred to the 
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (PM); and
--  Office of the Delegation to the Negotiations on Nuclear and Space 
Arms (S/DEL), with functions transferred to the Bureau of Political-
Military Affairs (PM).

6.  Creation of an Ambassador-at-Large and Special Adviser to the 
Secretary of State for the New Independent States (S/NIS).

President Clinton has nominated an Ambassador-at-Large for the New 
Independent States, and this person shall also serve as Special Adviser 
to the Secretary of State.  This new post was created to provide a high-
level focal point for policy formulation and coordination of US 
assistance to the states that were under the control of the former 
Soviet Union.  When confirmed, the Ambassador-at-Large will chair an 
interagency policy group to formulate US policy and set US program 
priorities for the new independent states.

The Office of Independent States and Commonwealth Affairs (EUR/ISCA) 
shall remain in EUR [the Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs], 
reporting directly to the Ambassador-at-Large.  The task force 
coordinating assistance to those states (currently D/CISA) and the 
position of Coordinator and Deputy Coordinator shall be transferred to 
S/NIS and shall report directly to the Ambassador-at-Large.  The 
Ambassador-at-Large will also provide general policy guidance to the 
Coordinator for Safety, Security, and Dismantling Nuclear Weapons (to 
become PM/SSD) and to the USAID [US Agency for International 
Development] Task Force for the New Independent States (AID/NIS).  The 
task force coordinating assistance to Eastern Europe (D/EEA) shall be 
transferred to the Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs.

7.  New reporting responsibilities for Assistant Secretaries.

The Department's bureaus shall report directly to the Under Secretaries 
as discussed previously.  Set forth below are the reporting 
responsibilities for each Assistant Secretary:

--  To the Under Secretary for Political Affairs (P)--All six regional 
bureaus (ARA, EUR, SA, AF, EAP, NEA) and the Bureau of International 
Organization Affairs (IO).

--  To the Under Secretary for Economic, Business, and Agricultural 
Affairs (E)--The Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (EB).

--  To the Under Secretary for Global Affairs (G)--The Bureau of 
Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL); the Bureau of Oceans and 
International Environmental and Scientific Affairs (OES); the Bureau of 
Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM); and the Bureau of Narcotics, 
Terrorism, and Crime (NTC).

--  To the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security 
Affairs (A)--The Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (PM).

--  To the Under Secretary for Management (M)--The Bureau of 
Administration (AD), the Bureau of Consular Affairs (CA), the Bureau of 
Diplomatic Security (DS), the Bureau of Financial Management and Policy 
(FMP), the Foreign Service Institute (FSI), and the Bureau of Personnel 
(PER).  (Note:  Further reorganization of management functions may occur 
after an ongoing review is completed.)

8.  Functional consolidations will occur to streamline operations and 
improve policy focus.

There are several functions which need to be moved to improve policy 
formulation and management in key areas.

The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy and Energy Technology 
Affairs (OES/N) and the five offices which report to this position 
(OES/NTS, OES/NEC, OES/NEP, OES/NSR, OES/NSC) will be relocated within 
the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs so as to further consolidate 
all activities relating to the critical issue of halting nuclear 
proliferation.  The Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and 
Scientific Affairs (OES) shall retain functions in these offices 
relating to non-nuclear energy.

Another goal is to improve the way the Department manages export 
controls as they are applied to commercial goods and munitions.  Our 
interest is in preventing exports that might contribute to proliferation 
or to the transfer of technology that could harm US interests and in 
promoting legitimate exports that help American industry and the 
economy.  In order, then, to improve the coherence, consistency, and 
efficiency of our efforts in the Department, we are closely reviewing 
our export control activities and examining alternative ways of 
organizing these functions, with a decision to be made in the next 2 
weeks.

Responsibility for international space issues is fragmented and has 
produced overlapping roles among the Bureau of Political-Military 
Affairs, the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, and the Bureau of 
Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.  We will 
also be examining this problem over the next  2 weeks with an eye toward 
integrating our diplomacy for space cooperation with broader national 
security and foreign policy objectives.

The Nuclear Risk Reduction Center shall report to the Bureau of 
Political-Military Affairs.  The Coordinator for Safety, Security, and 
Dismantling of Nuclear Weapons (SSD) shall be moved to the Bureau of 
Political-Military Affairs.  The US Delegation to the Open Skies 
Conference (T/OS) shall be abolished.

There shall be created in the Bureau of International Organization 
Affairs an Office of Peacekeeping to assist the bureau and the 
Department in efforts to better plan and coordinate peacekeeping 
activities.

There shall be created in the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs an 
Office of Business Facilitation to serve as a key access point in the 
Department for the private sector as well as providing policy guidance 
on key issues relating to improving the competitive position of US 
companies in world markets.  Commercial functions of the Office of 
Commercial, Legislative, and Public Affairs (EB/CLP) shall be 
transferred to this new office.

The Bureau of International Communications and Information Policy (CIP) 
shall be merged into the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs as an 
office headed by a Coordinator.  The rank of Ambassador associated with 
this post shall be discontinued.  Legislation will be sought to achieve 
this change.  International telecommunications negotiations and 
agreements are critical to maintaining the competitive position of this 
important US industry.  This can best be achieved in the context of the 
EB bureau, which is the principal place of access for American business.  
The Department's interagency role in the telecommunications policy arena 
with the Federal Communications Commission and the Commerce Department's 
National Telecommunications and Information Administration will be 
strengthened by merging this office into a fully staffed bureau.

There shall be created in the Department an Office for the Permanent 
Representative for the United Nations to support the Cabinet functions 
of this post and to more effectively coordinate with the Bureau of 
International Organization Affairs.

In a time of tight budgets and increasing demands on international 
affairs resources, clearer priorities must be established for the 
International Affairs Budget Function 150 Account if Administration 
initiatives are to be realized.  Under the direction of the Deputy 
Secretary, who will coordinate management of international affairs 
resources, the Policy Planning Staff shall provide policy guidance so 
that general spending priorities may be established.  A deputy in S/P 
shall work closely with the Office of Policy and Resources (D/P&R) to 
link the policy planning and resource allocation processes.

9.  Removing excessive layering.

The number of Deputy Assistant Secretaries in the Department has grown 
from 46 in the 1960s to 120 today.  I have asked the Under Secretaries 
to work with Assistant Secretaries to reduce the number of Deputy 
Assistant Secretaries [DASs] and DAS equivalents by about 40% and to 
reduce significantly the number of special assistants and other Seventh 
Floor staff.  These reductions are designed to eliminate excessive 
layering, expedite clearance procedures, and strengthen the 
responsibilities of office directors and country directors.

I have asked the Deputy Secretary to oversee the implementation of these 
changes in a manner consistent with the orderly functioning of the 
Department.  In doing so, he will work with the Under Secretary for 
Management, who will coordinate the implementation of the directive.  I 
have asked that all affected officials be consulted so as to achieve the 
changes in a timely and non-disruptive fashion.  I have also asked the 
Deputy Secretary to conduct a review of the operations and mandate of 
the US Agency for International Development and to report his findings 
within 60 days so that we may propose to Congress a reorganization plan 
for this agency.

Warren Christopher 

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