May 9-11, 1994
     U.S. Policy and Assistance
1.  U.S. Pledge to South Africa:  Building Upon a
Newfound Freedom--President Clinton, Vice President Gore
2.  Fact Sheet:  Trade, Aid, and Investment Package for
South Africa
3.  U.S.-South Africa Commitment to a Common Future--Vice
President Gore
4.  Country Profile:  Republic of South Africa
5.  Chronology:  Negotiations Leading to South African
6.  Fact Sheet:  South Africa's April 1994 Elections:
The Process and Transition
7.  U.S. Presidential Delegation to the South African
8.  Fact Sheet:  Economic Situation in South Africa
9.  Fact Sheet:  Women in South Africa
10.  Fact Sheet:  Education in South Africa
U.S. Pledge to South Africa:  Building Upon a Newfound
President Clinton, Vice President Gore
Remarks to Members of Congress and other guests at event
following South African elections (held April 26-29),
Washington, DC, May 5, 1994
President Clinton.  Thank you very much.  Ladies and
gentlemen, welcome to all of you.  Last week we watched
with wonder as the citizens of South Africa went to the
polls--as voters lined up for miles and miles, coming on
crutches and in wheelchairs, waiting patiently, crossing
the countryside to exercise their franchise--to create a
new nation conceived in liberty and empowered by their
redemptive suffering.
I have just spoken with President-elect Mandela and with
President de Klerk.  I congratulated Mr. Mandela on his
victory and told President de Klerk that he clearly
deserves tremendous credit for his leadership.  Their
courage, their statesmanship--along with the leadership
of Chief Buthelezi and others--has made this transition
smoother than many thought possible.
South Africa is free today because of the choices its
leaders and people made.  Their actions have been an
inspiration.  We can also be proud of America's role in
this great drama.  Because those of you here today and
many others have helped to keep freedom's flame lit
during the dark night of apartheid, Congress enacted
sanctions to help squeeze legitimacy from the apartheid
regime.  Students marched in solidarity; stockholders
held their companies to higher ethical standards;
America's churches--both black and white--took up the
mantle of moral leadership; and, throughout the fight,
American civil rights leaders here helped to lead the
Throughout, South Africa's cause also has been an
American cause.  Last week's miracle came to pass in part
because of America's help.  Now we must not turn our
Let me begin by saying that we all know South Africa
faces a task of building a tolerant democracy and a
successful market economy--and that enabling the citizens
of South Africa to reach their potential, economically,
is critical to preserving the tolerant democracy.  To
show that reconciliation and democracy can bring tangible
benefits, others will have to help.  I'm convinced South
Africa can become a model for the entire continent.
America must be a new and full partner with that new
government, so that it can deliver on its promise as
quickly as possible.
We've already begun.  Over the past year, the United
States sent experts to South Africa to negotiate a new
constitution--or to help them negotiate the new
constitution.  We provided  considerable assistance to
help their elections work.  We lifted sanctions.  We sent
two trade and investment missions to lay the groundwork
for greater economic cooperation.  We had a very fine
American delegation of election observers there during
the recent elections.  I'd like to especially thank the
leader of that delegation, Rev. Jesse Jackson, for his
outstanding contributions to the success of the South
African elections.  Thank you, sir.
Today, I am announcing a substantial increase in our
efforts to promote trade, aid, and investment in South
Africa.  Over the next three years we will provide and
leverage about $600 million in funds to South Africa.
For this fiscal year, we have increased assistance from
$83 million to $143 million.  Along with guarantees and
other means our resources, which will be mobilized for
next year, will exceed $200 million.
Through the programs of 10 U.S. Government agencies, we
will work with South Africans to help meet the needs
which they identify--to build homes and hospitals, to
provide better education, and to promote good governance
and economic development.
I'm writing to the leaders of the other G-7 countries and
asking them to join us in expanding assistance to South
Africa.  And we urge the international financial
institutions, such as the World Bank, to do the same.
Next week, I'm also sending an official delegation to
South Africa for President Mandela's inauguration.  Vice
President Gore will lead the trip, along with Mrs. Gore.
They'll be joined by the First Lady, Secretary Brown,
Secretary  Espy, and many others, including those here in
the audience today.
We are taking these actions because we have important
interests at stake in the success of South Africa's
journey.  We have an economic interest in a thriving
South Africa that will seek our exports and generate
greater prosperity throughout the region.  We have a
security interest in a stable, democratic South Africa,
working with its neighbors to restore and secure peace.
We have a clear moral interest.  We have had our own
difficult struggles over  racial division, and still we
grapple with the challenges of drawing strength from our
own diversity.  That is why the powerful images of South
Africa's elections resonated so deeply in the souls of
all Americans.
Whether in South Africa or America, we know there is no
finish line to democracy's work.  Developing habits of
tolerance and respect, creating opportunity for all our
citizens--these efforts are never completely done.  But
let us savor the fact that South Africa now has the
chance to begin that noble and vital work.
Thirty-three years ago, Albert Luthuli became the first
of four South Africans to win the Nobel Peace Prize.  As
he accepted the award, he described his people as, and I
quote, "living testimony to the unconquerable spirit of
mankind.  Down the years they have sought the goal of
fuller life and liberty, striving with incredible
determination and fortitude."
Today, that fortitude and the strivings of generations
have begun to bear fruit.  Together, we must help all
South Africans build on their newfound freedom.  Thank
you very much.
Now I'd like to ask the Vice President to come forward to
make some acknowledgments and some remarks and to talk a
little about the historic trip that the American
delegation he will lead is about to make.  Mr. Vice
Vice President Gore.  Thank you very much, Mr. President.
May I begin by acknowledging the presence of the
delegation, which will be accompanying the First Lady and
Tipper and me to South Africa.  You know from listening
to conversations among the three of us that we're very
excited about this trip.  It is one of the great moments
in history.
The last pillars of apartheid are crumbling, and three
centuries of injustice are coming to a close.  Many have
brought about this moment, and we are very excited, as I
mentioned, about the possibility, about the opportunity
to witness this transformation.
May I acknowledge Secretary Espy, who is going to be
joining us in the delegation; your National Security
Adviser, Mr. President, Tony Lake, who has worked
tirelessly in the last 16 months and in other capacities
prior to this Administration to help bring about this
moment; and Ambassador Talbott of the State Department
and his colleague, George Moose, from the State
Department.  Mr. Ambassador, thank you for the State
Department's outstanding role in bringing this about.
There are others who are present that I would like to
mention.  The President has already mentioned Rev. Jesse
Jackson in his role as the leader of the election-
monitoring group.  Some of you here may not know that,
while there, he received special recognition and thanks
for the manner in which he and the delegation he led
contributed to this outstanding event, and played a
considerable and important role in helping to guarantee
and ensure the integrity of this important moment in
Director Carol Bellamy of the Peace Corps is here;
Administrator Brian Atwood of USAID; Ruth Harkin,
President of OPIC; Ambassador Harry Schwarz, who will be
coming to the podium in a moment; ANC Representative
Kingsley Makhubela, who will also be coming to the podium
in just a moment; and other distinguished guests,
including the members of the Presidential delegation,
composed of extraordinary individuals who contributed in
a very personal way to the magnificent transformation
taking place in South Africa.
Each of you here today can be proud of the role that you
played in dismantling apartheid.  You led the way in one
of the great moral struggles of this century.
May I say that you will be getting calls today--we could
not call you earlier--inviting you to a gathering at our
residence on Saturday night--those of you who can come--
for the delegation prior to the departure for South
Africa.  I hope that most of you will be able--I hope
that all of you will be able to come and join us on that
There are a number of Members of Congress who were
extremely instrumental in raising the level of awareness
in America to the horrors of apartheid.  Unfortunately,
due to key votes scheduled today on Capitol Hill, these
members could not join us for this event, but they
deserve special recognition for their role in bringing us
to the threshold of new era in South Africa.
Now the hard work of nurturing democracy and
strengthening free market reform begins.  South Africa
faces a challenge more daunting than dismantling
apartheid--the challenge of building a nonracial
democracy and a culture of tolerance.
As President Clinton has made abundantly clear, the
United States of America will help.  We will be there,
doing our part.  Our work there is part of President
Clinton's larger strategy of enlarging the world's
community of free market democracies in Africa and
I will have an opportunity, along with several members of
the delegation, to talk to the leaders of other nations
in Africa that are in various stages of the transition to
free market democracies.  I'll be visiting Namibia and
Benin, as well as Cape Verde, on the way back from the
inaugural events.
Even as we focus today on assistance to South Africa, we
are mindful of the importance of encouraging development
throughout Southern Africa and beyond.  South Africa's
successful transformation will support these goals and
give hope to all who love freedom.  The monumental
statesmanship demonstrated by President-elect Mandela and
President F.W. de Klerk provides a shining example to
help restore peace in nations like Mozambique, Bosnia,
Haiti, Rwanda, Angola, Burundi, and elsewhere.
As President-elect Mandela said following the four days
of voting, the people of South Africa have been
victorious; they have won.  He also spoke to those all
around the world who believe in the struggle for justice
and democracy and self-government.  And in eloquent
words, he said, this is your victory, too.
On a personal note, I thought back to the Sunday morning,
not that many years ago, when Nelson Mandela was released
from prison.  Our youngest child was the only one awake,
and I was watching the television, literally transfixed
by the scene unfolding in South Africa.  It occurred to
me as a parent that for all the times when parents have
to explain terrible, unjust horrors and tragedies in the
world--and watch children contort their faces as they
absorb the news, that there are terrible things in this
world they're growing up in--that that was a moment, as
this inauguration will be a moment, when parents around
the world had the joy of being able to explain to their
children the deeper meaning of an event that transcends
the ordinary, lifts the human spirit, and gives us all
hope that the greater capacities that lie within the
human heart can find expression in ways that reshape our
world and link the horizons and give us the opportunity
for a much brighter future.
On practical matters, the $600 million trade and
investment package that the President has announced today
is the culmination of close cooperation and commitment
between the Congress and 10 executive agencies.  It also
continues and builds on the work initiated last fall by
Commerce Secretary Ron Brown, when he led a very
successful trade and investment mission to South Africa.
Brian Atwood and the U.S. Agency for International
Development also deserve special recognition for
creatively expanding the size and content of their
investment programs.  For the first time, USAID will be
working with the South African Government to support its
development priorities.  I'm particularly pleased in this
regard to be speaking at the USIA-sponsored conference on
June 3 in Atlanta to promote business and educational
exchange between the U.S. and South Africa--June 3 and 4
in Atlanta.
OPIC President Ruth Harkin also led a major business
investment mission to South Africa and announced three
U.S.-South African ventures that could pump millions of
dollars into the country's disadvantaged community.
Other agencies that have played leading roles in
developing our robust economic package for South Africa
include the Peace Corps--and I acknowledged Carol Bellamy
earlier--the Trade and Development Agency, Eximbank, the
U.S. Trade Representative, and the Treasury and Defense
In closing, before asking our two guests to join us, in
the past week, we witnessed this extraordinary historic
event, but we should not forget, as Harry Truman once
said, that people make history and not the other way
Courageous men and women in Africa, in America, and many
of them here today, helped to topple apartheid.  The
challenges ahead require continued hard work.  To
reiterate President Clinton's words, we pledge to help
all South Africans build upon their newfound freedom.
And now it is my personal honor to be able to introduce
Ambassador Harry Schwarz of South Africa and the Deputy
Chief Representative of the ANC Mission to the United
Nations, Mr. Kingsley Makhubela.  They will present to
President Clinton a visible symbol of the rebirth of
South Africa--their new national colors that capture the
multicultural diversity that is blossoming today in South
Fact Sheet:  Trade, Aid, and Investment
Package for South Africa
Following is a fact sheet released by the White House,
Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, May 5,
When President Clinton signed the bill in November 1993
lifting federal sanctions against South Africa, he
instructed federal departments and agencies to consider
new initiatives to assist South Africa once nonracial
elections took place in that country.  He stressed that
although the principal resources needed for South Africa
would come from within South Africa itself, international
support was needed to help ensure that the new government
had the capacity to consolidate nonracial democracy and
address the socioeconomic legacies of apartheid.  He
noted that a successful transition in South Africa would
also provide substantial new opportunities for American
workers and businesses in bilateral trade and investment.
Following last week's nonracial elections, President
Clinton today announced a package to promote trade, aid,
and investment with South Africa.  The package will more
than double program levels in FY 1994 to $206 million,
drawing on the efforts of 10 federal departments and
agencies.  For fiscal years 1994-96, the program level
will reach about $600 million.  The package seeks to
leverage resources from the private sectors in both the
U.S. and South Africa to meet the most urgent needs of
South Africans for jobs, housing, health care, basic
education, and black private sector development.  The
United States also will extend trade preferences to South
Africa under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP),
offer to negotiate tax and investment agreements, and
work on a multilateral basis to further enhance external
assistance to South Africa.
The United States will work to ensure that these programs
are fully consistent with the development priorities of a
new Government of National Unity in South Africa.  The
President also announced that Vice President Al Gore will
lead an official delegation to the inauguration of South
Africa's new president, accompanied by Mrs. Gore, First
Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of Agriculture
Mike Espey, and Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown.
U.S. Agency for International Development
USAID will provide $136 million in FY 1994 in grants and
support for loan guarantees, which will mobilize a total
of $166 million in public and private resources for South
Africa.  For FY 1994-96, USAID programs will generate a
total of $528 million in resources for South Africa.
While continuing to work with the non-governmental
community, USAID will work for the first time with the
new South African Government in support of its
development priorities.  USAID will be prepared to
support a wide range of programs to promote black private
sector development and create jobs; to develop models and
leverage capital for development and infrastructure
needs, health care (especially AIDS/HIV), housing, and
basic education; and to support governance and democracy
Overseas Private Investment Corporation
OPIC signed its investment guarantee agreement in late
1993, and will use $2 million in FY 1994 as backing for
guarantees of $35 million in new investment.  In February
1994, OPIC President Ruth R. Harkin led a major business
investment mission to South Africa, at the conclusion of
which she announced three U.S.-South African ventures
that could pump millions of dollars into the country's
disadvantaged community.  OPIC also has allocated $50-
million worth of insurance for new U.S. investment in
South Africa and is prepared to increase this if
additional good projects are identified.
U.S. Trade Representative
The President will grant special trade preferences to
South Africa under the GSP, under which 4,400 South
African semi-finished and agricultural products will be
permitted to enter the U.S. duty free.  In 1993, South
Africa exported to the U.S. $262 million in goods which
would have been eligible for duty-free treatment under
GSP.  The USTR will examine the feasibility of extending
South Africa's GSP designation to its neighbors under a
single GSP umbrella, which will contribute to the
economic development of the region.
The USTR will explore additional ways to assist South
Africa to prepare for negotiation of a Bilateral
Investment Treaty to enhance the attractiveness of its
investment environment.
Eximbank will provide whatever the market will bear in
export financing for good projects in South Africa.  Over
the last two years, this financing has reached about $200
million.  It can be expected to increase even more
rapidly in the future.
Department of Commerce
Secretary Brown has designated South and Southern Africa
as a key emerging market, thus permitting a wide range of
new trade promotion services.  He has assigned a
Minister-Counselor Foreign Commercial Service officer to
a new position in Johannesburg to promote bilateral and
regional trade ties.  The Commerce Department will also
launch shortly a U.S.-South Africa Business Development
Council that will promote additional bilateral business
U.S. Information Agency
USIA will increase its FY 1994 budget for South Africa
from $2.6 million  by more than 30% to $3.4 million to
promote international exchange, training, governance, and
education programs with South Africa.  Along with
Representatives John Lewis and Cynthia McKinney and
Senator Paul Coverdell, USIA Director Joseph Duffey will
host the "Investing in People" conference in Atlanta on
June 3-4 to promote new ties between U.S. and South
African institutions in education, business, and other
sectors.  Vice President Gore is expected to participate
in this conference.
Trade and Development Agency
TDA will allocate $1 million in new FY 1994 funds to
finance feasibility studies in South Africa for projects
that would promote South African development and create
markets for U.S. exports.  TDA will sponsor a visit to
the U.S. by public and private sector housing officials
to identify relevant U.S. construction technologies and
potential housing construction joint venture partners.
Peace Corps
Peace Corps will look forward to providing volunteers to
South Africa if requested by the new South African
Government, and safety/security for volunteers can be
ensured.  Under these conditions, Peace Corps will work
with the new government to identify areas of volunteer
expertise which would be most valuable to their country.
Peace Corps is prepared to provide assistance in skills
such as small enterprise development, education, teacher
training, and agriculture.  Peace Corps is also prepared
to assist South Africans to develop their own domestic
volunteer corps.
Department of Defense
Defense will offer a $100,000 training program in FY 1994
for the new South African defense force.  In a new spirit
of maritime cooperation, the United States hopes the
South African and U.S. navies will work together to plan
reciprocal port visits to each other's country.
Department of the Treasury
The President has established negotiation of a U.S.-South
Africa tax treaty as a top priority, which could be
important as U.S. firms consider investments in South
Africa.  The treaty would reduce the incidence of double
taxation.  Treasury has already held preliminary
discussions with the South African Government and, as
soon as the new government is ready, will make every
effort to expedite agreement.
Donor Coordination
The President is writing to the heads of government of
the other G-7 countries urging them to enhance their
assistance to South Africa during this crucial period.
The U.S. will seek to be helpful to the new Government of
South Africa in marshaling  international support for its
development priorities.  He expressed support for
expansion of the involvement in South Africa by
international financial institutions, including the World
Bank, International Monetary Fund, and African
Development Bank, if the new South African Government
makes such a request. (###)
U.S.-South Africa Commitment To A Common Future
Vice President Gore
Remarks at the Market Theatre Presentation, Johannesburg,
South Africa, May 9, 1994
Tipper, the First Lady, and I were talking earlier about
this trip, and we agreed that our spirits were soaring
toward the inauguration tomorrow so much that we really
didn't need airplanes to get over here; the journey was a
journey of joy.  Our hearts are, indeed, full.  This
evening has made it possible for all of us to share in an
extraordinary range of emotions that all build toward
this fantastic moment in history, which we will witness
tomorrow on behalf of our country, on behalf of President
Clinton, and on behalf of our fellow citizens in the
United States and fellow human beings around the world
who look upon this moment as a transition for the human
race.  It is a moment that everyone in the world will
always remember.
In the days leading up to this moment, we in the United
States were riveted by images of young men carrying their
fathers to the polls; an elderly woman pushed in a
wheelbarrow to the polls; an elderly man's voting, of
course, for the first time--searching, finding Nelson
Mandela, and saying, there he is.
The long lines snaking for miles where, in many cases,
black and white and colored and Indian voters, shared
soft drinks in the sun.  The world braced for violence,
but the back of the fear was broken.  You have waited a
long time; you have waited lifetimes;  and, with your
patience, you in South Africa confounded the skeptics and
gave the world a moment that lifts the spirits of all
It is appropriate to talk about this new partnership
between the United States and South Africa here in the
Market Theatre, the history of which was so movingly
recounted to us.  Those who came here ignored the bomb
threats, ignored the hatred; they replied to the hate
mongers with their courage and with the dramas they
produced, which pointed the way to the future.
It is a future that, in one sense, is a tribute to a
single man.  As was said earlier, he always defers to the
people,  and appropriately so.  But it also is a tribute
to the man who in 1964, in a South African courtroom,
said:  "During my lifetime, I have fought against white
domination and I have fought against black domination.  I
have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society
in which all persons live together in harmony and with
equal opportunities."
Over and over, Nelson Mandela repeated this belief--in
community centers and in playing fields, to millions with
the TV lights on, and to individuals, one by one, when he
met them every day on the village streets.  His appeal to
reconciliation, his generous spirit, his appeal to
forgiveness has made possible the transition to democracy
in South Africa.
Of course, such moments require the efforts of many.
President F.W. de Klerk, in an act of enormous courage
and patriotism, reached across decades, indeed, centuries
of hatred and fear to free Nelson Mandela.  And millions
of South Africans of all races, by eschewing violence and
hewing to the belief that South Africans are one people,
have made possible a dream that had looked not only
unattainable but even utopian just a few short years ago.
To those of you from South Africa--as many of you quite
well are--I want to tell you that in this delegation
visiting from the United States are many who have played
great roles in helping to build support in the United
States and around the world for the dismantling of
apartheid.  All those who have been involved in this
struggle understand that the hard work of nurturing
democracy, strengthening pre-market reforms, and building
this society now begins.
No one should underestimate the role that each of us must
play if the fruits of security and prosperity are to be
enjoyed by all South Africans.  Today your leadership is
more essential than it has ever been, because South
Africa does face a challenge more daunting than
dismantling apartheid--the challenge of building a non-
racial democracy and a culture of tolerance.  America
wants to help, and we will help.  As President Clinton
has said,  we will help.
For the United States, this transformation has special
significance.  After all, for decades Americans agonized
over the horrors of our own apartheid.  The struggle for
justice in South Africa and in the United States has in
many ways been one struggle.  Maya Angelou said names
should be lifted up and mentioned--Dr. W.E.B. DuBois.  In
1903 he wrote his classic work, The Souls of Black Folk.
At the very dawn of the century, which will soon
conclude, he said that the century ahead will be the
century of the color line--the era in which the struggle
against racism and colonialism would define human
relations on a global scale.  Even before he wrote those
words, Americans were here.  The A.M.E. Zion Church, for
example, in the 1890s began sending missions.
In the first years of the century--in 1900, Dr. DuBois
had a series of meetings about the consciousness of those
with African heritage.  In 1909, when the NAACP was
formed--Dr. Ben Chavis is here, the new head of the
NAACP--those from South Africa who came to the United
States and who had communed with Dr. DuBois and all the
others who gathered in the United States, took the NAACP
as a model for the founding of the ANC in 1912.  The
dialogue across the Atlantic has been much fuller and
richer than many Americans are fully aware.
World events have the same effect here in South Africa
sometimes as in the United States.  World War II, for
example, was a transforming event in the awareness of the
injustice of racism, both in the United States and in
South Africa.  Soon after the war, in the late 1940s,
both the NAACP and the ANC formed youth branches; Nelson
Mandela and Oliver Tambo came to leadership in those--in
the youth branch of the ANC.  And throughout the 1940s,
the struggle began to build in the hearts of men and
women in both countries.
In 1948, the year of my birth, the paths diverged.  The
Afrikaner Nationalists came to power here and imposed
apartheid.  In my area of the United States, in the
South, Dixie crested with only five states.  And the
civil rights movement in the United States began to
build.  We should lift one other name as well from
neither of the countries--Mahatma Gandhi, who influenced
the leaders of both profoundly.
In 1954, with the ethical Supreme Court decision in the
United States in which Thurgood Marshall played such a
role--and his son, Thurgood Marshall, Jr., is with us
this evening here in South Africa--the Law Society moved
to disbar Nelson Mandela.  In Alabama, when the bus
boycott movement began, Dr. King had as witnesses leaders
from the ANC in South Africa who then took the movement,
even the tactics, back to South Africa.  Dr. King and
Nelson Mandela were jailed the same year.In 1961, Chief
Albert Luthuli and Dr. King issued the joint appeal,
calling for international economic sanctions against
Many Americans came to join the struggle.  The United
States was torn apart.  There are many who could be
mentioned, but in my home town of Tennessee, a young
African-American civil rights worker, John Lewis, had a
profound impact on me and many of my friends in middle
Tennessee.  We were talking not long ago, and he talked
about remembering a march against apartheid in front of
the United Nations during that period.  The marchers were
chanting, one person, one vote.  And he said that was our
slogan in the United States--the same cause.
He was not the only young American whose life work was
forged in the crucible of the civil rights movement.  In
1957, a young man from Arkansas was moved profoundly by
the events in Little Rock of that year.  He recalls now,
"my own interest in politics was inflamed by my
opposition to racial segregation in my own state, my own
community, our own neighborhoods, our schools, and the
terrible consequences that flowed from it."
Bill Clinton, in that respect, was like many young white
Americans who responded to the appeal of conscience--what
Ghandi called the truth force.  And now we can rejoice
that John Lewis is a member of the leadership of
Congress.  Others who fought in the movement are now
leaders in the House and Senate and in all walks of life
in the United States.  And that young Arkansan, Bill
Clinton, is President of the United States, helping to
catalyze leadership in the United States for this
And given our struggle in the United States, how could we
not want to join with you?  Given the importance of
racial harmony in our country, how could we turn our
backs on the greatest struggle for racial harmony the
world has ever seen?
Members of the Congressional Black Caucus who are here,
the Chairman, Kweisi Mfume, and all have played such a
key role in introducing legislation which became the
nucleus of the world's commitment to end apartheid.  I've
often heard in the United States--in connection with
discussions of how we can create a just society--the
African proverb that it takes a whole village to raise a
child.  I think, in a sense, we could also say it takes a
whole world to create a just future for humankind--and
the whole world has participated in the events that will
unfold tomorrow.
When Nelson Mandela made a speech election night and said
"free at last," he spoke to people around the world who
believe in freedom and said: "This is your victory, too."
I remember when Robert F. Kennedy came here to South
Africa and made this famous speech about the ripples of
hope that flow out from an act of courage and conscience.
One of his daughters, Kerry Kennedy Cuomo, is here with
her mother-in-law, Matilda Cuomo.  This is a gathering of
people who are connected by--what is the phrase, Ms.
Angelou?--the mystic threads of memory and the
convictions of the heart to what we are going to witness
The monumental statesmanship demonstrated by President-
elect Mandela, tomorrow to be President Mandela and
President F. W. de Klerk, tomorrow to be Deputy provides
a shining example to help restore peace in nations like
Mozambique, Bosnia, Haiti, Angola, dare we hope, Rwanda,
and Sudan.  If the men and women of courage and
conviction who believed in justice could, in fact, play a
meaningful role in helping South Africans bring about
this moment, consider for a moment what Americans and
South Africans together might be able to do in other
parts of the world through our reaching out for this same
future of hope.
There was a sign put up beside a schoolhouse in Port
Elizabeth during the election that read that the road to
the future is always under construction.  Tomorrow, we
will reach a major milestone on that road, but there are
clearly many more miles to be built.  In the heart of
this great city of gold, one sees the tremendous
potential of the South African economy in the gleaming
skyscrapers; more computers here than  on the entire rest
of the continent; banking institutions keyed into the
world's financial centers; shops that dazzle the eye.
But no one here needs to be reminded that surrounding
this great city are communities that lack running water
or basic sanitation; with families that still live in
shacks of hard concrete with tin roofs, corrugated metal,
and scraps of wood.  Clinics are few, and hospitals are
miles away.  Jobs are scarce.  Education has become a
source of controversy rather than opportunity.  Black
South African children, tragically, now have a better
chance statistically of dying before the age of five than
passing the test to receive their graduation from high
Those same statistics tell us that black South African
children can expect to live, on average, 16 years less
than white South African children.  Yes, there's work to
be done, and it is work that can be done in partnership
with the international community, because South Africa's
isolation has now ended.  There are probably few
inaugurations in the world that have attracted so many
visitors from all parts of the globe as this one.  South
Africa is being welcomed back into the international
community, and all of us are so happy to be part of it.
We start on this partnership from a strong similarity and
outlook.  President-to-be Mandela envisions for this
country a future in which all South Africans will share,
and his vision is matched by a clear perception of
reality.  He has committed himself and his government to
an economic policy and program that eschews failed
ideologies.  It sees the strong potential of a vibrant
private sector and the energies and talents of people
that blossom in a free society.  I wish to say to South
Africans that businessmen and women in the United States
of America are genuinely excited and moved by the
opportunity to come here and be a part of our common
future.  We know how good it can be.  We know the
importance of building that future together.
So we begin the partnership with a shared sense of
history, a common struggle for equal rights, and the same
shared values and aspirations for our societies.  We want
to join South Africans in helping to rebuild the economy
and create jobs--especially in helping to accelerate the
construction of housing to hasten the time when all
communities will have electric power and clean water, and
in helping to provide high-quality education to its
citizens to expand opportunities for the previously
disadvantaged to be successful entrepreneurs in order to
share in the dynamic growth of the economy.
President Clinton has demonstrated his commitment and the
commitment of our country to the new South Africa by
doubling the level of our aid for the next three years,
creating guarantees of private capital to flow into
housing, electrification, small business development, and
much more.  He has approved lower tariff barriers for
South African goods as well.  He has asked the other
major international donors to increase their investment.
We look forward to joining with South Africa in helping
to make sure that together we create the kind of future
for this continent that it deserves.  We look forward to
South Africa taking up a full role within the United
Nations, the Organization of African Unity, and all the
other international bodies in which it can play a unique
and powerful role.
We're confident South Africa will be as strong a champion
of human rights around the world as it has become at
home.  We know South Africa will be a partner for peace
and a partner in the fight against all forms of genocide,
ethnic cleansing, or any other form of racial or
religious intolerance.
By its magnificent negotiated revolution, by its
generosity of spirit and accommodation, by its policies
of inclusion and reconciliation, and by an election free
of violence, South Africa has sent a powerful message to
all the world.  It is a message that differences, no
matter how sharp and deeply ingrained, can be set aside
for the sake of the nation and the future of its
children.  It is a message that desperately needs to be
heard in Bosnia, where gunners shell women and children
solely because of their religion; in Rwanda, where
families from one ethnic group huddle in their homes,
dreading a knock on the door from soldiers of another
ethnic group; in Azerbaijan; in Haiti; elsewhere.
And so we say to South Africa, as Nelson Mandela said to
the world, that this is your victory, too.  We say to
South Africa that you must succeed.  You must succeed not
only for yourself but for people on every continent.  For
if South Africa is both free and prosperous, if South
Africa shows the world how people of all colors can live
in harmony and mutual respect, then South Africa becomes
a beacon to the world.  Just as the man who was in prison
will now be President, the nation that was pariah will
now be a beacon of hope to those who believe in the
future of humankind.  And if we in America can help, we
will bask in the sunshine of your example and in the
knowledge that millions of South Africans and Americans
have joined together to make that dream real.
I told members of this delegation of the emotions in my
own heart four years ago in February on a Sunday morning
when Nelson Mandela walked out of prison.  Only our
youngest child was awake with me.  I thought, as I
explained to him what was going on, how often parents
have the burden of explaining to their children the
horrors of the world in which they're going to grow up
and what joy there was in having a series of "Why, dad?"
questions to which I could respond with overflowing joy:
This, son, shows that we human beings are capable of much
more than we often settle for.  We're capable of making
our dreams--the dream--a reality.
It will allow us the opportunity to hope in a world which
often seems to crush hopes.  I think of the words of
Mbogeni Ngema, the creator of Woza Albert--of course,
about Albert Luthuli--when he wrote:  "Sometimes in this
life, there is a need to celebrate who we are and what we
stand for, what we believe as we take our strides every
day.  Today we must say our lives will never be the same.
We must change the times.  There is reason to celebrate.
Let's change the course of history.  Let everybody get
together.  Reach out to somebody next to you.  Together
we shall win--all as one.  Our lives will never be the
same."  Whether those voting for the first time in a
Johannesburg suburb or those around the world who have
yet to touch a ballot--our lives will never be the same.
On behalf of my country; on behalf of President Clinton;
on behalf of Tipper and myself, the First Lady, and our
whole delegation:  I wish to thank South Africa for the
honor of inviting our delegation to witness this change.
God bless the new South Africa and all its people.(###)
Country Profile:  South Africa
Official Name:  Republic of South Africa
Area:  1.2 million sq. km. (472,400 sq. mi.).
Cities:  Pretoria, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Durban.
Terrain:  Plateau, savanna, desert, mountains, coastal
Climate:  Moderate.
Nationality:  Noun and adjective--South African(s).
Population (1993 est.):  43 million.
Ethnic groups:  African (black)--28 million; white--5.4
million (Afrikaners 2.9 million; English-speaking and
others 2.5 million); "colored" (mixed-race)--3.2 million;
Asian (Indian)--1 million.
Avg. annual growth rate (1993 est.): 2.6%.
Languages:  English, Zulu, Xhosa, North and South
seSotho, seTswana, Afrikaans, others.
Religions:  Predominantly Christian; traditional African,
Hindu, Muslim, Jewish.
Education:  Years compulsory--ages 7-16.
Health (1993 est.):  Infant mortality rate--48/1,000.
Life expectancy--62 yrs. male; 68 yrs. female.
Work force (13.4 million):  Services--34%.  Manufacturing
and commerce--32%.  Agriculture--25%.  Mining--8%.
Independence:  May 31, 1910.
Constitution:  April 27, 1994.
Political parties:  African National Congress, National
Party, Inkatha Freedom Party, Freedom Front Party,
Democratic Party, Pan-Africanist Congress.
Suffrage:  Universal at 18.
Flag:  Horizontal Y in green, bound on top and bottom by
white stripes and yellow stripe in arch.  Red in top,
blue in bottom, and black on left.
GDP (1992):  $115 billion.
GDP growth rate (1992):  -2%.
GDP per capita (1992):  $2,800.
Natural resources:  Almost all essential commodities,
except petroleum.
Agriculture (about 5% of GNP):  Products--corn, wool,
dairy products, wheat, sugar cane, tobacco, citrus
fruits, wine.  Cultivated land--12%.
Industry (about 40% of GNP):  Types--mining, automobile
assembly, metal-working, machinery, textile, iron, steel,
Trade (1992):  Exports--$23.5 billion:  gold, platinum
group metals, ferro-chromium, uranium compounds,
diamonds, coal, agricultural products.  Major markets--
Japan, Germany, U.K., U.S., Switzerland.  Imports--$18.2
billion:  machinery, mining equipment, transportation
equipment, computers, aircraft parts, rice, and office
machinery parts.  Major suppliers--Japan, Germany, U.K.
Principal Government Officials
President-elect--Nelson Mandela
Minister of Foreign Affairs--To be decided
Ambassador to the United States--Harry Schwarz
Ambassador to the United Nations--To be decided(###)
Chronology:  Negotiations Leading To South African
February 1990:  South African President Frederik W. de
Klerk releases African National Congress (ANC) leader
Nelson Mandela and un-bans the ANC and other liberation
December 1991:  Convention for a Democratic South Africa
(CODESA) begins, reaching broad agreement on universal
suffrage, separation of powers, and a two-stage
transition process on interim government and drafting of
a final constitution.
May 1992:  CODESA II deadlocks over the issues of
powersharing and the role of minority parties.
June 1992:  CODESA II talks collapse after Inkatha
Freedom Party (IFP) supporters massacre 46 township
dwellers in Boipatong, with the ANC alleging government
July-August 1992:  Action shifts from the negotiating
table to the streets as a result of an ANC mass action
September 7, 1992:  Ciskei security forces fire on ANC
demonstrators in Bisho, killing 28.
September 1992:  Government and ANC negotiation leaders
Reolf Meyer and Cyril Ramaphosa continue talks behind the
scenes leading to their September 26 Memorandum of
Understanding on powersharing during the transition.
Buthelezi rejects the government-ANC accord and forms an
alliance with the white Conservative Party and the
homeland governments of Ciskei and Bophuthatswana.
February 1993:  The ANC and the government reach
agreement on a Government of National Unity, proportional
representation for the new Parliament, and the
establishment of a Transitional Executive Council (TEC)
for the election period.
April 1993:  The Multi-Party Negotiating Forum convenes
with 26 parties, including the IFP, participating.
May 1993:  Afrikaner Volksfront (AVF) is established by
retired Army General Constand Viljoen, gathering far-
right conservative groups that advocate an Afrikaner
July 1993:  Majority of parties ratify April 1994 as
election date over objections from the IFP and its
allies, who withdraw from the negotiations process.
September 1993:  Freedom Alliance--IFP, white
conservatives, Ciskei, and Bophuthatswana--calls for
strong regional governments within a federal system,
while the Multi-Party Negotiating Forum endorses the TEC.
Parliament approves both the TEC and the election dates.
November 1993:  The Multi-Party Negotiating Forum and
Parliament endorse the interim constitution, with South
Africa's first bill of rights.
December 1993:  The TEC is inaugurated, marking the end
of exclusive white political domination in South Africa.
January-February 1994:  Transition gains momentum, with
the government and ANC granting concessions to the
Freedom Alliance (FA) in continuing attempts to secure
their participation in the elections.  Ciskei breaks away
from the FA and joins the TEC.  Zulu King Zwelethini
issues a public call for sovereignty for his people and
for them to oppose the election process.
March 1, 1994:  Mandela and Buthelezi meet for the first
time in more than two years.  Buthelezi agrees
"provisionally" to register the IFP for the elections in
return for ANC's agreement to international mediation.
March 4:  The IFP and the AVF register, but AVF
membership repudiates its leader and the IFP withdraws,
announcing it cannot participate in elections until all
of its demands are met.  Viljoen registers a splinter
conservative party, the Freedom Front.
March 11, 1994:  Riots break out in Bophuthatswana.  The
government and the TEC name co-administrators for the
homeland.  The Bophuthatswana government joins the TEC
and the election process.
March 23, 1994:  The homeland leader of the Ciskei
resigns, calling for the South African Government and the
TEC to take over.
April 13, 1994:  An international mediation effort, led
by former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and
British Lord Carrington, collapses when Buthelezi fails
to agree to terms of reference drawn up for mediators,
including an agreement that elections would occur as
scheduled April 26-28.
April 19, 1994:  IFP accepts government and ANC proposals
to amend interim constitution to ensure the role and
status of the Zulu monarchy in KwaZulu-Natal.  It also
accepts agreement to continue international mediation
efforts following elections to resolve remaining
constitutional issues. IFP enters the election campaign.
April 23, 1994:  The South African Government, the ANC,
and the Freedom Front sign an accord on Afrikaner self-
determination.  The agreement commits the parties to
address, through negotiations, the idea of self-
determination and the concept of a "volkstaat" or
April 26-29, 1994:  South Africa's first all-race
elections for national and provincial assemblies.(###)
Fact Sheet:  South Africa's April 1994 Elections:  The
Process and Transition
The Election Process
South Africans of all races voted in national and
regional elections April 26-29, 1994.  Voters elected
members of the National Assembly (lower house) as well as
regional legislative bodies.  The balloting system was
one of proportional representation, with voters
selecting, on separate ballots--the "double ballot"--
party slates at both the national and regional levels.
The Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) was the key
supervisory body and managed virtually all aspects of the
election.  The 16-member IEC includes some of South
Africa's most outstanding citizens, such as Chairman
Johann Kriegler, Frank Chikane (South Africa Council of
Churches), Helen Suzman (long-time anti-apartheid member
of Parliament), and Oscar Dhlomo.  The IEC also has five
international members, including an American, Gay
McDougall of the Lawyers' Committee for Human Rights.
Voting took place over three days, except in the
homelands.  The April 26 polling was for special voters
(aged, disabled, prisoners) and for voters overseas:
There were 23 voting stations around the United States.
Regular balloting took place in South Africa on April 27
and 28 (dubbed national holidays) from 7:00 am to 7:00
pm.  Due to administrative difficulties, elections were
extended by one day, to April 29, in the homelands.
Individuals were able to vote at any polling station in
the country and needed only to present identification to
show they were over 18 and South African citizens.
Election officials marked voters' hands with fluorescent
ink to prevent fraud.  Each of the polling stations was
staffed by election officials, an election agent from
each party, and accredited election monitors and foreign
observers.  Except to cover voting by party leaders, the
media was prohibited from entering polling places.
After the voting closed, ballot boxes were transported to
about 1,000 tabulation centers, with the vote count for
non-homelands polling beginning on April 29 at 6:00 am.
Election officials reported results to the provincial or
sub-provincial offices of the IEC, which, in turn,
reported their results to IEC headquarters in
Johannesburg.  The IEC released hourly running totals for
the National Assembly--in total and by province--and for
the provincial legislatures.
Under the Electoral Act, the IEC had sole and official
responsibility to certify whether the balloting at the
national level and in each of the provinces was
"substantially free and fair"--the threshold cited by
South African election law as necessary for the election
results to stand.  The IEC could declare an election or
part of an election in any area to have been so disrupted
that votes from that area could be excluded from the
final vote.  The IEC had between two and 10 days after
the voting had closed to make its determination.  Once
the IEC had certified the results, no other body would
have the legal power to challenge it.  On May 6, the IEC
certified the elections and announced the results by
Interim Transitional Arrangements
In early December 1993, the Transitional Executive
Council (TEC) was established to ensure a "level playing
field" in the run-up to the April elections.  The TEC is
composed of representatives of all parties participating
in the Multi-Party Negotiating Forum.  The TEC, along
with its seven subcouncils, oversees key government
functions.  Decisions within the TEC are made by a 75%
majority vote.  The seven subcouncils have jurisdiction
in the following areas:  law and order, defense,
intelligence, local/regional government and traditional
authorities, finance, foreign affairs, and the status of
women.  The TEC and its sub-councils will be dissolved
following the installation of a new government.
Also attached to the TEC are three independent bodies:
the Independent Electoral Commission, the Independent
Broadcasting Authority (IBA), and the Independent Media
Commission (IMC).  President de Klerk appointed seven
members of the IEC on the advice of the TEC.  The IEC was
responsible for conducting the April polling and
certifying the results of that election.  The IBA was
responsible for ensuring equal access to the media during
the election campaign.  An independent council appointed
by the IBA has assumed responsibility for granting
broadcast licenses for radio and television stations.
These independent agencies of the TEC may remain in
existence following the elections.
Transition Procedures Following the Election
The Electoral Act and the interim constitution which was
scheduled to take effect on April 27 laid out clearly the
procedures which would follow the election:  Within two
to 10 days after the election, the IEC must have
certified whether or not the vote was "substantially free
and fair;" within 10 days of the IEC certification, the
Chief Justice must convene the 400-member National
Two hundred seats of the Assembly will be determined by
the proportion of the national vote each party receives.
The other 200 seats will be apportioned by electoral
region.  Regional results will determine the number of
seats each party will gain through this formula.
As a first order of business, the Assembly will elect the
president.  Each party that wins at least 80 seats in the
National Assembly may designate a deputy president from
among the members of the National Assembly.  If only one
party wins 80 seats, the two highest-polling parties will
each select a deputy president.  The president may
designate one of the deputy presidents to be the acting
Each party winning more than 5% of the national vote will
be represented in the cabinet.  A party is entitled to
one cabinet portfolio for every 20 seats it holds in the
National Assembly.  The president, in consultation with
the deputy presidents and the leaders of the
participating parties, will designate the specific
portfolios for the participating parties.
The 90-member Senate (upper house) may take up to 30 days
after the IEC certification to convene.  Each of the nine
provincial assemblies will select, according to
proportional representation, 10 of its members to sit in
the Senate.
The Constitutional Assembly (the National Assembly and
Senate combined) must convene within seven days of the
Senate's seating.  The Constitutional Assembly must pass
the new constitution within two years from the date of
the first sitting of the National Assembly.
Representation in the provincial legislatures will be
determined by proportional representation on a ballot
separate from the national vote.  The provincial
legislatures must assemble within seven days after the
IEC certification, with the election of the provincial
premiers as their first order of business.
Participating Political Parties
Following are the political parties which participated in
the April 26-29 elections.  They are listed in the order
in which they appeared on the ballot.
--Pan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC)--led by
Clarence Makwetu.  The PAC is to the left of the African
National Congress.  It advocates nationalization of
industry and a highly centralized economy.  The PAC was
expected to do well among the more radicalized youth and
in regional balloting as a "second choice" for ANC
supporters who vote for Mandela on the national level.
Its position at the top of the ballot also was expected
to help garner additional votes;
--Sports Organisation for Collective Contributions and
Equal Rights (SOCCER);
--The Keep It Straight and Simple Party (KISS);
--Vryheidsfront-Freedom Front (VF-FF)--led by Gen. (ret.)
Constand Viljoen.  The VF-FF is a right-wing Afrikaner
party that was expected to draw strong support from
conservative Afrikaners who cling to the hope of a
"volkstaat" or "homeland" for whites and seek to achieve
that aim through constitutional means rather than
--Women's Rights Peace Party (WRPP);
--Workers' List Party (WLP);
--Ximoko Progressive Party (XPP);
--Africa Muslim Party (AMP);
--African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP);
--African Democratic Movement (ADM);
--African Moderates Congress Party (AMCP);
--African National Congress (ANC)--led by Nelson Mandela.
The ANC represents the ANC Alliance, a coalition of the
ANC, the South African Communist Party (SACP), the
Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), and
several other smaller parties such as the Natal Indian
Congress (NIC).  The ANC was expected to poll at least
55% of the national vote.  It also was expected to do
well at the regional level and likely win in seven of the
nine provinces; two Cape provinces were hotly contested
between the ANC and the National Party.  The ANC commands
significant support from the black population, including
among Zulus in Natal;
--Democratic Party-Demokratiese Party (DP)--led by Zach
de Beer.  The DP, the traditional home of liberal white
South Africans during the apartheid years, was expected
to struggle to meet the minimal vote levels to win seats
in the cabinet.  On the regional level, the DP was
expected to do well in the Western Cape;
--Dikwankwetla Party of South Africa (DPSA);
--Federal Party (FP);
--Luso-South African Party (LUSAP);
--Minority Front (MF);
--National Party-Nasionale Party (NP)--led by F.W. de
Klerk.  The NP was expected to poll the second-highest
number of votes, well behind the ANC, thus ensuring de
Klerk a position as one of two deputy presidents.  While
the NP did not expect to win the election, they did not
concede the campaign to the ANC.  On the regional level,
the NP was expected to do well in the Cape provinces; and
--Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)--led by Mangosuthu
Buthelezi.  A late entrant into the election campaign,
this Zulu-centric party's primary base is in
U.S. Presidential Delegation to the South African
Statement by Rev. Jesse L. Jackson, Chairman,
Presidential Delegation to the South African Elections,
April 29, 1994.
We have just witnessed a major mile-stone in South
Africa's transition to nonracial democracy.  The
delegation was moved by the jubilation which South
Africans demonstrated during these momentous elections.
The American people congratulate all South Africans on
this great achievement.  The elections, while not
perfect, provided an opportunity for millions of first-
time voters to finally have a say in determining their
own future.
This delegation manifests American commitment--from the
highest level--to free elections and democracy in South
Africa.  We did not come here to judge the election
process.  Rather, our mission was to participate as
observers of the election process and, thereby,
contribute to the collective evaluation concerning
whether or not this election was "substantially free and
fair."  In that connection, the delegation visited
polling sites in Pretoria, Johannesburg, the Western
Cape, and the Northern Transvaal.
The Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) has played a
vital role in the administration, organization,
execution, and monitoring of these elections.  Within
four months of its creation, the IEC educated voters;
prepared, revised, and distributed ballots; and trained
officials for 9,000 polling stations.  We congratulate
the IEC and all those involved for their courageous and
successful efforts to enable the South African people to
The delegation also pays tribute to South Africa's
leaders, particularly President de Klerk and ANC
President Mandela, for guiding the country's transition
to multiparty democracy.  In the face of the most
unimaginable difficulty, they have negotiated a process
which has led to solid achievements such as the
establishment of the transitional government structure, a
complex constitution, and an even more difficult set of
elections.  Thus, they have provided a foundation for
future leadership in which all South Africans can have
The candidates who participated in the elections
throughout the country deserve our admiration and
respect.  Our greatest applause, however, is for the
voters who--both black and white and having survived the
long struggle against apartheid and attempted
intimidation--were determined to vote and bring about a
new and democratic political, economic, and social
The cooperation between the IEC and the Security Forces
was also noteworthy, providing a model of civil-military
relations in a democratic society--a model that will
serve South Africa well in the days ahead.
The election is just the first step toward building a
democratic system.  South Africans must now begin the
task of consolidating democracy, which--coupled with the
need to immediately address economic and social problems-
-will provide great challenges for the country's new
leadership.  Apartheid is dead.  A new South Africa is
born.  They have chosen coexistence over co-annihilation.
The remaining problems to be solved will be around the
bargaining table, not the battlefield.  This is a time
for reconciliation and healing.  The time of economic
isolation is ended.  The world welcomes the re-entry of
South Africa into the international community and its
taking its rightful place as a leading nation in the
world.  The world applauds a negotiated revolution over a
senseless bloodletting in a civil war.  The leaders chose
a noble course and saved the nation.
The American people will continue to support South
Africa's democratic transition, as well as its
reconstruction and reintegration into the global economy.
We look forward to forging a partnership with South
Africa to secure a peaceful, economically vibrant, and
vigorous democracy.(###)
Fact Sheet:  Economic Situation In South Africa
South Africa is a country of vast potential whose economy
is only just beginning to crawl out of four years of
recession.  The recession capped a decade-long stagnation
resulting from global recession, loss of business
confidence, double-digit inflation, global economic
sanctions, structural inefficiencies, and irrational
economic policies rooted in apartheid.
In 1992, a severe regional drought devastated South
Africa's agricultural sector; GDP achieved a growth rate
of 1% primarily because of a rebound in agriculture.  But
continued recovery is not assured:  Unemployment nears
50%; capital flight is draining foreign reserves; and
concern over future economic policies all threaten to
undermine the fragile health of the economy.
South Africa's first-world wealth, its status as a world
trader, and its highly developed business and financial
sector all contrast markedly with the poverty, sub-
standard housing, lack of access to basic services,
inferior educational system, and high unemployment that
are apartheid's bitter legacy for the majority of South
Africa's population.  This newly enfranchised majority
will look to the new government to move quickly to
redress these inequalities.
The new government will require tremendous resources to
address these needs.  Some resources will come from the
public sector through an "apartheid dividend"--a
rationalization of duplicative apartheid-era ministries
and a reallocation of priorities for government spending.
But the majority of the resources must come from economic
growth and a reinvigorated private sector.  To generate
the necessary private sector resources, the government
must create a beneficial business and investment climate,
and the highly protected, oligarchic business community
must liberalize and expand to create a freer marketplace.
President-elect Mandela--in public and private--aims to
reassure the skilled, entrepreneurial white communities,
referring often to his determination not to repeat the
mistakes of Zimbabwe.
Over the past two years, and despite its alliance with
the Communist Party, the African National Congress (ANC)
has undergone a transformation in its economic policy
thinking--away from statist positions, such as wholesale
nationalization, toward greater advocacy of market
economics.  ANC leaders are confident that they can
implement rational economic policies to induce growth,
provide opportunities for those who have been kept out of
the economic mainstream of the country, and stimulate
investor confidence in South Africa's future.  An ANC-
dominant government will ensure that resources are being
applied to establish a reconstruction and development
program, which has been widely discussed in U.S. and
European business circles.  Many businesses are satisfied
with the relative moderation of proposed policies and
absence of reference to property expropriation.(###)
Fact Sheet:  Women in South Africa
During the months prior to South Africa's first
multiparty elections, South African women have challenged
traditional law and notions of male leadership.  Many
women were highly active in the struggle against
apartheid, including those in the military wings of the
black liberation organizations.  Now they are determined
to ensure that a new political order recognizes equality
in terms of gender as well as in terms of race.
The transitional constitution which became law on April
27, 1994, includes a bill of rights which specifically
provides for equal protection under law, regardless of
gender.  Parliament also passed the Promotion of Equality
between Men and Women Act and the Prevention of Family
Violence Act.  During multiparty talks, however, bills
granting equal rights for women were subject to
considerable opposition from traditional leaders.
The Promotion of Equality between Men and Women Act:
--Eliminates all remaining vestiges of a husband's
traditional power over his wife in property and financial
--Revokes the power of courts to direct that women not be
present at certain trials;
--Removes all legal differentiation between men and women
in matters of citizenship;
--Makes provisions of the Sexual Offenses Act equally
applicable to men and women; and
--Abolishes certain provisions in the law which
traditionally discriminated against married and pregnant
The Prevention of Family Violence Act simplifies
injunction and arrest procedures related to domestic
abuses against women and children.  Despite the new
legislation, active protection of women's and children's
rights will depend heavily on education, particularly in
rural areas, to make women aware of the rights to which
they are now entitled.
The African National Congress (ANC) leadership, and
specifically Nelson Mandela, has consistently expressed a
commitment to defend women's rights and to ensure that
women are well represented in political fora.  In
December 1993, the ANC Women's League elected Winnie
Mandela as its chairperson.
In 1991, nearly 53% of the South African population was
female, though demographic and population statistics are
unreliable.  Due to the apartheid-based migrant labor
system, more women than men were concentrated in the 10
former homelands, and more specifically in the rural
areas of the homelands, where, on average, there were 10%
more women than men.
The cases of mortality and morbidity in women are largely
preventable.  The health status of women in South Africa
could be improved through health education and promotion;
adequate nutrition, especially for pregnant and lactating
mothers; and access to trained personnel while giving
Fact Sheet:  Education in South Africa
The legacy of apartheid continues to affect the quality
of education in South Africa.  While the average student-
teacher ratio in white schools is 20 to 1, it is 38 to 1
in black schools, excluding those in the former
homelands, where the ratio is even worse.  In 1993, the
government waived matriculation examination fees, which
had prevented many poor black students from taking the
exam and from graduating.  Of black matriculants, only
38% passed the 1992 exam, compared to 95% of white
matriculants.  According to the Department of Education
and Training, in 1993, 46.8% of South African university
students were white, 40.2% black, 7.2 % Indian, and 5.4%
"coloured."  In 1993, increasing numbers of white schools
opted to permit black students to enroll, although the
decision to enroll black students depended on the consent
of white parents.
Primary and secondary education for black South Africans
has been inadequate for decades.  During the 1980s, there
was an explosion of unrest in the schools, producing both
nationwide teacher strikes and student boycotts.  These
combined to ensure that students spent less than five
months in the classroom annually.  While strikes,
absences, and violence rendered a productive school year
impossible, the remnants of the apartheid-era education
structures preclude township schools from educational
excellence, even in a normal year.  The main obstacle is
unequal funding.  The government spends about three times
more for each white student than for each black student--
better than the 10 to 1 ratio in the past, but still
biased.  In 1992, 13.6% of teachers in black schools
lacked a formal teaching qualification and 57.2% were
underqualified.  According to the Education Minister,
more than 1 million black children did not attend school.
According to one estimate, 15 million black adults have
had no basic schooling--9 million of these are totally
illiterate in any language (in a population of
approximately 40 million).
The African National Congress (ANC) has called for
sweeping changes in education policy, including an
increased emphasis on practical and technical training,
and giving priority to early education and adult literacy
in rural areas.  But the ANC recognizes that such
proposals are very expensive, especially in light of
other urgent social needs, such as health care and
housing, to a newly enfranchised electorate with high
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
regulations prohibited any direct assistance to the
previous South African Government. USAID educational
assistance to South Africa has gone either to
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) or to individuals.
USAID has funded a variety of interventions: grants for
black South Africans to pursue degree study and short-
term training; direct support to non-formal schools for
curriculum development and teacher training; and
assistance to American black colleges and universities to
establish partnerships with South African learning
institutions.  Many of the NGOs funded by USAID are
regarded as leaders in their fields, promoting activities
which may be replicated under the new government's
Department of Education. (###)

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