1.  Department of State Reorganization -- Secretary Christopher
2.  Department Statements
3.  US Commitment To Advance the Middle East Peace Negotiations -- 
President Clinton 
4.  Fifth Report on War Crimes in the Former Yugoslavia


Department of State Reorganization
Secretary Christopher
Following are the Secretary's message to State Department employees and 
his implementation directive on reorganization released in Washington, 
DC, February 5, 1993 

Secretary's Message to State Department Employees

As I join all of you in the challenging job of shaping and directing 
America's foreign policy, it is clear that we must make changes in the 
way the State Department is organized.

The organization of our Department has evolved over the years in 
response to unique circumstances in the international environment.  We 
serve in a State Department that is far better organized for the decades 
past than for the special challenges America faces in the post-Cold War 

I want our Department to be able to deal more effectively with the new 
issues of critical importance to our nation's foreign policy:  
strengthening democratization efforts in the former Soviet Union and 
around the world, halting the proliferation of weapons of mass 
destruction, strengthening peace-keeping capabilities, dealing more 
effectively with global environmental problems, elevating our concern 
about the global population explosion, fighting international crime and 
terrorism, and penetrating new markets for American business.

We cannot hope to respond to these and other new challenges unless we 
improve the way we deal with tough and complex problems which cut across 
the traditional boundaries of our bureaus.  We must design creative ways 
to both increase the efficiency of the policy process and enhance the 
administration of the many programs we manage.  This will mean:

--  Designating five Under Secretaries together with the Deputy 
[Secretary] as my principal foreign policy advisers;

--  Creating new focal points for key foreign policy initiatives;

--  Eliminating redundancies and concentrating greater decision making 
responsibility within the bureaus;

--  Reducing excessive layering to streamline information flow and 
decision making;

--  Enhancing communication in all directions by asking most bureaus to 
report to me through a designated Under Secretary who will coordinate 
the activities of related bureaus and facilitate needed access to me and 
the Seventh Floor; and

--  Creating a streamlined Office of the Secretary to provide me and the 
Deputy Secretary with a more effective means to receive information and 
make decisions.

Over the past weeks, the transition has afforded us an extended 
opportunity to examine closely the organization of the Department in 
light of President Clinton's foreign policy priorities.  We were not 
alone in this endeavor, since work was well underway by the Department's 
own Management Task Force "State 2000" as well as by other groups of 
qualified professionals.  The changes I ask to be implemented emerge 
from what I believe is a growing consensus for change within and outside 
the Department.

I do not seek these changes merely for the sake of change itself.  When 
undertaking a degree of reorganization, we must be mindful that change 
can be disruptive.  Thus, it must be carefully planned so as not to 
interfere with the orderly functioning of the Department.  While some of 
the changes outlined in the attached directive can be achieved quickly 
by administrative action subject to congressional consultation, others 
will require legislation which we plan to seek in the very near future.  
We have initiated the process of discussion with Congress and have, thus 
far, received a positive reaction to our 

There is great talent in the Department of State among those who have 
devoted themselves to careers of public service.  President Clinton and 
I wish better to harness this talent so critical to the interests of our 
nation.  We must change to do this.  I am convinced that the measured 
changes we now undertake can enable us to deal with both the problems 
and opportunities of a new era in foreign policy.

Secretary's Implementation Directive for Reorganization

In order to implement the foreign policy priorities of the President of 
the United States and to more effectively and efficiently carry out the 
foreign policy responsibilities of the Department of State, I ask that 
the following changes be implemented to occur upon passage of 
legislation or by this directive upon completion of congressional 

1.  The Under Secretaries shall be the principal foreign policy advisers 
to the Secretary and directly in the chain of command.

I wish to strengthen the role of the Under Secretaries.  They shall 
serve as my principal foreign policy advisers and assist me and the 
Deputy Secretary in executing and coordinating the activities of the 
Department.  They will be given line responsibility to manage and 
coordinate the operations of the bureaus which will report to them.

The use of Under Secretaries as senior advisers to the Secretary should 
be accompanied by a realignment of the chain of command.  In the future, 
Assistant Secretaries will report directly to the designated Under 
Secretary.  Changes in reporting responsibility will not alter the 
important role of the Assistant Secretaries in the formulation of 
foreign policy or their access to the Office of the Secretary.

The major benefits from this change are creating a better system of 
information flow from the bureaus to the Under Secretary and the Office 
of the Secretary, achieving greater efficiency in Departmental decision- 
making, permitting more extensive coordination of key cross-cutting 
issues at the bureau and Under Secretary levels, and strengthening the 
Under Secretaries in the interagency process.

Listed elsewhere in this directive are the groupings of bureaus in 
specific clusters and the designated lines of reporting to specific 
Under Secretaries.

2.  Creation of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs.

I shall ask Congress to create a fifth Under Secretary for Global 
Affairs (G) needed to manage and redirect critical global issues now 
found at the heart of post-Cold War foreign policy.  These issues cut 
across nearly every boundary of the geographic and functional bureaus.  
We must insure that they are given high-level attention in a new and 
strengthened system of Under Secretaries.  The substantive concerns of 
the Under Secretary for Global Affairs shall reside in bureaus dealing 
with the environment, science, oceans policy, democracy promotion, human 
rights, international labor issues, refugees, population, counter-
terrorism, international narcotics, and other international criminal 
issues.  Better coordination of the programs managed by these bureaus 
across many agencies and departments will be a critical role for this 
new Under Secretary.

Given the pressing need to have an Under Secretary for Global Affairs in 
place in the very near future, President Clinton intends to initially 
nominate his candidate for this post as Counselor and then have Congress 
reconstitute this position as the new Under Secretary.  I will also ask 
the Congress to establish a new Counselor position at Executive Level 
IV, thereby maintaining the current number of Executive Level III posts 
in the Department.

3. Creation of three new bureaus to streamline policy and consolidate 

I shall ask Congress to define three new bureaus derived from existing 
bureaus and functions in the Department to streamline the formulation of 
policy in these important areas and to better manage the substantial 
programs operated by these organizations.

a.  Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL)--This bureau will 
be created by combining the current Bureau of Human Rights and 
Humanitarian Affairs and the Office of Special Assistant to the 
Secretary and Coordinator for Labor Affairs; the latter shall be 
relocated in the new bureau in a Deputy Assistant Secretary position.  
This bureau will provide an organizational home for initiatives and 
policies which promote democracy.  By combining associated activities 
related to human rights and labor affairs, the bureau will play a major 
role in formulating policies designed to build and strengthen democratic 
institutions.  The Assistant Secretary for Democracy, Human Rights, and 
Labor will be nominated as Assistant Secretary for Human Rights and 
Humanitarian Affairs until legislation can be enacted to reconstitute 
and rename that position.

b.  Bureau of Narcotics, Terrorism, and Crime (NTC)--This bureau will be 
created by expanding the mandate of the Bureau for International 
Narcotics Matters to include counter-terrorism and international crime.  
The Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism will be relocated in the new 
bureau at the Deputy Assistant Secretary level.  A new office of 
international crime will be created to act as a policy and coordinating 
office for all of the Department's activities in this area.  The 
operational responsibility for the Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program 
(ATA) will be moved to the new bureau from the Bureau of Diplomatic 
Security, thus placing policy and implementation together.

President Clinton and I place great priority on the activities 
encompassed by this new bureau in view of the threats posed to our 
nation by terrorist groups, narco-traffickers, and international 
criminal organizations.

The Assistant Secretary for Narcotics, Terrorism, and Crime will be 
nominated initially as the Assistant Secretary for International 
Narcotics Matters until a statutory name change can be enacted.

c.  Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM)--In order to 
consolidate all Departmental responsibility for refugee matters and to 
upgrade policy focus on refugee issues in a single bureau, I will ask 
Congress to create a new bureau headed by an Assistant Secretary.  This 
bureau will also be responsible for coordinating the Department's policy 
on population and migration issues.  The positions and functions of 
Ambassador-at-Large and Coordinator for Refugee Affairs and the Bureau 
of Refugee Programs will be subsumed in the new bureau.  The nominee for 
Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and Migration 
Affairs will be confirmed as Ambassador-at-Large and Coordinator for 
Refugee Affairs and will hold that position until legislation can be 
enacted reconstituting and renaming the position as Assistant Secretary 
for PRM.

4.  Rename offices in order to indicate a new policy emphasis or changed 

I will ask Congress to change the names of the following Departmental 

a.  Under Secretary for Economic and Agricultural Affairs to be changed 
to Under Secretary for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs (E).  
This change reflects the need to underscore that this office will have 
as a major responsibility harnessing the assets of the Department to 
assist the competitive position of US companies.

b.  Under Secretary for International Security Affairs to be changed to 
Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security Affairs (A).  
This change reflects new arms control priorities of the Clinton 
Administration to deal with the heightened threat of proliferation of 
weapons of mass destruction.  The change also recognizes that the Bureau 
of Political-Military Affairs will have new non-proliferation functions 
as a result of consolidations discussed in this directive.  (The Bureau 
of Administration [formerly A] will be designated AD.)

5.  Create an Office of Secretary of State.

It is necessary to streamline and reorganize the office and functions 
which relate directly to the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary in order 
to rationalize critical policy support services, to provide a framework 
for high-level decision making and to enable the Secretary and the 
Deputy to establish an operational agenda for Under Secretaries, 
Assistant Secretaries, and other senior officials.

There is hereby established an Office of Secretary of State which 
consists of the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary, and the Executive 
Secretary as well as their personal staffs.  Reporting directly to the 
Office of the Secretary shall be:

--  Ambassador-at-Large and Special Adviser to the Secretary of State 
for the New Independent States

--  The Policy Planning Staff (S/P);
--  The Bureau of Legislative Affairs (H);
--  The Bureau of Public Affairs (PA);
--  The Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR);
--  The Legal Adviser (L);
--  The Chief of Protocol (CPR);
--  Secretariat Staff and Operations Center (S/S);
--  The Ombudsman (S/CSO);
--  The Inspector General (OIG);
--  The Foreign Service Grievance Board (FSG); [and]
--  Equal Employment Opportunity and Civil Rights (EEOCR).

The Deputy Secretary shall share major policy responsibilities with the 
Secretary and in the absence of the Secretary shall serve in an acting 
capacity.  In addition, the Deputy Secretary shall:

--  Coordinate the management of international affairs resources, 
especially on an interagency basis;
--  Oversee the process of ambassadorial appointments; [and]
--  Assume other tasks and responsibilities at the request of the 
Secretary of State, such as reviews of organizational structures.

To achieve the efficient operation of the Office of the Secretary, 
Ambassadors-at-Large, Special Advisers, Coordinators, and independent 
offices hitherto reporting to the Secretary are abolished, merged with, 
or relocated in appropriate bureaus as set out below (to occur upon the 
passage of legislation or by this directive upon completion of 
congressional consultations).

To be abolished by legislation:
--  Ambassador-at-Large and Coordinator for Refugee Affairs, with 
functions subsumed in the Bureau of Refugee Affairs as discussed 
previously; and
--  Special Envoy to the Afghan Resistance.

Abolished in this directive with functions relocated as indicated:
--  Special Assistant to the Secretary and Coordinator for International 
Labor Affairs (S/IL), with functions assumed by the Bureau of Democracy, 
Human Rights, and Labor (DRL);
--  Coordinator for Counter-Terrorism (S/CT), with functions included in 
the Bureau of Narcotics, Terrorism, and Crime (NTC);
--  Ambassador-at-Large and Special Adviser on Non-Proliferation Policy 
and Nuclear Energy Affairs (S/NP), with functions transferred to the 
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (PM); and
--  Office of the Delegation to the Negotiations on Nuclear and Space 
Arms (S/DEL), with functions transferred to the Bureau of Political- 
Military Affairs (PM).

6.  Creation of an Ambassador-at-Large and Special Adviser to the 
Secretary of State for the New Independent States (S/NIS).

President Clinton has nominated an Ambassador-at-Large for the New 
Independent States, and this person shall also serve as Special Adviser 
to the Secretary of State.  This new post was created to provide a high-
level focal point for policy formulation and coordination of US 
assistance to the states that were under the control of the former 
Soviet Union.  When confirmed, the Ambassador-at-Large will chair an 
interagency policy group to formulate US policy and set US program 
priorities for the new independent states.

The Office of Independent States and Commonwealth Affairs (EUR/ISCA) 
shall remain in EUR [the Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs], 
reporting directly to the Ambassador-at-Large.  The task force 
coordinating assistance to those states (currently D/CISA) and the 
position of Coordinator and Deputy Coordinator shall be transferred to 
S/NIS and shall report directly to the Ambassador-at-Large.  The 
Ambassador-at-Large will also provide general policy guidance to the 
Coordinator for Safety, Security, and Dismantling Nuclear Weapons (to 
become PM/SSD) and to the USAID [US Agency for International 
Development] Task Force for the New Independent States (AID/NIS).  The 
task force coordinating assistance to Eastern Europe (D/EEA) shall be 
transferred to the Bureau of European and Canadian Affairs.

7.  New reporting responsibilities for Assistant Secretaries.

The Department's bureaus shall report directly to the Under Secretaries 
as discussed previously.  Set forth below are the reporting 
responsibilities for each Assistant Secretary:

--  To the Under Secretary for Political Affairs (P)--All six regional 
bureaus (ARA, EUR, SA, AF, EAP, NEA) and the Bureau of International 
Organization Affairs (IO).

--  To the Under Secretary for Economic, Business, and Agricultural 
Affairs (E)--The Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (EB).

--  To the Under Secretary for Global Affairs (G)--The Bureau of 
Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL); the Bureau of Oceans and 
International Environmental and Scientific Affairs (OES); the Bureau of 
Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM); and the Bureau of Narcotics, 
Terrorism, and Crime (NTC).

--  To the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security 
Affairs (A)--The Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (PM).

--  To the Under Secretary for Management (M)--The Bureau of 
Administration (AD), the Bureau of Consular Affairs (CA), the Bureau of 
Diplomatic Security (DS), the Bureau of Financial Management and Policy 
(FMP), the Foreign Service Institute (FSI), and the Bureau of Personnel 
(PER).  (Note:  Further reorganization of management functions may occur 
after an ongoing review is completed.)

8.  Functional consolidations will occur to streamline operations and 
improve policy focus.

There are several functions which need to be moved to improve policy 
formulation and management in key areas.

The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy and Energy Technology 
Affairs (OES/N) and the five offices which report to this position 
(OES/NTS, OES/NEC, OES/NEP, OES/NSR, OES/NSC) will be relocated within 
the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs so as to further consolidate 
all activities relating to the critical issue of halting nuclear 
proliferation.  The Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and 
Scientific Affairs (OES) shall retain functions in these offices 
relating to non-nuclear energy.

Another goal is to improve the way the Department manages export 
controls as they are applied to commercial goods and munitions.  Our 
interest is in preventing exports that might contribute to proliferation 
or to the transfer of technology that could harm US interests and in 
promoting legitimate exports that help American industry and the 
economy.  In order, then, to improve the coherence, consistency, and 
efficiency of our efforts in the Department, we are closely reviewing 
our export control activities and examining alternative ways of 
organizing these functions, with a decision to be made in the next 2 

Responsibility for international space issues is fragmented and has 
produced overlapping roles among the Bureau of Political-Military 
Affairs, the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, and the Bureau of 
Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs.  We will 
also be examining this problem over the next  2 weeks with an eye toward 
integrating our diplomacy for space cooperation with broader national 
security and foreign policy objectives.

The Nuclear Risk Reduction Center shall report to the Bureau of 
Political-Military Affairs.  The Coordinator for Safety, Security, and 
Dismantling of Nuclear Weapons (SSD) shall be moved to the Bureau of 
Political-Military Affairs.  The US Delegation to the Open Skies 
Conference (T/OS) shall be abolished.

There shall be created in the Bureau of International Organization 
Affairs an Office of Peacekeeping to assist the bureau and the 
Department in efforts to better plan and coordinate peacekeeping 

There shall be created in the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs an 
Office of Business Facilitation to serve as a key access point in the 
Department for the private sector as well as providing policy guidance 
on key issues relating to improving the competitive position of US 
companies in world markets.  Commercial functions of the Office of 
Commercial, Legislative, and Public Affairs (EB/CLP) shall be 
transferred to this new office.

The Bureau of International Communications and Information Policy (CIP) 
shall be merged into the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs as an 
office headed by a Coordinator.  The rank of Ambassador associated with 
this post shall be discontinued.  Legislation will be sought to achieve 
this change.  International telecommunications negotiations and 
agreements are critical to maintaining the competitive position of this 
important US industry.  This can best be achieved in the context of the 
EB bureau, which is the principal place of access for American business.  
The Department's interagency role in the telecommunications policy arena 
with the Federal Communications Commission and the Commerce Department's 
National Telecommunications and Information Administration will be 
strengthened by merging this office into a fully staffed bureau.

There shall be created in the Department an Office for the Permanent 
Representative for the United Nations to support the Cabinet functions 
of this post and to more effectively coordinate with the Bureau of 
International Organization Affairs.

In a time of tight budgets and increasing demands on international 
affairs resources, clearer priorities must be established for the 
International Affairs Budget Function 150 Account if Administration 
initiatives are to be realized.  Under the direction of the Deputy 
Secretary, who will coordinate management of international affairs 
resources, the Policy Planning Staff shall provide policy guidance so 
that general spending priorities may be established.  A deputy in S/P 
shall work closely with the Office of Policy and Resources (D/P&R) to 
link the policy planning and resource allocation processes.

9.  Removing excessive layering.

The number of Deputy Assistant Secretaries in the Department has grown 
from 46 in the 1960s to 120 today.  I have asked the Under Secretaries 
to work with Assistant Secretaries to reduce the number of Deputy 
Assistant Secretaries [DASs] and DAS equivalents by about 40% and to 
reduce significantly the number of special assistants and other Seventh 
Floor staff.  These reductions are designed to eliminate excessive 
layering, expedite clearance procedures, and strengthen the 
responsibilities of office directors and country directors.

I have asked the Deputy Secretary to oversee the implementation of these 
changes in a manner consistent with the orderly functioning of the 
Department.  In doing so, he will work with the Under Secretary for 
Management, who will coordinate the implementation of the directive.  I 
have asked that all affected officials be consulted so as to achieve the 
changes in a timely and non-disruptive fashion.  I have also asked the 
Deputy Secretary to conduct a review of the operations and mandate of 
the US Agency for International Development and to report his findings 
within 60 days so that we may propose to Congress a reorganization plan 
for this agency.

Warren Christopher (###)


Department Statements

Guatemala Murder Trial
Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, 
Washington, DC, February 1, 1993.

We are concerned that a Guatemalan court denied a request for official 
security protection for key prosecution witnesses to the brutal 
September 11, 1990, murder of world-renowned Guatemalan anthropologist 
Myrna Mack Chang.  Testimony free from intimidation is necessary to 
ensure that justice be done.

Ms. Mack's murder and the initial lack of any serious investigation 
focused international scrutiny on the Guatemalan justice system's 
ability to combat human rights abuse.  In spite   of judicial turnover 
which resulted in 12 different judges dealing with the case, and 
notwithstanding reports of attempted intimidation, the current trial 
judge recently stated that a verdict was due this month; these witnesses 
may be required to give further testimony.

We urge appropriate protection for the prosecution witnesses in the Mack 
case.  We reiterate our expectation that the judicial process in this 
case be full, fair, and impartial.

US Supports Ongoing Angolan Talks and Calls for End to Fighting
Statement by State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher, Washington, DC, 
February 2, 1993.

The United States welcomes the resumption of direct talks between the 
Government of Angola and UNITA [National Union for the Total 
Independence of Angola] in Addis Ababa [Ethiopia].  In addition to re-
establishing a dialogue, the two parties found sufficient common ground 
to pursue further negotiations next week.  The United States commends 
and fully supports the work of the United Nations and the Secretary 
General's Special Representative, Margaret Anstee, in facilitating these 

While we are encouraged by this new dialogue, both parties must 
recognize the urgent need for a cease-fire.  Intense fighting continues 
in Angola, undermining the already fragile political and economic 
situation.  A military solution to Angola's problems is not possible.  
The United States joins the international community in reiterating its 
call for an immediate end to the violence.  UNITA and the Government 
must continue their face-to-face talks under UN auspices in order to 
resolve their conflict and fulfill the terms of the Bicesse peace 

We remind all parties that any attacks on US facilities, companies, or 
personnel in Angola will have the gravest implications for those 
responsible. (###)


US Commitment To Advance The Middle East Peace Negotiations
Statement by President Clinton released by the White House, Office of 
the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, February 3, 1993.

In accord with my pledge to maintain continuity in the Arab-Israeli 
peace negotiations, I have decided to dispatch Secretary of State 
Christopher to the Middle East.  His purpose will be to convey to all 
the parties my commitment to advance the peace negotiations.  He will 
elicit their views on how best to promote progress, and he will discuss 
bilateral issues and regional problems, including Iraq.

This will be Secretary Christopher's first mission abroad.  It is an 
indication of the priority my Administration attaches to peace-making in 
the Middle East.  It also presents an opportunity for the parties to 
focus their energies on the formidable challenge of achieving peace in a 
strife-torn region.

With violence engulfing so much of the world, it is striking that in the 
Middle East a process of direct negotiations has begun.  Israel, all its 
Arab neighbors, and the Palestinians have been engaged in a common 
endeavor to achieve a just, lasting, and comprehensive peace based on UN 
Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338.

The United States, together with our Russian co-sponsor, played a 
critical role in launching these negotiations.  It is my intention to 
see that we continue that role.

We cannot impose a solution in the Middle East.  Only the leaders of the 
region can make peace.  Theirs is an awesome responsibility.  Those who 
oppose the process, who seek to subvert it through violence and 
intimidation, will find no tolerance here for their methods.  But those 
who are willing to make peace will find in me and my Administration a 
full partner.  This is a historic moment.  It can slip away all too 
easily.  But if we seize the opportunity, we can begin now to construct 
a peaceful Middle East for future generations.  (###)


Fifth Report on War Crimes In the Former Yugoslavia

Following is the text of the Supplemental United States Submission of 
Information to the UN Security Council in Accordance with Paragraph 5 of 
Resolution 771 (1992) and Paragraph 1 of Resolution 780 (1992), released 
on December 7, 1992.  For the text of the first four reports, see 
Dispatch Vol. 3 No. 39, p. 732; Vol. 3, No. 44, p. 802; Vol. 3, No. 46, 
p. 825; and Vol. 3, No. 52, p. 917.

For the text of Resolution 771, see Dispatch Supplement, Vol. 3, No. 7, 
p. 44.  For text of Resolution 780, see Dispatch, Vol. 3, No. 41, p. 

Editor's Note:  The following contains graphic descriptions.

This is the fifth submission by the United States Government of 
information pursuant to paragraph 5 of Security Council Resolution 771 
(1992) relating to the violations of humanitarian law, including grave 
breaches of the Geneva Conventions, being committed in the territory of 
the former Yugoslavia.  As in our three previous reports, we have 
focused on grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and, in accordance 
with Resolution 771, have provided information that is "substantiated," 
that is, which rests upon eyewitness testimony directly available to us 
or that includes detail sufficient for corroboration.  For the moment, 
we have also tried not to duplicate information provided to us from 
other countries and non-governmental sources, which we understand will 
submit reports pursuant to Resolutions 771 and 780.  The information 
provided is intended to be useful to the commission of experts 
established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780.  The United 
States has further substantiating information concerning the incidents 
included in this report, which we will make available directly to the 
commission of experts on a confidential basis.

In accordance with paragraph 1 of Resolution 780, the United States 
intends to continue providing reports as additional relevant information 
comes into our possession.

We wish to note that in addition to the categories of violations of 
humanitarian law and grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions cited in 
our previous reports, we have added a new category, "Impeding Delivery 
of Food and Medical Supplies to the Civilian Population."

As in our previous reports, the notations at the end of each of the 
items indicate the source from which the information was drawn.  Unless 
otherwise indicated, the reports refer to incidents occurring in 1992.

Former Yugoslavia: Grave Breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention, Fifth 

Willful Killing
8 Jan 93:  A Bosnian Serb army soldier killed Bosnian Deputy Prime 
Minister Hakija Turajlic on January 8.  Turajlic was sitting inside a UN 
vehicle at a UN command post near Sarajevo's airport.  French General 
Morillon, a UN commander in Bosnia, blamed the commander of the Bosnian 
Serbs' Lukavica corps for the assassination.  (The Washington Post) 

Jan 93:  Armed Serbian groups are killing and wounding people of all 
ages every day, destroying abandoned Muslim and Croat buildings, and 
looting homes and stores in Banja Luka and in the surrounding 
countryside, according to witnesses.  (Department of State)

14 Dec:  Bosnian Muslim forces from Srebrenica killed at least 60 Serbs, 
mostly civilians, in villages near the Bosnian town of Bratunac, 
according to a resident of the town.  As a result of the hostilities, up 
to 5,000 people--primarily women, children, elderly, and wounded--have 
fled across the Drina River into Ljubovija from the Bosnian villages of 
Bjelovac, Sikiric, Voljevica, Jugovici, and Loznicka Rijeka.  
(Department of State)

Sep:  A 44-year-old Muslim witnessed Serbian soldiers beating four men 
in early September outside a detention facility in Batkovic.  Two were 
able to enter the facility; another two young men did not have the 
strength to flee the beating.  Four or five soldiers continued attacking 
those two until one of them, about 20 years old, died.  The second bled 
from the ears and was so badly injured that he could not recognize his 
own father, a fellow prisoner.

Fifteen men were killed during his stay at Batkovic camp.  The witness 
was able to identify the most brutal of the guards at Batkovic.  
(Department of State)

Sep:  A 44-year-old Serbian civilian, who had been detained in Celebici 
since May 30, witnessed the beating deaths of 15-16 Serbs by a Muslim 
guard and the deputy camp director, Azem Delic--a "green beret" (member 
of the Bosnian Muslim Paramilitary Forces in Konjic).  (Department of 

24 Jul:  A 39-year-old Bosnian Muslim from Prijedor, who was held in 
Keraterm camp from May 31 until August 5, witnessed the July 24-25 
massacre at Keraterm camp. 

Though we have reported the massacre in previous reports, this witness 
provided some additional details about the events on the evening of July 

The witness was in the room next door, where he could see much of what 
took place because the large factory doors separating the rooms had 
slats with openings between them.  He said that soon after the 
disturbances in the room next door had begun, he saw two trucks full of 
soldiers drive into the camp.

Floodlights were turned on, and three additional machine guns were 
brought from the trucks and placed next to the two that had already been 
in the camp.  All five machine guns were used to fire into the room.  At 
around six the next morning, the witness was among the prisoners chosen 
to load bodies into the trucks.  He said they stacked more than 100 
bodies in the trucks, piling them in three layers.  (Department of 

26 Jun:  A 19-year-old Serbian civilian from Visoko witnessed the 
beating death of Milivoje Samardzic when Muslims arrested him and 
brought him to Visoko camp.  He identified those responsible for the 
death.  (Department of State)

20 Jun:  A 27-year-old Serbian civilian from Okolisce, a village near 
Visoko, witnessed the killing of six unarmed Serb civilians by a Bosnian 
Territorial Defense soldier on June 20 in Okolisce.  He witnessed these 
shootings from his neighbor's house, and stated that among the victims 
were the wife and son of a Serb neighbor.  During this attack, a Muslim 
neighbor saved the life of the witness.

Later on June 20, this man witnessed the beating death of Bosko Rakovic 
at Visoko camp by a Muslim guard whom he identified.  (Department of 

13 Jun:  A 24-year-old Serbian civilian from Visoko was arrested with 
his father and two brothers by Bosnian Muslim Territorial Defense Forces 
on June 13.  He witnessed the beating death of Slobodan Gogic on that 

Pointing to a wound on his elbow as evidence of his own torture, the 
witness identified those who had beaten himself, Gogic, and other 
prisoners.  (Department of State)

Torture of Prisoners
May-Oct:  A 33-year-old Muslim doctor from Prijedor, who had been 
interned in Trnopolje camp from May 25 until his release to the Karlovac 
transit center for ex-detainees on October 1, described the operation of 
a medical clinic in Trnopolje camp--the only reported clinic in any of 
the camps in the Prijedor area.

Trnopolje is a small village within the municipality of Kozarac, about   
6 kilometers away.  It lies on the railroad track between Prijedor and 
Omarska.  Most maps identify it as "Kozarac Station."  Trains came often 
through Trnopolje traveling to Banja Luka.  Women, children, boys under 
16, men over 65, and the very sick were loaded on through trains; able-
bodied men remained in Trnopolje.

The witness said that Serbian soldiers wandered through Trnopolje camp 
nightly, brutally beating the male prisoners and randomly raping female 
prisoners.  They did this with the knowledge and permission of camp 
guards stationed at several locations in Trnopolje.

The witness examined some of the raped women but was not allowed to 
indicate on any documents that they had been raped.  The doctors kept a 
log of patients for a few weeks, until they were stopped by the Serbs.  
The doctors were not allowed to indicate in the log that patients had 
been beaten or raped, but the witness and others used a code to indicate 
who had been raped and beaten.  The witness smuggled these logs out of 
the camp and turned them over to the Muslim Club of Kozarac in Zagreb.

Several times the employees of the clinic came under suspicion, and 
their lives were threatened.  One of the female aides was a Serb, and 
she was repeatedly interrogated and told to stop working at the clinic, 
but she stayed.  The witness believes the presence of this Serb saved 
the lives of the other staff many times.  (Department of State)

May-Oct:  Serbian paramilitary police picked up a 44-year-old Muslim on 
May 14 and drove him to a kindergarten on the western side of Zvornik.  
There one member of the paramilitary beat him with a stick for 1 hour, 
while another aimed his pistol at him, and a third went through 
documents.  The witness said the three were Serbs from Serbia, not 
Bosnia.  They wore white belts and camouflage fatigues.

The witness and another captive were driven about 5 minutes to a former 
textile plant called "Alhos."  The facility was occupied by many Serb 
soldiers, but he and the other Muslim appeared to be the only prisoners 
at that time.

They were kept for several days in a small room, which was stained with 
what they assumed was the blood of earlier prisoners.  They were 
generally left alone until May 16, when from 8 pm until 4 am the 
following morning, they underwent the most severe and intensive beating 
during 4 months of captivity.  Three Serbs carried out the beatings, two 
of whom he recognized from the area around Svornik.

The two men were forced to stand against the wall and sing Serbian 
nationalist songs.  Unfamiliar with the lyrics, the two Muslims were 
beaten by the soldiers with fists, boots, and rifles.  On the verge of 
unconsciousness, the witness was forced to clean his own blood from the 
floor and walls around him.  Upon completion of this "task," the beating 
was resumed. 

During the course of the beatings, both of his cheek bones were smashed 
and the entire bone structure enclosing his upper teeth was loosened so 
much that his teeth protruded from his mouth.  His release from the 
Alhos textile plant on May 20 was arranged by a sympathetic Serb 

His next place of detention was the Zvornik court house, where guards 
did not molest the prisoners, but every day several Serb soldiers from 
outside the facility were allowed in to beat a few of the prisoners at 
random.  According to the routine, the prisoners had to stand when these 
uniformed outsiders entered the room.  Victims were selected quickly, 
then punched and kicked, frequently in the kidneys-- sometimes until 
they lost consciousness.

On June 4, the prisoners at the court house were moved to a neighboring 
house and joined by another 120 Muslim detainees from a detention 
facility at the Celopek cultural center.  Here, too, the daily beatings 
continued.  During the approximately 6 weeks at that house, men from the 
Seselj unit carved crosses into the foreheads of 10 Muslim men.  Another 
group of Bosnian Serb "police" also specialized in tightening wires 
around victims' necks.

On July 15, most of the prisoners were bused to a detention facility in 
Batkovic.  As soon as they arrived, the witness and others were beaten 
with sticks.  The beatings were a regular part of life at the Batkovic 
facility.  The witness was released from Serb detention on October 1 as 
part of a prisoner exchange.  (Department of State)

Aug:  A 40-year-old woman described how followers of Serbian leader 
Milan Martic selected women from her city and put hundreds of them in a 
school in Doboj.

In front of a few hundred prisoners they raped and tortured women and 
girls for days.  It was unbearable to watch girls being raped in front 
of their fathers.

I was raped and tortured too, because they knew that I am a wife of a 
leader of the Muslim party.  In August, some prisoners were exchanged, 
including me and my sons.  Many women and girls who were pregnant 
remained in the camp.  They were transferred to a hospital and fed twice 
a day because, as the Chetniks said, they had to bear their offspring. 

(The New York Times)

May-Aug:  A 39-year-old Bosnian Muslim from Prijedor was held in 
Keraterm camp from May 31 until August 5.  Upon his arrival at Keraterm, 
one guard--whom he identified--used a knife to saw off the witness's 
left index finger at the first knuckle and chopped off the tip of his 
left ring finger.

During his detention, the witness saw four guards cut another prisoner 
across the face and torso with a knife.  One of the guards cut off the 
bottom half of the man's left ear.  After the beating, they left him in 
the room without any medical care.  The man survived his injuries, but, 
after a few days his wounds became infected, and the witness said he 
could see maggots moving around inside the open wounds.  The witness 
believes the man remains in Prijedor.

The witness described another form of cruelty he witnessed at Keraterm.  
The Serbian guards gathered two-liter glass bottles from a nearby 
bottling plant.  A bottle would be placed on the ground and a prisoner, 
trousers and underwear pulled down, would be forced to sit upon it.  The 
guards would then push down on the prisoner's shoulders until the man's 
buttocks touched the ground, forcing the bottle all the way up the man's 
anus.  Of the guards he said:  "Whatever they imagined, they tried; if 
they liked the effect, they would do it to other prisoners."  
(Department of State)

May-Aug:   A 36-year-old Serbian medical doctor was arrested on May 5 by 
Paraga's Black Shirts (HOS) in Capljina.  She was taken to Dretelj, a 
fuel storage garrison transformed into a detention facility for 64 
female and 100 male detainees, where she witnessed torture and could 
identify some of the perpetrators.

All men were mercilessly beaten at arrival and during all 
interrogations.  They were hit with hands, feet, night sticks, two-by-
fours, and rifle butts.  They were slashed with knives and degraded in 
every conceivable manner.

(An) owner of several catering establishments, heavily over-weight, was 
supposed to be transferred to another prison but was not because he 
literally could not be moved:  he was so badly beaten.

(Another) received about 50 blows to his head, which was badly gashed.  
Female fighters assisted in the beating by kicking him.

During interrogation . . . prisoners would be slapped, the tips of their 
fingers would be cut off, their fingers would be crushed.

Needles were driven under my nails, I was cut with a 'kama' over the 
face and breasts.  The treatment of women was in no way less inhuman 
than that of men.  On the contrary, several women were raped, even some 
very old ones.

(Archmandrite Simeon Biberdzic, Monastery of Ostrog)

18 Jun:  A 42-year-old Muslim from Kevljani was interned at Omarska camp 
from May 27 until August 28.  On June 18 or 19, he was called out of 
Building 11 and taken to Building 10, to a room with four soldiers.

The soldiers made the witness undress to his underwear and lie down on 
his stomach on the tile floor.  One guard took an iron chair, put it on 
his back, and sat down.  Another guard took a large caliber automatic 
rifle and beat him on his spine with the butt of the rifle, pounding 
each vertebrae twice.  A third guard continually kicked him along his 
legs and groin.  The other guard pounded his rib cage continuously, 
which resulted in the witness sustaining four broken ribs.

The witness lost consciousness, but when he awoke, the four guards were 
standing around him, and began to beat him again, on his legs, 
shoulders, and head.  One guard took a police baton, straddled the 
witness' back, and beat his back and ribs continuously.  He felt the 
pain of only the first 10 blows, then felt no more.  Another guard 
pulled out a knife and said he would "circumcize" him.  The guard then 
cut his knee cap, but the witness said he did not even feel the knife as 
he watched blood pour out of his leg.  (Department of State)

Jun:  A 22-year-old Serbian civilian from Drivusa was shot three times 
in his left arm when Bosnian Government Forces captured Serb positions 
in Zenica in June.  He was beaten in Zenica camp for the first 10 days 
of his capture and still bore a scar on his leg where it had been cut 
"just for being a Serb."  He witnessed the case of one elderly man who 
had stepped on a mine but received no medical treatment, and who was 
removed from the camp immediately before a visit by UN Human Rights 
Commission Special Rapporteur Tadeusz Mazowiecki.  This inmate was 
returned after Mazowiecki's departure and died a few days later.  Food 
and tea often were contaminated with soap.  (Department of State)

Abuse of Civilians in Detention Centers
1992:  A representative of the Zenica Center for the Investigation of 
War Crimes claimed the center had interviewed witnesses of rape and 
violence who described the rape of 30,000 women in Bosnia-Herzegovina.  
(Department of State)

Aug:  A 12-year-old girl from Jelec was raped by several Serbian 
soldiers over nine nights at the Partizan Hall detention center in Foca.  
On one occasion, a Serbian soldier raped the girl and her mother.

A 20-year-old woman, who had been raped by a Serb policeman, said that 
some 100 "young Muslim woman and girls were raped" in Miljevina, an 
eastern Bosnian town described as a possible "rape camp."  (Newsweek)

27 Jul:  A 29-year-old Serbian civilian from Srebrenik was taken to 
Zenica camp on July 27 by Bosnian Government forces.  He was beaten 
continuously--every 10 minutes for 96 hours after his arrival--with 
ropes and sticks.  He showed evidence of beatings, particularly on his 
head.  He also reported deliberate contamination of food.  (Department 
of State)

Impeding Delivery of Food and Medical Supplies to the Civilian 
10 Jan 93:  Bosnian Serb forces fired on British troops escorting a UN 
aid convoy on January 10 near the town of Kladanj.  (Reuters)

6 Jan 93:  Bosnian Serb forces stopped UN attempts to repair the power 
grid in Sarajevo on January 6 and prevented a load of firewood from 
entering Sarajevo.  (Department of State)

Dec:  Bosnian Serbs in December continued to obstruct UNHCR convoys to 
eastern Bosnia, to shell the Mostar Road, and to endanger UNHCR 
personnel in Sarajevo via snipers and mortar attacks.  The Bosnian Serbs 
also impeded deliveries to Bihac and the oversight of relief in Banja 

Bosnian Croats interfered with UNHCR convoys on the Mostar-Sarajevo 
Road:  At first the Bosnian Croats told UNHCR that the road was unsafe 
and could not be used.  When UNHCR insisted that they would deal with 
the risk of Serb shelling, they were allowed to proceed, but have since 
been subject to frequent checkpoints, diversions to difficult back 
roads, insults at checkpoints, and shooting in the air.

Bosnian Muslims frequently have shot at UNHCR vehicles and personnel and 
harassed UNHCR personnel at Muslim-manned barricades.

A major impediment to humanitarian shipments to Bosnian Government-
controlled areas in December was the military activity initiated by 
Muslim forces in the Bratunac area, which halted relief supplies for 
Srebrenica, and in the Rogatica area, which blocked a convoy destined 
for Gorazde.

Serbian guards outside Banja Luka continued to harass relief workers, 
waving around rifles and pistols, and prohibited them from distributing 
food.  (Department of State)

12 Dec:  Serbian gunmen on December 12 stopped a Belgrade-to-Sarajevo 
humanitarian aid convoy at Han Pijesak and threatened to kill the relief 
workers.  (Paris AFP)

1 Dec:  Small arms fire pierced the stabilizer of a US C-130 during an 
approach into Sarajevo airport on December 1, which resulted in the 
temporary suspension of the UNHCR airlift.  At least five planes 
participating in the humanitarian airlift have been hit by small arms 
fire since November 4.  (Department of State)

Deliberate Attacks on Non-Combatants 
16 Dec:  A gunman shot a French soldier with UN forces in Bosnia-
Herzegovina on December 16 while he was on guard at Sarajevo airport.  
(Paris AFP)

While traveling to Sarajevo in an armored and marked UN vehicle, Hans 
Stercken, Bundestag deputy and chairman of the [German] Foreign Affairs 
Committee, and a German embassy staff member were attacked.  The 
vehicle, which was driven by an Egyptian crew, was hit by several shots.

Stercken said the UN "could not have expressed more clearly" the 
identity of the vehicle; it was painted white and carried a UN sign.  
(Hamburg DPA)

6 Dec:  A UNHCR representative's car in Prijedor was hit four times by 
bullets on December 6.  (Department of State)

5 Dec:  A mortar round that hit Sarajevo's airport terminal on December 
5 wounded two Portuguese police attached to the UN peace-keeping 
mission.  The shelling of the airport continued throughout the day.  

4 Dec:  During a battle for Otes during the first week of December, two 
UN planes were shot at, the UN headquarters in Sarajevo was shelled, and 
the radar at the airport, southwest of the capital, was destroyed by 
artillery fire.  (Paris AFP)

Wanton Devastation and Destruction of Property
27 May:  A 42-year-old Muslim described the Serbian attack on Kevljani 
on May 26.  The villagers fled to the woods, but after spending the 
night under heavy shelling, many women wanted to surrender.  The witness 
and an imam [a Muslim cleric] led a group of women and children under a 
white flag to the school to surrender.

A Serbian officer nicknamed Cigo, who was the head of the tank regiment 
that attacked Kevljani, told the group [that] the whole village had 2 
hours to surrender. 

The witness said [that] he surrendered to Cigo all the weapons the group 
had in hopes that the village would be spared.  The Serbian army, 
however, burned most houses to the ground.  They sent all Muslims and 
Croatians in buses to Prijedor.  (Department of State)

Jun:  The Orthodox Bishop of Herzegovina testified publicly on September 
28 that the regular army of the Republic of Croatia from the coast and 
Croatian armed forces from western Herzegovina, from the beginning of 
June, had destroyed the following property in his diocese:

--  The Orthodox cathedral and Episcopal headquarters in Mostar, on June 
15 and 16;

--  Churches in Bjelo Polje, Bobani plateau, Capljina, Dubrovnik, Duvno, 
Gabela, Metkovic, Stolac, Zacula, and Zalanik;

--  The Serbian villages of Brdjani, Zukici, Djepi (or Cepi), Blace, 
Vrdolje, Zagorice, Zivanje, Ljuta, Ovcari, Ribari, Sitnik, Donje Selo, 
Cerici, Bjelovcani, Celebici, Pokojiste, Obri, Nevizdraci, Idbor, 
Ostrozac, Dobrigosce, Paprasko, Repovac, Shunje, Hondici, Gnojnica, 
Buna, Hodbina, and Pijesci;

--  The 15th century Byzantine-style monastery at Zavala, the 16th 
century Byzantine-style monastery at Zitomislic, and the Serbian 
villages of Tasovcic, Klepci, and Prebilovci on the east bank of the 
Neretva River--where, on June 7 and 8, the church with the bones of 
almost 2,000 Serbian people killed between 1941 and 1945 was burned down 
and plowed into the ground.  (Orthodox Bishop of Herzegovina)

Other, Including Mass Forcible Expulsion and Deportation of Civilians
12 Jan 93:  As many as 35,000 men, women, and children risk death by 
illness and starvation in Zepa.  Bosnian Serbs refuse to permit food, 
medicines, and other supplies into the town.  To this date, they are not 
allowing any UN humanitarian aid convoys into Zepa.  (Department of 

5 Jan 93:  A social worker in a Nedzarici nursing home, located in a 
Serb-held section of Sarajevo, said that 10 of his patients had died in 
the past 36 hours, and that 26 residents of the home had died in the 
past 2 weeks due to lack of heating.  He also said that snipers or 
direct hits on the building had caused the death of 20 to 25 residents 
since April 1992. 

According to a UNHCR official, the nursing home was without water, 
electricity, or heating.  Most utility services in Sarajevo 
(electricity, natural gas, and water) are under Serbian control.  (The 
Washington Post/API/Department of State)

Dec:   Serbian "police" in UNPA Sector East during the first 2 weeks of 
December expelled 65 non-Serbs from Baranja, mostly from Darda, Bilje, 
and Knezevi Vinogradi.  Another 24 families were under heavy Serbian 
"police" pressure to leave Knezevi Vinogradi.   (Department of State)

5 Dec:   A Muslim man, who reported that only 3,000 Muslims remained in 
Sanski Most where 15,000 had lived, described recent attacks by armed 

They robbed us.  They took the cars, the bicycles.  The police now drive 
my personal car.  They said if we did not give the cars, they would take 
us to the camps. 

The man said that Serb militia forces continued to shell villages 
surrounding Sanski Most every night.  (The Washington Post)

Dec:   Members of the UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force for Yugoslavia] 
civil police escorted to Zadar the last six Croats from Zemunik Gornji, 
four elderly women and two older men.  They said they had been living in 
a virtual prison and fled to save their lives.  All Croatian homes in 
the area have been destroyed, except for two.  (Department of State)

25 May:  A 33-year-old Muslim from Prijedor watched Serbian forces 
bringing in heavy tanks and cannons to Kozarac on May 25.  Many 
villagers escaped to a nearby house in the woods, where they hid in a 
basement shelter.  At noon, those in hiding organized the women, 
children, and wounded in groups of 30, bearing white flags, to surrender 
to the Serbs.  The Serbian army fired on some of the groups attempting 
to surrender.

The witness watched soldiers loot and burn houses, cars, and whatever 
else they found.  He saw Serbian tanks fire on private homes.  The men 
eventually were separated from the women and children and taken to 
Trnopolje.  (Department of State) (###)


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