1.  A New Era of Peril and Promise -- President-elect Clinton 
2.  Family Planning Grants -- President Clinton
3.  Department Statements on Guatemala, Togo
4.  Feature:  Travel Tips on Russia
5.  What's in Print:  Foreign Relations of the United States
6.  Treaty Actions 


A New Era of Peril and Promise 
President-elect Clinton
Address before the Diplomatic Corps, Georgetown University,  Washington, 
DC, January 18, 1993

I came to this university at a time when a fallen president had asked my 
generation to give something back to our country.  I was looking for a 
place to prepare for that calling.Georgetown and its School of Foreign 
Service have made enormous contributions not only to my life but to 
public service in general.  Many of its graduates, including my 
classmates, are now distinguished members of our Foreign Service, our 
armed forces, or serving in other areas of public and private life.  
Recently, Georgetown has made yet another contribution in my friend, Dr. 
Madeleine Albright, who has agreed to be our nation's voice at the 
United Nations.

I also chose to speak to you here, today, because of Georgetown's 
historical tradition.  George Washington spoke at this building, Old 
North, in 1797, when the college was not yet 10 years old.  Our 
republic, scarcely 20 years old, stood not with great powers then but 
with great hopes.  The Marquis de Lafayette, whose friendship and 
cooperation with our nation was so vital to its birth, was escorted to 
this campus by a troop of light horse cavalry in 1824.  And across 
America's generations, presidents, dignitaries, and scholars have chosen 
this site to speak about our collective hopes for the future of our 
nation and the world.

In December of 1991, as I launched my campaign for the presidency, I 
came back here to Georgetown to deliver three speeches which laid out 
the principles and policies that would become the heart of my candidacy.  
In the first of those speeches, I recalled the lesson taught me by one 
of my George-town professors, Carroll Quigley. . . . 

Carroll Quigley argued that the defining idea of Western civilization 
and of the United States in particular was what he called future 
preference--the idea that the future can be better than the present and 
that each of us has a personal, moral responsibility to make it so.

When we embraced that idea, it was a revolutionary one.  Now, all around 
the world, people are beginning to think that way.  That idea was the 
heart of my campaign for the presidency, and it is a lesson that now 
applies with equal force to the community of nations at the end of the 
Cold War.  While we cannot yet discern all of the contours of the new 
age in which we are living, we know it is clearly an era of both peril 
and promise when the future for millions and millions of people around 
the globe can be better than the present; when the dreams of freedom and 
democracy and economic prosperity and human rights can become real--but 
they may or not, depending on what we do.

This is a season for hope.  The Berlin wall today exists now only in the 
little remnants of stone that have become the personal mementos of a 
historic triumph of freedom over tyranny.  A worldwide democratic 
revolution has shown its strength and tenacity, from the shipyards of 
Gdansk to the streets of Moscow, from the campuses of Beijing to the 
villages of El Salvador and the townships of Soweto.  The spread of 
freer markets has brought the possibility of better living conditions 
from the factories of the Baltics to the fertile fields of Africa and 
Latin America.  

But the events of the last week remind us anew that this era will not 
lack for dangers.  We are all mindful of the tension in Iraq and of 
Saddam Hussein's continuing provocations against the international 
community and his own people.  He must understand that America's resolve 
during this transition period will not waver.

I support the international community's actions designed to bring him to 
full compliance with all UN Security Council resolutions, and I ask each 
of you in the diplomatic corps to emphasize this point to your own 
governments.  The policy of this country will remain American policy 
after January 20.

We face many immediate other perils in this new era--the rise of ethnic 
hatreds in the former republics of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the 
suffering in Somalia, the turmoil in Haiti, the proliferation of 
advanced weaponry, the spread of terrorism and drug trafficking, the 
AIDS epidemic, and the degradation of the global environment--and each 
will require strong American leadership if we are to overcome them.

The American people have called for a new Administration, yet there is 
an essential continuity in our foreign policy.  Our relations and 
actions abroad are rooted in enduring interests, alliances, friendships, 
and principles.  My Administration will build on the successes of my 
predecessors in specific areas:  in the quest for peace in the Middle 
East, in the effort to secure a safe reduction in our nuclear arsenals 
and stem weapons of mass destruction from proliferation, in the bold 
decision to relieve the suffering in Somalia, [in] the assistance to the 
process of reform in the former Soviet Union, [and] in the search for 
new and expanding markets around the world.

Yet, the world has changed in fundamental ways, and we also must change 
with it.  We need to state clearly how we plan in the United States to 
adapt our nation's foreign policy goals and institutions to this new 
era.  Such a clear statement is necessary if we are to rally the support 
of the American people here at home behind a policy of active 
international engagement, which remains as critical to our own 
prosperity and security today as at any time in this century.  It is 
critical for our nation to speak clearly about our purposes so that the 
nations of the world, friend and foe alike, will understand our 
intentions in the months and years to come.

We must all remember that the final test of a foreign policy is its 
effect on the lives of our citizens.  The foreign policy of my 
Administration will be built upon three pillars.

First, we will make the economic security of our own nation a primary 
goal of our foreign policy.  Here in America we cannot sustain an active 
engagement abroad without a sound economy at home.  And yet, we cannot 
prosper at home unless we are engaged abroad.  We will, therefore, seek 
economic strength at home through increased productivity while we seek 
to ensure that global commerce is rooted in principles of openness, 
fairness, and reciprocity.

Second, our foreign policy will be based on a restructuring of our armed 
forces to meet new and continuing threats to our security interests and 
the international peace.  We will continue prudently to reduce defense 
spending, but potential aggressors should be clear about American 
resolve.  We do not relish the prospect of military force, but, when 
necessary, we will not shrink from using it when all appropriate 
diplomatic measures have been exhausted.

Third, my Administration's foreign policy will be rooted in the 
democratic principles and institutions which unite our own county and to 
which so many now around the world aspire.  The spread of democratic 
values has given the hope of freedom to millions all across the world 
who have endured decades of oppression.

Whenever possible we will support those who share our values, because it 
is in the interests of America and the world at large for us to do so.  
History has borne out these enduring truths:  Democracies do not wage 
war against one another; they make better partners in trade and 
diplomacy; and, despite their inherent problems, they offer the best 
guarantee for the protection of human rights.

Finally, I want to assure all of you--the members of the diplomatic 
corps--that, as President, I will work closely with the international 
community through the United Nations and other vital institutions to 
resolve contentious disputes and to meet the challenges of the next 
century.  America cannot and should not bear the world's burdens alone.  
But if we work together, we can make great progress in making this a 
better world for all of our citizens.  We can address such global 
problems [as] environmental decay, the scourge of AIDS, the threat to 
our children and our communities of narcotics trafficking, and the 
plight of millions of refugees around the world.

The Gulf war and the humanitarian relief operation in Somalia 
demonstrate what is best about the United Nations and what the founders 
had in mind over 40 years ago:  confronting aggression by outlaw 
nations, restoring hope to those in need as international partners.  Let 
us act in concert today to achieve those laudable goals.

I welcome the diplomatic corps' participation in this, our great 
national celebration, as every American takes part in what is perhaps 
the greatest strength of our democracy, the willing and peaceful 
transfer of political power from one president to his successor.  It is 
an inherently democratic tradition, one that has been a source of 
inspiration to freedom-loving people since George Washington stood atop 
Old North almost 200 years ago. (###)


Family Planning Grants 
President Clinton
Presidential Memorandum for the Acting Administrator of the US Agency 
for International Development, Washington, DC, January 22, 1993

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 prohibits non-governmental 
organizations (NGOs) that receive federal funds from using those funds 
"to pay for the performance of abortions as a method of family planning, 
or to motivate or coerce any person to practice abortions." (22U.S.C. 
2151b(f) (1)).  The August 1984 announcement by President Reagan of what 
has become known as the "Mexico City Policy" directed the Agency for 
International Development (AID) to expand this limitation and withhold 
AID funds from NGOs that engage in a wide range of activities, including 
providing advice, counseling, or information regarding abortion, or 
lobbying a foreign government to legalize or make abortion available.  
These conditions have been imposed even where an NGO uses non-AID funds 
for abortion-related activities.

These excessively broad anti-abortion conditions are unwarranted.  I am 
informed that the conditions are not mandated by the Foreign Assistance 
Act or any other law.  Moreover, they have undermined efforts to promote 
safe and efficacious family planning programs in foreign nations.  
Accordingly, I hereby direct that AID remove the conditions not 
explicitly mandated by the Foreign Assistance Act or any other law from 
all current AID grants to NGOs and exclude them from future grants.

William J. Clinton (###)


Department Statements on Guatemala, Togo

Guatemalan President's Peace Initiative
Statement by State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher, Washington, DC, 
January 25, 1993.

We welcome the proposal to reinvigorate negotiations between the 
Government of Guatemala and the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union 
guerrilla umbrella organization announced by  President Jorge Serrano 
before the UN General Assembly [on] January 19.

President Serrano offered to allow UN observers to verify a human rights 
agreement between his Government and the guerrillas as soon as one is 
concluded.  In return, he asked for a 90-day period to negotiate other 
issues. At the end of that time, a cease-fire would take effect 
automatically.  UN observers would also verify this cease-fire.

We look forward to a constructive response from the guerrillas and hope 
that renewed and intensified talks lead to an early, definitive end to 
Guatemala's internal conflict. 

Togo:  Casualties in Lome Demonstration
Statement by State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher, Washington, DC, 
January 26, 1993.

On January 25, police and gendarmes in Lome, the capital of Togo, 
clashed with demonstrators attempting to approach a hotel where visiting 
French and German Government ministers had scheduled a press conference.  
When police fired at the crowd, numerous Togolese were killed and a 
substantial number wounded.

The United States deplores the loss of life and expresses its 
condolences to the families of the victims.  We call on the Togolese 
Government to initiate an immediate investigation to identify and 
swiftly bring to justice those responsible.  As head of the security 
forces, it is the responsibility of President Eyadema to ensure that 
those forces support the democratic process in Togo and avoid any action 
which might disrupt it.  The United States has consistently urged Togo's 
highest authorities, including the President, and leaders of the various 
political groups to establish a dialogue which will lead to 
reconciliation and the promotion of the democratic process in a secure 
environment.  The only way out of Togo's impasse is through democratic 
elections where the people are permitted to express their political will 
calmly and without fear.

The US ambassador in Lome is meeting with senior Togolese officials as 
well as leaders of the opposition, making clear our condemnation of the 
killings and urging all parties to resort to dialogue, not violence.  We 
are also consulting with Togo's other major donors to determine what 
initiatives we might take together to help advance Togo's democratic 
process and diffuse the volatile political situation in the country. 


Feature:  Travel Tips on Russia

The following information was taken from a pamphlet entitled Tips for 
Travelers to Russia, which was released by the Bureau of Consular 
Affairs, US Department of State and is available from the Superintendent 
of Documents, US Government Printing Office for $1. 

The Soviet Union was dissolved in December 1991, and in its place 
emerged 12 independent republics:  Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, 
Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, 
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.  Russia, the largest country that 
emerged, stretches from the Baltic Sea, across the northern Eurasian 
landmass, to the Bering Strait, where one of its islands lies only 3 
miles from an Alaskan island.  This information deals primarily with 
Russia; however, much of it--particularly the sections on health, 
safety, and travel--also applies to the other republics.

Although Russia and the other republics are experiencing profound 
political and economic changes, this is a challenging and exciting time 
to visit the region.  The tourism industry, like other industries that 
were strictly regulated in the former Soviet Union, is undergoing a 
transformation that can be confusing to customers as well as to the 
industry itself.  Travel conditions are changing rapidly.  Therefore, 
the Bureau of Consular Affairs advises travelers to carefully research 
and plan their trip and to be patient and flexible once underway in 
order to make it successful and enjoyable.   (For information on where 
to inquire about the current situation in the former Soviet Union, see 
page 61.)


A US citizen must have a valid US passport and a visa to travel to any 
country of the former Soviet Union.  At present, Russia, Armenia, 
Belarus, and Ukraine are issuing visas.  At time of publication, the 
other countries of the former USSR have not established embassies in the 
United States.  To travel to a country of the former USSR not yet 
issuing visas, a Russian visa is still required and is valid for all 
such countries.  Currently, travel between countries that require a 
Russian visa is still considered internal travel by local authorities, 
and passports are not normally checked upon arrival or departure.

Visas for Armenia, Belarus, and Ukraine may be obtained from the 
embassies of those countries (see page 64).  The following visa 
information pertains to Russian visas only.  Travelers arriving without 
a visa in a country that requires a Russian visa cannot register at a 
hotel and must leave the country immediately by the same route they 
entered.  A visa is required even for a brief transit.  If possible, 
obtain a Russian visa in the United States, because it can be difficult 
and time-consuming to obtain abroad.  You cannot obtain a Russian visa 
in some countries such as Ukraine, Estonia, and Lithuania.

Visas are valid for specific dates.  Before starting on your trip, be 
sure your visa is valid for the dates of planned entry and departure.  
Delays caused by illness or changes in plans must be approved in advance 
by the office that issued your visa.   US citizens may apply for the 
following categories of Russian visas:  transit, tourist, business, or, 
for a private visit to friends or relatives, a visitor or homestay visa.

Tourist, Business, and Transit Visas.  Most travelers to Russia and the 
other countries of the former Soviet Union arrange for their visas and 
accommodations through an American travel agent.  A business visa 
requires a letter of invitation from a foreign business contact.  A 
transit visa requires a copy of a confirmed ticket and visa (if 
required) to an onward destination.

Visitor or Homestay Visas.
Visas for private trips to stay in a private home are issued by the 
consular division of either the Russian embassy in Washington, DC, or 
the Russian consulate general in either San Francisco or New York (see 
page 64). Request application forms by mail.  The person you wish to 
visit also must apply for permission well in advance of your visit.  In 
larger cities, your host can apply at the local visa office (called 
OVIR, an acronym for Otdel Viz i Registratsii).  In smaller towns, your 
host can apply to the local police.  OVIR or police consideration of 
these applications can be a slow process.  Upon approval of your 
application, your host will be issued a notification of permission 
(izveshcheniye) for your visit.  Your host should then send this 
notification to you. 

Private Visits During Group Tours.
An American traveling on a group tour may request permission to visit 
local acquaintances or take short individual excursions away from the 
group itinerary to places of personal interest.  Arrangements for side 
trips should be made through your American travel agent and, if 
possible, before you leave the United States.  On your visa application, 
include the names and addresses of those citizens of countries that you 
wish to visit.

How To Obtain Visa Information
Your travel agent can provide visa information, although authoritative 
information on visas can only be obtained from the embassies or 
consulates of the countries you plan to visit.  Whatever your source, 
make certain that your visa information is up to date, because, during 
this period of transition, visa requirements will change frequently.  
When you inquire about visas, ask about price, length of validity, and 
the number of entries that are permitted.

Theft of US passports continues to increase rapidly.  Stolen passports 
are reportedly sold for large sums of hard currency.  The theft or loss 
of a passport, particularly when the nearest US consular office is 
hundreds or thousands of miles away, is a major source of inconvenience 
and expense to travelers in Russia and the other republics.

Before starting your trip, make a record or photocopy of the data from 
your passport's identification page and from your visa(s).  Also make a 
copy of the addresses and telephone numbers of the US embassies and 
consulates in the countries you will visit (see page 64).  Keep this 
information and two passport photos separate from your passport in case 
of loss or theft.  Leave a second copy of your passport information and 
itinerary with a relative or friend in the United States.   Complete the 
address page of your passport in pencil and update it as necessary.

While in the former Soviet Union, you may be asked to leave your 
passport with hotel personnel or a tour leader for short periods of time 
for registration with police or for other purposes.  It should be 
returned within 2 or 3 days.  Be sure to safeguard your passport at all 
other times, as its loss can cause you delays and problems.  If your 
passport is lost or stolen, apply for a replacement at a US embassy or 
consulate and then obtain a new or duplicate visa from the nearest visa 
office (OVIR).  If you are with a tour, ask your guide for assistance.

Many geographic names throughout the region are being changed.  Try to 
obtain maps before your trip, but keep in mind that some place names may 
be outdated.  Some street and city names may need corrections.  In these 
countries, if the street sign does not agree with the map, it may be 
because the name was changed. 

Previously, in the former Soviet Union, departure and arrival times for 
planes, trains, and boats were quoted in Moscow time.  In the post-
Soviet period, that practice has changed, and timetables for travel in 
and between former Soviet countries usually use local time.  Within 
Russia itself, however, you may still find Moscow time in use--
regardless of which of the 11 time zones you are in.  Whenever you make 
reservations or purchase tickets, learn which time zones the schedule 
refers to and, as you travel, confirm all departure and arrival times. 

Air Travel Within Russia
Aeroflot continues to dominate air travel in Russia and the region.  
Although many international airlines have flights to Russia and the 
other former Soviet republics--and some, like Turkish Airlines, even 
have flights between a few of the countries--Aeroflot's domestic flights 
remain the major service in and between the countries of the former 
USSR.  Since late 1991, domestic Aeroflot flights have been delayed for 
hours or days and sometimes canceled because of jet fuel shortages.  
Prepare for long waits or for possible itinerary changes with little or 
no advance notice.

Booking domestic Aeroflot flights in the United States can be difficult.  
Once in Russia or one of the other republics, you may discover that a 
domestic Aeroflot flight you booked does not exist or, at least, does 
not exist on the day you are confirmed to go.  Before you leave the 
United States, you may be informed that flights do not exist to a 
certain city, when, in fact, they do.  Because of the difficulty in 
using Aeroflot's domestic service, it is advisable to use international 
carriers, including Aeroflot, wherever possible when planning your 
itinerary.  While Aeroflot is in transition to meet international 
standards, flexibility and patience are the keys to successful air 

Overland Travel
When traveling  by train or automobile in former Soviet countries, carry 
food and water with you.  If you travel overland between Central 
European countries and countries of the former USSR, be certain that you 
have visas for all countries through which you will pass.  For example, 
the train from Warsaw, Poland to Vilnius, Lithuania passes through 
Grodno, Belarus, and transit visas are not available on the train.  On 
occasion, Americans have been required to leave the train in Grodno and 
return to their point of departure to obtain a Russian visa for Belarus.  
(There is a direct rail route, however, that does not pass through 
Belarus.  It goes between Sestokai, Lithuania and Suwalki, Poland.)

Auto Travel
Driving conditions in Russia and the other former Soviet republics are 
more rugged than in Western Europe, service stations are few, and fuel 
may be scarce at those stations.  Adhere to all local driving 
regulations.  They are strictly enforced, and violators are subject to 
legal penalties.  All tourists entering Russia by automobile are 
required to sign an obligation guaranteeing the re-export of their 
automobiles.  This obligation also applies to damaged vehicles.

Your automobile should be fully insured under a policy valid for Russia 
and for any other country you will enter.  Insurance policies may be 
purchased from Lloyds of London or from Ingosstrakh, Kuybyshev Street 
11/10, Moscow, a Russian organization that insures foreigners.  Auto 
insurance obtained in Russia is still accepted in some of the other 
former Soviet republics.  

Be aware that Russian law allows the company to refuse compensation for 
damage if a driver is pronounced by the authorities to have been under 
the influence of alcohol at the time of an accident.  Such 
determinations can be made without the benefit of any tests.

Precautions.  Travel in the former USSR can be strenuous, particularly 
for the elderly and individuals with special health problems.  When you 
plan your trip, be careful not to overschedule; leave time for rest and 
relaxation.  Tourists in frail health are strongly advised not to visit.

Immunizations.  No immunizations are required for travelers to the 
former Soviet Union.  However, diphtheria, tetanus, polio, typhoid, and 
gamma globulin are recommended for the region and, in particular, for 
the Central Asian countries.  

Health Insurance Policy.  Review your health insurance policy.  If your 
insurance does not cover you abroad, consider purchasing temporary 
insurance that does.  In addition to medical insurance, consider 
obtaining insurance to cover evacuation in the event of an accident or 
serious illness.  Because conditions in many hospitals are not adequate 
to ensure recovery, medical evacuation is frequently necessary for 
illnesses or injuries which could be treated locally in other countries.  

Minimum cost from Moscow to New York on a stretcher is more than 
$10,000.  Medical evacuation by hospital aircraft on the same route 
approaches $100,000.  Insurance companies as well as some credit card 
and travelers check companies offer short-term health and emergency 
assistance policies designed for travelers.  Ask your travel agent about 
them or look for ads in travel publications.

Medications.  Bring with you any necessary medications and keep them in 
their original, labeled containers in your hand luggage.  Because of 
strict laws on narcotics, carry a letter from your physician explaining 
your need for any prescription drugs in your possession.  Also bring 
along any toiletries and personal hygiene items that you will need.  
These items can be difficult to find in major cities and even more 
scarce elsewhere.

Medical Care in the Region.
Medical care in the former Soviet Union does not meet Western standards.  
There is a severe shortage of basic medical supplies, including 
disposable needles, anesthetics, common medications, and antibiotics.  
X-rays are of poor quality and advanced diagnostic equipment, such as 
CAT-scan machines, is not widely available.  Patient support services, 
including basic hygiene measures, are inadequate, and travelers may 
expect the length of hospitalization to exceed the duration of stay they 
would expect in Western facilities.  

In addition, full, frank, and empathic discussions between doctor and 
patient are hampered by language barriers as well as the lack of a 
tradition of patient rights.  If you need medical care, ask your hotel 
or tour guide to direct you to an appropriate facility.  You may also 
contact the nearest US embassy or consulate for a list of local medical 

Drinking Water.  The US Public Health Service warns that many US 
visitors to Russia, particularly to St. Petersburg, have returned to the 
United States infected with the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.  
This infection is probably contracted by drinking tapwater.  Some 
travelers to Russia and surrounding countries bring drinking water with 
them in their luggage.  If you cannot import your drinking water, drink 
only bottled carbonated drinks or beverages that have been boiled for at 
least 5 minutes.  Avoid ice cubes, use bottled water for brushing teeth, 
and avoid salads or uncooked vegetables and fruits which cannot be 
peeled.  In addition, carry iodine tablets to disinfect drinking water.  
Travelers returning from the region who develop a diarrheal illness 
lasting more than 5 days should consult a physician and have a stool 
specimen examined for parasites.

Chernobyl Nuclear Accident.  Recent tapwater samples from Moscow, St. 
Petersburg, and Kiev show no detectable radiation.  Background radiation 
levels in areas outside the immediate accident site and fallout path 
have been tested periodically and are considered to be within acceptable 
ranges.  Access to the Chernobyl zone is strictly controlled by 
Ukrainian authorities.

Russia, like the other 11 countries of the former Soviet Union, has a 
cash-only economy.  During periodic cash shortages, it can be difficult 
to impossible to cash travelers checks for dollars, for other 
convertible (hard) currency, or even for rubles.  The fee to cash 
travelers checks may be as high as 5%.  In Moscow, cash may be available 
at Dialogbank or American Express.  In St. Petersburg, rubles may be 
available but not hard currency.  In Kiev, cash may be available at the 
Agroprombank, Export/Import Bank, or Bank Ukraina.

Some travelers avoid a number of the currency shortage problems by 
taking a prepaid tour that includes all meals and hotels.  Others find 
it useful to bring major credit cards because they are accepted at some 
hotels and restaurants, particularly those in Moscow.  Most, however, 
solve the problem of the currency shortage by coming to Russia and the 
other republics with a sufficient supply of hard currency to cover their 
obligations in the country.  Some hotel restaurants and shops will 
accept payment only in dollars or other hard currency.  Beware!  Make it 
your practice to keep your excess cash in the hotel safe.

Before you leave home, check with your credit card and travelers check 
companies to learn where these instruments can be used in the former 
Soviet Union.

Customs and currency laws are strict.  When you arrive, make an accurate 
and complete customs declaration of all money, travelers checks, and 
valuables in your possession.  Include all personal jewelry, such as 
wedding rings and watches.  Have your customs declaration stamped by the 
authorities and keep it with you until you leave the country.  Keep your 
exchange receipts in order to account for your expenditures.  Without 
these records, customs officials could confiscate your cash and 
valuables upon departure. 

The Russian ruble is still the currency of the 12 former Soviet 
republics.  In Ukraine, coupons have been introduced in preparation for 
issuing a national currency.  The coupons are used in Ukraine along with 
the Russian ruble but cannot be used outside of the country.

Customs Regulations
Attempts to bring any of the following articles into the former Soviet 
Union have caused difficulties for US citizens in the past:

Narcotics.  Drug laws are strict.  US citizens have received long 
sentences for trying to enter or transit with illegal narcotics.

Pornography.  Magazines with sexually explicit photographs that may be 
considered commonplace in Western countries may be regarded as 
pornography and are often confiscated.

Gifts for Persons in the Former USSR.  A high rate of customs duty may 
be assessed on gifts that you bring into a foreign country.  US citizens 
have had to abandon gifts at the airport because they lacked funds to 
pay the customs duty.

Video Cassettes.  Customs regulations allow for the import and re-export 
of a limited number of blank or commercially recorded video cassettes 
for personal use.  Some travelers with a large number of cassettes have 
had them confiscated upon departure.  Travelers are advised to leave 
blank video cassettes sealed in their wrappers when entering a country.

Customs regulations prohibit the import or export of personally recorded 
video cassettes.  To avoid confiscation of valuable travel memories, 
leave those cassettes outside the country to be picked up later, or mail 
them home before entering the country.

Legal Matters
Dual Nationality.  Russia's new citizenship law that went into effect 
February 6, 1992, recognizes dual nationality only if there is an 
agreement between the two countries that covers dual nationality.  At 
this time, the United States and Russia do not have a dual nationality 
agreement.  Therefore, if you are a dual national and encounter problems 
in Russia, you may not be permitted to leave, and assistance from a US 
consul may be limited.

The US Government has notified the governments of the Soviet successor 
states that it considers the 1968 US-USSR consular convention to still 
be in force.  The United States recognizes as an established principle 
of international law that every sovereign state has the right to decide, 
under the provisions of its own laws, who is and who is not its citizen.  
The Department of State maintains the following:

--  US citizens, whether by birth or naturalization, possess full 
American  citizenship and its accompanying benefits and responsibilities 
despite any additional entitlement to other citizenships;
--  A US citizen entering a country of the former USSR with a US 
passport and a valid visa is to be regarded as a US citizen by that 
country for purposes of the visit, regardless of whether the foreign 
government might also consider them to be their citizen; and
--  US citizens cannot lose their US citizenship because of automatic 
acquisition of foreign citizenship.  However, if a US citizen 
contemplates voluntarily accepting dual nationality in connection with 
assuming duties as a government official in one of the Soviet successor 
states, he or she should first consult with the Department of State's 
Office of Citizens Consular Services on 202-647-3445 or with the nearest 
US embassy or consulate.

The countries of the former Soviet Union generally do not prevent a US 
citizen possessing a US passport and appropriate visas from visiting 
those countries and returning to the United States, or to his or her 
country of permanent residence, even if under foreign laws he or she is 
considered a citizen of a Soviet successor state.  Any dual national US 
citizen traveling in Russia or any other country of the former Soviet 
Union should contact the nearest US embassy or consulate immediately if 
any question arises about his or her US or foreign citizenship.

To avoid any possible inconvenience or uncertainty, the Department of 
State urges US citizens who are or who believe they are a citizen of a  
former Soviet country to consider formally renouncing that citizenship 
before visiting any of the former Soviet republics.  For information on 
how to renounce foreign citizenship, contact, in the United States, the 
embassy or consulate of the country concerned before traveling.

In any case, possible dual nationals who travel to Russia or any of the 
other countries of the former Soviet Union should, upon arrival, 
register in writing or in person at the consular section of the nearest 
US embassy or consulate.  Give your full name; passport number; date and 
place of birth; occupation; hotel and room number; phone number; purpose 
and dates of your visit; home address; and the name, address, and 
telephone number of any relatives that you have in the countries of the 
former Soviet Union.

Permanent legal US residents  should travel with appropriate 
documentation of their legal permanent residence status in the United 
States.  Those who are citizens of a country of the former Soviet Union 
should ensure that they have the correct entry/exit permission from the 
Russian or other appropriate embassy in the United States before 

Adopting a Child Abroad.  Current law allows adoptions in Russia and 
Ukraine, although US citizens report the process in these republics to 
be long and difficult.  The status of adoptions in Armenia, Azerbaijan, 
Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, 
Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan remains uncertain.

Russia has established a quasi-governmental bureaucratic structure in an 
attempt to regulate foreign adoptions.  The agency, "Rights of the 
Child" (Pravo Rebyonka), was formed to coordinate international 
adoptions, ensure that Russian legal procedures are followed, and 
establish a centralized data bank for information on Russian children 
adoptable by foreigners.

US citizens interested in adopting a child from one of the countries of 
the former Soviet Union are encouraged to contact the US embassy or 
consulate in that country, or, in the United States, the Department of 
State's Office of Citizens Consular Services on 202-647-3444 to obtain 
information on the adoption process in that country.


All US citizens who visit Russia or any of the other countries of the 
former Soviet Union are encouraged to register in writing or in person 
at the nearest US embassy or consulate.  Registration is especially 
important if you are in an area experiencing civil unrest or a natural 
disaster, if you are going to a place where communications are poor, or 
if you plan to stay for any length of time.  Registration takes only a 
few moments, and it may be invaluable in case of an emergency.  If your 
passport is lost or stolen, having previously registered at an embassy 
or consulate can make it easier to issue you a new passport without a 

Safety Tips Against Crime
In Russia and much of the rest of the former USSR, crimes such as 
robbery, mugging, and pickpocketing are an increasing problem for 
tourists, particularly in cities and around major tourist sites.  Crimes 
are perpetrated not only by adults, but also by adolescents or even 
children, often operating in groups.

Crime aboard trains also has increased.  For example, travelers have 
been drugged without their knowledge and robbed on the train from Moscow 
to St. Petersburg.  Crime also is a problem on trains between Moscow and 
Warsaw, and armed robberies have occurred on the trains between Moscow 
and Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.  On some trains, thieves have been able to 
open locked compartment doors.

Although Russian officials have expressed willingness to cooperate with 
US officials in emergencies involving US citizens, communications and 
transportation can be slow and difficult, and the nearest US embassy or 
consulate may be more than a day's travel away.  To reduce the risk of 
becoming a victim of crime, exercise the same precautions that you would 
in any large city and follow these tips:

--  Safety begins when you pack.  Leave expensive jewelry, unnecessary 
credit cards, and anything you consider invaluable at home.

--  Never display large sums of money when paying a bill.  Conceal your 
passport, cash, and other valuables on your person.  Do not trust waist 
or fanny packs, because pickpockets have learned that is where the 
valuables are.

--  Do not leave valuables in your hotel room; lock them in the hotel 

--  Be vigilant on public transport and at tourist sites, food markets, 
flea markets, art exhibitions, and all places where crowds gather.

--  Even slight intoxication is noted by professional thieves.  
Therefore, if you drink in a public place, do so only with a trusted 
friend who has agreed to remain sober.

If you are the victim of a crime, report it immediately to the local 
police and to the nearest US embassy or consulate.  Reporting a theft is 
worthwhile, because stolen items are sometimes retrieved.

Russian Law
How To Avoid Legal Problems.  While in a foreign country, a US citizen 
is subject to its laws and regulations.  Laws in the countries of the 
former Soviet Union can differ significantly from those in the United 
States and do not afford the protections available to the individual 
under US law.  Exercise caution and carefully obey local laws.  
Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United 
States for similar offenses.  Persons violating the law, even 
unknowingly, may have difficulties with the authorities and may be 
expelled and forced to forfeit the unused part of a pre-purchased tour.  
Serious transgressions of the law can lead to arrest and imprisonment.

Under Article 12 of the US-USSR Consular Convention of 1968, government 
authorities in the Soviet successor states are required to immediately 
inform the US embassy or consulate of the arrest or detention of a US 
citizen and to permit, without delay, communication with the detained 
citizen.  If you are detained by authorities, ask that a US consular 
officer be informed and that you be allowed to meet with a US consular 
officer without delay.

Avoid Breaking the Law.  Never take souvenirs from local hotels, no 
matter how insignificant in value they may appear.  Pay for your 
souvenirs, handicrafts, or artwork in local currency, because most 
vendors do not have permission to accept dollars or other hard currency.  
Travelers have been arrested by plainclothes police after paying for a 
souvenir with hard currency.  The traveler is usually released after 
several hours of detention, but both the hard currency and the item 
purchased are usually confiscated.  Only special tourist stores, usually 
found in large hotels, are permitted to accept hard currency.

Marriage Abroad.  Americans contemplating marriage to a citizen of the 
former Soviet Union should contact the consular section of the nearest 
American embassy or consulate before the marriage takes place.  Consular 
officers cannot perform marriages but can provide information about 
local regulations concerning marriage.

Photography Restrictions.  Regulations on photography are strict, 
particularly regarding military installations.  Because of unwitting 
violations of these regulations, US citizens have had film confiscated, 
have been temporarily detained or interrogated, and have even been asked 
to leave the country.  Be sure that your photographs do not contain 
forbidden subjects, not even in the background.  When in doubt, ask your 
tour guide or someone else in authority.  

--  Photographs are permitted of architectural monuments; cultural, 
educational, and medical buildings; theaters; museums; parks; stadiums; 
streets and squares; and living quarters and landscape scenes which do 
not include forbidden subjects listed below.   

--  If prior permission is obtained from officials of the institution 
concerned, photographs may be taken of industrial enterprises which 
manufacture non-military products; farms; railroad stations; airports; 
river ports; and governmental, educational, and social organizations.

--  All photographs are prohibited within the 25-kilometer-wide border 
zones, except in those portions not closed to foreigners.  Photographs 
of the following are forbidden:  all military objects, institutions, and 
personnel; storage facilities for combustibles; seaports; hydroelectric 
installations (sluices); pumping stations; dams; railroad junctions; 
railroad and highway bridges; industrial, scientific, and research 
establishments; electric, telephone, and telegraph stations; and radio 
facilities.  Photographs from airplanes and panoramic shots of 
industrial cities are prohibited.

--  Foreigners may not mail exposed film out of Russia.

Shopping:  Be Wary of Antiques
Artwork, souvenirs, and handicrafts purchased at special stores for 
tourists may be taken out of Russia and the other former Soviet 
republics.  However, antiques (defined as virtually anything which may 
be deemed of historical or cultural value) and artifacts, including 
samovars, purchased at regular stores and secondhand shops often may not 
be taken out of these countries without inspection by local cultural 
authorities and payment of substantial export duty.  This procedure is 
almost prohibitively cumbersome and time consuming.  Samovars not 
purchased at tourist stores and not cleared by cultural authorities are 
normally confiscated at pre-departure customs inspections.  (###)

Consular Information Sheets
To find specific travel information for a country, see the Department of 
State consular information sheets. These sheets contain information such 
as the location and telephone number of the nearest US embassy and 
crime, health, or security problems that may affect travel.

Travel warnings, which advise Americans to defer travel to all or part 
of a country, also may be issued about certain countries.  There are 
several ways to access consular information sheets and travel warnings:

--  A 24-hour telephone service is available by dialing 202-647-5225 
from a touchtone phone; 

--  You may obtain copies by sending a self-addressed, stamped envelope 
to the Citizens Emergency Center, Room 4800, Department  of State, 
Washington, DC 20520-4818.  (Write the name of the requested country or 
countries on the outside of the envelope.)

--  They are posted at the 13 regional passport agencies and at American 
embassies and consulates abroad; and,

--  They also can be accessed  through an airline or travel agent's 
computer reservation system or by computer through many electronic 
bulletin boards.

In addition to consular information sheets, a good source of information 
on current conditions in the former Soviet Union is Intourist (tel. 212-
757-3884).  Before 1991, Intourist was the official and only Soviet tour 
operator.  It is now a non-governmental body and is still by far the 
largest tour operator in Russia and the other 11 former Soviet 
republics.  Intourist has contracts with a large network of hotels and 
restaurants, but it must now compete with other Russian tour operators 
such as Sputnik and Intratours.  There also are a number of specialized 
tour operators.  For example, the Host Family Association and Wild World 
specialize in, respectively, stays with families and adventure tours.  
Book travel with Russian tour operators through US travel agents.  (###)

Addresses of the Embassies of the United States and Countries of the 
Former Soviet Union 

US Embassies and Consulates in the Former Soviet Union

American Embassy
18 General Bagramian Street
Yerevan, ARMENIA
Tel. (7-8852) 151-122; 151-144

American Embassy
Hotel Old Intourist
63 Prospekt Neftyanikov
Tel. (7-8922) 92-1898

American Embassy
Starovilenskaya Ulitsa 46
Tel. (7-0172) 347-642

American Embassy
25 Atoneli Street
Tbilisi, GEORGIA
Tel. (7-8832) 989-967/8

American Embassy
551 Seyfullina
Tel. (7-3272) 631-375

American Embassy
Erkindik 66 (old name:  Derzhinskiy)
Tel. (7-3312) 222-693

American Embassy
103 Strada Alexei Mateevich
277014 Chisinau, MOLDOVA
Tel. (7-0422) 233-698; 233-494 (after hours)

American Embassy
Novinskiy Bulvar 19/23 (old name:  Chaykovskogo)
Moscow, RUSSIA 
Tel. (7-095) 252-2451 to 9; after hours: 252-1898; 255-5123

American Consulate General
Ulitsa Furshtadskaya 15 (old name: Ul. Petra Lavrova)
St. Petersburg, RUSSIA
Tel. (7-812) 274-8235

American Consulate General
12 Mordovtseva Street,
Vladivostok, RUSSIA
Tel. [7] (4232-26-79-30, 26-67-34)

American Embassy
Hotel Independence (old name:  Oktyabrskaya)
39 Ainii Street
Tel. (7-3772) 248-233

American Embassy
Yubilenaya Hotel
Tel. (7-3632) 244-925

American Embassy
10 Yuria Kotsyubinskoho
252053 Kiev 53, UKRAINE
Tel. (7-044) 244-7349; 244-7354

American Embassy
Chilanzarskaya 82
Tel. (7-3712) 776-986

Foreign Embassies and Consulates in the United States

Embassy of Armenia
122 C Street, NW
Suite 360
Washington, DC  20001
(202) 393-5983

Embassy of Belarus
1511 K Street, NW
Suite 619
Washington, DC  20005-1403
(202) 638-2954

Embassy of Russia
Consular Division
1825 Phelps Place, NW
Washington, DC  20008
(202) 939-8907/11/13/18

Russian Consulate General
9 East 91 Street
New York, NY  10128
(212) 348-0926  

Russian Consulate General
2790 Green Street
San Francisco, CA  94123
(415) 202-9800

Embassy of Ukraine
1828 L Street, NW, Suite 711
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 296-6960  (###)

Planning Another Trip?
For general travel information, the following  pamphlets may be ordered 
for $1 each from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing 
Office, Washington, DC 20402; tel:  202-783-3238:

Your Trip Abroad
A Safe Trip Abroad
Travel Tips for Older Americans
Tips for Americans Residing Abroad

Country-specific information can be found in the following publications, 
also available for $1 each from the US Government Printing Office:

Tips for Travelers to Sub-Saharan Africa
Tips for Travelers to the Caribbean
Tips for Travelers to Central and South America
Tips for Travelers to the People's Republic of China
Tips for Travelers to Eastern Europe
Tips for Travelers to Mexico
Tips for Travelers to the Middle East and North Africa
Tips for Travelers to South Asia

General visa information for these and other countries is available in 
Foreign Entry Requirements for 50 cents from the Consumer Information 
Center, Pueblo, CO  81009.(###)


What's in Print
Foreign Relations of the United States

The Department of State has recently released Foreign Relations of the 
United States, 1958-1960, Volume XIV, Africa.  It is one of 18 print 
volumes and 9 microfiche supplements presenting the Department's 
official record of US policy for the years 1958-60 during the 
administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.

During this period, 18 Sub-Saharan African nations attained 
independence.  US support for the principle of self-determination for 
these countries often came into conflict with US obligations toward its 
traditional West European allies.  Relations with the Union of South 
Africa, already troubled by the issue of apartheid, promised to become 
even more strained.  US leaders, fearing that the newly independent 
countries would be fertile ground for the expansion of Soviet influence, 
sought to prevent them from falling under communist domination and to 
minimize communist influence over them.

The crisis that followed the independence of the Republic of the Congo 
(now Zaire) in July 1960 overshadowed other events in Africa and 
preoccupied US policymakers.  Within days of the Congo's independence, 
disorder broke out, and Belgian troops returned.  The Congolese 
Government requested the UN Security Council to authorize UN assistance 
to restore order.  President Eisenhower and Secretary of State Christian 
Herter backed the UN action but wanted to avoid committing US troops and 
triggering direct Soviet involvement.  The US provided extensive 
logistical support to a UN force drawn from Africa, Asia, and Europe, 
with no troops from major powers or the Soviet bloc.

A Congolese internal political struggle resulted, with the United States 
supporting President Joseph Kasavubu and the Soviet Union backing Prime 
Minister Patrice Lumumba.

This volume includes an extensive record of the Congo crisis as well as 
separate compilations of documents on the Horn of Africa, Ghana, Guinea, 
and the Union of South Africa.

The volume is primarily comprised of documents originating in the White 
House and the Department of State, but material originating in the 
Department of Defense and the office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff also 
is included.

Volume XVI (GPO Stock No. 044-000-02339-3) may be purchased for $33 from 
the Superintendent of Documents, New Orders, PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh, 
PA 15250-7954.  For further information, contact Glenn W. LaFantasie, 
General Editor of the Foreign Relations series, at (202) 663-1133. (###)


Treaty Actions

International convention for safe containers (CSC), with annexes, as 
amended.  Done at Geneva Dec. 2, 1972.  Entered into force Sept. 6, 
1977; for the US Jan. 3, 1979.  TIAS 9037; 29 UST 3707, TIAS 10220, 
Accessions deposited:  Brazil, Apr. 3, 1992; Estonia, Aug. 18, 1992.
Notification of succession deposited:  Croatia, July 27, 1992; with 
effect from Oct. 8, 1991.

Amendments to annexes I and II of the international convention for safe 
containers (CSC), 1972, as amended (TIAS 9037; 29 UST 3707, TIAS 10220, 
10914).  Done at London May 17, 1991.  Entered into force:  Jan. 1, 

Convention establishing a Customs Cooperation Council, with annex.  Done 
at Brussels Dec. 15, 1950.  Entered into force Nov. 4, 1952; for the US 
Nov. 5, 1970.  TIAS 7063; 22 UST 320.
Accessions deposited:  Slovenia, Sept. 7, 1992; Ukraine, Nov. 10, 1992.

International Monetary Fund
Third amendment of the articles of agreement of the International 
Monetary Fund (TIAS 1501, 6748, 8937; 60 Stat. 1401, 20 UST 2775, 29 UST 
2203).  Adopted at Washington June 28, 1990.  Entered into force Nov. 
11, 1992.

Nuclear Weapons--Non-Proliferation
Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.  Done at Washington, 
London, and Moscow July 1, 1968.  Entered into force Mar. 5, 1970.  TIAS 
6839; 21 UST 483.
Accession deposited:  Burma (Myanmar), Dec. 2,1992.

Scientific Cooperation
Agreement establishing an international science and technology center.  
Done at Moscow Nov. 27, 1992.  Enters into force on the 30th day after 
the date of last notification by the signatories that all internal 
procedures necessary to be bound by agreement have been completed.

World Meteorological Organization
Convention of the World Meteorological Organization.  Done at Washington 
Oct. 11, 1947.  Entered into force Mar. 23, 1950.  TIAS 2052; 1 UST 281.
Accession deposited:  Uzbekistan, Dec. 23. 1992.


Agreement regarding the reduction of certain debts related to foreign 
assistance owed to the Government of the United States and its agencies, 
with appendices.  Signed at Washington and Santiago Dec. 11 and 15, 
1992.  Enters into force upon receipt by Chile of written notice from 
the US that all necessary domestic legal requirements for entry into 
force have been fulfilled.

Agreement regarding the reduction of certain debts related to foreign 
assistance owed to the Government of the United States and its agencies, 
with appendices.  Signed at Washington Dec. 15, 1992.  Enters into force 
upon receipt by Colombia of written notice from the US that all 
necessary domestic legal requirements have been fulfilled.

Treaty concerning the reciprocal encouragement and protection of 
investment, with annex, protocol, and exchanges of letters.  Signed at 
Washington Oct. 22, 1991.  [Senate] Treaty Doc. 102-31.
Ratifications exchanged:  Nov. 19, 1992.  Entered into force:  Dec. 19, 

Protocol to the treaty of friendship, commerce, and consular rights of 
Feb. 13, 1934, as modified (TS 868, TIAS 2861; 49 Stat. 2659, 4 UST 
2047).  Signed at Washington July 1, 1991. [Senate] Treaty Doc. 102-34.
Ratifications exchanged:  Dec. 1, 1992.  Entered into force:  Dec. 1, 

Protocol to the treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation of Jan. 
21, 1950 (TIAS 2155; 1 UST 785).  Signed at Washington June 24, 1992.  
[Senate] Treaty Doc. 102-35.
Ratifications exchanged:  Nov. 18, 1992.  Entered into force:  Nov. 18, 

New Zealand
Agreement concerning defense communications services, with annexes.  
Signed at Wellington and Arlington Aug. 12 and Nov. 18, 1992.  Entered 
into force Nov. 18, 1992.

Investment incentive and financial agreement. Signed at Washington Dec. 
16, 1992.  Entered into force Dec. 16, 1992.

Agreement regarding the reduction of certain debts related to foreign 
assistance owed to the Government of the United States and its agencies, 
with appendices.  Signed at Washington Dec. 15, 1992.  Enters into force 
upon receipt by Uruguay of written notice that all necessary domestic 
legal requirements have been fulfilled.

Agreement regarding the reduction of certain debts related to 
agriculture owed to the Government of the United States and its 
agencies, with appendixes.  Signed at Washington Dec. 15, 1992.  Enters 
into force upon receipt by Uruguay of written notice from the US that 
all necessary domestic legal requirements have been fulfilled. (###)


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