Trip of President Clinton and Secretary Christopher to East
Asia and the Pacific and the APEC Meetings
November 7-18, 1994

1.  Building Security and Prosperity at Home and Abroad --
President Clinton
2.  APEC:  A Force for Growth and Integration -- Secretary
Christopher, Commerce Secretary Brown,
U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor
3.  Transforming the APEC Vision Into Reality -- Secretary
4.  The U.S.-Philippines Partnership -- President Clinton,
Philippine President Ramos
5.  The United States and APEC:  Making Real a Common Vision
-- President Clinton
6.  Expanding Opportunities for U.S. Businesses Abroad --
Secretary Christopher
7.  U.S.-Asia Economic Engagement in the 21st Century --
President Clinton
8.  The U.S. and Thailand:  Partners in an Asia-Pacific
Community -- Secretary Christopher
9.  A Human Resources Development Framework For the Asia
Pacific Economic Cooperation:  Declaration
10.  The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Ministerial
Meeting:  Joint Statement
11.  APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration of Common Resolve
12.  Clinton Administration Secures Contracts for U.S. Firms


Building Security and Prosperity At Home and Abroad
President Clinton
Remarks before departure to the Philippines and Indonesia,
Washington, DC, November 11, 1994

Good morning.  I want to speak with you for just a few
moments before I leave for the Philippines and Indonesia.
From the beginning of our Administration, we have worked to
build greater security for America, to spread prosperity and
democracy around the globe, and to usher in a new age of
open markets.  We are tearing down the old walls which have
existed for so long between domestic and foreign policy in
our country--forging a strong recovery here at home by
expanding opportunities for Americans around the world.

We are pursuing this strategy because it is clearly in the
best interest of our people and because it offers the best
opportunity for them to acquire the kind of security for
their families that so many millions of Americans are still
struggling to achieve.  The ultimate goal is to produce a
strong America--a strong America in terms of national
security and national defense, but also in terms of stronger
families, better education, more high-wage jobs, and safer
streets.  Strong at home and strong abroad:  two sides of
the same coin.

The United States is in a better economic position today
than any other nation in the world to compete and win in the
global economy.  Our work force is the most productive in
the world.  Our economy has produced more than  5 million
jobs in the last 22 months and, finally, this year, high-
wage jobs are coming back into this economy--more new high-
wage jobs this year than in the previous five years

But it is not enough.  Too many Americans--millions and
millions of them--still find the present and the   future
uncertain and unsettling, with stagnant wages, benefits at
risk, and an uncertainty about the future of their jobs.  We
simply must turn insecurity about our future into
confidence.  The American people do best when they are
confident, outward looking, and working together.

This strategy must include breaking down trade barriers,
opening markets, and increasing our exports because export-
related jobs pay significantly more on the average than
those that are not related to exports.  In the coming weeks,
we will have the opportunity to put into place three crucial
building blocks of this strategy--by working with Congress
to pass the GATT agreement, by strengthening our ties to the
dynamic economies of the Asia-Pacific region, and by
continuing to forge a partnership for peace and prosperity
here in our own hemisphere.  For decades, we have
concentrated our international economic efforts on the
mature and strong economies of Europe and Japan.  They will
remain our close allies, our key competitors, and our
critical markets.

The new century demands a new strategy and that is where
this trip fits into the picture.  Last year in Seattle, I
brought together 14 leaders of the APEC economies.  We met
for the first time and arrived at a common vision of a new,
and more open, Asia-Pacific community.  Next week in
Jakarta, I hope the leaders will embrace a common direction
toward that vision, setting a goal for free and open trade
among all our countries and agreeing on a process to get

In my visit to the Philippines and my meetings in Jakarta, I
will also stress our continuing commitment to promote
security and democracy throughout Asia and the Pacific
region.  We will discuss how to strengthen important
bilateral relationships, create stronger regional security
structures, and how to rapidly and effectively implement the
agreement for a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula.  No problem is
more important to the United States and its allies than
stopping the proliferation of nuclear materials and weapons
in general and, specifically, ending North Korea's nuclear

I will also use these meetings to talk about the advancement
of human rights, worker rights, and democratic values.  We
must continue to pursue this path with patience,
persistence, and determination.

Two other crucial events will follow this trip to Asia:  the
Summit of the Americas in Miami with 33 other democratically
elected leaders from the Caribbean and Latin America, and
the congressional vote on GATT.  GATT is the largest and
most advantageous trade agreement in our history.  The
congressional vote will be a defining decision for our
economy and our working people well into the next century.
I believe both parties will come together to vote for open
markets, free and fair trade, and, most importantly, more
high-wage jobs for the American people.

This week, the American people told us--all of us here in
Washington--to work together, to put politics aside to
create a stronger and more secure America.  This trip to
Asia and the other events of the next six weeks give us a
unique opportunity to join hands and do just that.  By
reaching across oceans and borders we can help to build
peace and prosperity around the world and more security and
prosperity for our own people here at home.  Thank you very
much. (###)


APEC:  A Force for Growth And Integration
Secretary Christopher, Commerce Secretary Brown, U.S. Trade
Representative Mickey Kantor

Opening remarks at a press conference, Jakarta, Indonesia,
November 12, 1994

Secretary Christopher.  I wanted to put into perspective
some of the achievements of this week's ministerial meeting,
as well as to indicate to you the significance of next
week's Leaders' Meeting at Bogor--significance for APEC
itself, and for the entire region.  APEC has made
extraordinary strides in the last five years.  Five years
ago there were just 12 members, and the future of APEC, I
think, was far from certain.  Today, 18 members strong, APEC
has come alive as an economic force, a force for growth and
integration throughout this region.  I think it is poised to
become a key building block in the future of this region.

Under President Clinton's leadership last year at Blake
Island near Seattle, the APEC leaders articulated a vision
for the future, a vision of promoting regional growth and
unleashing the dynamism of businesses and individuals in
this area.  During the last year, we have been working hard
trying to transform this vision into reality.  This year,
Secretary Brown, Ambassador Kantor, and I presented the
ministerial with three specific proposals that promise to
help unleash the ability of individuals and businesses in
this region to provide jobs and economic growth.  Our first
proposal was to create an Asia-Pacific Business Forum that
would provide a permanent channel for private businesses in
this area to feed into APEC's work and to assist the APEC
ministers.  Second, we proposed a meeting of transportation
ministers, to take place in the United States, to examine
the vast infrastructure needs that this region has.  Third,
we proposed the establishment of an APEC Educational
Foundation--a non-profit corporation to coordinate all of
APEC's education and human resource development activities,
activities that will help economic ideas move across the
boundaries of this vast region.  We found very strong
support for each of these initiatives among the APEC
members.  Each is reflected in the APEC communique, and I
think APEC will be working hard on these three matters
during the course of the next year.

I also used the occasion to call the ministers' attention to
a subject not formally on the agenda, but of great
importance; that is approval of the GATT Uruguay Round.  The
APEC nations share an enormous stake in the agreement's
approval.  I must tell you, I believe each representative of
the nations here who spoke to me about it indicated they are
looking to the United States to approve GATT so the region
can continue on the pattern of economic growth.  That is one
of the messages I will take back to the United States with
me--the reliance that the nations of this region have on the
United States to provide leadership in moving forward with
GATT ratification.  I told them of President Clinton's
determination to ratify GATT and my own strong confidence
that the United States Congress will ratify GATT after the
debates are over and the votes are in.

I strongly believe that the regional promise of APEC can
build upon the global benefits to be gained by GATT
ratification.  President Soeharto's bold call for open and
free trade in this region by a set date is something we
strongly endorse, and we are looking toward the leaders to
achieve a historic breakthrough in this regard.  I think we
prepared the way in our ministerial meetings for the leaders
to make next week's Leaders' Meeting a truly landmark event
in open trade in this region.

Finally, I use the occasion of this ministerial to reaffirm
the determination of the United States to maintain our
engagement in the Pacific.  We will remain a Pacific power.
We will maintain our military strength and stand by our
security commitments in the region with five very important
treaty alliances.  We want to sustain the momentum begun at
Blake Island--continue it in Bogor--momentum toward a
Pacific Community of shared values, shared prosperity, and
shared security interests.  I think President Clinton and
his heads-of-state colleagues can make real history next
week, and I believe we have momentum in that direction.
Thank you very much.

Secretary Brown.  Secretary Christopher has spoken
effectively for both Ambassador Kantor and me.  Let me just
add a very brief comment.  President Clinton has, from the
very beginning of his Administration, made economic growth
and creation of jobs in the United States his priority.
That really is what our attendance and participation here at
this ministerial meeting has been all about.  It seems clear
to me that this ministerial has made APEC stronger.  We are
clearly on the right track and are very pleased with the
results of our deliberations here.  There is no question
that this region has extraordinary potential and that we
cannot talk convincingly or act convincingly about economic
growth and job creation in the United States without looking
to the Asia-Pacific region.  APEC gives us a vehicle to
advance the commercial interests of all of our nations; that
is why we are so pleased with the results of our

I was particularly pleased with the new focus on private
sector involvement.  It seems clear to us that a public-
private partnership is absolutely essential to moving
forward in our effort to create an environment for economic
growth and job creation.   It cannot be done without private
sector involvement.  It seems to me having government
officials not only interacting with, but listening to,
private sector leaders are certainly very important and
effective ways to accomplish our goals.

I think a focus--which was a new one--on small- and medium-
sized enterprises is a good focus.  As many of our larger
companies, particularly in the United States, go through
down- sizing, we will become more productive and more
competitive.  Growth opportunities really exist with small-
and medium-sized enterprises, and having their involvement
and having APEC focus on creating opportunities for those
firms, I think, is equally important.

Finally, it seems clear that economic engagement--that
commercial engagement that works can help not only in our
bilateral relationships, to overcome problems and obstacles
that exist, but it helps us in a multilateral context as
well.  So we could not be more pleased with the results the
ministerial has just accomplished.

Ambassador Kantor.  Thank you Secretary Christopher,
Secretary Brown.  I have a couple of comments to add.
First, to thank our Indonesian hosts, to recognize
Congressman Minetta and Ambassador Mondale who have been--
[inaudible]--in helping us put this trade agenda together,
and our officials who did such fine work in making these
meetings such a great success.  We are in the middle of our-
-last year was a hat trick without a National Hockey League
season.  At least we can have a hat trick in trade between
the successful APEC meetings here, the Uruguay Round vote
which we believe will be successful November 29 and December
1 in the House and Senate, and the Summit of the Americas in
Miami December 9 through 11.  Truly, President Clinton's
vision of opening markets and expanding trade is becoming a
reality.  The two areas we are dealing with--the Summit of
the Americas and APEC--will represent well over half of U.S.
exports as we go into the next century.  These are the two
fastest growing regions in the world, and they represent a
dynamic increase in industrialization, a rise in the middle
class, and markets for our companies and for American
workers.  (###)


Transforming the APEC Vision Into Reality
Secretary Christopher
Intervention at the APEC Ministerial, Jakarta, Indonesia,
November 11, 1994

Minister Hartarto, Excellencies, colleagues, and friends:
It is a pleasure to join you at this sixth ministerial
meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.  Let
me take this opportunity to welcome Chile as APEC's newest
and second Latin American member and to welcome Foreign
Minister Insulza to this meeting.

Let me also express deep appreciation and thanks to our
Indonesian hosts.  President Soeharto, Minister Alatas,
Minister Hartarto, and their colleagues have done a superb
job in preparing the ambitious agenda for this meeting and
in sustaining the momentum achieved last year in Seattle and
at Blake Island.  President Soeharto's leadership is giving
APEC a vitality that reflects and reinforces the dynamic
qualities of this great region.

APEC has made extraordinary strides since its inception just
five years ago.  Then, APEC included just 12 of the region's
economies; today, it embraces 18.  From Sydney and Seoul on
the western rim of the Pacific to San Francisco and Santiago
on its eastern shore, APEC has become an important vehicle
for opening markets and expanding economic cooperation in
the Asia-Pacific.  APEC's progress toward regional trade and
investment liberalization can be a model for the open global
trading system of the 21st century.

We live in a time when a company in Jakarta can start with
capital from Hong Kong and New York, make a product designed
in Osaka or Seattle with parts from Pusan and Detroit,
market and advertise that product with firms based in
Singapore and Los Angeles, and sell it all over the world.
That company--and the global economy as a whole--cannot
thrive if we permit trade barriers to drive a wedge between
supply and demand.  We know that high-wage jobs and economic
growth depend on the unimpeded movement of goods, services,
capital, and information.

For the United States, free and open trade is more than an
economic imperative.  President Clinton has made the pursuit
of global economic growth and trade expansion a centerpiece
of American foreign policy.  It is an investment in a more
stable and integrated world, in which open societies are
linked and invigorated by open markets.

Around the world we can see the power of commerce to build
bridges between economies and bonds between peoples.
Witness the post-war transformation of Western Europe, where
nations long divided by competing interests have built a
lasting partnership on a bedrock of economic cooperation.
Look to the Middle East, where last week's summit in
Casablanca demonstrated a commitment to build economic ties
in support of peace.  The Asia-Pacific tells the same story:
The remarkable growth in trade among our nations has not
only been the foundation for post-war development but also a
force for stability across the entire region.

The United States was pleased to host last year's APEC
meetings in Seattle and Blake Island.  President Clinton was
personally determined to make them a success.  He understood
that the security and prosperity of the United States in the
coming century will be shaped in large measure by the
stability and success of the Asia-Pacific region.  He
recognized APEC's potential to boost prosperity in the most
dynamic, fastest-growing part of the global economy.

That is why, last November, President Clinton invited the
APEC leaders to come together at Blake Island to articulate
a common vision for the Asia-Pacific community.  The leaders
recognized "an opportunity to build a new economic
foundation for the Asia-Pacific that harnesses the energy of
our diverse economies, strengthens cooperation, and promotes

Years from now, our people may well look back on Blake
Island as a defining moment in the history of the Asia-
Pacific--a moment when leaders of this extraordinarily
diverse region began to form a common identity and purpose.
Our challenge is to transform that vision into reality.  We
must now implement the Blake Island vision.  If we take
concrete steps to advance that vision over the next week in
Indonesia and in the coming years, we can seize a historic
opportunity to lift the lives and living standards of all
our people.

The Blake Island vision is one of regional growth, driven by
the dynamism of individuals and enterprises.  It is a vision
of regional integration, of bridges built across national
boundaries, and of barriers removed between economies.  It
is a vision of open regionalism that can lead the global
economy into the next century.  Without becoming a
bureaucracy itself, APEC can help get bureaucracy out of the
way of business and can promote the free flow of goods,
services, capital, and ideas across the ocean of opportunity
that is the Pacific.

Over the last year, we have begun to lay the building blocks
of an integrated Asia-Pacific community by implementing the
leaders' Blake Island initiatives.  We have begun to make
transparent regional and national regulations, to make clear
the rules of the road for doing business in Asia.   We have
brought business leaders together with senior government
officials to promote trade and investment, which are the
lifeblood of the region.  From the Philippines' technology
proposal for small business to the Japanese-led dialogue on
energy and the environment, the leaders' initiatives are
helping to advance regional trade and investment and to
sustain economic growth.

These are the kind of practical steps that do not make
headlines, but businessmen and -women understand that these
are the keys to unleashing their ability to provide jobs and
economic growth throughout the Asia-Pacific marketplace.

I want to make a brief progress report in particular on the
three Blake Island initiatives advanced by the United

--  The Pacific Business Forum, which was proposed by
President Clinton to provide a formal channel for private
sector advice, issued the first business sector blueprint
for APEC last month.

The real test of APEC's success  will be whether or not its
work has practical relevance to the business community--
whether it removes barriers to trade and fosters a
competitive marketplace.  The United States extends its
appreciation to the PBF and commends its report to this

The PBF report contains a range of ambitious proposals,
including specific recommendations on open trade;
infrastructure development; harmonizing regulations,
customs, and standards; telecommunications network; support
for small and medium business; and human resources
development.  The APEC governments should very carefully
consider these recommendations to ensure that our work is
relevant to business concerns.

--  In March, in accordance with our suggestion, Treasury
Secretary Bentsen hosted the first-ever meeting of APEC
Finance Ministers in Honolulu.  Ministers agreed to examine
the management of the region's vast capital markets.  They
also agreed to work with international financial
institutions to facilitate regional capital flows and
project financing.

--  In May in Seattle, we launched our Blake Island
recommendation for an APEC Leaders' Education Initiative.
Twelve American universities and institutions have formed
the U.S. APEC Study Center Consortium and plan to open study
centers and programs this fall.  At least nine other
countries are also establishing centers.  These study
centers will allow experts from the entire region to share
ideas and information on the promotion of economic activity.

Building on last year's APEC initiatives, President Soeharto
has identified several vital priorities for APEC this year--
developing human resources, supporting small and medium-
sized enterprises, building infrastructure, and deepening
the private sector's role in APEC.  In this regard, I am
presenting three initial specific proposals that build on
the progress made over the last year.  Each is consistent
with our ministerial objectives and the priorities Indonesia
has set for this year.

The United States is pleased that Indonesia has identified
increasing private sector participation as one of APEC's key
challenges.  The litmus test for APEC's success is whether
its work has practical relevance to the business community.

Accordingly, my first proposal is to create a permanent Asia-
Pacific Business Forum.  An Asia-Pacific Business Forum
could provide invaluable advice on business priorities and
help us gauge the efficiency of our efforts to expand trade
and investment.  It could review APEC's work throughout the
year, strengthen private sector participation in the working
groups, and meet annually to provide ministers with specific
advice.  It could also expand business networks in the

My second proposal is designed to address this region's
massive infrastructure demands.  We can see the strains in
the transportation sector, where tremendous growth in
traffic has outpaced existing capacity.  Transportation
networks are the arteries of trade.  We need to make sure
they flow smoothly.

To support work already under way, I propose a meeting of
our transportation ministers.  Such a ministerial could
recommend how to use existing facilities more efficiently
and accelerate further development.  I am pleased to say
that Secretary of Transportation Frederico Pena offers to
host such a meeting in the United States.  The private
sector would be invited as well.

My third proposal is to establish an APEC education
foundation.  The foundation would be a nonprofit
organization funded by voluntary private contributions.  It
could serve as a coordination point for all of APEC's
educational and human resource development activities, and
it would complement the ministers' Declaration of a Human
Resources Development Framework.

To advance the education initiative, I am pleased to
announce that the U.S. APEC  Study Center Consortium and the
American private sector are offering to set up an APEC-wide,
multi-media telecommunications network.  Linked by
telephones, computers, modems, and videos, we could further
shrink the distance that separates our people.  Data and
ideas--already exchanged at breathtaking speed--would have
an even wider reach.  Scholars in Singapore could
collaborate more easily with colleagues in Chile.  Mexican
graduate students could hold video-teleconferences with
Chinese peers.  Ultimately, integration requires opening
borders, not just to goods and capital, but to ideas.  This
network can energize a new era of intellectual integration.

These initiatives will bring us closer to a region in which
business people are comfortable in Kansas City and Kuala
Lumpur; a region in which air routes are expanded,
facilities modernized, and transportation bottlenecks
broken; and a region in which students communicate from
Manila to Atlanta by phone, fax, and electronic mail, for
the Pacific community is in many ways a global community.
Our region spans more than a dozen time zones.  It includes
large and small economies--industrial and developing--
together accounting for half the world's output.  Our people
reflect many religions, cultures, and traditions--40% of the
world's population.  In short, our cooperation has
unparalleled potential.

Beyond these specific initiatives, we must harness the
region's potential to deal with broader regional and global
challenges.  Many cooperative efforts are underway.  The
United States is working closely with Japan to address
concerns like environmental degradation, population growth,
and the spread of infectious disease.  We are studying
biodiversity and climate prediction with Indonesia.  We are
beginning to work with China on protecting the environment.

At Blake Island, the leaders recognized that APEC can
provide an important platform for intensified cooperation on
environmental issues.  APEC environmental ministers began
heeding that call to action at their meeting in Vancouver
last spring.  The ministers agreed that sound environmental
and economic policies are interlocking--and that preventing
environmental degradation is essential to sustainable
development.  The United States supports their goal for a
strategic approach to integrate environmental considerations
into APEC's work.

One area for immediate cooperation is to encourage use of
the latest environmental protection techniques and
technology.  As a follow-up to the environment ministerial,
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is making a
systematic effort to promote greater awareness of clean
production techniques.  These range from pineapple
production in the Philippines to water recycling in the
photographic industry in Canada.  Increased use of
technologies that make both economic and environmental sense
would be a valuable concrete step by APEC members in
addressing global environmental concerns.

I want to conclude by calling our attention to an issue not
formally on our agenda, yet essential to our collective
prosperity:  approval of the GATT Uruguay Round agreement.
Implementing the agreement will boost global growth by an
estimated $5 trillion over the next 10 years.  Forty percent
of this growth will occur in the Asia-Pacific.  It is clear
that our nations share an enormous stake in the Round's

The United States recognized its responsibility to ratify
the Uruguay Round by the end of this year.  President
Clinton is determined to achieve this result.  I am
confident that when the debate is over and the votes are
cast, the United States Congress will once again choose
trade, growth, and jobs.

One year ago, less than a month before the deadline, APEC
members stepped forward to ensure the successful conclusion
of the Uruguay Round.  Once again, we are facing a deadline
to act.  Once again, APEC must lead.  As great trading
powers, we share great responsibilities.  We have a golden
opportunity to help construct the architecture of a more
prosperous, more integrated world.

President Soeharto recognized that in order to fulfill the
vision of Blake Island, we need to take bold political
action.  The United States applauds President Soeharto's
leadership in support of free and open trade in the Asia-
Pacific region.  This goal will accelerate the momentum
toward regional integration and fuel the dynamism of our
economies.  That greater prosperity will in turn be a boost
to stability and cooperation across the region.

As ministers, we have an essential role to play.  Our
challenge is to develop specific steps that will fulfill our
leaders' vision.  That has been the core of our work over
the last year, and it will be the core of our work leading
to our next meeting in Japan.  The actions we take in areas
such as customs standards and telecommunications will help
us reach our broad goal of open and free trade.

We all understand that the APEC economies are at different
stages of development.  We know there are sharp contrasts
among our economic structures and our political systems.
But we also know that increasingly open trade is making each
of our economies grow and allowing our people to prosper.
We know that trade and investment liberalization is the
proven path to growth, and we share the conviction that APEC
must guide us along that path.  Blake Island crystallized
our aspirations.  Bogor will channel our commitment to make
them real.  (###)


The U.S.-Philippines Partnership
President Clinton, Philippine President Ramos
Remarks following bilateral meeting, Manila, Philippines,
November 13, 1994

President Ramos.  Thank you, Mr. Secretary.  Good evening,
ladies and gentlemen.  Today, President Clinton and I took
concrete steps toward enhancing Philippine-American
relations.  During our bilateral meeting I expressed my
sincere appreciation to President Clinton for the
substantial participation of the United States' armed forces
three weeks ago in the commemoration of the 50th anniversary
of the Leyte landing.

Our meeting this afternoon enabled us to discuss a wide
range of issues, with direct import on our bilateral
relations and the peace and stability of the Pacific.  I
acknowledged our debt of gratitude to America's commitment,
to America's strength, and to America keeping faith with her
ideals and values in such areas as Haiti, the Persian Gulf,
and the Korean Peninsula.

We both agreed to build our partnership on the basis of
mutual respect and mutual benefit, reinforced by our common
commitment to democracy and the rule of law.  President
Clinton and I recognize the value of enhancing the security
and stability of the Asia-Pacific region and reiterated our
commitment to the peaceful resolution of conflict.  We
agreed that only under such conditions can the full economic
growth and prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region be

I assured President Clinton that the Philippines will
continue to support the peace-keeping initiatives of the
United States and the United Nations,  as we recently have
manifested by   dispatching to Haiti an initial contingent
of 50 international police monitors--IPs--from this country.
I also congratulated him for the United States' role in the
series of breakthrough agreements for peace and development
in the Middle East and in the Korean Peninsula which has
lifted our hopes for its eventual denuclearization.

I have been assured, in turn, by President Clinton that they
will encourage a higher level of investment by Americans.  I
also acknowledged his government's support for our bid to
attain newly industrializing country--NIC--status by the
turn of the century.  We further agreed to find ways and
means to improve our two-way trade.  The United States
continues to be our number-one trading partner, and we
believe that we can greatly expand our trade by the further
lowering of trade barriers.

To accelerate trade liberalization, President Clinton and I
agreed on the urgency of the ratification of the Uruguay
Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade by
member countries.  I assured him of the Philippines'
commitment to trade liberalization and investment
facilitation, which must be accompanied by conditions of
national stability and political will.

We also agreed that the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation--
APEC--leaders' summit in Indonesia will be a landmark forum
that will shape the future course of the economy of the
entire Asia-Pacific area and, indeed, of the world.  We both
affirmed the value of the Philippines-U.S. Mutual Defense
Treaty--the MDT--and its contribution to regional security
and stability.  We agreed that our joint exercises, which
are planned by the Mutual Defense Board, should be continued
to ensure the interopera-bility of military units.

I appreciate President Clinton's effort to help resolve the
longstanding issue of the claims of Filipino veterans of
World War II with the United States Government.  Even as I
acknowledged the concern of leading members of the U.S.
Congress for the restoration of Filipino veterans' rights, I
welcome these assurances that the United States will work
hand in hand with the Philippine Government in helping to
promote the welfare of Amerasians in the Philippines.

President Clinton and I renewed our commitment to the
protection of the environment and the preservation of the
world ecological balance.

Lastly, I reiterated my appreciation for the warm welcome
and hospitality extended by President Clinton and the
American people during my visit to the United States last
year.  We look forward to moving the Philippines-United
States partnership to a higher and more mutually beneficial
level in the years to come.  Thank you very much.  Salamat.

President Clinton.  Thank you very much.  First, let me
thank President Ramos for the warm welcome that the U.S.
delegation has received here in the Philippines.

We had a very good bilateral discussion in which the
President expressed the Philippine position and the
interests of the Filipino people very articulately on a
large number of issues.

I would like to point out, in general, that during the last
50 years, the relationship between the United States and the
Philippines has changed, has grown, and has matured; but we
are still very much bound together in ways that I think are
positive.  There are, after all, more than 100,000 Americans
who make their home here permanently, and in the United
States there are about 1.5 million Americans of  Philippine

We admire your democracy and we have especially admired all
the things that have been done in the last eight years.  We
have an important security relationship.  You heard the
President talk about the joint exercises.  I also was able
to inform President Ramos that the United States soon will
be able to supply the Philippine armed forces with two C-
130s, and that we will continue to discuss the possibility
of shared equipment to build up the strength and the
security of the Philippine armed forces.

We talked about regional security in general, and I want to
again publicly thank President Ramos for the support that he
has given to the agreement we have reached in cooperation
with the South Koreans and the Japanese with North Korea, in
which North Korea has agreed to become a non-nuclear state
and to remove the threat of the proliferation of weapons of
mass destruction.  I also thanked President Ramos for the
participation of the Philippines in our remarkable
international coalition in Haiti.

Finally, we discussed our economic relationships.  Most of
what should be said has already been said by President
Ramos, but let me say that I was deeply impressed when the
President came to the United States and told me that his new
policy was trade, not aid.  That is a welcome message.

The United States purchased $5 billion in products from the
Philippines last year.  We are the largest investor here.
We like being the largest purchaser and the largest
investor.  This morning, the Secretary of State hosted a
breakfast for leading American business interests here which
I attended, and I pledged to the President I would do what I
could to increase the interest of the American business
community in investment in the Philippines.

We both support GATT and hope that both of our legislative
bodies will ratify it shortly.  When I leave the APEC
conference I am going home to achieve that objective, and I
hope we do.  I believe we will.  We are going to APEC with a
view toward continuing to break down the barriers to trade
and investment.

The United States will and must remain engaged in the
Pacific region for security reasons and for economic
reasons.  One-third of our exports, supporting some 2
million American jobs, already go to the Asia-Pacific
region.  This is a very important thing for us.  The fact
that we have the sort of relationship we do and that both of
us are now going to Indonesia to try to deepen the idea that
we should be working together across the vast Pacific to
support the prosperity and future of our respective people
is a very important one indeed.

So for all those reasons, I consider this to be a successful
trip.  Again, I thank the President for his kind hospitality
and for his frank, open, and straightforward way of stating
the positions of the Philippine Govern-ment and the
Philippine people.  Thank you.  (###)


The United States and APEC:  Making Real a Common Vision
President Clinton
Opening statements from news conferences, Jakarta, Indonesia

November 14, 1994

I am very glad to be here in Indonesia for this APEC
meeting.  As I said before I left the United States, I am
here because this opportunity for me to meet with leaders
throughout this region can lead to more economic
opportunities for Americans and a reduced threat of nuclear

Today, I had the opportunity to meet with President Jiang
Zemin of China, Prime Minister Murayama of Japan, Prime
Minister Keating of Australia, and President Kim of South
Korea.  The most important topic of our conversations was
the situation on the Korean Peninsula.  All the leaders
indicated their strong support for the agreement we reached
with North Korea to freeze and then to dismantle its ability
to build nuclear weapons.  All agreed on the importance of
resuming the dialogue between North and South Korea.  This
agreement marks a historic step to freeze and, ultimately,
to end the greatest security threat in this region.

Prime Minister Murayama of Japan and South Korean President
Kim agreed that we must maintain our close cooperation as we
begin to implement the agreement.  The three of us plan to
meet briefly again later this evening to follow up on our
earlier conversations.

In all my meetings today, I made it clear that the
fundamental interests of the United States and the Pacific
remain unchanged.  Each of the leaders welcomed the
assurance that the United States will continue to exercise
active leadership in the region.

In each of the meetings today, there was also strong
agreement that the early ratification of GATT would be
absolutely essential to maintaining the climate that
promotes global economic growth and expanding trade.  I told
each of the leaders that I would do everything that I could
to pass the GATT, that Congress would come back soon and
that I thought it would pass.  It was clear to me that the
rest of the world is looking to the United States for
leadership on this issue.  It is also clear to me--I will
say again--that it is very much in our interest to pass GATT
because it means more high-wage jobs for Americans.

Finally, in each of the meetings we discussed the APEC
Leaders' Meeting, which begins tonight.  I expressed my
strong support for the efforts of President Soeharto to
build on the common vision of the Asia-Pacific community
that we set forth at Seattle last year in the first of these
Leaders' Meetings.

This week's discussions, I believe, will allow us to take a
critical step forward toward free and open trade throughout
the region.  After all, this is very important to the United
States.  Already, one-third of our exports go to the Asia-
Pacific region; already, 2 million American jobs are tied to
this region.  This is the fastest-growing part of the world.
So, it is very important that we proceed first, with GATT
and second, with APEC so that we can continue the economic
recovery at home and continue to provide increasing
opportunities for our people.

All these meetings today reinforced my beliefs that the
United States is strong in the Asia-Pacific region; that we
are getting stronger in this region; and that in so doing,
we are strengthening Americans economically and in terms of
our security.  In short, we are moving in the right
direction.  This is a good investment; we need to make the
most of it.

November 15, 1994

Good evening--or good morning to the people who are watching
this back in America.  At our meeting in Bogor today, the
Asia-Pacific leaders pledged to achieve free and fair trade
and investment between our nations by the year 2020, with
the industrialized countries reaching this goal by 2010.
This agreement is good news for the countries of this region
and, especially good news for the United States and our
workers.  I want to thank President Soeharto for hosting
this meeting and for his leadership in crafting the

When the United States brought the APEC leaders together in
Seattle for the very first time last year, we agreed on a
common vision of a united, open trading system.  At this
year's meeting, we have committed to make that vision real
through free and fair trade, and to do it by a date certain.
We will meet again next year in Osaka.  Meanwhile, we will
develop a detailed action agenda--a blueprint--for achieving
our goal of free and fair trade, which I hope and believe
will be approved when we meet in Osaka.

APEC is primarily an economic organization, and today's
talks focused on those issues.  While I believe stronger
trade ties also will lead to more open societies, I remain
committed to pursuing our human rights agenda as I did in my
individual meetings with the leaders this week.  This is an
agenda we must be willing to pursue with both patience and
determination, and we will.

From the beginning of this Administration, we have worked to
create high-wage jobs and a high-growth economy for the 20th
century by expanding our ability to trade with and do
business with other nations.  The Asia-Pacific region is key
to the success of this strategy because it is the fastest-
growing region in the world, with rapidly expanding middle
classes who are potential American customers.  Already, one-
third of our exports go to these nations with 2 million
American jobs tied to them.  We know that export-related
jobs, on average, pay much higher than regular jobs in

These free and fair trade agreements will benefit Americans
for a simple reason:  Our nation already has the most open
markets on earth.  By opening other markets, our products
and services become more competitive, and more sales abroad
create more high-wage jobs at home.

Under this agreement, individual APEC nations will have to
tear down trade barriers to reap trade benefits.  No country
will get more in benefits than it gives--no free riders.
Today's agreement will lower barriers even further than the
historic GATT world trade agreement.

Let me just give you one example.  Even after the GATT world
trade agreement takes effect, tariffs on American
automobiles in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the
Philippines will still be between 30% and 60%--lower than
they are today but very high.  By contrast, our tariffs on
automobiles are 2.5%.

The market in just these four countries alone in six years
will be as great as the total market in Canada and Mexico
combined.  This APEC agreement will knock down Asian tariffs
even further, and American autos will, therefore, be more
affordable.  That means for an auto worker in Detroit or
Toledo more secure jobs and factories with more workers--
factories that are growing, not shrinking.

I am proud of the leadership of the United States in
creating a post-Cold War world that is both safer and more
prosperous, a better place for Americans to live and work.
Trade agreements like NAFTA, the GATT agreement, and now the
Bogor Declaration, along with the Summit of the Americas
next month, are important in their own way just as are the
agreements we have made with the Russians and Ukraine on
nuclear missiles, the North Korean nuclear agreement, and
the agreement on missile deployments with China.  I am
convinced this declaration will prove to be of historic

Americans may hear about this declaration and think that
2010 is a long time to wait for any benefits.  That is--let
me emphasize--the completion date for the process.  The
benefits will begin for America as soon as we begin to
implement the blueprint, which we will develop in this
coming year.

But, first things first.  Our first meeting in Seattle last
year created the conditions that helped make it possible to
get agreement among the nations of the world on the GATT
world trade agreement.  Without the meeting in Seattle, we
might well not have had a GATT agreement.

Now, when we return to Washington, our first order of
business must be for Congress to pass the GATT.  Every
leader I spoke with here asked me about U.S. leadership on
GATT and on world trade issues generally.  America's
opportunities and our responsibilities demand a spirit of
bipartisanship--especially when it comes to keeping our
country strong abroad.

That cooperation was demonstrated in the historic NAFTA
victory and in the encouragement I received from the
Republican leaders before I left for this trip.  Now, I call
upon the Congress--members of both parties--to use this
momentum from this trip to pass the GATT.  The economic
recovery going on in our country and taking hold in the
world depends upon the passage of GATT and our continued

At the end of the Second World War, the United States had a
bipartisan effort to create an enduring partnership with our
allies that helped keep the peace and helped spawn an era of
global prosperity that created enormous opportunities for
the American people.  Now, at the end of the Cold War, we
are building a new framework for peace and prosperity that
will take us into the future.  It is imperative that the
United States lead as we move toward this new century.  That
is our great opportunity, and that is the best way we can
help all Americans toward a more prosperous future.  (###)


Expanding Opportunities For U.S. Businesses Abroad
Secretary Christopher
Address before the Jakarta American Chamber of Commerce,
Jakarta, Indonesia, November 15, 1994

Thank you for that kind introduction.  It is a pleasure to
be introduced by your American Chamber of Commerce
President, Louis Clinton.  It is not often that I get
introduced by President Clinton.  I am delighted to be here
with B. Allan Sugg, the President of the University of
Arkansas, and I am happy to see my fellow Californian,
Congressman Norm Mineta.

Although I always welcome the chance to meet with American
business people when I travel abroad, this is an especially
timely meeting.  This morning, President Clinton and 17
other leaders of the APEC economies are gathering in Bogor
for a historic summit.  The President, my Cabinet colleagues
Ron Brown, Mickey Kantor, and I are in Indonesia because we
recognize that the United States has an immense and
increasing stake in our economic engagement with this

Thirty years ago, Asia accounted for only 4% of the world's
economy.  Now it accounts for 25%.  Trade between the United
States and Asia already supports 2.5 million American jobs.
That number is sure to rise as American companies bid
successfully on a projected $1 billion in Asian
infrastructure contracts over the next decade.  In very
concrete ways, America's economic future lies in our Pacific
future--a future of shared prosperity and stability across
an ocean of opportunity.


APEC can help us shape that Pacific future.  The APEC vision
is one of growth driven by the dynamism of individuals and
enterprises--a vision of bridges built across national
boundaries and of barriers removed between economies, a
vision of economic integration and cooperation.

APEC has made extraordinary strides since its inception just
five years ago.  Then, APEC included just 12 of the Asia-
Pacific economies.  Today, it embraces 18.  APEC has become
an important vehicle for opening markets and expanding
economic cooperation across the fastest-growing part of the
global economy.

The first-ever meeting of APEC leaders, which President
Clinton convened last November at Blake Island, near
Seattle, gave APEC stature and momentum.  At last week's
ministerial meetings, we took concrete steps to make APEC
come alive.  We agreed to move ahead in building
infrastructure, supporting small- and medium-sized
businesses, and developing human resources.  We approved an
APEC investment code that will begin the process of
improving investment regimes across the region.  We agreed
to deepen the private sector's role in APEC.  Without
becoming a bureaucracy itself, APEC can help get bureaucracy
out of the way of business.  The United States proposed and
our APEC colleagues widely supported three initiatives that
will bring concrete benefits to American business:

First, the establishment of a permanent "Asia-Pacific
Business Forum" to provide direct private-sector guidance
for APEC's work throughout the coming year and beyond.

Second, a meeting of APEC transportation ministers and
private-sector representatives to address the region's
massive infrastructure demands.

Third, the formation of an APEC Education Foundation--a non-
profit corporation that could coordinate all of APEC's
education and human resource development activities.

As you know, President Soeharto has called for a political
commitment to free trade in the Asia-Pacific region by the
year 2020.  The United States supports that bold proposal--
and we hope that the APEC leaders will reach consensus on it
today.  Adopting this goal would accelerate the region's
integration and fuel the dynamism of its economies.  It
would open markets for American exports.  And it would
create a powerful impetus for trade liberalization around
the globe.


Of course, the most immediate impetus to global
liberalization is approval of the GATT Uruguay Round
agreement.  Its implementation will boost global growth by
an estimated $5 trillion in the next 10 years.  Its impact
on American business in the Asia-Pacific--where 40% of that
growth is likely to occur--will be far-reaching.   It will
open once-closed agricultural sectors in Japan and Korea.
It will cut tariffs in Asia for major American exports such
as construction equipment, pharmaceuticals, and medical
instruments, and it will help protect our intellectual

The Uruguay Round agreement is complex.  But in Asia and
around the world, its results will be simple:  the greatest
reduction in tariffs and the greatest expansion of trade in

I have been in Jakarta for nearly a week.  I must tell you
that in every APEC ministerial session and bilateral
meeting, my foreign counterparts stressed to me the crucial
importance of American ratification of the Uruguay Round
agreement for continued global and regional economic growth.
Passage of the agreement is a signal test of American
leadership, and I will be bringing that message home to our

We welcome recent statements of support by Republican
leaders.  I am confident that when Congress reconvenes later
this month, it will renew the great bipartisan coalition of
open trade and cast its vote for growth, jobs, and American
engagement in the world.  The enormous dividends of the
Uruguay Round must not be deferred or denied.  As President
Clinton said last week, "Our prosperity depends on it."

GATT and APEC are two of this Administration's efforts to
expand opportunities globally and regionally for American
business.  But it is up to American business people to seize
these opportunities--and you are.  Every day, you and your
colleagues are deepening our engagement in this region of
fast change and explosive growth.  You are creating export
opportunities for American companies and jobs for American
workers.  You are finding the niches.  You are cracking the
markets--and there are few with more potential than

Opportunities in Indonesia

Today, after 25 years of sound economic policies and a
stunning growth rate of more than 6% a year, Indonesia is
taking its place among the dynamos of Southeast Asia.  The
manufacturing sector is expanding.  Technology is advancing.
Poverty is diminishing, the middle class is growing, and
Indonesian living standards are rising.

In Indonesia, as everywhere, free markets and open trade are
the basic preconditions for business confidence and economic
growth.  But, sound economic policies alone do not guarantee
a healthy, transparent business environment.  The foundation
of open economies--rights that protect contracts, property,
and patents--can only be guaranteed over time by the rule of
law.  Open economies ultimately depend on open societies.

The growing American business presence in Indonesia is
playing an extremely constructive role.  American exports to
Indonesia have doubled since 1988.  One of my messages to
you today is that the United States Government, through the
State Department, the Commerce Department, the EximBank, and
OPIC are working hard together to help you expand
opportunities and improve the environment for American
business in  Indonesia.  In this connection, we are
encouraging the Government of Indonesia to take additional
steps to build on its recent progress in deregulating and
liberalizing foreign investment requirements--and in
protecting intellectual property rights.

Leveling the Playing Field For U.S. Businesses

In the not-too-distant past, the promotion of U.S. business
interests abroad was rarely at the top of the diplomatic
agenda.  I believe that the Clinton Administration has
changed that for good.  From the most senior adviser to the
most junior career officer, my colleagues at State know
there is no higher priority than sitting behind what I call
the "America Desk"--which is my shorthand for the job of not
just promoting American business but also ensuring that our
business people can compete and win on a level, fair, and
open playing field.

Let me mention one critical factor shaping that playing
field.  Last year, I spoke before the American Business
Council in Singapore.  Among the issues they raised with me
was the problem of illicit payments.  This is not just a
regional problem; this is a global problem.  The United
States is now leading the fight against the bribery of
foreign officials in international commerce.  In response to
an initiative I launched last October, the member nations of
the OECD committed themselves to take "concrete and
meaningful" steps to stop illicit payments by their firms.
We have no illusions that the OECD agreement will
immediately level the playing field for American companies.
But we are determined to maintain pressure on our trading
partners to combat these practices.

My colleagues in Washington and at our missions abroad are
working to eliminate the business practices and break down
the barriers that penalize American firms around the world.
We are going to bat for American firms competing for foreign
orders.  We are your aggressive advocates at home and
abroad.  I think you will find that this aggressive attitude
pervades our posts all over the world.  If you don't, let us

Let me emphasize that the Department of State depends on
your advice  not just on business issues but on how you
think we can best promote American interests abroad.  I am
personally committed to ensuring that American firms receive
energetic support from their government and our missions
abroad.  We want to hear from you, and we will make sure
your voice is heard. (###)


U.S.-Asia Economic Engagement  In the 21st Century
President Clinton
Remarks to members of the U.S. business community and
Pacific business leaders, Jakarta, Indonesia, November 16,
1994  [introductory remarks deleted]

Iwant to thank all of you here from the American private
sector who are in the audience for your presence but, more
importantly, for your commitment to keeping our nation
engaged economically across the world.

Keeping America on the front lines of economic opportunity
has been my first priority since I took office.  We are
pursuing a strategy to promote aggressive growth in the
short run and in the long run.  We began by putting our
house in order.  Our deficit was exploding; the public debt
in America had quadrupled between 1981 and 1993.  Now we are
looking at a reduction in the deficit for the third year in
a row for the first time since President Truman was
President.  Federal spending is the lowest it has been in
more than a decade.  We cut domestic and defense spending
last year for the first time in 25 years.  The federal work
force is shrinking to its lowest level since President
Kennedy was in office.

The second thing we are doing is working hard to expand
trade and investment.  That is what NAFTA was all about;
that is what the GATT agreement is all about; what the
Summit of the Americas, soon to be held in Miami and,
obviously, this wonderful APEC meeting are all about.

The third thing we are working to do is to develop a system
of life-long learning for our people--from expanding pre-
school programs like Head Start to providing more affordable
college education to our people, to changing the whole
unemployment system in America to a continuous retraining
system for people who must find new jobs in a rapidly
changing global economy.

Lastly, we are trying to change the way our government
works.  Secretary Brown talked about it a little bit.  There
was, I think, a perception among American businesses when we
took office that both parties, historically, were wrong in
their approach to business--looking to the future, not to
the past; that the Democratic Party sometimes tended to see
the relationship between business and government as
adversarial, and the Republican Party sometimes seemed to be
philosophically committed to being inactive, on the theory
that anything the government did with the private sector
would probably make things worse.

In a world in which all economics is global as well as
local, clearly, the important thing is partnership,
efficiency, and good judgment.  We have deregulated our
banking and interstate trucking industries.  We have changed
our whole way of purchasing things in the government.  We
have invested more in defense conversion and new
technologies, in partnerships with the private sectors.  We
have deregulated our relationships with our own local
governments, permitting states to pursue their own reforms
in health care and education and, most importantly, in
changing our welfare system.

But, perhaps over the long run, the most significant thing
we have done is to reorganize the way we relate to the
private sector, requiring all of our departments to work
together and to look outward in partnership.  The key to
making this strategy work is erasing the dividing line
between domestic and foreign economics--between, therefore,
domestic and foreign policy.

So far, I think, we are off to a pretty good start.  Now the
figures for the first 22 months are in.  We have over five
million new jobs in our economy; our industrial capacity is
operating at its highest level in 14 years, with our lowest
rate of inflation for 29 years.  After years and years in
which we were not seeing any increased income among our
working people, this year we have more high-wage jobs coming
into the American economy than in the previous five years
combined.  Now that is worth clapping for.

The success of this ultimately rests on what our private
sector does--on the productivity of our workers, the skill
of our management, our continuing commitment to investment,
to technologies, to enterprise, and to outreach.  That is
why we have pursued, from the beginning, a vigorous export
strategy--a strategy rooted in tearing down trade barriers
that deny our people the opportunity to compete and in
actively promoting the sales of American goods and services
in other nations.

We have especially tried to target--thanks in large measure
to Secretary Brown--not just our traditional markets but the
big, emerging markets--the markets of the 21st century--
places like China, Indonesia, Mexico, and Brazil.  In a
departure from the behavior of previous administrations of
both parties, we have unashamedly been an active partner in
helping our business enterprises to win contracts abroad.

I know that many of you in this audience have already
benefited from the coordinated and vigorous efforts of the
Commerce, State, and Treasury Departments; the Export-Import
Bank; the Overseas Private Investment Corporation; and the
Trade Development Agency.  One of the things I most enjoy
now when I go abroad is that I always try to take a little
time to meet with American businesspeople operating in other
countries.  Repeatedly, they tell me that for the first time
ever, they see an American State Department interested in
economic advancement as well as diplomatic progress.  All
these things are important.  I have to say to all of you
that the most important thing we have to do this year is to
go home and get the Congress to pass the GATT agreement.

When the APEC leaders met in Seattle last year for the first
time and President Soeharto came there along with leaders
from 14 other countries, one of the things we did was to let
the rest of the world know that we were not going to sit
around while they decided whether we were going to have a
GATT agreement.  It was not very long before we got a GATT
agreement.  But, now that the leaders have agreed on it, the
legislative bodies of all these nations must adopt it.  The
world is looking to the United States for leadership here,
as well they should.

We have had opposition to GATT in our Congress from members
of both parties, but we have also had strong bipartisan
support.  So I am going home to seek to capitalize on that
bipartisan support, to ask the Democrats to support GATT,
and to invite the new Republican leaders in Congress to
ratify one of their great predecessors'--Senator Vandenburg-
-admonition that partisanship should stop at the water's
edge.  That used to apply to national security defined in
military terms.  Today, it applies to national security
defined in economic terms.  We must pass the GATT, and we
should do it right away.

For five decades after the Second World War, our presence in
Asia was intended to help guarantee security and to allow
prosperity to take root.  In meetings this week, I
reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to strengthen our important
bilateral security relationships, to bolster regional
alliances in security, and to rapidly implement the very
important agreement we have reached with North Korea for
that nation to become a non-nuclear nation.  All these
things will make this region more secure and, therefore,
enable more prosperity to take root.

I have tried to make it clear to all the leaders of Asia
that the United States will honor its commitments to Asian
security.  But it is also a fact, and a healthy one, that
the balance of our relationship with Asia has tilted more
and more toward trade.  As a result of the efforts of the
Asian people, the Asian economies are clearly the most
dynamic and rapidly growing on earth.  Already they account
for one-quarter of the world's output.  Over the next five
years, the growth rate in Asia is projected to be over 50%
higher than the growth rate in the mature economies of the G-
7 countries.

This means expanding markets to those who have the most
attractive products and services.  Increasingly, we like to
believe those products and services are American.  One-third
of our exports already go to Asia, supporting more than two
million American jobs.  Over the next decade, we estimate
that if we are vigorous and effective, Asia could add more
than 1.8 million jobs to the American economy--jobs that pay
on average 13% above non-export-related jobs.  That is a
very important thing for us, and an important thing for
every American to think about.  These facts compel us to
remain ever more committed to deeper, and deeper, and deeper
economic, political, and security engagement in Asia.

For decades, we concentrated our efforts on Europe and, of
course, on Japan.  These nations will remain our close
allies, our key competitors, our critical trading partners.
But this new century we are about to enter compels a new
strategy.  Indonesia, Thailand, China, and India, among
others, must be a big part of that strategy.

The importance of Asia to our future is what has animated
the intense interest of the United States in the APEC
meetings.  APEC, for me and for our country, is a long-term
commitment.  A year ago, as I said, 14 of the APEC leaders
met for the first time in the United States in Seattle.  We
wanted to say to our trading partners and friends in Asia
that the United States wants to remain engaged.  We want the
Pacific Ocean to unite us, not to divide us.  We want to see
the world growing in an open trading system, not breaking up
into various trading blocks opposed to one another.   We
sought to give this incredibly diverse Asia-Pacific region a
common identity rooted in a common purpose, committed to
free trade and investment.

This week at the summit, thanks in large measure to the
leadership of President Soeharto, we began to transform that
vision into a reality.  We established concrete goals to
reduce barriers to trade and investment throughout this
region by a date certain.  We are now committed, next year
in our meeting in Osaka, to come up with a practical, day-to-
day blueprint for achieving that goal; to simplify customs
procedures, harmonize stand-ards, identify other
bottlenecks,  and lower tariff and non-tariff barriers.

This commitment to achieve free trade and investment in the
Asia- Pacific region by 2020 may sound like a long time to
most people--and in our country, most of our teenagers think
tomorrow is a long time away.  But the truth is that, number
one, it is not so far away, and number two, that is the end
date.  We will begin reducing barriers to trade and
investment as soon as all of the parties to APEC agree on a
blueprint and agree to implement it.  I am profoundly
encouraged by this prospect.

Yesterday, I got an interesting question from the American
press, which I might have gotten from American
businesspeople, who say:  Mr. President, this is not a
mandatory agreement.  How do you know it will be carried
through?  Good question.  I said that I believe it will
happen for two reasons.  Number one, it is in the interests
of all the countries involved to do it.  And, number two, I
have seen it work in this region.  ASEAN, after all,
committed to reduce barriers to trade by a date certain, and
the commitment was so strong that the leaders reduced the
date certain by five years.  They moved the calendar closer.
That can happen here as well.  I hope it will.  It will be
good for all the nations involved if it does.

Our industries and businesses have proved that they can
compete in this region and with Asian companies, as long as
they are allowed to do so in a fair way.  We have regained
our position throughout the world as the leading seller of
semi-conductors.  This year, for the first time in 15 years,
American automobile manufacturers have outsold their
Japanese competitors in the world markets.

We have done things that I think are very important for the
future--and the changes we have made to become more
competitive in computers and in telecommunications.
According to a recent survey that is conducted every year by
the world economic forum in Geneva, the United States was
voted, for the first time in nine years, the world's most
competitive economy.  That is thanks in no small measure to
a lot of you and a lot of American workers back home and
some pretty wrenching, difficult, and painful changes we had
to undertake.

In the six months from March to August of this year, our
companies won 34 major contracts in Asia--from turbine
generators in China to waste- incinerator technology in
Taiwan.  These contracts alone will generate $5.3 billion in
U.S. exports supporting 85,000 jobs back home.  This week
alone, as you know, American companies signed contracts in
the Philippines, Malaysia, and here in Indonesia for
everything from fiber-optic phone networks to
environmentally friendly geothermal plants.

Secretary Brown was just at the signing ceremony.  As he
said, we had projects worth over $40 billion.  I know that
there is increasing wealth in Indonesia and throughout Asia,
but where I come from, $40 billion is still real money--and
we are grateful for the business.

Of course, as the American President, the most important
thing to me is that these contracts will support jobs--
thousands of them--back home from every place from
Germantown, Maryland, to Oakland, California; from Evandale,
Ohio, to Plantation, Florida.

For all these successes, if we are going to keep going, we
have to recognize that there are still some barriers.  Let
me just cite two examples--and that is why this APEC
agreement is so important.  By the year 2000, the market for
automobiles in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the
Philippines will equal to--I believe will exceed--today's
market in Canada and Mexico combined.

Now, even after GATT takes effect, tariffs on U.S. cars in
these nations are between 30% and 60%, as opposed to a 2.5%
tariff already in existence in the United States.  That
makes it harder to sell a Ford in Bangkok than it is to sell
a Honda in Los Angeles.

Let me give you another example.  The Asian APEC countries
plan to invest more than $1 trillion in infrastructure
projects over the next six years.  For those of you here
from California who know that our busiest highways are in
Southern California, that is like rebuilding 15 Santa Monica
freeways every single day.  Here, again, tariffs imposed--
even after GATT--include 25% levies on hydraulic turbans, up
to 15% tolls on steel.  These are things that American
companies are eager to take down so that we can take part in
the emerging adventure of Asia.

The bottom line is that if we are going to have freer trade,
it must be fairer.  The APEC leaders have made their
commitment to this goal.  It is very, very exciting.

Let me also say that I am very often asked by our press--and
sometimes by the global press as I travel around the world--
whether or not our pursuit of economic engagement undermines
our commitment to human rights throughout the world.  I have
said many times--and I will say again--I think it supports
our commitment to human rights throughout the world.  In
every private meeting I have with leaders not only in this
region but around the world, we talk about human rights
issues and the other values--the things that make up the
quality of life in any nation, things that are important to
Americans from all walks of life.

We do not seek to impose our vision of the world on others.
Indeed, we continue to struggle with our own inequities and
our own shortcomings.  We recognize that in a world and in a
region of such diverse and disparate cultures, where nations
are at different stages of development, no single model for
organizing society is possible or even desirable.  We
respect the tremendous efforts being made throughout this
region to meet the basic needs of people in all these

At the same time, we remain convinced that strengthening the
ties of trade among nations can help to break down chains of
repression; that as societies become more open economically,
they also become more open politically.  It becomes in no
one's interest to depress the legitimate aspirations and
energies, the hopes, the dreams, and the voices of the many
people who make up all of our nations.  Commerce does tend
to open more closed societies.  Throughout this region, we
will see as markets expand, as information flows, as
contacts across borders and among people multiply that the
roots of open societies will grow and strengthen and
contribute to stability, not instability.

More nations will learn that the freer and more educated
people are the more they are able to be creative and to
change with the fast-changing winds of the global economy.
Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea have all demonstrated this to
an admirable degree.

 We in the United States also believe, however, that some
basic rights are universal, that everywhere people aspire to
be treated with dignity, to give voice to their opinions, to
have a say in choosing their leaders.  We permit it on a
regular basis in the United States, even when we don't like
the results.

These aspirations are part of human nature.  We see it in
the stunning life story of President Kim of South Korea or
the courageous dissidents, like Wei-Jing Sheng in China or
Aung San Suu Kyi.  We see it in the lives of these people.

Our nation has sacrificed many of our sons and daughters for
the cause of freedom around the world in this century.  So
we are moved, and we will continue to be moved by the
struggle for basic rights.  But I will say again, even
though we will continue to promote human rights with
conviction and without apology, we reject the notion that
increasing economic ties in trade and partnerships undermine
our human rights agenda.  We believe they advance together
and that they must.

At a time when our nation is strong, in a time when our
inspiration has permeated across the world and people from
South Africa to Northern Ireland have asked us to help them
in their struggle for democracy and freedom, we cannot turn
away from that cause, and we will not.  But your work and
your progress and your success is also central to that

We live in amazing times.  It was only five years ago this
month that the Berlin Wall fell--an amazing thing.  Look at
what has happened to the world in the last five years.  For
the first time since the dawn of the nuclear age, no Russian
missiles are pointed at the children of the United States.

For the first time since the end of World War II, there are
no Russian soldiers in Eastern or Central Europe.  Even
though we have differences with our friends in Russia from
time to time, we are working in genuine partnership across a
whole range of areas that once would have been unthinkable.
After hundreds of years of fighting, the Catholics and
Protestants in Northern Ireland are working hard to resolve
their differences.

We do see now the prospect that the nuclear threat will fade
from the Korean Peninsula.  We see a new determination for
freedom in the Persian Gulf, which we are proud to support.
And the historic, almost breathtaking, recently unimaginable
prospect of peace in the Middle East--the home of the three
great mono- theistic religions of the world, including
Islam, which is followed by the vast majority of the people
in this fine country.

This is a remarkable time.  I am convinced that the
increasing freedom of economic activity, rooted in your
commitment to invest, your commitment to risk, your
commitment to think and imagine and visualize what you might
do and to mobilize human resources in this cause is an
absolutely pivotal part of continuing the march of freedom.

So I ask you, as we leave this remarkable meeting, to
recommit yourselves to fulfilling the human potential of
your enterprise and all those whom you touch.  For when the
history of this era is written, it will be written in those
terms.  These changes, at bottom, are good because we are
permitting--sometimes slowly, often rapidly--more and more
and more and more people, to fulfill the potential that has
lain within them. (###)


The U.S. and Thailand:  Partners In an Asia-Pacific
Secretary Christopher
Opening remarks at a press conference, Bangkok, Thailand,
November 17, 1994

Iwant to take this opportunity to comment briefly on my
visit to Thailand as well as to comment on some of the
broader themes of what has been an exceedingly productive
trip to this region.

Thailand is one of our oldest and closest allies in the
entire region.  Our relationship embodies the key elements
of our overall engagement in the Pacific.  Asia is a key
place for the United States.  Thailand is the largest
economy in Southeast Asia and a market of growing
opportunities for American companies.  Hand in hand with the
leaders of Thailand's government, we have worked hard to
strengthen our economic partnership.  Thus, today, these
efforts have borne considerable fruit.

I want to point to two developments that will help American
business export to and invest in this booming market where
there is an increasingly level and fair playing field.

First, after close cooperation between the U.S. Government
and American industry, the Thai Government has agreed to
open its market for American citrus products.  This accord
has been approved by the Minister of Agriculture here and
will give Thai consumers access for the first time to
wonderful U.S. citrus products.

Second, as a result of friendly but firm negotiation that
culminated in the recent passage of Thailand's new copyright
law, the United States will remove Thailand from the Special
301 Priority Watch List.  The new copyright law is an
important step forward in the protection of intellectual
property in Thailand.  We will continue to keep a close eye
on Thailand's protection of intellectual property rights,
which is vital both to American exporters and investors.
Improved protection of these rights could prevent the loss
of up to $150 million in annual income to U.S. firms, just
here in this one country.  These two developments taken
together will strengthen the position and confidence of
American business in this key market.

Our stake in Thailand's continued prosperity is reinforced
by our long-standing security relationship.  The closeness
of this relationship can be seen by the fact that, in the
current year, we will have 35 military exercises--those are
more military exercises than we have with any other country
in Asia.  We maintain ready access to Thai ports and
airfields, and we conduct a large military procurement
program.  We launched the ASEAN Regional Forum here in
Bangkok last July, and that complements our bilateral treaty
alliance with regional security dialogues aimed at easing
tensions and building confidence in this region.

I want to add just a word of my own personal appreciation to
the Thai Government for its cooperation in the issues
relating to MIAs and POWs.  This is an issue of great
emotional importance to the American people, perhaps
extending beyond what others see as entirely logical.
Nevertheless, for the American people, this is of the utmost
importance.  We greatly appreciate the unstinting
cooperation of the Thai Government in this, and I do so

Our stake in Thailand's security and prosperity is supported
by bonds that grow out of our shared commitment to
democracy.  Just in recent years, Thailand has demonstrated
that accountable government and the rule of law reinforce
the stability necessary for sustained economic growth.  I
went out of my way to compliment the Prime Minister for his
leadership of this surge back to democracy in this country.

As you know, I came to Thailand from a series of APEC
meetings in Indonesia.  I would like to take a moment to put
into perspective the APEC leaders' Bogor Declaration, an
achievement which I believe will come to be seen as a
defining moment for the Asia-Pacific and the United States.

The Bogor Declaration announced an alignment of open
economies committed to the common pursuit of shared
prosperity in this post-Cold War period.  The declaration's
goal of an open and free trade system by 2020 represents a
bold step that will help assure continued growth in this
region, the most dynamic economic region in the entire
world.  The Bogor Declaration is more than just a vision; it
represents an important stage in what I believe is the
beginning of an irreversible process of opening markets and
expanding trade and investment.  By establishing this set
date and demonstrating their commitment to see this process
through, the leaders of the 18 Asia-Pacific economies have
generated irresistible momentum toward open trade.

The importance of such a visionary decision can be seen in
history.  In 1944, far-sighted leaders from the United
States and Western Europe came together at Bretton Woods to
lay the cornerstone of post-war prosperity by creating
economic institutions and demonstrating their commitment to
open trade through what became the GATT.  A half generation
later, in the Treaty of Rome, West European leaders made a
commitment to free and open trade which has culminated in
Europe's single market.  These achievements did not come
overnight. They required much hard work, but their success
is apparent to all.  Today, a new set of leaders is, in its
own way, laying the foundation for a new economic
architecture spanning the Pacific.

The true test of the Bogor Declaration will be its
implementation.  Over the coming year, APEC members must
begin to shape a concrete action agenda--or blueprint--to
take the specific steps necessary to transform Bogor's
vision into reality.  We hope APEC's leaders will be able to
ratify and put into effect that blueprint when they meet
next November in Japan.

The Clinton Administration has put economic security front
and center in American foreign policy.  By promoting
regional integration through APEC in Asia and NAFTA in our
own hemisphere, we are advancing the most ambitious
international economic agenda in over four decades.  Now we
must act on the most important and immediate item on that
agenda:  approving the Uruguay Round agreement by the end of
the year.  A constant theme in the meetings the President
and I had in Asia was the immediate need for American
leadership and action.  I will be taking that message home
to our Congress.  Every nation in this region is looking to
the United States to lead the way on this subject.  Every
nation here is telling me and telling each other that we
need U.S. ratification for the GATT in order to maintain
prosperity, to ensure that we won't have a lapse back into
recession in these areas.  Those who would oppose GATT would
bear a heavy responsibility for risking the loss of momentum
and the loss of the drive toward prosperity throughout the

I began this trip last week in Seoul, where I reaffirmed
America's determination to remain a Pacific power, to uphold
our security commitments, and to take concrete steps to
implement our agreement with North Korea.  Throughout this
trip, I found strong support for the agreement.  All of the
leaders of the region understand its vital importance for
regional security and for halting the spread of nuclear
weapons.  In our bilateral meetings with the Republic of
Korea, Japan, and China, we together asserted our
determination to see this agreement through, to see that it
is implemented.

During the past 10 days, I have traveled widely throughout
the Asia-Pacific region--from Anchorage to Seoul, Manila,
Jakarta, and now Bangkok.  I have been continually struck by
the enormous diversity of languages, cultures, histories,
and levels of economic development.  Some have suggested
that the differences are too fundamental to bridge; that we
must inevitably face a clash of civilizations.  I strongly
disagree.  Based on my own observations, I see, underneath
the diversity, a growing commitment to shared security,
shared prosperity, and open societies.  President Clinton's
commitment to an Asia-Pacific community is taking shape,
slowly but surely, before our eyes.

But the deepening of this community will take strong U.S.
leadership and continued U.S. engagement.  We need and must
maintain strong U.S. leadership.  In the wake of the mid-
term elections in the United States, I have emphasized
throughout this trip the continuity of fundamental values of
American foreign policy.  The important work we did on this
trip to safeguard our security, build prosperity, and
advance our values demon- strates the need for continuing
American leadership in this vital region.  And it
demonstrates our willingness to provide that leadership.


A Human Resources Development Framework for the Asia Pacific
Economic Cooperation:  Declaration

Text of Declaration released at the APEC Ministerial
Meeting, Jakarta, Indonesia, November 11-12, 1994.

APEC Ministers:

Recognizing that in 1993 APEC Economic Leaders in Seattle
envisioned a community in which improved education and
training would provide the skills for maintaining economic

Recalling that the APEC Ministers in Seattle noted that the
people of the region are its most important asset and that
the dynamism of the region is reflected in changing human
resources needs, and urged that continued priority attention
be devoted to developing human resources;

Reaffirming the Declaration of APEC Education Ministers,
adopted at their 1992 Meeting, regarding the critical link
between education and economic development;

Reaffirming the vision and policy issues statements of the
APEC Human Resources Development Working Group and the
training-related parts of those of other Working Groups
which were adopted at the Fifth Ministerial Meeting in 1993;

Reaffirming the principles of the Seoul Declaration:

--  Affirm that the issues of human resources development
and the development of economic growth, employment, and
quality of life should be addressed in an integrated and
coordinated manner;

--  Affirm the value of, and need for, concerted development
of human resources by member economies, the region's
business/private sector enterprises, and research,
education, and training institutions;

--  Affirm the important role of the public sector in giving
guidance to human resources development in both the public
and business/private sectors.

Recognizing that:

--  Human resources is a broad concept requiring focused and
sustained effort for its effective implementation;

--  The development of human resources cuts across the work
programs of most APEC committees and working groups, and so
requires close collaboration; and

--  Differences exist in the economic and social and
political systems of member economies,

Urge members to consolidate and concentrate their efforts in
human resources development to produce tangible economic
benefits in an effort based on focused dialogue and the
achievement of consensus.

We declare:


The objective of human resources development in APEC is to
promote the well-being of all people in the region through
economic growth and development.  This is to be achieved by
advancing the design, development, and delivery of practical
and appropriate education and training for current and
future managers, entrepreneurs, and workers in both the
public and private sectors to contribute to economic growth,
trade and development in the Asia Pacific region.  In
appropriate cases, the objective is to be achieved through
the medium of policy recommendations for the consideration
of APEC Ministers.


The development of human resources in APEC is to be based on
the following principles:

a.  The people of the Asia Pacific are the most important
resource in economic growth and development, one of whose
goals is to enhance the quality of life and well-being of
our peoples;

b.  The development of human resources contribute to the
attainment of such fundamental values as the alleviation of
poverty, full employment, universal access to primary,
secondary and vocational education, and the full
participation of all groups in the process of economic
growth and development;

c.  Human resources development requires cooperative action
by public, and business/private sectors, educational and
training institutions;

d.  In designing regional approaches to human resources
devel- opment attention must be given to the diversity of
experiences and situations in the region.


1.  Provision of a quality basic education for all.

2.  Analysis of the regional labour market to allow sound
forecasting of trends and needs in human resources

3.  Increasing the supply and enhancing the quality of
managers, entrepreneurs, and educators/trainers in areas of
the economy central to fostering economic growth and
development.  Such areas include training in small- and
medium-sized enterprises, entrepreneurship and in the
management of sustainable growth incorporating economic and
environmental considerations.

4.  Reducing skills deficiencies and unemployment by
designing industrial and other training programs for
applications at all stages of a person's working life.

5.  Increasing the quality of curricula, teaching methods
and instruc- tional materials relating to the education and
training of managers and other workers.

6.  Increasing the opportunities in the region for people
who seek to gain skills required for the economic growth and
development of member economies and the region as a whole.

7.  Preparing organizations and individuals to remain
productive in the face of rapid economic and technological
changes in member economies, the Asia-Pacific region and the
global economy.

We decide:

A Work Plan for Human Resources Development in APEC

The APEC Human Resources Working Group shall prepare an
annual work plan for human resources development in APEC.
The work plan is to define the priorities for HRD activities
in APEC and set out the means for their realization in the
immediate and longer terms.  In the preparation of this
plan, the Working Group shall be guided by the objective,
principles and priorities set out in this Declaration and by
the decisions of APEC Leaders and Ministers.  The Working
Group may take into account the views of appropriate
expertise from within APEC and its observer organizations.

The preparation of the work plan shall be incorporated in
the HRD Working Group's first annual meeting held so that
its report can be presented in a timely manner for
consideration by the First Senior Officials Meeting.  (###)


The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Ministerial Meeting:
Joint Statement
Released at the APEC Ministerial Meeting, Jakarta,
Indonesia, Novem-ber 11-12, 1994.

1.  Ministers from Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada,
Chile, the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Indonesia,
Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand,
Papua New Guinea, the Republic of the Philippines,
Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, and the United States
of America participated in the Sixth Asia-Pacific Economic
Cooperation (APEC) Ministerial Meeting convened in Jakarta,
Indonesia, November 11-12, 1994.  Members of the APEC
Secretariat were also present.  The ASEAN Secretariat, the
Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), and the South
Pacific Forum (SPF) attended as observers.

2.  The President of the Republic of Indonesia, His
Excellency, Mr. Soeharto, opened the meeting by extending
the warmest welcome to all delegates attending the Sixth
APEC Ministerial Meeting.  He stated that the world
situation now provides  opportunities to all nations to work
together in developing a new world order that is more
equitable, stable, secure, and peaceful, in order to enhance
the prosperity and welfare of the peoples.  In this regard,
the Asia-Pacific region has achieved remarkable progress due
to appropriate economic policies.

3.  In his remarks, he expressed the view that APEC
cooperation should be further developed in the future.  He
stated that the Asia-Pacific region should continue to
promote and facilitate the flow of investment and trade, as
well as strengthen consultation in the field of macro-
economic policies, enhance the quality of economic
infrastructure, human resources development, quality and
quantity of small and medium enterprises, and the
acquisition and development of appropriate technology.

4.  The meeting was chaired by H.E. Mr. Hartarto,
Coordinating Minister for Industry and Trade of the Republic
of Indonesia.  In his speech, Mr. Hartarto underlined that
the Sixth APEC Ministerial Meeting in Indonesia was geared
towards the promotion of greater trade and investment.  He
further stated that the meeting was to support economic
cooperation on development of human resources, improvement
of small and medium enterprises, improvement of
infrastructure, involvement of private/business sector, so
that cooperation in APEC will eventually bring about
prosperity to the people of the Asia-Pacific Region.  U.S.
Secretary of State Warren Christopher, speaking as chairman
of the Fifth APEC Ministerial Meeting, expressed his deep
appreciation for Indonesia's chairmanship of APEC in 1994
and for hosting the Sixth Ministerial Meeting.  He
congratulated President Soeharto, Minister Alatas, Minister
Hartarto, and their colleagues for their leadership in
sustaining the momentum achieved in APEC and for giving APEC
a vitality that reflects and reinforces the dynamic
qualities of the Asia-Pacific region.

5.  Ministers looked forward to the meeting of APEC Economic
Leaders to be held in Bogor, Indonesia, on November 15,
1994.  The meeting offered a unique opportunity for leaders
to give substance to the vision enunciated at the Blake
Island meeting in order to achieve the objective of
sustainable growth and common prosperity of the region.

6.  Ministers held discussions on a range of topics,

-- Economic Trends and Issues
-- Trade and Investment Issues
-- The Second Report of the Eminent Persons Group
-- The Report of the Pacific Business Forum
-- Human Resources Development
-- Cooperation in Improving Public and Commercial
-- Small and Medium Enterprises
-- Implementation of Leaders' Vision and Initiatives
-- The APEC Work Program
-- Organizational Issues
-- Other Matters

Economic Trends and Issues

7.  Ministers welcomed the Report of the Ad Hoc Group on
Economic Trends and Issues (ETI) and appreciated its useful
work during the past four years.  They reaffirmed the
group's important role in promoting economic dialogue
throughout the region and encouraging economic growth and
increasing the economic well-being of all peoples.
Ministers emphasized the necessity for the strengthening of
APEC's capability in the analysis of long-term macro-
economic trends and studies of micro-economic issues.
Ministers agreed to transform the group into an Economic
Committee and endorsed the Terms of Reference of the new

8.  Ministers thanked Chinese Taipei for its valuable work
on the economic outlook prepared for the Ministers' review.
They agreed that indepth analyses of the current situation
of the three areas--trade, investment, and technology
transfer provide a good basis to contribute to further APEC
discussions on each of the three areas.

9.  Ministers discussed the 1995 work plan for the Economic
Committee which, from the outset, will be based on the
following ongoing activities:

-- Preparation of the 1995 APEC Economic Outlook;

-- Circulation of key economic information;

-- Analysis of the 3Es project--Economic Growth, Energy, and
the Environment;

-- Examination of the linkages between privatization and
trade liberalization;

-- Study of foreign direct investment trends in the region;

-- Analysis of industrial and technological linkages in the

-- Study of the effect of excessive exchange rate movement
on trade and investment in the region.

10.  Ministers welcomed Japan's presentation on "Partners
for Progress" on the promotion of further economic
cooperation and development in the Asia-Pacific region by
reinforcing all the members' ability to effectively mobilize
their human and other resources.  Ministers recognized that
cooperation to sustain the growth and development of the
region for the common good of its peoples is one of the
primary objectives in the APEC activities, and noted that
the proposal will be further elaborated for consideration by
Senior Officials.

Second Report of the Eminent  Persons Group

11.  Ministers expressed their deep appreciation to the
Eminent Persons Group (EPG) for its second report and
commended the successful fulfilment of its mandate to
recommend proposals on how to realize a long term vision for
APEC.  Ministers welcomed that report of the EPG which sets
out a number of fundamental and important principles for
APEC in three important directions:  trade and investment
facilitation, trade liberalization, and technical
cooperation.  Ministers noted that the EPG Report would
serve as a valuable reference document for future
deliberations including at the APEC Economic Leaders Meeting
in Bogor.

Report of the Pacific Business   Forum

12.  Ministers welcomed the report presented by the co-
chairs of the Pacific Business Forum (PBF), and commended
PBF members for their valuable input of business/private
sector views.  Ministers expressed their appreciation for
the many concrete proposals put forward in the PBF report,
and noted that these would serve as valuable reference
points for future deliberations.  Ministers further noted
that the PBF Report would be considered by APEC Economic
Leaders at their Bogor Meeting.

13.  Ministers reaffirmed the critical role of the private
sector in APEC.  They endorsed the U.S. proposal to create
an ongoing business/private sector advisory body as
recommended unanimously by the PBF.

Trade and Investment Issues

14.  Ministers welcomed the substantial progress achieved by
the CTI in the works related to trade and investment
throughout the year.  They reconfirmed trade and investment
liberalization as a cornerstone of APEC's identity and
activity.  Ministers agreed to adopt the CTI Annual Report
to Ministers, and approved its recommendations for the work
program for 1995.

15.  Ministers endorsed the establishment of the two sub-
committees under CTI, namely the Sub-Committee on Standards
and Conformance and the Sub-Committee on Customs Procedures.

16.  Ministers recognised the need to support trade and
investment programs with appropriate technical assistance to
maximise the effectiveness of APEC activities.

The Meeting of Ministers in   Charge of Trade

17.  Ministers welcomed the outcomes of the Meeting of APEC
Ministers in charge of Trade which was held in Jakarta on
October 6, 1994.  As mandated by the Fifth Ministerial
Meeting in Seattle last year, the main purpose of this
meeting was to review the results of the Uruguay Round and
its implications for the region and consider next steps for
regional and global trade liberalization.

18.  Ministers reaffirmed their determination to achieve
full implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round and
to demonstrate leadership by making maximum efforts in each
of their economies to ensure  the early ratification of the
agreement establishing the World Trade Organization so that
it is operational as of January 1, 1995.  In this regard,
Ministers expressed their strong support to non-GATT members
of APEC to complete the negotiations as soon as possible to
enable them to become original members of the WTO.
Ministers affirmed that these negotiations should be based
on substantive and commercially meaningful commitments.

19.  Ministers further welcomed other initiatives reached by
the meeting, inter alia, in developing a series of APEC
seminars or workshops designed to exchange views on and
explore scope for common regional approaches on the
implementation of the results of the Uruguay Round; and in
conducting programs that will be particularly valuable in
helping to implement Uruguay Round results in the area of
among others, anti-dumping, services, intellectual property
rights, customs and rules of origin.  In this respect,
Ministers took note the recognition of the meeting to the
importance of APEC's contribution to global trade,
investment and economic growth and emphasized the importance
of maintaining momentum of trade liberalization.  Ministers
appreciated the support of the meeting to the efforts in
facilitating trade and investment liberalization in the Asia-
Pacific region.

Small and Medium Enterprises

20.  Ministers commended SME experts for their excellent
work during 1994 and noted the importance of this area of
cooperation.  They also commended Chinese Taipei for its
report of the APEC Survey on Small and Medium Enterprises.
They welcomed the recommendations prepared by SME experts at
their two meetings and encouraged Senior Officials to
implement these recommendations.

21.  Ministers also endorsed the SME Minister's
recommendation to upgrade the SME Experts Meeting into an ad
hoc SME Policy Level Group.

Human Resources Development

22.  Ministers adopted the "Declaration on the Human
Resources Development Framework."  The Declaration
identifies the principles and elements of human resources
development in APEC, while establishing a mechanism to plan
and manage the implementation of these principles over time.

23.  Ministers reaffirmed that human resources are the
greatest single asset in achieving economic growth and
development whose goal is the well being of their peoples.
It is important that APEC be able to identify changes in the
demand for skills in critical sectors which may cause
bottlenecks to growth and development if not efficiently
resolved.  It is also important to develop, through general
public education in public and private training, a labor
force that has the fundamental attitude to permit a flexible
response as requirements change.

24.  Certain groups must be especially targeted for
investment and human resources development on the basis of
their capacity to enhance the development of others.  These
groups include entrepreneurs, managers, and technical
workers in both business/private and public sector,
educators of primary, secondary, tertiary, and vocational
education, trainers in technologies needed for the next
higher   levels of economic development in member economies,
and the future economic leaders of the region.

25.  Ministers affirmed the importance of both public and
private sector training in small and medium enterprises, in
industrial and infrastructural technology, and a sustainable
development which can mitigate and prevent negative impacts
on current growth on future prosperity.

26.  Ministers welcomed the U.S. proposal for establishing a
private sector funded APEC Education Foundation.  Such a
foundation could track all APEC human resources
development/educational activities, and could provide back-
up and serve as a resource to the Human Resources
Development Working Group, the associated Partnership for
Education and Education Forum, and the APEC Leaders
Education Initiatives.  The U.S. offered to develop a
detailed concept paper on this proposal for the
consideration of Senior Officials and other relevant APEC

Cooperation in Improving Public And Commercial

27.  Ministers noted the importance of the infrastructure
issue for APEC and its bearing on future economic
development.  They commended Indonesia for raising important
issues in its useful paper on Cooperation in the Improvement
of Commercial and Public Infrastructure.  They took note
with interest of the outcome of the World Infrastructure
Forum held in Jakarta in October 1994, particularly in
encouraging business sector involvement in infrastructure

28.  Ministers endorsed the recommendations contained in the
paper submitted by Indonesia which constitutes a basis for
further work in this area, especially in the area of
bilateral projects with region-wide impact.

29.  Recognizing the importance of an adequate, efficient,
and safe transportation system and the need for accelerated
development of transportation infrastructure, as well as for
better use of existing facilities, Ministers welcomed a
proposal by the United States to host a meeting of APEC
Ministers in charge of Transportation in mid-1995.
Ministers agreed to ask the Working Group on Transportation
to assist Ministers in elaborating this proposal.

30.  Information and communication will play a major role in
economic growth and development in APEC economies.  The
development of international and domestic information
infrastructure is a priority for all APEC economies.
Ministers noted the interest of the Working Group on
Telecommunications in the development of an APEC information
infrastructure.  Ministers further noted the Global
Information Infrastructure concept introduced at the ITU
World Telecommunications Development Conference.  Ministers
encouraged the Working Group on Telecommunications and other
relevant APEC fora to study the GII concept in their future

The APEC Work Program

31.  Recognizing the importance of the ten APEC Working
Groups to the process of APEC, Ministers stressed that
activities undertaken by the ten Working Groups were an
integral part of APEC's efforts to contribute to the
region's development and prosperity in specific fields.
Ministers noted that in 1994 the Working Groups had made
greater efforts to realizing the objectives contained in the
vision and policy issues statements approved last year.
Ministers approved the consolidated report of the APEC
Working Groups.

Trade and Investment Data

32.  Ministers welcomed a substantial progress made toward
obtaining a near comparable merchandise trade database for
APEC economies.  Ministers also noted the steady efforts of
the Working Group to make consistent the published data of
service trade and foreign direct investment flows and
directed the Group to speed up those efforts.

Trade Promotion

33.  Ministers noted with satisfaction that the Working
Group has been active in engaging the business/private
sector in their activities:  the Working Group held
successfully the 4th Seminar/3rd Training Course on trade
promotion and the first APEC Trade Fair with the full-scale
participation of business people; the group assisted in the
formation of the Asia-Pacific Business Network (APB-Net);
and the group has been engaged in collecting information and
data to be used by the business sector.

Industrial Science and Technology

34.  Ministers noted the initiative of the group to focus
more on the issue of industrial science and technology,
having the name changed to the "Working Group on Industrial
Science and Technology".  Ministers were also encouraged by
a variety of work projects such as APEC Technomart, to
facilitate technology transfer and to promote information
flows of industrial science and technology among members.

Human Resources Development

35.  Ministers, noting the impressive number of projects
completed by the Working Group in 1994, and 20 new
activities--eight of them entirely self-funded--planned for
1995, expressed satisfaction that an increasing number of
these projects directly addressed topics of their concern.
They also expressed their confidence that the new planning
mechanism for HRD expressed in their Ministerial Declaration
would provide additional impetus in the design and
implementation of such projects.

Energy Cooperation

36.   Ministers noted that the Energy Working Group has been
active in implementing programs to encourage the more
efficient delivery and consumption of energy and to mitigate
the environmental consequences of energy use.  They welcomed
the initiatives of the group in underpinning technical
programs by policy discussion conducive to a freer flow of
information, investment and trade, noting that the group has
endorsed fourteen non-binding principles to guide its work.

Marine Resources Conservation

37.  Ministers noted that the Working Group had initiated
consultations with other international organizations
involved in implementation of the Oceans Chapter of UNCED
Agenda 21, with the objective of enhancing coordination of
these activities in the Asia-Pacific region.  They also
welcomed the effort of the Working Group on red tide, and
integrated coastal zone management to monitor and control
land-based sources of pollution.


38.  Ministers welcomed and endorsed the Guidelines for
Regional Harmonization of Equipment Certification and for
Trade in International Value-Added Network Services as
developed and agreed by the Working Group following the
Ministerial recommendation on the subject in Seattle in
November 1993.  Ministers also appreciated the Working
Group's emphasis on an active human resources development
program and its continuing work in the field of electronic
data interchange.


39.  Ministers noted the importance of fisheries to the
region, in particular to many developing member economies
and recognized the benefit of work that is being undertaken
by the Working Group in the areas of cooperation in fish
harvesting and post-harvest technologies, seafood trade,
health and quality control for fisheries products, and
aquaculture training and development.


40.  Ministers noted the importance of efficient
transportation systems as an integral part of regional
infrastructure in promoting growth and development.  They
welcomed the completion of the survey of regional transport
systems and services as a stepping stone to further
improvements in the transportation sector, and praised the
Working Group's ongoing project addressing regional
transportation congestion points.  Ministers expressed their
appreciation for the Working Group's report to Ministers on
the effects of deregulation on small and medium enterprises
in the transportation sector.


41.  Ministers noted the statement submitted to them by the
Working Group on Tourism highlighting the significant role
of the tourism sector in the development of the APEC region,
and priority areas of future work.  Ministers encouraged the
Working Group to continue and develop further its activities
in these areas.

Implementation of Leaders' Vision and Initiatives

APEC Leaders' Economic Vision Statement, 1993:  Progress on

42.  Ministers expressed appreciation for the presentation
by Canada of the paper "APEC 1994 Work Program:  Progress on
Leaders Priorities and Issues."  Ministers noted that the
paper presented a useful survey of the breadth and scope of
APEC's range of activities, relating them to the Seattle
Leaders' initiatives.  Ministers endorsed the release of
this report as a contribution to public understanding of
APEC activities.

Remarks on the Progress of the Implementation of the
Leaders' Initiatives on Blake Island

--  The Establishment of the Pacific Business Forum

43.  Ministers welcomed the work that has been concluded by
the PBF.  (A complete Ministers' comment on the PBF is
stated at the item of "The Report of Pacific Business

--  Finance Ministers' Meeting

44.  Ministers noted that APEC Finance Ministers had met in
Honolulu, Hawaii on March 18-19, 1994 and had agreed to
further a dialogue in areas of mutual interest, such as
recent economic developments, capital flows, and financial
markets issues, with a focus on private financing of
infrastructure.  They welcomed the decision of the APEC
Finance Ministers to hold a second meeting in Indonesia on
April 15-16, 1995.

--  APEC Education Program

45.  Ministers welcomed progress towards the realization of
the program through the participation of many APEC member
economies, noting the importance of educational links in
strengthening ties among member economies, especially the
progress on APEC Study Centers in member economies.

46.  Ministers welcomed the launching of the APEC Next
Generations' Program which was held in Cheju Island, Korea
on September 11-16, 1994, under the theme "Toward a
Prosperous Pacific Age."  The U.S. has offered to host the
second ANGP Workshops in Seattle in 1995.

--  APEC Business Volunteer Program

47.  Ministers commended Thailand on organizing a seminar
which had reached consensus on how to advance the goals of
the program, notably through the establishment of focal
points in member economies to identify needs for and
expertise in each such economy, to network with other focal
points, and to serve as a dissemination point for
information on the program.

--  Non-Binding Investment Principles

48.  Ministers endorsed the set of Non-Binding Investment
Principles prepared in response to the initiative of APEC
Economic Leaders at their informal meeting in Seattle.
These principles represent an important aspect of work by
APEC on investment.  Ministers welcomed these principles and
directed the CTI to continue work on investment issues, with
the active involvement of the business community, to enhance
investment among member economies.

--  Energy, Environment, and Economic Growth

49.  Ministers commended Japan for its report to the
Ministers on the 3Es.  They discussed the increasing demand
for energy and the growing significance of environmental
issues in the region, and noted the importance of 3Es and
the simultaneous achievement of the 3Es.  Ministers noted
that the Japanese paper will prove helpful to the Energy
Working Group in defining its future efforts.

50.  Ministers also examined the future issue, as pointed
out in the report, of improving the regional structure of
energy demand-supply, and discussed APEC's vital role in
information exchange, fostering common understanding and
policy discussion.

--  APEC Center for Technology Exchange and Training for
Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

51.  Ministers welcomed the progress in elaboration and
realization of the project to make small and medium
enterprises more globally competitive through the two-
pronged strategy of technology exchange and training for
such enterprises.

--  Small and Medium Enterprises Ministers Meeting

52.  Ministers thanked Japan for hosting the Osaka Small and
Medium Enterprises Ministerial Meeting and concurred with
the SMEs Ministers' Joint Statement that SMEs were
increasingly important in terms of heightening economic
complemen-tarities and development in the region.  They also
agreed that market-oriented SMEs policy on Human Resources
Development, information access, technology and technology
sharing, the availability of finance, and market access
should be enhanced.

53.  Ministers noted that a sound base had been established
for APEC SME policy dialogue and noted the joint meeting
between the business/private sector and the Ministers in
that it had obviously enhanced the practical value of the
discussions in the SME Ministerial Meeting.

54.  Ministers endorsed the SME Ministers' recommendation to
upgrade the SME Experts Meeting into an Ad-Hoc SME Policy-
Level Group, and also the terms of reference for this group,
as well as the further recommendation that APEC commission
an industrial outlook study.  They welcomed the decision to
hold a second SME Ministerial Meeting in Australia in 1995.

55.  Ministers welcomed Japan's voluntary contribution to
the fostering of APEC SMEs, such as the establishment of
training and support programmes.

Organizational Issues

APEC Secretariat

56.  Ministers noted with appreciation the work of
Ambassador Rusli Noor and his staff at the Secretariat
during the second year of the Secretariat's operation.
Ministers stressed the importance of the Secretariat in
facilitating and coordinating APEC's work programs and in
promoting information exchanges among member economies as
well as among various Committees and Working Groups.

57.  Ministers took note that the initial arrangement of the
APEC Secretariat is approaching its end.  In this regard,
Ministers asked the SOM to review the arrangement and the
function of the Secretariat to ensure that the Secretariat
is meeting APEC's evolving needs, and submit recommendations
for new arrangements to the next Ministerial Meeting.
Ministers also endorsed the establishment of a Task Force
for this purpose, the terms of reference of which are
contained in the SOM report.

58.  Ministers noted that the Secretariat will have to meet
its recurrent expenditure including salaries and allowances
of locally-recruited staff, utility charges, and charges for
the maintenance of buildings and office equipment, which are
currently being borne by the Singapore Government, effective
on January 1, 1996.  Ministers agreed on the need for the
current arrangements for staffing and funding the
Secretariat to be reviewed.  Ministers endorsed Senior
Officials' recommendations to form a task force to examine
this matter and report to the next Ministerial Meeting.

Participation Issues

59.  Ministers welcomed the membership of Chile in APEC
beginning with this Ministerial meeting.

60.  Ministers discussed the issue of participation by non-
member economies and organizations in APEC Working Groups.
Ministers decided that the matter be referred back to the
Senior Officials for them to work out criteria and
principles to be submitted to the 1995 APEC Ministerial

61.  Ministers noted the progress made to formulate policies
that can promote business activities in the region.

62.  Ministers particularly noted the contributions of the
Pacific Business Forum and the Eminent Persons Group and the
increased participation of the business/private sector in
APEC at all levels, notably in Working Group activities.

63.  Ministers welcomed the establishment of the Asia-
Pacific Business Network (APB-Net).  Ministers commended the
work of APB-Net as a concrete implementation of
business/private sector engagement in the APEC process and
Ministers also expected that this new forum could be a vital
and effective channel for promoting business-to-business

Budget Issues

64.  Ministers welcomed the establishment of the Budget and
Administrative Committee and noted with satisfaction its
successful operation during 1994.  Ministers approved a 1995
budget of U.S. $ 2,227,732 as drawn up by the Committee and
recommended by Senior Officials.  Ministers also endorsed
the contribution levels recommended by Senior Officials for
1995, but noted that the overall approach for assessing
members' contributions would be reviewed next year by the

65.  Ministers asked that the Budget and Administrative
Committee should continue its useful work in examining and
making recommendations to Senior Officials on budgetary
issues and on how to improve operational and administrative

Other Matters

APEC Communications and Database System (ACDS)

66.  Ministers welcomed the report on the completion of the
first stage of the APEC Communications and Database System
(ACDS) project and noted that the ACDS promises to be the
communications hub and information repository of APEC.

67.  Ministers urged full use of ACDS to increase APEC's
efficiency and greatly improve communications among the
member economies, Working Groups and Committees and the

Environment Ministers Meeting

68.  Ministers noted the Philippines presentation of the
concept of Debt-for-Nature Swap in relation to sustainable

69.  Ministers welcomed the result of the Meeting of the
APEC Ministers concerned with the Environment which was held
in Vancouver, Canada on March 23-25, 1994.  Ministers also
welcomed the suggestions for implementation developed by the
Environmental Experts Meeting in Hua Lien, Chinese Taipei,
on August 25-27, 1994.  They directed the SOM and the
Working Groups to study these suggestions and directed the
SOM to report to the Seventh Ministerial Meeting on its
progress in integrating environmental issues into ongoing
APEC activities.

Preparation for the Seventh Ministerial Meeting

70.  Ministers thanked Japan for the valuable briefing on
the preparations of the Seventh APEC Ministerial Meeting in
Osaka,  Japan, in 1995.

Venues for Future APEC Meetings

71.  As decided at the Fourth Ministerial Meeting in
Bangkok, the Seventh Ministerial Meeting will be held in
Japan in 1995.  The Eighth and Ninth Ministerial Meetings
will be held in 1996 and 1997, hosted respectively by the
Republic of the Philippines and Canada.  Malaysia will host
the Tenth Ministerial Meeting in 1998.

72.  Ministers and their delegations expressed their deep
and wholehearted appreciation to the Republic of Indonesia
for its warm and generous hospitality towards all the
participants and the excellent facilities and arrangements
made available for the Meeting.  (###)


APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration Of Common Resolve
Released at the APEC Leaders' Meeting, Bogor, Indonesia,
November 15, 1994.

1.  We, the economic leaders of APEC, came together in
Bogor, Indonesia today to chart the future course of our
economic cooperation which will enhance the prospects of an
accelerated, balanced and equitable economic growth not only
in the Asia Pacific region but throughout the world as well.

2.  A year ago on Blake Island in Seattle, USA, we
recognized that our diverse economies are becoming more
interdependent and are moving toward a community of Asia
Pacific economies.  We have issued a vision statement in
which we pledged:

-- to find cooperative solutions to the challenges of our
rapidly changing regional and global economy;

-- to support an expanding world economy and an open
multilateral trading system;

-- to continue to reduce barriers to trade and investment to
enable goods, services and capital to flow freely among our

-- to ensure that our people share the benefits of economic
growth, improve education and training, link our economies
through advances in telecommunication and transportation,
and use our resources sustainably.

3.  We set our vision for the community of Asia Pacific
economies based on a recognition of the growing
interdependence of our economically diverse region, which
comprises developed, newly industrializing and developing
economies.  The Asia Pacific industrialized economies will
provide opportunities for developing economies to  increase
further their economic growth and their level of
development.  At the same time developing economies will
strive to maintain high growth rates with the aim of
attaining the level of prosperity now enjoyed by the newly
industrializing economies.  The approach will be coherent
and comprehensive, embracing the three pillars of
sustainable growth, equitable development and national
stability.  The narrowing gap in the stages of development
among the Asia Pacific economies will benefit all members
and promote the attainment of Asia Pacific economic progress
as a whole.

4.  As we approach the twenty-first century, APEC needs to
reinforce economic cooperation in the Asia Pacific region on
the basis of equal partnership, shared responsibility,
mutual respect, common interest, and common benefit, with
the objective of APEC leading the way in:

-- strengthening the open multilateral trading system;

-- enhancing trade and investment liberalization in Asia
Pacific; and

-- intensifying Asia Pacific development cooperation.

5.  As the foundation of our market-driven economic growth
has been the open multilateral trading system, it is fitting
that APEC builds on the momentum generated by the outcome of
the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and
takes the lead in strengthening the open multilateral
trading system.

We are pleased to note the significant contribution APEC
made in bringing about a successful conclusion of the
Uruguay Round.  We agree to carry out our Uruguay Round
commitments fully and without delay and call on all
participants in the Uruguay Round to do the same.

To strengthen the open multilateral trading system we decide
to accelerate the implementation of our Uruguay Round
commitments and to undertake work aimed at deepening and
broadening the outcome of the Uruguay Round.  We also agree
to commit ourselves to our continuing process of unilateral
trade and investment liberalization.  As evidence of our
commitment to the open multilateral trading system we
further agree to a standstill under which we will endeavour
to refrain from using measures which would have the effect
of increasing levels of protection.

We call for the successful launching of the World Trade
Organization (WTO).  Full and active participation in and
support of the WTO by all APEC economies is key to our
ability to lead the way in strengthening the multilateral
trading system.  We call on all non-APEC members of the WTO
to work together with APEC economies toward further
multilateral liberalization.

6.  With respect to our objective of enhancing trade and
investment in Asia Pacific, we agree to adopt the long-term
goal of free and open trade and investment in Asia Pacific.
This goal will be pursued promptly by further  reducing
barriers to trade and investment and by promoting the free
flow of goods, services and capital among our economies.  We
will achieve this goal in a GATT-consistent manner and
believe our actions will be a powerful impetus for further
liberalization at the multilateral level to which we remain
fully committed.

We further agree to announce our commitment to complete the
achievement of our goal of free and open trade and
investment in Asia Pacific no later than the year 2020.  The
pace of implementation will take into account the differing
levels of economic development among APEC economies, with
the industrialized economies achieving the goal of free and
open trade and investment no later than the year 2010 and
developing economies no later than the year 2020.

We wish to emphasize our strong opposition to the creation
of an inward-looking trading bloc that would divert from the
pursuit of global free trade.  We are determined to pursue
free and open trade and investment in Asia Pacific in a
manner that will encourage and strengthen trade and
investment liberalization in the world as a whole.  Thus,
the outcome of trade and investment liberalization in Asia
Pacific will not only be the actual reduction of barriers
among APEC economies but also between APEC economies and non-
APEC economies.  In this respect we will give particular
attention to our trade with non-APEC developing countries to
ensure that they will also benefit from our trade and
investment liberalization, in conformity with GATT/WTO

7.  To complement and support this substantial process of
liberalization, we decide to expand and accelerate APEC's
trade and investment facilitation programs.  This will
promote further the flow of goods, services and capital
among APEC economies by eliminating administrative and other
impediments to trade and investment.

We emphasize the importance of trade facilitation because
trade liberalization efforts alone are insufficient to
generate trade expansion.  Efforts at facilitating trade are
important if the benefits of trade are to be truly enjoyed
by both business and consumers.  Trade facilitation has also
a pertinent role in furthering our goal of achieving the
fullest liberalization within the global context.

In particular we ask our ministers and officials to submit
proposals on APEC arrangements on customs, standards,
investment principles and administrative barriers to market

To facilitate regional investment flows and to strengthen
APEC's dialogue on economic policy issues, we agree to
continue the valuable consultations on economic growth
strategies, regional capital flows and other macro-economic

8.  Our objective to intensify development cooperation among
the community of Asia Pacific economies will enable us to
develop more effectively the human and natural resources of
the Asia Pacific region so as to attain sustainable growth
and equitable development of APEC economies, while reducing
economic disparities among them, and improving the economic
and social well-being of our peoples.  Such efforts will
also facilitate the growth of trade and investment in the
Asia Pacific region.

Cooperative programs in this area cover expanded human
resource development (such as education and training and
especially improving management and technical skills), the
development of APEC study centres, cooperation in science
and technology (including technology transfer), measures
aimed at promoting small and medium scale enterprises and
steps to improve economic infrastructure, such as energy,
transportation, information, telecommunications and tourism.
Effective cooperation will also be developed on
environmental issues, with the aim of contributing to
sustainable development.

Economic growth and development of the Asia Pacific region
has mainly been market-driven, based on the growing
interlinkages between our business sectors in the region to
support Asia Pacific economic cooperation.  Recognizing the
role of the business sector in economic development, we
agree to integrate the business sector in our programs and
to create an ongoing mechanism for that purpose.

9.  In order to facilitate and accelerate our cooperation,
we agree that APEC economies that are ready to initiate and
implement a cooperative arrangement may proceed to do so
while those that are not yet ready to participate may join
at a later date.

Trade and other economic disputes among APEC economies have
negative implications for the implementation of agreed
cooperative arrangements as well as for the spirit of
cooperation.  To assist in resolving such disputes and in
avoiding its recurrence, we agree to examine the possibility
of a voluntary consultative dispute mediation service, to
supplement the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, which
should continue to be the primary channel for resolving

10.  Our goal is an ambitious one.  But we are determined to
demonstrate APEC's leadership in fostering further global
trade and investment liberalization.  Our goal entails a
multiple year effort.  We will start our concerted
liberalization process from the very date of this statement.

We direct our ministers and officials to immediately begin
preparing detailed proposals for implementing our present
decisions.  The proposals are to be submitted soon to the
APEC economic leaders for their consideration and subsequent
decisions.  Such proposals should also address all
impediments to achieving our goal.  We ask ministers and
officials to give serious consideration in their
deliberations to the important recommendations contained in
the reports of the Eminent Persons Group and the Pacific
Business Forum.

11.  We express our appreciation for the important and
thoughtful recommendations contained in the reports of the
Eminent Persons Group and the Pacific Business Forum.  The
reports will be used as valuable points of reference in
formulating policies in the cooperative framework of the
community of Asia Pacific economies.  We agree to ask the
two groups to continue with their activities to provide the
APEC economic leaders with assessments of the progress of
APEC and further recommendations for stepping up our

We also ask the Eminent Persons Group and the Pacific
Business Forum to review the interrelationships between APEC
and the existing subregional arrangements (AFTA, ANZERTA and
NAFTA) and to examine possible options to prevent obstacles
to each other and to promote consistency in their relations.


Clinton Administration Secures Contracts for U.S. Firms
Excerpt from a White House Fact Sheet released by the Office
of the Press Secretary, November 17, 1994.

During President Clinton's trip to the Philippines and
Indonesia, the Clinton Administration successfully advanced
22 commercial transactions for U.S. exporters and APEC
industries which total over $40 billion and support tens of
thousands of U.S. jobs.

The transactions, signed or witnessed by Secretary Ron
Brown, Secretary Warren Christopher, or Export-Import Bank
Board Member Maria Haley, reflect the sectors in which the
Clinton Administration has focused its efforts--
telecommunications, energy, transportation, and the

As part of the President's overall economic plan, the
Administration is aggressively pursuing an export strategy
focused on opening markets to free and fair trade and
helping American companies and American workers.  This
strategy is paying off--the commercial agreements signed
during the President's trip create new U.S. jobs through
increased exports in Asia's rapidly growing markets.

--  In the Philippines, five agreements worth over $400
million were witnessed or signed by Secretary Christopher or
Maria Haley, a member of the Board of the Export-Import
Bank.  These agreements included AT&T, Motorola, Hughes, and
Federal Express and will support jobs from Germantown,
Maryland, to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

--  On his trip to Malaysia yesterday, Secretary Brown
witnessed the signing of two agreements worth over $250
million for General Electric and Johnson Controls of
Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

--  In Indonesia, Secretary Brown and Maria Haley witnessed
or signed 15 agreements for projects worth over $40 billion.

In the area of environmentally friendly geothermal plants,
two separate agreements with a total value of over $750
million will be concluded by such U.S. companies as
California Energy and Unocal.  A ground-breaking deal
involving U.S.-tied aid helped progress a deal with a U.S.
small-business exporter, Ellicott Machine Corp., against
stiff foreign competition.  Also, several telecommunications
opportunities for AT&T, Motorola, and Hughes Network Systems
are among the agreements being executed.

Products and equipment to fulfill these transactions will be
manufactured by these companies and will support tens of
thousands of new jobs in Ohio, Texas, Illinois, Oklahoma,
Florida, California, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, South
Carolina, Arkansas, and Wisconsin.  (###)


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