VOLUME 6, NUMBER 35, AUGUST 28, 1995 

1.  Focus on the UN:  
     Behind-the-Scenes Benefits to Americans 
     UN Peacekeeping: Supporting U.S. Interests 
     UN Peacekeeping: Successes Span the Globe 
2.  Fact Sheet: U.S. Assistance to Central and Eastern Europe 
3.  Department Statements
      Condemnation of Military Coup in Sao Tome and Principe 
      U.S. Welcomes Restoration of Government in Sao Tome and Principe 
4.  Treaty Actions


Focus on the UN:

You may think you have never benefited personally from the UN, but if 
you have ever traveled on an international airline or shipping line; or 
placed a phone call overseas; or received mail from outside the country; 
or been thankful for an accurate weather report--then you have been 
served by the regulatory and coordinating agencies in the UN system.  

--Madeleine K. Albright, February 13, 1994.

Behind-the-Scenes Benefits to Americans

Security and Safety

UN organizations concerned with nuclear energy, illegal narcotics, and 
transportation--to name a few--are essential to ensuring the security 
and safety of Americans at home and abroad. The International Atomic 
Energy Agency (IAEA) promotes multilateral efforts to enhance radiation 
protection and nuclear safety, and helps nations develop peaceful uses 
for nuclear power. IAEA technical assistance and co-operation programs 
support U.S. non-proliferation goals by bringing the benefits of nuclear 
techniques in electrical power, medicine, agriculture, and science to 
countries which support the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and IAEA 

The UN International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) assists the U.S. in 
confronting the problem of illegal drug trafficking and consumption in 
the U.S. and abroad. It promotes adherence to international drug control 
treaties and provides a comprehensive approach to fighting drug-related 
crime. UNDCP provides incentives for farmers who grow poppies and other 
drug-producing crops to switch to legal cash crops. Cooperation through 
the program is making it easier for countries to seize assets of drug 
traffickers and shut down money-laundering opportunities. Cooperation 
through the UN also improves the ability of U.S. customs and narcotics 
officers to investigate and prosecute criminals.

Americans traveling abroad directly benefit from U.S. membership in the 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), which sets the 
standards for safe international civil aviation. ICAO's high standards 
for aviation safety and airport security help to protect Americans when 
they travel overseas and help to maintain the competitive edge of the 
world-leading U.S. aviation industry. Ensuring the safety of 
international airline travel is especially important to the U.S., since 
Americans make up 40% of the world's airline passengers. 


Global environmental and health threats to Americans are reduced through 
U.S. participation in UN programs. Through its work with UN agencies to 
protect the global climate, the U.S. has helped establish international 
standards that will reduce skin cancers, slow the spread of deserts, and 
increase the amount of arable land to feed a growing world population. 

The World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund 
(UNICEF), and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) protect the 
health of Americans by working to prevent the spread of infectious 
diseases, including AIDS. WHO led the worldwide effort to eliminate 
smallpox. When the eradication program began in 1967, 2 million people 
were dying of smallpox each year. Only 10 years later, smallpox was 
eliminated. This year, WHO played a key role in bringing under control 
the Ebola epidemic which killed 232 of the 296 people infected in Zaire. 
WHO continues to work to ensure that the virus is contained. In another 
major achievement in the health field, under UNICEF's leadership, 
immunization of the world's children against preventable diseases has 
increased from 20% in 1980 to 80% today.

American consumers are protected from unsafe food products by the Codex 
Alimentarius, an international commission created by the Food and 
Agriculture Organization (FAO) and WHO that sets international standards 
for food manufacturing and trade. In addition to food safety issues, 
Codex standards facilitate the access of U.S. food producers, 
processors, and traders to international markets by breaking down 
artificial non-tariff barriers to trade. At the July 1995 meeting in 
Rome, the Codex commission confirmed that all Codex standards should be 
based on sound scientific principles--enabling low-cost U.S. food 
producers to compete more effectively in the international market.


There are numerous UN-affiliated organizations--such as the World 
Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the World Intellectual Property 
Organization (WIPO)--that serve U.S. commercial interests behind the 
scenes. U.S. membership in WMO provides access to weather data of 
immense benefit to American farmers, shipping, and aviation. By sharing 
its data with other countries through WMO, the U.S. gains access to 
global weather data, a much less expensive alternative than gathering 
data independently.

U.S. membership in WIPO is important to several industries in which the 
U.S. is the world's leader. U.S. intellectual property exports--movies, 
music, books, and computer software--are worth billions of dollars per 
year. The market for these exports would be lost or substantially 
weakened without international rules prohibiting piracy of these 
intellectual products.


UN system organizations underpin key parts of the global communications 
network. Membership in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 
provides a forum to allocate worldwide radio frequencies and to 
coordinate orbits for communication satellites. The ITU also plays a key 
role in setting communications standards. Participation by the U.S. 
telecommunication industry in ITU meetings and study groups has 
reinforced U.S. leadership in the field and has resulted in the 
international adoption of some U.S. communications standards, thus 
increasing the overseas demand for U.S. telecommunication products and 

UN cooperation also benefits Americans every time they mail a letter to 
another country. The Universal Postal Union (UPU) sets standards to 
ensure safe and secure handling of mail. It also aids U.S. businesses by 
helping to ensure fair and competitive international postal pricing. The 
UPU soon will have in place a postal tracking system that, among other 
things, can be used to record and track letters. With the new system, 
countries would be able to search for and locate letters around the 

WHO: Working To Eliminate Polio

UN efforts to immunize the world's children against polio and other 
diseases have been very effective. Today 80% are immunized against 
polio, up from 5% in 1974. WHO's goal is to eradicate polio by the year 

UN Peacekeeping: Supporting U.S. Interests

[Were there no UN peacekeeping], it would leave us with an unacceptable 
option when emergencies arose: a choice between acting alone and doing 
nothing.  --Secretary Christopher, January 6, 1995.

The peace and security operations of the United Nations directly support 
U.S. national interests. Peacekeeping has the capacity, under the right 
circumstances, to separate adversaries, maintain cease-fires, facilitate 
the delivery of humanitarian relief, enable refugees and displaced 
persons to return home, demobilize combatants, and create conditions 
under which political reconciliation may occur and free elections may be 
held. In so doing, it can help nurture new democracies, lower the global 
tide of refugees, reduce the likelihood of unwelcome intervention by 
regional powers, and prevent small wars from growing into larger scale 
conflicts which would be far more costly in terms of lives and 


In the post-Cold War world, one of the best vehicles to ensure 
international burdensharing is UN peacekeeping. Nations that would not 
otherwise deploy their military forces outside of their own borders send 
their own men and women around the world on UN peacekeeping missions. 
More than 90 nations have deployed troops on UN missions; 77 countries 
have troops deployed today. Currently, the U.S. contributes only 5% of 
UN troops. Other nations also pay the lion's share of the cost of UN 
peacekeeping operations. Currently, 70% of total UN costs for 
peacekeeping is assumed by other nations. The U.S. burden in the next 
fiscal year will not exceed 25%. 

U.S. and UN: Acting in Concert

The map of UN peacekeeping deployments closely parallels the pattern of 
U.S. interests. UN peacekeepers play a key role in the Middle East, 
patrolling the borders of America's close ally, Israel. In Cyprus, they 
separate Greek and Turkish forces, helping to contain tension between 
two of our valuable NATO allies. They have helped or are helping to 
resolve regional conflicts in Europe, Southeast Asia, Southern Africa, 
the Persian Gulf, and Central America. The UN Security Council also 
provides international backing for U.S. actions to protect U.S. vital 
national interests, as in the Persian Gulf war. 

Most recently, the Clinton Administration won Security Council 
authorization for deployment of a multinational force to Haiti that has 
put the country on the path to democracy. Security Council support was 
instrumental in gaining agreement from more than two dozen other 
countries to participate in the multinational force, maximizing global 
diplomatic support for the operation and enabling the U.S. to hand over 
the peacekeeping function to a UN force.

Humanitarian Relief

Wars of ethnicity or nationalism--features of the post-Cold War era--and 
the failure of nation states fuel mass migration, refugees, famine, and 
disease. A necessary component of restoring peace and security is 
stabilizing these calamities and then providing a way for refugees to 
return home. The United Nations, particularly through its High 
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), plays a key role in coordinating the 
international response to such tragedies. 

In many instances, UN peacekeepers provide security for the return of 
refugees and the delivery of humanitarian relief by UNHCR and the many 
government and private voluntary groups that offer assistance. 
Peacekeepers and relief organizations have worked side by side in 
Bosnia, Rwanda, Somalia, Georgia, Mozambique, and elsewhere.

Command and Control

The President will never--and under the constitution may never--
relinquish his command authority over U.S. military personnel at any 
time. Command constitutes the authority to issue orders covering every 
aspect of military operations and administration. By law, the chain of 
command flows from the President to the lowest U.S. commander in the 
field and remains inviolate.

But it has been long-standing U.S. policy, when it serves U.S. 
interests, to place U.S. forces under the temporary operational control 
of foreign partners. This procedure enables the U.S. to participate in 
operations that directly serve U.S. interests, such as in the UN mission 
in The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, while limiting U.S. 
exposure. Moreover, when the U.S. is willing to provide forces to 
collective security actions, it reaps reciprocal benefits when other 
countries contribute forces to U.S.-led operations, as in the Gulf war.

Peacekeeping Improvements

The Clinton Administration is pursuing policies to improve and reform UN 
peacekeeping so that it better serves U.S. interests and trying to 
improve international understanding of the decision to lower the U.S. 
peacekeeping assessment to 25% by October 1995. In addition to reducing 
the U.S. share of UN peacekeeping, the Administration is working to 
reduce costs to all UN members by finding ways for the UN to undertake 
needed missions more efficiently. The U.S. also actively supported the 
recently adopted rules changes that reduce the amount paid by the UN for 
heavy equipment--tanks, armored personnel carriers--that troop 
contributors bring with them on peacekeeping missions.

In May 1994, President Clinton signed a Presidential Decision Directive 
on Reforming Multilateral Peace Operations. The policy requires that 
tough questions be asked about the costs, size, risks, mandate, and 
duration of operations before they are launched or renewed. The policy's 
goal is simple: Ensure that peacekeepers are equipped properly, that 
money is not wasted, and that operational directives are clearly 
defined. The policy is working and has resulted in fewer and smaller new 
operations and better management of existing ones. Additionally, the 
Departments of State and Defense have been working with the UN to 
streamline procurement, personnel management, and other support services 
for peacekeeping.

The Price of Peace

During the Cold War, one or both of the superpowers generally opposed 
using UN peacekeeping to deal with most crises. In the immediate 
aftermath of the Cold War, consensus emerged on the increased use of UN 
peacekeeping and the number of missions, and the total cost of 
peacekeeping escalated. But the absolute cost to the U.S. remains a 
small portion of its national security expenses--the equivalent of less 
than one-half of one percent of the Department of Defense budget. While 
UN peacekeeping costs can and must be better contained, they represent a 
far cheaper choice than either of the alternatives: acting unilaterally 
or taking an isolationist stance until forced to confront crises after 
they have spread to directly threaten U.S. national security interests.

The troubles encountered by UN peacekeeping operations in the former 
Yugoslavia and Somalia have received most of the public's and media's 
attention over the past few years, in line with the "bad news sells" 
maxim. But the harshest critics of UN peacekeeping typically fail to 
acknowledge that many countries that were not long ago wracked by civil 
wars, such as Cambodia, El Salvador, and Mozambique, were helped out of 
the "bad news" headlines by UN operations and today are making 
considerable progress toward democracy and political stability.

U.S. Contributions to UN Peacekeeping (May 31, 1995)

UN Operations                            Number of Troops
UNMIH--Haiti                                    2,400 
UNPREDIP--Macedonia                               546 
UNCRO--Croatia                                    345 
MINURSO--Western Sahara                            30 
UNTSO--Middle East                                 15 
UNIKOM--Iraq/Kuwait                                15 
UNOMIG--Georgia                                     4 
UNPROFOR--former Yugoslavia                         3
Total                                           3,358

*SOURCE: United Nations

UN Troop Contributions (61,102--May 31, 1995)

Western Europe--36% 
Asia, Australia, and New Zealand--28% 
Africa--11% Central Europe--10% 
Latin America and Canada--10% 
United States--5%

*SOURCE: United Nations

UN Peacekeeping: Successes Span the Globe

UN peace operations are useful and cost-effective options for addressing 
some conflicts and humanitarian crises, a lesson currently overshadowed 
by the difficult challenges faced by UN peacekeeping operations in the 
former Yugoslavia. The majority of the 35 peacekeeping operations 
undertaken by the UN during the past 50 years have played a valuable 
role in containing regional conflicts, promoting democracy, and 
monitoring human rights. They have helped stem refugee flows and brought 
stability to regions of strategic and economic importance to the U.S. 
Recent peacekeeping successes include Mozambique, El Salvador, Cambodia, 
and Namibia, all countries where the UN helped bring long, bloody 
conflicts to an end and then assisted in the establishment of more 
democratic and stable governments.

UN Operations in Mozambique (ONUMOZ)

Mandate: To ensure the implementation of the general peace agreement, to 
monitor elections, and to provide humanitarian aid 

Duration: December 1992 to January 31, 1995 

Successes: Free and fair elections held October 1994; reintegration of 3 
million internally displaced persons prior to the elections 

Costs: Through November 15, 1994--about $106 million 

ONUMOZ was established in December 1992 to assist in the implementation 
of the peace agreement between the Government of Mozambique and the 
opposition group RENAMO. Mozambique's post-independence civil war from 
1976 to 1992 claimed an estimated 1 million lives, destroyed the 
country's infrastructure and agricultural  capacity, and forced millions 
of refugees into neighboring countries. ONUMOZ monitored the cease-fire 
and demobilization of troops and provided security for humanitarian 
assistance. ONUMOZ's presence bolstered security and confidence as the 
terms of the peace accords were implemented and democratic elections 
held. National elections, held in October 1994, were declared free and 
fair by the UN. Close to 90% of eligible voters turned out at the polls. 
Both sides accepted the results of the vote.

ONUMOZ's mandate ended with the installation of the newly elected 
national government in December 1994, and all UN forces were withdrawn 
as of January 31, 1995. In Mozambique, the UN succeeded in demobilizing 
bitter military foes, repatriating refugees, and creating a climate 
within which democratic elections could be held. In so doing, it 
contributed to greater stability throughout the southern African region, 
setting an example for ongoing UN efforts to resolve Angola's long civil 

UN Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)

Mandate: To monitor all agreements between the Government of El Salvador 
and the FMLN 

Duration: July 1991 to April 30, 1995 

Successes: Implementation of the peace accords; demobilization of the 
military-controlled national policy 

Costs: About $24 million

ONUSAL was established by the UN Security Council in May 1991, and 
launched two months later, to monitor the human rights agreement between 
the Government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Marti National 
Liberation Front (FMLN). An estimated 55,000 Salvadorans were killed in 
El Salvador's civil war from 1979 to 1991. With the signing of the peace 
accords that ended the war in January 1992, ONUSAL's mandate was 
expanded to include monitoring the cease-fire, separating combatants, 
observing the dismantling of the FMLN military structure, assisting with 
the reintegration of the FMLN into civilian society, training the 
National Civilian Police, and observing elections.

Though resistance to land reform and legal reform delayed the peace 
process, ONUSAL ultimately played a key role in facilitating the 
implementation of the peace accords. El Salvador has since made 
substantial progress toward democratization and political stability. 
ONUSAL completed its mission on April 30, 1995.

UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)

Mandate: To assist in establishing a democratic government in Cambodia 
Duration: March 1992 to May 1993 

Successes: Implementation of a human rights education program; design 
and implementation of an electoral system followed by the free and fair 
election of the Royal Cambodian Government 

Costs: About $1.6 billion

In March 1992, UNTAC began working toward the establishment of democracy 
in Cambodia in the aftermath of two decades of violent conflict and 
chaos, including the extraordinarily brutal rule of the Khmer Rouge. 
UNTAC's mandate included the demobilization of warring parties, 
organization of free and fair elections, the maintenance of law and 
order, the repatriation of Cambodian refugees, and the re-establishment 
of essential infrastructure. The human rights component of UNTAC 
developed and implemented an education program to promote respect for 
and understanding of human rights. This effort was followed by the 
establishment of a UN Human Rights Commission field office in Phnom Penh 
that is working with the elected government to continue the promotion of 
human rights.

UNTAC's mandate ended with the formation of the Royal Cambodian 
Government based on the elections of May 1993, certified free and fair 
by the UN. The formation of the elected government marked a successful 
end to what was at the time the largest UN peacekeeping mission ever 

UN Transition Assistance Group In Namibia (UNTAG)

Mandate: To ensure free and fair elections in Namibia Duration: April 
1989 to March 1990 Successes: Enhanced credibility of political 
transition process; repatriation of 42,736 exiled Namibians; free and 
fair election of the Namibian Government Costs: $383 million

The UN was centrally engaged in Namibia's transition from civil war and 
domination by South Africa to peace and democracy. The UN Security 
Council had drawn attention to the illegality of South Africa's 70-year 
occupation of Namibia, and behind the scenes had long worked toward the 
1989 cease-fire between the South West African People's Organization 
(SWAPO), a Namibian nationalist movement, and South Africa. Once the 
negotiations were complete, UNTAG monitored the cease-fire and the 
withdrawal of South African forces and helped build the framework for 
democratic elections.

A major challenge for UNTAG was increasing the confidence of the 
Namibian people in the political process so that they would actively 
participate in and exercise a free choice in electing a new government. 
UNTAG established an information service designed to bolster confidence 
in the mission's neutrality and to spread information about the upcoming 
elections. The service proved very effective. In November 1989, 97% of 
Namibia's registered voters participated in the country's first 
democratic elections. A few weeks later, the newly elected Constituent 
Assembly convened and on February 9, 1990, a new constitution was 
adopted. UNTAG's mission ended in March 1990. 


FACT SHEET: U.S. Assistance to Central and Eastern Europe


After the revolutions of 1989 that brought freedom to the countries of 
Central and Eastern Europe, the United States pledged to assist the 
region in the difficult transition from communism to democracy. The 1989 
Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act authorized the U.S. 
Government to undertake a range of activities designed to encourage the 
establishment of democratic institutions, assist in the development of 
free market economies, and promote an improvement in the overall quality 
of life.

Under the SEED Act, Congress has appropriated $2.2 billion to fund 
assistance programs in Central and Eastern Europe, primarily technical 
assistance but also including Enterprise Funds and humanitarian 
assistance. Including food assistance and other U.S. contributions, 
total U.S. commitments to Central and Eastern Europe are more than $10 
billion, making the U.S. the second-largest bilateral donor to the 
region and the largest donor of grant assistance.

Democratic Initiatives

During the critical period of transition to democracy, the new 
governments of Central and Eastern Europe face the need to develop 
democratic institutions, foster an understanding of democracy among 
their people, and devolve considerable political authority to the 
regional and local levels. U.S. assistance in these areas includes:

-- Support for free elections, including monitoring support for election 
commissions and equipment; 
-- Training and technical assistance in governance and administration 
skills, including budgeting and finance, personnel, and organizational 
-- Educational reform, such as social science studies, curriculum 
revision, and introduction of student councils and student newspapers; 
-- Technical assistance and equipment purchases to support emerging 
independent media, including management training, programming, and 
seminars on journalism and a free press; and 
-- Development of legal systems, including help in drafting or revising 
constitutional, criminal, and civil laws, as well as in administrative 
procedures and regulations dealing with crimes, commerce and a market-
based economy, and protection of civil liberties.

Economic Restructuring

U.S. assistance promotes free market economies in Central and Eastern 
Europe through support for privatization, development of small and 
medium-sized business, policy and legal reforms, and key-sector 
restructuring. Assistance includes:

-- Providing governments in the region with advisers to help develop or 
revise the legal, fiscal, regulatory, and institutional frameworks which 
govern the process of privatization; 
-- Creation of independent Enterprise Funds, a bold experiment giving a 
private-sector board of directors U.S. Government grant funds to promote 
the development of small- and medium-sized businesses through equity 
investments, loans, and grants; 
-- Privatization assistance and technical assistance to enterprises 
aimed at rapid transformation of state-owned enterprises to private 
ownership and long-term commercial viability; 
-- Department of Treasury advisers to central banks, banking institutes, 
and finance ministries; 
-- Commercial law advisers on anti-trust laws, contract enforcement and 
dispute resolution, property rights issues, and tax policy and 
-- Policy advisers on energy pricing and management, technical 
assistance and equipment to improve energy efficiency, and training and 
equipment to improve safety at nuclear reactors throughout the region;  
-- Technical assistance and training to independent agricultural 
cooperatives and private agribusinesses to help with production and 
marketing; and 
-- Support for the development of infrastructure projects through 
various U.S. Government agencies, including the Trade and Development 
Agency and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. 

Quality of Life

Recognizing that the transition to a market economy creates economic 
dislocation and other social hardships, the U.S. has tailored assistance 
programs to help soften the blow, as well as to foster responsible 
social policies and regulations through:

-- Training and technical assistance in employment services, worker 
retraining, vocational skills, and public and private pension reform; 
-- Partnerships between U.S. and East European hospitals, as well as 
advisers in health care policy, financing, and management; 
-- Technical assistance in housing and municipal finance; and 
-- Environmental advisers and training for national and local 
governments on policy reform and enforcement measures, as well as 
assistance to individual firms on environmental control and management.

As noted by President Clinton at the Prague summit in January 1994, 
developments in the region require that the U.S. emphasize 
democratization and the social sector in its economic assistance 
programs. Two new initiatives will address these concerns: The 
"Democracy Network" will help bolster non-governmental groups in 
advocacy and watchdog work; social sector assistance programs will help 
governments develop short- and long-term solutions to unemployment, job 
creation, and basic social services. 

Former Yugoslavia

The U.S. Government has provided more than $867 million in humanitarian 
assistance--financial resources, food, goods and equipment, and 
personnel--to the victims of civil strife in the former Yugoslavia. 
Assistance efforts have been carried out primarily by the U.S. Agency 
for International Development and the U.S. Department of Defense, as 
well as through contributions to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 
the International Committee of the Red Cross, and private voluntary 


Department Statements

Condemnation of Military Coup In Sao Tome and Principe 
Statement by Acting Spokesman David Johnson, Washington, DC, August 18, 

The United States condemns the August 15 overthrow of the democratically 
elected government of President Miguel Trovoada of Sao Tome and 
Principe. We call on those responsible for the military coup to return 
to their barracks. President Trovoada and other duly elected members of 
the government must be released from custody unharmed and returned to 
office immediately.

Because of this coup, the United States will suspend all bilateral 
assistance to Sao Tome and Principe. The United States will also oppose 
all loans and credits to Sao Tome and Principe from international 
financial institutions until the duly elected government of President 
Trovoada is returned to power.

Restoration of the duly elected Government of Sao Tome and Principe is 
the only solution which respects the will of its citizens. We strongly 
support the planned diplomatic initiative led by the Government of 
Angola to restore President Trovoada and the duly elected Government of 
Sao Tome and Principe to power. The United States welcomes this effort 
by an African nation to assist in restoring democracy to one of its 

The United States notes that the universal condemnation of this coup, 
including statements by the United Nations, Organization of African 
Unity, several African states, and others, underscores the determination 
of the international community to press for full restoration of 
democracy to Sao Tome and Principe.

U.S. Welcomes Restoration Of Government of Sao Tome And Principe 
Statement by Acting Spokesman David Johnson, Washington, DC, August 23, 

The United States welcomes the restoration of the elected government of 
President Trovoada. We commend the Sao Tomeans for demonstrating that 
reason can prevail over force. We hope that the restoration of President 
Trovoada will lead all parties in Sao Tome and Principe to rededicate 
themselves to democratic ideals and practices.

The United States commends all those who took part in efforts to secure 
the release of President Trovoada and to return his democratically 
elected government to office. We wish in particular to commend the 
Government of Angola for its mediation efforts and to congratulate 
Angolan Foreign Minister de Moura for his successful efforts in 



Treaty Actions


Chemical Weapons Convention on the prohibition of the development, 
production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and on their 
destruction, with annexes. Done at Paris Jan. 13, 1993. [Senate] Treaty 
Doc. 103-211. 
Acceptance: Netherlands, June 30, 1995.

Finance Amendment to the North American Framework Agreement of Apr. 22 
and 26, 1994. Signed at New York, Mexico, Ottawa, and Washington Jan. 2 
and 4, 1995. 
Entered into force Jan. 4, 1995.

Amendments to articles 24 and 25 of the Constitution of the World Health 
Organization, as amended. 

Adopted at Geneva May 12, 1986. 
Entered into force July 11, 1994. 
Acceptance: Italy, June 30, 1995.

Patents Patent cooperation treaty with regulations. Done at Washington 
June 19, 1970. Entered into force Jan. 24, 1978. TIAS 8733; 28 UST 7645. 
Accession: Albania, July 4, 1995.

Prisoner Transfers Convention on the transfer of sentenced persons. Done 
at Strasbourg Mar. 21, 1983. Entered into force July 1, 1985. TIAS 
10824. Signature: Romania, June 30, 1995.

Property  Convention of Paris for the protection of industrial property 
of Mar. 20, 1883, as revised. Done at Stockholm July 14, 1967. Entered 
into force May 19, 1970; for the U.S. Aug. 25, 1973. TIAS 6923, 7727; 24 
UST 2140. 
Accession: Albania, July 4, 1995.


Egypt  Grant agreement for sector policy reform II. Signed at Cairo May 
18, 1995. Entered into force May 18, 1995.

Indonesia  Memorandum of understanding concerning technological 
development cooperation in the earth sciences. Signed at Jakarta May 3, 
1995. Entered into force May 3, 1995.

Kazakstan Agreement concerning the relationship between the taxation 
convention of Oct. 24, 1993 and the general agreement on trade in 
services of Apr. 15, 1994, with regard to the consultation, most-
favored-nation, and national treatment provisions. Effected by exchange 
of notes at Washington July 10, 1995. Enters into force on date on which 
tax convention enters into force.

Malaysia Postal money order agreement. Signed at Washington and Kuala 
Lumpur June 20 and July 7, 1995. Entered into force Aug. 1, 1995.

Mexico  Temporary exchange stabilization agreement, with annexes. Signed 
at Mexico and Washington Jan. 2 and 4, 1995. Entered into force Jan. 4, 

Sierra Leone  INTELPOST memorandum of understanding, with detailed 
regulations. Signed at Freetown and Washington June 5 and 19, 1995. 
Entered into force Aug. 1, 1995.

Ukraine  Agreement concerning the relationship between the taxation 
convention of Mar. 4, 1994 and the general agreement on trade in 
services of Apr. 15, 1994, with regard to the consultation, most-
favored-nation, and national treatment provisions. Effected by exchange 
of notes at Washington May 26 and June 6, 1995. Enters into force on the 
date taxation convention enters into force.

1 Not in force.



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