U.S. Department of State
Dispatch Volume 7, Number 52
December 23, 1997
Bureau of Public Affairs


1. Meeting the Test of Leadership for the 21st Century - Secretary 
2. Carrying Forward America's Diplomatic Tradition - Secretary 
Christopher, Nicholas Burns
3. Hammer Awards Ceremony - Secretary Christopher 
4.  International Community Commits to Lebanese Reconstruction - 
Secretary Christopher, Lebanese Prime Minister Hariri


Meeting the Test of Leadership for the 21st Century
Secretary Christopher
Opening remarks at year-end press conference, Washington, DC, December 
19, 1996

Good afternoon, and thank you all for attending this year-end press 
conference. I want to begin by commenting on an important, breaking news 
story. As some of you may have seen this morning, my hometown newspaper, 
in a story entitled "Vanilla Man," said that on my many stops at the 
Shannon Airport I made a habit of ordering Irish coffee but with no 
caffeine and no whiskey. I can confirm to you on-the-record here that 
that piece of investigative journalism is exactly right. Even more than 
that, I want to tell you that Irish coffee tastes better that way. And 
to prove  it, when we finish here, I'm going to offer you all a 
"Christopher Special," so you can learn with me how good it is that way.

I'm very pleased to meet with all of you and pleased by the good turnout 
and to have an opportunity to review what has gone on in this past year, 
1996. Since this is my last year-end review, I'd like to take the 
opportunity to put this year in a somewhat broader context.

From the beginning of my tenure here, I've said that the fundamental 
test of American foreign policy has always been this: Does it make the 
American people more secure? Does it make us more prosperous? Does it 
advance the democratic ideals that we share with people around the 
world? Looking back on the last four years, I feel confident that we 
have met that test. 

As I've said many times, there are no final victories in this business, 
and success usually takes quite a lot of time. But step by step, we've 
made significant progress in resolving the critical problems that we 
faced when we took office and in establishing an enduring basis for our 
leadership in a more secure and more prosperous 21st century.

A lasting legacy of the President's first term will be the results we 
achieved in addressing global challenges--challenges such as 
proliferation, crime, narcotics, and damage to the environment. I 
believe that overcoming these threats will become a central aspect of 
American foreign policy in the next century.

We made dramatic progress in these global areas in 1996. We signed a 
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, a goal of American foreign policy for the 
last quarter-century. The last nuclear weapons have been withdrawn from 
Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakstan, and we also secured ratification of 
START II here in the United States. The G-7 adopted a large number of 
specific steps to shut down money laundering, to prosecute fugitives, 
and to protect our borders against trafficking in guns and narcotics.

We forged an international consensus to develop a binding agreement to 
reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following the initiative that I 
launched at Stanford University, we're better integrating environmental 
issues into the full range of American diplomacy. And there will be more 
to come on this.

Another hallmark of the last four years is the central focus we placed 
on economic diplomacy. By passing NAFTA, by concluding the Uruguay 
Round, by gaining free trade commitments in our hemisphere and in the 
Asia-Pacific region, we've positioned ourselves to become an even more 
dynamic hub of the international economy. This year, with our APEC 
partners meeting in the Philippines, we agreed to take concrete steps to 
move ahead with trade liberalization in the Asia-Pacific region. At the 
first ministerial meeting of the World Trade Organization in Singapore a 
couple of weeks ago, we agreed with our trading partners to eliminate 
tariffs on all information technology by the year 2000. 

Our leadership also has advanced our interests and ideals in every 
region of the world. Across the Atlantic, we're closer today than ever 
before in seeking our goal of an undivided and democratic Europe. This 
month, our allies agreed to President Clinton's proposal to hold a 
summit meeting to consolidate the agenda that the President launched at 
the NATO meeting in January 1994.

This summit will begin enlargement negotiations. It will strengthen 
NATO's relationship with all of Europe's new democracies, including 
Russia. It will complete NATO's adaptation to new roles and missions, 
and it will strengthen Europe's role in acting under the alliance. In 
1996, NATO also fulfilled its initial mission in Bosnia, bringing peace 
to that war-torn country, separating the warring armies, providing great 
support for the fall elections, and creating a stable environment so 
that reconstruction can move forward.

President Clinton also has placed an unprecedented emphasis on deepening 
our engagement in the Asia-Pacific region. Nineteen ninety-six here was 
a year of important achievements. We invigorated our core alliances, and 
the President signed a new security declaration with Japan to make sure 
that the next 50 years of our alliance are as productive as the last 50 
years have been. We completed an important semiconductor agreement with 
Japan, adding to the 22 market-access agreements we reached over the 
last four years.

We also stood by South Korea in the face of provocations from the North 
while moving ahead with the implementation of the Framework Agreement 
between the United States and North Korea.

This year, we moved our relationship with China onto a more positive 
footing. We made some progress on non-proliferation, although we 
continue to have serious concerns in that area. We reached an agreement 
on the enforcement of intellectual property rights. President Clinton 
and President Jiang have agreed to exchange state visits, giving us 
further opportunities to build on our cooperation, as well as to address 
our serious differences in such areas as human rights.

In the Middle East, we moved immediately, in 1993, when we first came 
into office, to build on America's two decades of bipartisan leadership 
on behalf of peace. I certainly will not minimize the severe tests that 
have been placed in the road of peace in recent months through terrorist 
attacks and other matters. But we have made lasting achievements, and we 
are determined to move forward.

The role of the United States is not just to help the parties reach 
agreement but to stand by them in tough times. That's why President 
Clinton and President Mubarak brought together the region's leaders last 
March to stand against terrorism, and that's why President Clinton 
brought together here King Hussein, Prime Minister Netanyahu, and 
Chairman Arafat when violence threatened to disrupt the peace process.

Our goal remains indispensable in helping the countries in the region 
overcome their long history of distrust, to build mutual trust, and to 
overcome the obstacles that remain in the peace process, including, of 
course, Hebron. The President and I have been concerned about the recent 
drift in the peace process. To re-energize this effort, we're sending 
Dennis Ross to the region this weekend to report on the status of 
negotiations there, to report on his discussions with the leaders, to 
return before Christmas in order that we can have an up-to-date 
assessment. In 1996, we also again demonstrated our determination to 
prevent Saddam Hussein from threatening his neighbors.

We took office at a time of historic transformation here in the 
Americas, with democracy and open markets on the march. This year, we 
sustained that momentum. Our diplomacy was critical in bringing Ecuador 
and Peru to the negotiating table, was critical in averting a coup in 
Paraguay and in ending Guatemala's 35-year civil war. With our much-
needed assistance, the Mexican economy is improving. Mexico is paying 
its debts ahead of schedule, and NAFTA is working.

We welcome also, in connection with this hemisphere, the tougher stand 
that the European Union is now taking on the Cuba situation and the 
tougher stand they're taking in the direction of bringing democracy to 

In the last four years, we've also sought to deepen America's engagement 
in Africa. We've made an unprecedented effort to encourage democratic 
market reform there and to promote trade and investment. Now we're 
deeply engaged in an effort to end the conflict and ease the suffering 
in the Great Lakes region. The situation in the Great Lakes region and 
my recent travels in Africa have underscored the need to create an 
African crisis response force, which would enable African countries to 
respond to emergencies in their region, with the backing of the United 
States and our allies.

In all of these areas, we forged a considerable record of accomplishment 
and set the stage for a memorable second term. I think people will look 
back on this period as a decisive period in diplomatic history. It is in 
this period, with our leadership, that the world began to take shape for 
the 21st century.

It's a world in which no great power views any other as an immediate 
threat, a world in which the institutions that we created after World 
War II are beginning to be adapted to meet the new challenges of the 
next century, a world in which open societies and open markets have a 
competitive advantage, a world in which America remains the 
indispensable nation. 

It is a world in which our interests and values can thrive but also in 
which new threats such as proliferation and terrorism make American 
leadership even more vital than in the past. I know that the President 
and Ambassador Albright will maintain that kind of American leadership. 
I also know that their ability to be effective will depend upon finding 
the resources we so urgently need to support our diplomacy. 



Carrying Forward America's Diplomatic Tradition
Secretary Christopher, Nicholas Burns
Remarks at the opening of the State Department Exhibit Hall, Washington, 
DC, December 17, 1996

Nicholas Burns. Secretary Christopher, Senator Mathias, Mr. Acheson, 
Ambassador Low, Mrs. Frasure, Mrs. Kruzel, Mrs. Jefferson-Patterson, 
ladies and gentlemen: Welcome to the Department of State and welcome to 
the opening of our permanent exhibit on American diplomatic history, a 
celebration of American diplomacy.

For the first time in our history here at the Department of State, we 
dedicate today an exhibit that honors in word, picture, and artifact the 
two-century-long tradition of American diplomacy. This exhibit showcases 
the triumphs and the tragedies and the drama of our nation's diplomats--
men and women--from Jefferson's visionary purchase of the Louisiana 
Territory to Seward's Folly; from the brilliance of John Hay and 
Theodore Roosevelt to the dedication and wisdom of Marshall and Acheson 
and Kennan and Bohlen and so many others in the wake of the Second World 
War. It also speaks to our own modern triumphs at Camp David and at 

Mr. Secretary, the renovation of this hall required the enthusiasm and 
hard work of well over a score of your employees here at the State 
Department. Together, this team spent the last few months researching, 
planning, and then building--even until the very last hour--what you see 
here today. And, believe me, it was the last hour. 

The result is an exhibit core of 17 diplomatic history panels, 
interspersed with cases of photos and memorabilia from Thomas 
Jefferson's books to William Jennings Bryan's peace medals to a signed 
photograph, which is extraordinary, just over in the corner, of the nine 
most recent Secretaries of State.

The pillars in the room's center portray the modern Foreign and Civil 
Service and the remarkable story of the Dayton peace accords. They 
recognize the extraordinary life and career of Dean Acheson, and we are 
particularly grateful to David Acheson and the Acheson family for their 
generosity in helping us with this effort.

The exhibit also emphasizes one of the most positive developments of the 
past quarter-century, and that is the Department's growing diversity 
that has allowed minorities and women--people such as George Moose and 
people such as Madeleine Albright--to rise to the very top of their 

Many other people deserve our thanks for the work to make this exhibit 
possible. Any questions or challenges to the substance and content of 
the diplomatic history that is told here should be directed to 
Ambassador Stephen Low  and his Association for Diplomatic Studies, 
whose splendid scholarship produced the history panels.

Acting Under Secretary of State Pat Kennedy greased all the wheels here  
at the Department to get the project off the ground, and he provided the 
one thing that this team lacked--money.

Finally, as in all group efforts, there were a few people who emerged to 
lead us to the finish line, and I would like to recognize them. I would 
like to recognize Tom O'Rourke in particular; Shirley Beard of the 
Technical Services staff; Richard Iselin, Bob Mack, Liz Elliott-Kimmel, 
Royce Rock, Genie Norris, and a young information specialist from the 
Bureau of Public Affairs, Joanna Weinz, who was given over the weekend a 
battlefield promotion to Field Marshal--as she whipped the project into 
shape to its conclusion. Thank you, Joanna.

This exhibit, as you will see, is very much a work in progress. We plan 
to update it, we plan to refine it, and we very much welcome all of your 
suggestions and your artifacts--if you have them--and your continued 
support. Our inspiration for this exhibit was quite simple: to recognize 
the extraordinary breadth and vitality and drama, the successes and 
sometimes even the failures of America's foreign policy, to remind all 
of us of the pride we should have in it and the long tradition to which 
we are linked, and to show to the visiting American public a sense of 
what we do for them.

With the new historical photo corridor, just down the hall here--which I 
encourage you all to visit before leaving today--we finally have a way 
to talk about the State Department to the American people--the work that 
has so long been kept confidential from them. In fact, tomorrow, 
December 18, we begin the very first public tour of the State Department 
with this exhibit as its centerpiece.

In a larger sense, this exhibit was inspired by Secretary Christopher's 
four-year effort to make certain that among all of the regional desks in 
this building the most important is the America's Desk. Following his 
and Deputy Secretary Strobe Talbott's lead, we have launched a series of 
new programs in the past two years to give the public and the press and 
the Congress a better understanding of what we do. We took this show on 
the road last year to 23 American cities where we had foreign policy 
town meetings, and we will be in 30 American cities in 1997. We have 
worked hard to publicize more broadly the work of the Foreign Service 
and the Civil Service, and our State Department Web Site just passed 1 
million hits per month.

All of this work is focused on making sure that we have the support of 
the American people in an era of declining resources and at a time when 
there is a great deal of uncertainty about America's global role--to 
convince the public, in short, that diplomatic readiness is at the heart 
of America's national security.

In addition, I must say that our work was inspired by many people who 
are seated before us today. If diplomacy can be defined as advancing our 
national interests by the brilliance of strategy and tactical acumen 
without shedding American blood, then many of our guests today succeeded 
as no other generation has in the greatest struggle of the past half 

With us today are many of the Foreign Service Officers and eminent 
private American citizens who led this Department and led our embassies 
and consulates throughout the Cold War--people such as Paul Nitze and 
Max Kampelman and Tom Pickering and Gen. Andrew Goodpastor, Sam Lewis, 
Nick Veliotes, Bruce Laingen, Steve Low, Roy Atherton, Joan Clark, 
Walter Cutler--many, many more--all of these diplomats and others here 
today who set an example for my generation that will be hard to match. 
We owe them an enormous debt of gratitude, and this exhibit is dedicated 
to them and to the legacy that they leave us.

Above all, this exhibit honors the diplomatic profession and the 
sacrifice, the duty, the accomplishment that often accompany it. We 
learn from this exhibit, Mr. Secretary, that one of your distinguished 
predecessors, William Jennings Bryan, believed that diplomacy was the 
art of keeping things cool. If that is so, then I believe that you, Mr. 
Secretary, are the personification of a diplomat.

From your successful negotiations with Russia and Ukraine in 1993 to 
reduce the nuclear threshold that offer us a generation of peace to your 
masterful endgame at Dayton in 1995 that ended the Bosnian war, to your 
tireless shuttle diplomacy last April that won a cease-fire along the 
Lebanon-Israel border, you have kept things cool for the United States, 
and we thank you very much.

In the process, you have made our country a better and safer place. I 
can't think of a finer example of a diplomat or of a role model for a 
younger generation of diplomats than Secretary of State Warren 
Christopher. Mr. Secretary, you also have been our inspiration for this 
exhibit--in many ways it honors you. And those of us in the career 
Foreign and Civil Service who have had the honor and privilege of 
serving you are most grateful.

Now I am going to cede the floor, ladies and gentlemen, and it is my 
great pleasure to introduce our featured speaker, Secretary of State 
Warren Christopher.

Secretary Christopher. Good afternoon. I am really honored to welcome 
this distinguished group here to inaugurate this exhibit. I look out and 
I see a number of people with whom I have worked over the years, and I 
am so glad that you have come here to be with us today. I see, in 
particular, Senator Mac  Mathias who, when he was in the Senate, was one 
of the very best friends that diplomacy and the State Department had--
certainly somebody who has played an important role in the postwar 

I want to thank Nick Burns not only for being an outstanding Spokesman 
but for having been the inspiration that brought this exhibit along. 
Nick, I'm not sure that it's going to take a lot of visitors away from 
the Air and Space Museum--but we will make progress. And with the 
foreign affairs business being as rapidly moving as it is, maybe this is 
our most lasting contribution, Nick.   

In any event, I want to say a few words about the exhibit and to tie it 
in with an issue that is very much at the front of my mind these days. 
As Nick has indicated, this exhibit celebrates both the practitioners 
and the achievements of American diplomacy since the founding of our 
republic. It reminds us of our uniquely successful diplomatic tradition 
and the importance of devoting sufficient resources to it--and that is 
the point that I want to come back to.

I would particularly like to thank those who helped create the exhibit--
especially the Association of Diplomatic Studies and Training. The 
exhibit is clearly something we have needed for a long, long time.

Our nation is, right at this moment, engaged in a great debate about our 
role in the world and the scope of America's national interests. We have 
a responsibility in this new era to make sure that foreign policy is 
never foreign to the American people. Under Nick's leadership, our 
Bureau of Public Affairs is doing more than ever before to reach out to 
our constituents through television, radio, the Internet, and Town Hall 
meetings in every part of the country. I salute Nick and his colleagues 
for doing some quite path-breaking things such as appearing on talk 
radio all over this country--not an easy thing to do, not the kind of 
thing you might want to devote your morning to, but we do it so  that 
people around the country are able to hear the viewpoint of those who 
are involved in diplomacy and are knowledgeable about foreign affairs.

By opening this exhibit here today, we are establishing our own Town 
Hall. When I saw the medals of Dean Acheson, which were generously 
donated by the family--and I am so pleased that David Acheson is here 
with us  today--I remembered the sense of responsibility that he and 
President Truman instilled in a generation of Americans that were 
growing up when I was. Their achievements--of both President Truman and 
especially Dean Acheson--have been an inspiration to me from the very 
time I took my first job in Washington as law clerk to Justice Douglas 
in 1950.

I can remember going to your father's house one day with some colleagues 
from the Supreme Court. What a thrill it was to me. It was on Kentucky 
Derby Day. You probably remember, David, what was served in your house 
on Kentucky Derby Day. I'll never forget.

The display on the Dayton Accords brought back a host of memories--snowy 
days and sleepless nights at the Air Force base in Dayton; satisfaction 
that we felt in making, here in the heartland of America, peace for the 
heartland of Europe. Then, I experienced one of the high points of my 
service here--watching the children romping around playgrounds in 
Sarajevo where shooting had been going on only a year earlier--really 
quite a thrill.

I was amused, of course, as I walked by to see the colorful diplomatic 
uniform that John Mason wore when he was our Minister to the Court of 
Napoleon III. I am going to think over whether or not we should 
reinstitute those uniforms. It would make some choices easier early in 
the morning, wouldn't it?

But you can't walk around here even for a few minutes and fail to be 
struck by the richness of our tradition. Many things have changed since 
Thomas Jefferson became our first Secretary of State. I was reading the 
other day that he came with five clerks, two messengers, and one part-
time French translator. The French had us going even then. 

The exhibit also reveals what has not changed: Over the last two 
centuries our diplomats have forged a steady, consistent record of 
global engagement. These achievements have enabled America to move from 
being a middle-sized New World outpost in the 18th century to being the 
most powerful force in all of history for peace, security, and 

For two centuries, U.S. diplomacy has been critical to protecting the 
security of the American people. Our first diplomat, Ben Franklin, who 
graces our main reception room on the eighth floor, negotiated a crucial 
alliance with France and eventually a peace settlement with Great 
Britain. In the early 19th century, Thomas Jefferson arranged for the 
purchase of the Louisiana territory from France--in one fell swoop 
doubling the size of our nation and greatly adding to our security. In 
the 20th century, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt led the United 
States in two world wars. Equally significant, each sought to build a 
global framework to prevent future conflict. One venture didn't succeed, 
and the other is trying to succeed still.

For two centuries, the United States has stood up for the freedom of 
trade and navigation around the world. From Thomas Paine's revolutionary 
pamphlet, Common Sense, to Will Clayton's blueprint for the Bretton 
Woods Agreement, Americans have believed that an open economy, an open 
trading system is the best guarantee of peace and prosperity.

As a great maritime nation, we have defended our access to international 
waterways during peace and war alike. Thomas Jefferson confronted the 
Barbary pirates in the Mediterranean Sea; James Madison, who has lent 
his name to my dining room, fought the War of 1812; and Teddy Roosevelt 
built the Panama Canal.

For two centuries, American diplomacy has promoted the democratic values 
we share with peoples of every culture and every faith. We were the 
first nation in history to have established itself on the universal 
principle of liberty. We have always believed that our nation will be 
more secure and more prosperous if we are an open society and if we have 
open markets.

The rise of democracy in this century has been inspired by our example 
and encouraged by our leadership--from the Marshall Plan to the 
reconstruction of Germany--which I celebrated in my speech at Stuttgart 
50 years after Secretary Byrnes had made his great speech there--to the 
triumph of freedom in Latin America and Europe and in many countries in 
Asia and Africa as well.

During the last four years, President Clinton and I have tried hard to 
carry forward our diplomatic tradition. We have improved our security by 
invigorating our alliances in Asia and in Europe. We took a long step 
forward last week with the decisions taken by NATO. An important step in 
our four years has been ending the war in Bosnia. We have lots to do to 
ensure the peace, but the war has been ended. 

We have been pushing for a comprehensive peace in the Middle East. We 
are part way there. We must never overlook the substantial steps that 
have been taken, but we must also look at what more there is to be done.

We have begun to counter with some effectiveness the global threats from 
terrorism, narcotics, crime, and damage to the environment. I predict 
that those will be perhaps the key issues as we turn to a new century.

On the trade front, we have passed NAFTA, concluded the Uruguay Round, 
and forged commitments to open trade with our neighbors here in this 
hemisphere--the so-called Miami agreements. We have done a great deal in 
the Asia-Pacific area that had never been done adequately  before--that 
is, to work effectively with Asian organizations. I think the President 
took a major step in turning APEC into a leaders' organization rather 
than simply a foreign ministers' organization.

The exhibit here today tells the story of these American achievements 
and many, many that preceded them with great distinction. It also raises 
a fundamental question that I worry a great deal about: A hundred years 
from now, what will historians say about our diplomacy as we turn to a 
new century? Will they say we honored our proud tradition of leadership 
by responding to the new challenges and opportunities in this post-Cold 
War period? Or will they, on the other hand, say that we squandered it 
by neglecting to protect the very freedom and prosperity which we fought 
so hard to achieve? Which of these paths will we take?

As I approach the end of my tenure here, I feel strongly that if we fail 
to provide adequate resources for our diplomacy, we will be turning our 
backs on our interests and ideals--and I firmly believe it would be a 
great tragedy to do so.

The figures, I hope, are familiar by now:  Since 1984, our spending on 
international affairs has fallen 51% in real terms. It now constitutes 
just 1.2% of our total federal budget. During the last four years, our 
budget cuts have forced me to recommend to the President the closure of 
30 U.S. embassies and consulates. Unless we can rescue our budget in 
this current year--and I am working hard on that right now--we are going 
to be forced to close more.

President Clinton has consistently sought more resources than Congress 
has provided. I want to emphasize that this isn't just about foreign 
assistance--although certainly we must never underestimate the value of 
carefully targeted foreign aid--it is one of the best investments we can 
make. What this resource argument is really all about is diplomatic 
readiness. Will we have the ability to carry out our responsibilities as 
America's first line of defense? My good colleague, Bill Perry, has 
frequently pointed to the fact that diplomacy is our nation's first line 
of defense--the kind of work that can keep our soldiers from having to 
go to battle.

Just as we honor and support our servicemen and women, we must honor and 
support the men and women of America's Foreign and Civil Service. During 
the past four years, I have been so impressed with their performance 
and, indeed, their patriotism. They are truly on the front lines of our 
national security. From Beirut to Sarajevo, from Dushanbe to Kigali--all 
around the world--American diplomats and their families are enduring 
tremendous hardships, tremendous sacrifices in order to serve their 

Particularly when you visit the new posts that we opened in the New 
Independent States, you see what real sacrifices the diplomatic corps of 
the United States is making. That is why the purpose of this exhibit is 
more than to just highlight events or display memorabilia. It's to honor 
the men and women who have effectively and courageously conducted our 

Nearly 180 American diplomats have given their lives in the line of 
duty--from William Palfrey in a shipwreck while crossing the Atlantic to 
become American Consul in France during the War of Independence to Bob 
Frasure, Joe Kruzel, and Nelson Drew who died bringing peace to Bosnia 
in 1995 and whose families are here today. I  welcome you; we so 
appreciate your being with us today.

I want to take this opportunity to thank all the American diplomats, 
past and present, for their invaluable contribution to the security of 
their nation. 

The victory of the United States and our allies in the Cold War simply 
could not have occurred without the efforts of our diplomats. But it was 
also due to bipartisan support for the necessary resources in that 
period to carry out our policies. The investments that we made in those 
postwar years contributed to an unprecedented era of global peace and 
prosperity. Now the United States must seize the opportunities born of 
our victory in the Cold War. To do anything else, I believe, would risk 
disavowing our proud diplomatic tradition at the moment of its greatest 

Now, I want to officially open the exhibit by cutting the ribbon in 
front of me. But first, I would like to take just a moment to mention a 
personal donation that I am making to this exhibit--my briefcase. This 
briefcase broke the all-time four-year mileage record for a Secretary of 
State's briefcase, having traveled exactly 785,620 miles. The diplomatic 
security agents who helped me are so glad that I am going to give up 
this heavy briefcase, which, once in a while I handed off to them at 
moments of stress.

To the briefcase, I say: I'll miss you, old friend. When I go back to 
California, you'll have an opportunity to continue to serve your country 
right over there. 

I hope you will take some time to enjoy this exhibit. I want to see more 
of it myself as soon as I can. I thank you all for attending. I am very 
grateful to all of you who have been involved in launching this exhibit. 
Indeed, all who are here today have done so, and I thank you for the 
originality and creativity that I hope has once and for all put the 
State Department on the tour map for all of Washington's visitors.

Thank you, Nick; thank you all. 



Hammer Awards Ceremony
Secretary Christopher
Remarks at the Hammer Awards ceremony at the State Department, 
Washington, DC, December 18, 1996

First, to Bob Stone, my deep appreciation for those stirring and 
eloquent remarks. And to all of you, welcome to the Franklin Room. As 
you know, Benjamin Franklin was one of our first diplomats and one of 
our most brilliant inventors--maybe I should say "reinventors" for these 
purposes. This is certainly an appropriate room in which to honor the 
outstanding efforts for that reason of the State Department's employees 
in reinventing our government.

Over the past few years--especially in the last year--I have had the 
pleasure of presenting quite a few awards. Indeed, I didn't know how 
much fun it would be, but in the last year or so, I've made it a 
practice wherever I could, when I was traveling abroad, to go to 
embassies and present awards that they had fully earned. This morning, I 
presented an award--and I know that some of you will probably hear or 
have heard about it--to Ambassador Tom Pickering, our most senior 
diplomat, a Distinguished Service Award. But we can always do more, in 
my judgment, to recognize the creativity and commitment of our staff, so 
I thought this afternoon I'd hand out just a few more awards--indeed, 
about 900 of them--for outstanding effort in 43 different instances.

The Hammer Awards are Vice President Gore's special recognition for 
teams of federal workers who have made important contributions to 
reinventing a piece of the United States Government. The goals of that 
program, which I'm sure you all know well, are: Putting Customers First, 
Cutting Red Tape, Empowering Employees, and Getting Back To Basics. The 
State Department, as you will see from these awards, can be proud of 
progress on all of these fronts.

Four of today's seven Hammer Awards are honoring service to the public 
and making it faster and better. Our embassy in Seoul--the visa unit--
dramatically cut the response time for issuing visas in Korea. The 
Freedom of Information Act team did the same for information requests 
here in Washington. The National Passport Center streamlined passport 
issuances for Americans, and the Consular Affairs bureau has given 
people all over the world instant Internet access to travel advisories. 
We are also recognizing today three teams for improving the way we do 
our jobs right here at Main State. The Diplomatic Courier Service 
redesigned the pouch processing system. The National Foreign Service 
Reengineering Team is ensuring better and more streamlined management of 
FSN personnel issues. And the creators of a new interagency cost-sharing 
system, which not only had the Department but Congress and the other 
executive agencies watching them and, I must say, watching them very 
closely as they worked. All of those deserve our warmest thanks.

Now, each one of those awards is in  a specific sector. None of them may 
seem very earth shaking to you, but taken together and taken together 
with all the other hundreds of efforts of a comparable kind, has, as Bob 
Stone said, gone a long, long way toward reinventing our government. But 
we're not there yet, and as Bob also said, we have enough work for the 
next four years. 

Let me add that just this week, our Boston Passport Office was also 
approved for a Hammer Award. That award will be presented later, but I 
wanted to note it here today, and I'm sure it will not be our last. Let 
me say that as the Secretary I take a good deal of satisfaction and 
gratification in knowing that we now have received eight awards.

The diversity of these awards shows just how widely the goal of 
reinventing has caught on here in the Department and throughout the 
government. Restructuring has made the Department stronger and leaner 
across the board. Over the last four years, I have often spoken with 
considerable pride about our reinvention efforts, in meetings and 
hearings on Capitol Hill as well as to business groups around the world. 
I have frequently heard compliments back from the groups that I was 
speaking to, recognizing that we've done something different and better. 

Often, I've been able to speak about these things in connection with 
seeking additional resources for the Department. I must say that when 
I'm doing that, in this era of diminishing resources, there's nothing 
more effective for me than to be able to point to ways we have 
reinvented our processes here at the State Department and made it 
possible to do our work more efficiently. That strengthens our diplomacy 
overall, makes it more efficient and effective, and helps a lot in 
trying to persuade reluctant people to give us a reasonably adequate 
amount of money. 

I have spent about as much time on Capitol Hill as I have working with 
any other nation or perhaps any other continent over the last four 
years. I can't say that I'm fully satisfied with the result, but I think 
there is a new awakening--a sense of awareness on Capitol Hill and all 
through this city--that we've been shortchanging resources for 
diplomatic readiness, that unless we do better we're going to wake up 
and find ourselves with our first line of defense--that is, our 
diplomats--not being able to man the line. And then we'll be thrown back 
to depending on our armed services. 

The theme that I've been striking, and it's beginning to get what they 
call "resonance," is that the only way we can sustain our global 
leadership--the only way we can protect our vital interests--is to have 
an adequate amount of resources. And we can't do it--we can't be 
expected to do it--when our resources are constantly cut. That's the 
theme of the budget presentation this year. I want to compliment our 
team that's been working on that. I'm very enthusiastic and positive 
about how we're doing. There's still a meeting with the President ahead. 

But we're making more headway this year, I think, than we've made in the 
past, because we've been able to build on the record that you've made 
here. And I have full confidence in saying to the Congress that we're 
doing a lot more than we did in the past to be more efficient through 
these reinventing efforts.

I'm very gratified that you've helped us do more with less at a very 
difficult time. You're all a real credit to the institution, and these 
seven Hammer Awards and 36 certificates of appreciation that we're going 
to present today  are clear evidence that we're using our resources here 
as well as we can. We're very well off indeed, with people such as you 
managing these projects and reinventing our Department. Keep up the good 
work. I'm enormously pleased to have an opportunity to participate in 
this awards ceremony. Thank you very much. 



International Community Commits to Lebanese Reconstruction
Secretary Christopher, Lebanese Prime Minister Hariri
Opening remarks at the Friends of Lebanon Conference, Washington, DC, 
December 16, 1996

Secretary Christopher. Good morning. On behalf of President Clinton, I 
am happy to welcome you to the Friends of Lebanon Conference. My co-
chair, Prime Minister Hariri, is a highly valued partner in our search 
for a just and comprehensive peace in the Middle East.

Such a peace, once achieved, will endure only if Lebanon and its 
neighbors can achieve prosperity as well. I would like to thank all of 
you for demonstrating the abiding commitment of your nations and 
institutions to realizing our shared vision of a prosperous Middle East 
at peace--and, in particular, to assist Lebanon in its courageous effort 
at reconstruction. Today let me also reaffirm U.S. support for the 
sovereignty and territorial integrity of Lebanon and for the ultimate 
withdrawal from Lebanon of all foreign forces.

Since the historic Taif accord in 1989, Lebanon has emerged from a 
tragic civil war that claimed tens of thousands of lives and devastated 
one of the strongest economies in the Middle East. Prime Minister 
Hariri, with your leadership, the hard work of your people, and the 
support of Lebanon's many friends, your country has certainly made great 
strides in reconstruction. But much more needs to be done to raise the 
standard of living for the Lebanese people and to ensure that they will 
benefit directly from economic reconstruction. Today we are meeting 
together to determine how the international community can continue to 
help Lebanon.

Let me briefly review the origins of this conference. In the wake of 
last April's crisis in southern Lebanon, we negotiated a written 
understanding to end the hostilities and to stop the targeting of 
civilians in future fighting. The understanding also called for the 
formation of two new groups--a monitoring group for conflict resolution 
and a consultative group for reconstruction assistance.

The monitoring group has been working very hard and, in the main, 
successfully to ease tensions along the Israeli-Lebanon border. With 
France assuming chairmanship of the monitoring group this month, the 
United States will continue to strongly support and fully participate in 
its work together with Lebanon, Israel, and Syria.

The understanding also called for the establishment of a consultative 
group, which has resulted in today's meeting of the Friends of Lebanon. 
Our goal is to help ensure that Lebanon will develop over the long term 
a mutual, beneficial partnership with the governments and private 
institutions in interested countries--countries that want to assist 
Lebanon. Building on the initiatives that Lebanon itself has begun, we 
seek ways to help the Lebanese help themselves, especially in attracting 
private investment.

In order to maintain the momentum of its recent progress, Lebanon 
requires support in three key areas--the economic and social 
infrastructure, the private sector, and the security forces of Lebanon. 
The United States will help in each of the three areas. 

First, we will increase our assistance for basic infrastructure, 
agricultural development, education and training, and social services. 

Second, our investment and trade agencies will work to expand the flow 
of goods, services, and capital between our various private sectors. 

Finally, we will bolster our training of Lebanese military officers and 
law enforcement officers, and we will continue to provide nonlethal 
defense equipment.

This assistance will contribute to the region's overall prosperity and 
stability by helping Lebanon resume its traditional role as a dynamic 
trading center for the entire region. For too long, this region has been 
held back not only by the destruction of war but also by the 
inefficiencies of statist and protectionist economies. 

In recent years, many of the region's nations have understood and 
recognized that if they are to prosper in the fiercely competitive 
global economy, they must embrace the realities and opportunities of the 
future. That is why many of Lebanon's friends, along with their 
neighbors, are modernizing their economies, opening their markets, 
cracking down on corruption, and removing the bureaucratic bottlenecks 
that have scared off investors and drained away precious capital. 
Lebanon's own commitment to free markets has spurred reconstruction and 
made it an example for other nations. Of course, this has been done 
under the strong leadership of Prime Minister Hariri.

We are convinced that the Middle East peace process must move forward in 
both its economic and political dimensions. Arabs and Israelis alike 
continue to share a mutual interest in preserving these remarkable gains 
that have been made and in maintaining the basis for future progress.

In recent months, Palestinians and Israelis have been reminded that 
negotiation is the only real alternative to renewed violence. The 
negotiations over Hebron in the last two months have been very 
difficult. Nevertheless, I remain optimistic that a final agreement will 
soon be reached.

The United States will continue to work actively and patiently with the 
parties to overcome the obstacles that stand in the way of full 
implementation of agreements between Israel and the Palestinians. And we 
will continue to work for the comprehensive peace that is so critical to 
the prosperity and stability and security of the entire Middle East, 
including Lebanon. President Clinton and my successor, Ambassador 
Albright, are determined that America will continue to meet its 
leadership responsibilities in a region of such vital interest to our 

Lebanon particularly has a critical stake in the success of the Middle 
East peace process. The work of the international community through 
today's Friends of Lebanon Conference is of great importance in the long 
run. Not only will it help heal the wounds of war in Lebanon, but it 
will also help us move closer to our broader goals of comprehensive 
peace and regionwide prosperity.

When Prime Minister Hariri and I complete our introductory remarks, the 
Prime Minister will open our discussion by laying out for you Lebanon's 
progress, plans, and needs for assistance. I urge all of the governments 
and institutions that are present here to do their very utmost to meet 
the new requests. I know it will be a good conference. I want to 
apologize in advance for needing to leave before the end of the morning 
meeting. Foreign Minister Spring and I are due at the White House for 
the U.S.-EU Summit. But this gives us an opportunity in that setting as 
well to emphasize the importance of assistance to Lebanon and to press 
forward on the peace process. Mr. Prime Minister, I'm delighted to 
welcome you and look forward to your remarks.

Prime  Minister Hariri. Thank you. Mr. Chairman, Ministers, Ambassadors, 
ladies and gentlemen: The convening of the first meeting of the Friends 
of Lebanon represents the culmination of the efforts of the Lebanese 
people and their aspiration for and faith in the reaffirmation of the 
international community's commitment to support Lebanon's revival. Since 
1992, we have launched a reconstruction and rehabilitation program, 
while donors and official League members have supported our program. The 
funding of the initial phase of the program was to a large extent based 
on a domestic effort. So far, the economic results are encouraging, and 
the government restored the confidence of its people in their country as 
well as the confidence of the world in Lebanon. The continuing support 
of the international community will ensure that the process of 
reconstruction will keep moving forward. This conference demonstrates 
the continuing commitment of the international community to support the 
Lebanese in rebuilding their country after years of turmoil. 

On behalf of President Hrawi, the Lebanese people, and the Lebanese 
Government, I would like to extend a warm thanks to President Clinton 
for actively sponsoring this important event and to Secretary 
Christopher for his painstaking efforts to ensure the success of this 
meeting. The gratitude of the Lebanese people and government also is 
extended to all the close friends of Lebanon that are gathered here 
today, thereby declaring their keen interest in Lebanon's future and in 
its ability to reclaim its active role as a center of cultural exchange 
and an active contributor to the betterment of humanity. Once again, I 
would like to extend my thanks to each and every one who responded to 
the invitation and to the U.S. Government, the sponsor and host of this 
conference. Thank you. 



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