US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 3, No 50, December 14, 1992

Title:

Humanitarian Crisis in Somalia [President Bush]

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Text of a letter to the Speaker of the House and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate, Washington, DC Date: Dec, 10 199212/10/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa, Subsaharan Africa Country: Somalia Subject: Development/Relief Aid, Refugees, Regional/Civil Unrest, United Nations [TEXT] Dear Mr. Speaker: (Dear Mr. President:) Beginning in January of this year with the adoption of U.N. Security Council Resolution 733, the United Nations has been actively addressing the humanitarian crisis in Somalia. The United States has been assisting the U.N. effort to deal with a human catastrophe. Over 300,000 Somalis have died of starvation. Five times that number remain at risk, beyond the reach of international relief efforts in large part because of the security situation. As a result, voluntary relief organizations from the United States and other countries have appealed for assistance from outside security forces. On November 29, 1992, the Secretary General of the United Nations reported to the Security Council that the deteriorating security conditions in Somalia had severely disrupted international relief efforts and that an immediate military operation under U.N. authority was urgently required. On December 3, the Security Council adopted Resolution 794, which determined that the situation in Somalia constituted a threat to international peace and security, and, invoking Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter, authorized Member States to use all necessary means to establish a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia. In my judgment, the deployment of U.S. Armed Forces under U.S. command to Somalia as part of this multilateral response to the Resolution is necessary to address a major humanitarian calamity, avert related threats to international peace and security, and protect the safety of Americans and others engaged in relief operations. In the evening, Eastern Standard Time, on December 8, 1992, U.S. Armed Forces entered Somalia to secure the airfield and port facility of Mogadishu. Other elements of the U.S. Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of other Members of the United Nations are being introduced onto Somalia to achieve the objectives of U.N. Security Council Resolution 794. No organized resistance has been encountered to date. U.S. Armed Forces will remain in Somalia only as long as necessary to establish a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations and will then turn over the responsibility of maintaining this environment to a U.N. peacekeeping force assigned to Somalia. Over 15 nations have already offered to deploy troops. While it is not possible to estimate precisely how long the transfer of responsibility may take, we believe that prolonged operations will not be necessary. We do not intend that U.S. Armed Forces deployed to Somalia become involved in hostilities. Nonetheless, these forces are equipped and ready to take such measures as may be needed to accomplish their humanitarian mission and defend themselves, if necessary; they also will have the support of any additional U.S. Armed Forces necessary to ensure their safety and the accomplishment of their mission. I have taken these actions pursuant to my constitutional authority to conduct our foreign relations and as Commander in Chief and Chief Executive, and in accordance with applicable treaties and laws. In doing so, I have taken into account the views expressed in H. Con. Res. 370, S. Con. Res. 132, and the Horn of Africa Recovery and Food Security Act, Public Law 102-274, on the urgent need for action in Somalia. I am providing this report in accordance with my desire that Congress be fully informed and consistent with the War Powers Resolution. I look for ward to cooperating with Congress in the effort to relieve human suffering and to restore peace and stability in the region. Sincerely, George Bush
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 50, December 14, 1992 Title:

Humanitarian Crisis in Somalia [Ambassador Perkins

Perkins Source: Ambassador Perkins, US Permanent Representative to the United Nations Description: Statement before the UN Security Council, New York City Date: Dec, 3 199212/3/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa, Subsaharan Africa Country: Somalia Subject: Development/Relief Aid, Refugees, Regional/Civil Unrest, United Nations [TEXT] Mr. President, the vote of the United States for the resolution before us expresses our commitment to resolving the human tragedy in Somalia--a crisis of immense, almost indescribable proportions. The measures authorized by the resolution [794, see p. 883], and supported by my government, have one objective: to achieve a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian relief to the Somali people in areas of greatest need. While the resolution authorizes the use of "all necessary means," one point should be clear: Our mission is essentially a peaceful one, and we will endorse the use of force only if and when we decide it is necessary to accomplish our objective. By acting in response to the tragic events in Somalia, the international community is also taking an important step in developing a strategy for dealing with the potential disorder and conflicts of the post-Cold War world. This step must entail unprecedented levels of cooperation amongst the international community in response to urgent humanitarian needs and to peace-keeping, utilizing our respective military forces if necessary to do so. Cooperation will have to occur on a case-by-case basis, given the complexity of the post-Cold War order. Such a step will also entail unambiguous support of the United Nations in enabling it to confront challenges to international peace and stability. In offering to contribute to the effort authorized by this resolution, the United States has no other objective. Once deployed, our military forces will remain in Somalia no longer than is necessary. We look forward to the early transition to an effective UN peace-keeping force. The sooner outside military forces can develop a secure environment, the sooner the Somali people can begin to reconstruct their own society. Military intervention is no substitute for political reconciliation, and that task belongs firmly in the hands of Somalis. The Secretary General of the United Nations, the various specialized UN agencies working in Somalia, and UN Special Representative for Somalia Ambassador Ismat Kittani--now in Addis Ababa meeting with Somali representatives--have been working with tremendous dedication to provide relief to those in need. The international relief agencies and a multitude of private voluntary organizations have been in the forefront of a truly international effort to help the inhabitants of a country being ripped asunder by violence. We pay tribute to them all. We want to be at their side as partners in a humanitarian effort. The task before the world community is challenging. Relief must be followed closely by rehabilitation and by reconstruction. The international community needs to be generous in its contributions--military, logistic, and financial--to this great humanitarian enterprise. The United Nations and the world community may offer advice or assistance to the Somalis as they heal the wounds from years of bitter conflict. But it is for the Somali people to decide their own future. The secure environment that we will establish--and this endeavor must and will succeed--will allow Somalis to devise their own formula for reconciliation. By acting today to provide a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian relief to the people of Somalia, the Council has once again taken an essential step to restore international peace and security. Much else remains to be done by the Somali people, with the assistance of many agencies. The most obvious beneficiaries will be the innocent victims of anarchy and famine. Moreover, this courageous decision by the Security Council strengthens the United Nations and affirms the ideals upon which it is based. Mr. President, the international community in the post-Cold War era is already being confronted with problems which are distinctly different from the threat that hung over us for the past 45 years. There can be no simple solution to these problems. But in the case of Somalia, and in other cases we are sure to face in the future, it is important that we send this unambiguous message. The international community has the intent, and will, to act decisively regarding peace-keeping problems that threaten international stability. The post-Cold War world is likely to hold other Somalias in store for us. The world will seek solutions that can be found only by nations banding together, led by the United Nations. In these endeavors, you will be able to count on the support of the United States. We must be prepared to respond--together--to solve the great moral and humanitarian challenges that lie ahead. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 50, December 14, 1992 Title:

Humanitarian Crisis in Somalia [UN Resolutions

UN Source: Security Council, United Nations Description: UN Resolution 733, 746, 751, 767, 775, 794 Date: Dec, 14 199212/14/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa, Subsaharan Africa Country: Somalia Subject: Development/Relief Aid, Refugees, Regional/Civil Unrest, United Nations [TEXT]
Resolution 733 (January 23, 1992)
The Security Council, Considering the request by Somalia for the Security Council to consider the situation in Somalia (S/23445), Having heard the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Somalia and commending the initiative taken by him in the humanitarian field, Gravely alarmed at the rapid deterioration of the situation in Somalia and the heavy loss of human life and widespread material damage resulting from the conflict in the country and aware of its consequences on the stability and peace in the region, Concerned that the continuation of this situation constitutes, as stated in the report of the Secretary-General, a threat to international peace and security, Recalling its primary responsibility under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, Recalling also the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, Expressing its appreciation to the international and regional organizations that have provided assistance to the populations affected by the conflict and deploring that personnel of these organizations have lost their lives in the exercise of their humanitarian tasks, Taking note of the appeals addressed to the parties by the Chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference on 16 December 1991, the Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity on 18 December 1991 (S/23469) and the League of Arab States on 5 January 1992 (S/23448), 1. Takes note of the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Somalia and expresses its concern with the situation prevailing in that country; 2. Requests the Secretary-General immediately to undertake the necessary actions to increase humanitarian assistance of the United Nations and its specialized agencies to the affected population in all parts of Somalia in liaison with the other international humanitarian organizations and to this end to appoint a coordinator to oversee the effective delivery of this assistance; 3. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations, in cooperation with the Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity and the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States, immediately to contact all parties involved in the conflict, to seek their commitment to the cessation of hostilities to permit the humanitarian assistance to be distributed, to promote a cease-fire and compliance therewith, and to assist in the process of a political settlement of the conflict in Somalia; 4. Strongly urges all parties to the conflict immediately to cease hostilities and agree to a cease-fire and to promote the process of reconciliation and of political settlement in Somalia; 5. Decides, under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, that all States shall, for the purposes of establishing peace and stability in Somalia immediately implement a general and complete embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Somalia until the Security Council decides otherwise; 6. Calls on all States to refrain from any action which might contribute to increasing tension and to impeding or delaying a peaceful and negotiated outcome to the conflict in Somalia, which would permit all Somalis to decide upon and to construct their future in peace; 7. Call upon all parties to cooperate with the Secretary-General to this end and to facilitate the delivery by the United Nations, its specialized agencies and other humanitarian organizations of humanitarian assistance to all those in need of it, under the supervision of the coordinator; 8. Urges all parties to take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety of personnel sent to provide humanitarian assistance, to assist them in their tasks and to ensure full respect for the rules and principles of international law regarding the protection of civilian populations; 9. Calls upon all States and international organizations to contribute to the efforts of humanitarian assistance to the population in Somalia; 10. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council as soon as possible on this matter; 11. Decides to remain seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 746 (March 17, 1992)
The Security Council, Considering the request by Somalia for the Security Council to consider the situation in Somalia (S/23445), Reaffirming its resolution 733 (1992) of 23 January 1992, Having considered the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Somalia (S/23693), Taking note of the signing of the cease-fire agreements in Mogadiscio on 3 March 1992, including agreements for the implementation of measures aimed at stabilizing the cease-fire through a United Nations monitoring mission, Deeply regretting that the factions have not yet abided by their commitment to implement the cease-fire and thus have still not permitted the unimpeded provision and distribution of humanitarian assistance to the people in need in Somalia, Deeply disturbed by the magnitude of the human suffering caused by the conflict and concerned that the continuation of the situation in Somalia constitutes a threat to international peace and security, Bearing in mind that the factors described in paragraph 76 of the Secretary- General's report (S/23693) must be taken into account, Cognizant of the importance of cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations in the context of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, Underlining the importance which it attaches to the international, regional and non-governmental organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, continuing to provide humanitarian and other relief assistance to the people of Somalia under difficult circumstances, Expressing its appreciation to the regional organizations, including the Organization of African Unity, the League of Arab States and the Organization of the Islamic Conference, for their cooperation with the United Nations in the effort to resolve the Somali problem, 1. Takes note with appreciation of the report of the Secretary-General; 2. Urges the Somali factions to honour their commitment under the cease- fire agreements of 3 March 1992; 3. Urges all the Somali factions to cooperate with the Secretary-General and to facilitate the delivery by the United Nations, its specialized agencies and other humanitarian organizations of humanitarian assistance to all those in need of it, under the supervision of the coordinator mentioned in resolution 733 (1992); 4. Requests the Secretary-General to pursue his humanitarian efforts in Somalia and to use all the resources at his disposal, including those of the relevant United Nations agencies, to address urgently the critical needs of the affected population in Somalia; 5. Appeals to all Member States and to all humanitarian organizations to contribute to and to cooperate with these humanitarian relief efforts; 6. Strongly supports the Secretary-General's decision urgently to dispatch a technical team to Somalia, accompanied by the coordinator, in order to work within the framework and objectives outlined in paragraphs 73 and 74 of his report (S/23693) and to submit expeditiously a report to the Security Council on this matter; 7. Requests that the technical team also develop a high priority plan to establish mechanisms to ensure the unimpeded delivery of humanitarian assistance; 8. Calls on all parties, movements and factions in Mogadiscio in particular, and in Somalia in general, to respect fully the security and safety of the technical team and the personnel of the humanitarian organizations and to guarantee their complete freedom of movement in and around Mogadiscio and other parts of Somalia; 9. Calls upon the Secretary-General of the United Nations to continue, in close cooperation with the Organization of African Unity, the League of Arab States and the Organization of the Islamic Conference, his consultations with all Somali parties, movements and factions towards the convening of a conference for national reconciliation and unity in Somalia; 10. Calls upon all Somali parties, movements and factions to cooperate fully with the Secretary-General in the implementation of this resolution; 11. Decides to remain seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 751 (April 24, 1992)
The Security Council, Considering the request by Somalia for the Security Council to consider the situation in Somalia (S/23445), Reaffirming its resolutions 733 (1992) of 23 January 1992 and 746 (1992) of 17 March 1992, Having considered the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Somalia (S/23829 and Add.1 and 2), Taking note of the signing of the cease-fire agreements in Mogadishu on 3 March 1992, including agreements for the implementation of measures aimed at stabilizing the cease-fire through a United Nations monitoring mission, Taking note also of the signing of letters of agreement in Mogadishu, Hargeisa and Kismayo on the mechanism for monitoring the cease-fire and arrangements for the equitable and effective distribution of humanitarian assistance in and around Mogadishu, Deeply disturbed by the magnitude of the human suffering caused by the conflict and concerned that the continuation of the situation in Somalia constitutes a threat to international peace and security, Cognizant of the importance of cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations in the context of Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, Underlining the importance which it attaches to the international, regional and non-governmental organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, continuing to provide humanitarian and other relief assistance to the people of Somalia under difficult circumstances, Expressing its appreciation to the regional organizations, including the Organization of African Unity, the League of Arab States and the Organization of the Islamic Conference, for their cooperation with the United Nations in the effort to resolve the Somali problem, 1. Takes note with appreciation of the report of the Secretary-General of 21 April 1992 (S/23829) and Add.1 and Add.2); 2. Decides to establish under its authority, and in support of the Secretary- General in accordance with paragraph 7 below, a United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM); 3. Requests the Secretary-General immediately to deploy a unit of 50 United Nations Observers to monitor the cease-fire in Mogadishu in accordance with paragraphs 24 to 26 of the Secretary-General's report (S/23829); 4. Agrees, in principle, also to establish under the overall direction of the Secretary-General's Special Representative a United Nations security force to be deployed as soon as possible to perform the functions described in paragraphs 27-29 of the Secretary-General's report (S/23829); 5. Further requests the Secretary-General to continue his consultations with the parties in Mogadishu regarding the proposed United Nations security force and, in light of those consultations, to submit his further recommendations to the Security Council for its decision as soon as possible; 6. Welcomes the intention expressed by the Secretary-General in paragraph 64 of his report (S/23829) to appoint a Special Representative for Somalia to provide overall direction of United Nations activities in Somalia and to assist him in his endeavours to reach a peaceful resolution of the conflict in Somalia; 7. Requests the Secretary-General as part of his continuing mission in Somalia to facilitate an immediate and effective cessation of hostilities and the maintenance of a cease-fire throughout the country in order to promote the process of reconciliation and political settlement in Somalia and to provide urgent humanitarian assistance; 8. Welcomes the cooperation between the United Nations and the League of Arab States, the Organization of African Unity and the Organization of the Islamic Conference in resolving the problem in Somalia; 9. Calls upon all parties, movements and factions in Somalia immediately to cease hostilities and to maintain a cease-fire throughout the country in order to promote the process of reconciliation and political settlement in Somalia; 10. Requests the Secretary-General to continue as a matter of priority his consultations with all Somali parties, movements and factions towards the convening of a conference on national reconciliation and unity in Somalia in close cooperation with the League of Arab States, the Organization of African Unity and the Organization of the Islamic Conference; 11. Decides to establish, in accordance with rule 28 of the provisional rules of procedure of the Security Council, a Committee of the Security Council consisting of all the members of the Council, to undertake the following tasks and to report on its work to the council with its observations and recommendations: (a) to seek from all States information regarding the action taken by them concerning the effective implementation of the embargo imposed by paragraph 5 of resolution 733 (1992); (b) to consider any information brought to its attention by States concerning violations of the embargo, and in that context to make recommendations to the Council on ways of increasing the effectiveness of the embargo; (c) to recommend appropriate measures in response to violations of the general and complete embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Somalia and provide information on a regular basis to the Secretary-General for general distribution to Member States; 12. Notes with appreciation the ongoing efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations to ensure delivery of humanitarian assistance to Somalia, particularly to Mogadishu; 13. Calls upon the international community to support, with financial and other resources, the implementation of the 90-day Plan of Action for Emergency Humanitarian Assistance to Somalia; 14. Urges all parties concerned in Somalia to facilitate the efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations to provide urgent humanitarian assistance to the affected population in Somalia and reiterates its call for the full respect of the security and safety of the personnel of the humanitarian organizations and the guarantee of their complete freedom of movement in and around Mogadishu and other parts of Somalia; 15. Calls upon all Somali parties, movements and factions to cooperate fully with the Secretary-General in the Implementation of this resolution; 16. Decides to remain seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 767 (July 27, 1992)
The Security Council, Considering the request by Somalia for the Security Council to consider the situation in Somalia (S/23445), Reaffirming its resolutions 733 (1992) of 23 January 1992, 746 (1992) of 17 March 1992 and 751 (1992) of 24 April 1992, Having considered the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Somalia (S/24343), Considering the letter of the Secretary-General to the President of the Security Council informing him that all the parties in Mogadishu have agreed to the deployment of the fifty military observers, and that the advance party of the observers arrived in Mogadishu on 5 July 1992 and that the rest of the observers arrived in the mission area on 23 July 1992 (S/24179), Deeply concerned about the availability of arms and ammunition in the hands of civilians and the proliferation of armed banditry throughout Somalia, Alarmed by the sporadic outbreak of hostilities in several parts of Somalia leading to continued loss of life and destruction of property, and putting at risk the personnel of the United Nations, non-governmental organizations and other international humanitarian organizations, as well as disrupting their operations, Deeply disturbed by the magnitude of the human suffering caused by the conflict and concerned that the situation in Somalia constitutes a threat to international peace and security, Gravely alarmed by the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Somalia and underlining the urgent need for quick delivery of humanitarian assistance in the whole country, Recognizing that the provision of humanitarian assistance in Somalia is an important element in the effort of the Council to restore international peace and security in the area, Responding to the urgent calls by the parties in Somalia for the international community to take measures in Somalia to ensure the delivery of humanitarian assistance in Somalia, Noting the Secretary-General's proposals for a comprehensive decentralized zonal approach in the United Nations involvement in Somalia, Cognizant that the success of such an approach requires the cooperation of all parties, movements and factions in Somalia, 1. Takes note with appreciation of the report of the Secretary-General of 22 July 1992 (S/24343); 2. Requests the Secretary-General to make full use of all available means and arrangements, including the mounting of an urgent airlift operation, with a view to facilitating the efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations in accelerating the provision of humanitarian assistance to the affected population in Somalia, threatened by mass starvation; 3. Urges all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to facilitate the efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations to provide urgent humanitarian assistance to the affected population in Somalia and reiterates its call for the full respect of the security and safety of the personnel of the humanitarian organizations and the guarantee of their complete freedom of movement in and around Mogadishu and other parts of Somalia; 4. Calls upon all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to cooperate with the United Nations with a view to the urgent development of the United Nations security personnel called for in paragraphs 4 and 5 of its resolution 751 (1992), and otherwise assist in the general stabilization of the situation in Somalia. In the absence of such cooperation, the Security Council does not exclude other measures to deliver humanitarian assistance to Somalia; 5. Reiterates its appeal to the international community to provide adequate financial and other resources for humanitarian efforts in Somalia; 6. Encourages the ongoing efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross, to ensure delivery of humanitarian assistance to all regions of Somalia; 7. Appeals to all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to extend full cooperation to the military observers and to take measures to ensure their security; 8. Requests the Secretary-General, as part of his continuing efforts in Somalia, to promote an immediate and effective cessation of hostilities and the maintenance of a cease-fire throughout the country in order to facilitate the urgent delivery of humanitarian assistance and the process of reconciliation and political settlement in Somalia; 9. Calls upon all parties, movements and factions in Somalia immediately to cease hostilities and to maintain a cease-fire throughout the country; 10. Stresses the need for the observance and strict monitoring of the general and complete embargo of all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Somalia, as decided in paragraph 5 of its resolution 733 (1992); 11. Welcomes the cooperation between the United Nations, the Organization of African Unity, the League of Arab States and the Organization of the Islamic Conference in resolving the situation in Somalia; 12. Approves the Secretary-General's proposal to establish four operational zones in Somalia as part of the consolidated United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM); 13. Requests the Secretary-General to ensure that his Special Representative for Somalia is provided with all the necessary support services to enable him to effectively carry out his mandate; 14. Strongly supports the Secretary-General's decision urgently to dispatch a technical team to Somalia, under the overall direction of the Special Representative, in order to work within the framework and objectives outlined in paragraph 64 of his report (S/24343) and to submit expeditiously a report to the Security Council on this matter; 15. Affirms that all officials of the United Nations and all experts on mission for the United Nations in Somalia enjoy the privileges and immunities provided for in the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations of 1946 and in any other relevant instruments and that all parties, movements and factions in Somalia are required to allow them full freedom of movement and all necessary facilities; 16. Requests the Secretary-General to continue urgently his consultations with all parties, movements and factions in Somalia towards the convening of a conference on national reconciliation and unity in Somalia in close cooperation with the Organization of African Unity, the League of Arab States and the Organization of the Islamic Conference; 17. Calls upon all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to cooperate fully with the Secretary-General in the implementation of this resolution; 18. Decides to remain seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 775 (August 28, 1992)
The Security Council, Considering the request by Somalia for the Security Council to consider the situation in Somalia (S/23445), Reaffirming its resolutions 733 (1992) of 23 January 1992, 746 (1992) of 17 March 1992, 751 (1992) of 24 April 1992 and 767 (1992) of 27 July 1992, Having considered the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Somalia (S/24480), Deeply concerned about the availability of arms and ammunition and the proliferation of armed banditry throughout Somalia, Alarmed by the continued sporadic outbreak of hostilities in several parts of Somalia leading to continued loss of life and destruction of property, and putting at risk the personnel of the United Nations, non-governmental organizations and other international humanitarian organizations, as well as disrupting their operations, Deeply disturbed by the magnitude of the human suffering caused by the conflict and concerned that the situation in Somalia constitutes a threat to international peace and security, Gravely alarmed by the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Somalia and underlining the urgent need for quick delivery of humanitarian assistance in the whole country, Welcoming the ongoing efforts by the United Nations organizations as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), non-governmental organizations and States to provide humanitarian assistance to the affected population in Somalia, Welcoming in particular the initiatives to provide relief through airlift operations, Convinced that no durable progress will be achieved in the absence of an overall political solution in Somalia, Taking note in particular of paragraph 24 of the report of the Secretary- General, 1. Takes note with appreciation of the report of the Secretary-General of 24 August 1992 (S/24480) on the findings of the technical team and the recommendations of the Secretary-General contained therein; 2. Invites the Secretary-General to establish four zone headquarters as proposed in paragraph 31 of the Secretary-General's report; 3. Authorizes the increase in strength of the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) and the subsequent deployment as recommended in paragraph 37 of the Secretary-General's report; 4. Welcomes the decision of the Secretary-General to increase substantially the airlift operation to areas of priority attention; 5. Calls upon all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to cooperate with the United Nations with a view to the urgent deployment of the United Nations security personnel called for in paragraphs 4 and 5 of its resolution 751 (1992) and as recommended in paragraph 37 of the Secretary-General's report; 6. Welcomes also the material and logistical support from a number of States and urges that the airlift operation be effectively coordinated by the United Nations as described in paragraphs 17 to 21 of the report of the Secretary-General; 7. Urges all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to facilitate the efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations to provide urgent humanitarian assistance to the affected population in Somalia and reiterates its call for the full respect of the security and safety of the personnel of these organizations and the guarantee of their complete freedom of movement in and around Mogadishu and other parts of Somalia; 8. Reiterates its appeal to the international community to provide adequate financial and other resources for humanitarian efforts in Somalia; 9. Encourages ongoing efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations including the International Committee of the Red Cross and non-governmental organizations to ensure delivery of humanitarian assistance to all regions of Somalia and underlines the importance of coordination between these efforts; 10. Requests also the Secretary-General to continue, in close cooperation with the Organization of African Unity, the League of Arab States and the Organization of the Islamic Conference, his efforts to seek a comprehensive political solution to the crisis in Somalia; 11. Calls upon all parties, movements and factions in Somalia immediately to cease hostilities and to maintain a cease-fire throughout the country; 12. Stresses the need for the observance and strict monitoring of the general and complete embargo on all deliveries of weapons and military equipment to Somalia, as decided in paragraph 5 of its resolution 733 (1992); 13. Calls upon all parties, movements and factions in Somalia to cooperate fully with the Secretary-General in the implementation of this resolution; 14. Decides to remain seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).
Resolution 794 (December 3, 1992)
The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 733 (1992) of 23 January 1992, 746 (1992) of 17 March 1992, 751 (1992) of 24 April 1992, 767 (1992) of 27 July 1992 and 775 (1992) of 28 August 1992, Recognizing the unique character of the present situation in Somalia and mindful of its deteriorating, complex and extraordinary nature, requiring an immediate and exceptional response, Determining that the magnitude of the human tragedy caused by the conflict in Somalia, further exacerbated by the obstacles being created to the distribution of humanitarian assistance, constitutes a threat to international peace and security, Gravely alarmed by the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Somalia and underlining the urgent need for the quick delivery of humanitarian assistance in the whole country, Noting the efforts of the League of Arab States, the Organization of African Unity, and in particular the proposal made by its Chairman at the forty- seventh regular session of the General Assembly for the organization of an international conference on Somalia, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference and other regional agencies and arrangements to promote reconciliation and political settlement in Somalia and to address the humanitarian needs of the people of that country, Commending the ongoing efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations and of non-governmental organizations and of States to ensure delivery of humanitarian assistance in Somalia, Responding to the urgent calls from Somalia for the international community to take measures to ensure the delivery of humanitarian assistance in Somalia, Expressing grave alarm at continuing reports of widespread violations of international humanitarian law occurring in Somalia, including reports of violence and threats of violence against personnel participating lawfully in impartial humanitarian relief activities; deliberate attacks on non- combatants, relief consignments and vehicles, and medical and relief facilities; and impeding the delivery of food and medical supplies essential for the survival of the civilian population, Dismayed by the continuation of conditions that impede the delivery of humanitarian supplies to destinations within Somalia, and in particular reports of looting of relief supplies destined for starving people, attacks on aircraft and ships bringing in humanitarian relief supplies, and attacks on the Pakistani UNOSOM contingent in Mogadishu, Taking note with appreciation of the letters of the Secretary-General of 24 November 1992 (S/24859) and of 29 November 1992 (S/24868), Sharing the Secretary-General's assessment that the situation in Somalia is intolerable and that it has become necessary to review the basic premises and principles of the United Nations effort in Somalia, and that UNOSOM's existing course would not in present circumstances be an adequate response to the tragedy in Somalia, Determined to establish as soon as possible the necessary conditions for the delivery of humanitarian assistance wherever needed in Somalia, in conformity with resolutions 751 (1992) and 767 (1992), Noting the offer by Member States aimed at establishing a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia as soon as possible, Determined further to restore peace, stability and law and order with a view to facilitating the process of a political settlement under the auspices of the United Nations, aimed at national reconciliation in Somalia, and encouraging the Secretary-General and his Special Representative to continue and intensify their work at the national and regional levels to promote these objectives, Recognizing that the people of Somalia bear ultimate responsibility for national reconciliation and the reconstruction of their own country, 1. Reaffirms its demand that all parties, movements and factions in Somalia immediately cease hostilities, maintain a cease-fire throughout the country, and cooperate with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General as well as with the military forces to be established pursuant to the authorization given in paragraph 10 below in order to promote the process of relief distribution, reconciliation and political settlement in Somalia; 2. Demands that all parties, movements and factions in Somalia take all measures necessary to facilitate the efforts of the United Nations, its specialized agencies and humanitarian organizations to provide urgent humanitarian assistance to the affected population in Somalia; 3. Also demands that all parties, movements and factions in Somalia take all measures necessary to ensure the safety of United Nations and all other personnel engaged in the delivery of humanitarian assistance, including the military forces to be established pursuant to the authorization given in paragraph 10 below; 4. Further demands that all parties, movements and factions in Somalia immediately cease and desist from all breaches of international humanitarian law including from actions such as those described above; 5. Strongly condemns all violations of international humanitarian law occurring in Somalia, including in particular the deliberate impeding of the delivery of food and medical supplies essential for the survival of the civilian population, and affirms that those who commit or order the commission of such acts will be held individually responsible in respect of such acts; 6. Decides that the operations and the further deployment of the 3,500 personnel of the United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) authorized by paragraph 3 of resolution 775 (1992) should proceed at the discretion of the Secretary-General in the light of his assessment of conditions on the ground; and requests him to keep the Council informed and to make such recommendations as may be appropriate for the fulfillment of its mandate where conditions permit; 7. Endorses the recommendation by the Secretary-General in his letter of 29 November 1992 (S/24868) that action under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations should be taken in order to establish a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia as soon as possible; 8. Welcomes the offer by a Member State described in the Secretary- General's letter to the Council of 29 November 1992 (S/24868) concerning the establishment of an operation to create such a secure environment; 9. Welcomes also offers by other Member States to participate in that operation; 10. Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, authorizes the Secretary-General and Member States cooperating to implement the offer referred to in paragraph 8 above to use all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia; 11. Calls on all Member States which are in a position to do so to provide military forces and to make additional contributions, in cash or in kind, in accordance with paragraph 10 above and requests the Secretary-General to establish a fund through which the contributions, where appropriate, could be channelled to the States or operations concerned; 12. Authorizes the Secretary-General and the Member States concerned to make the necessary arrangements for the unified command and control of the forces involved, which will reflect the offer referred to in paragraph 8 above; 13. Requests the Secretary-General and the Member States acting under paragraph 10 above to establish appropriate mechanisms for coordination between the United Nations and their military forces; 14. Decides to appoint an ad hoc commission composed of members of the Security Council to report to the Council on the implementation of this resolution; 15. Invites the Secretary-General-to attach a small UNOSOM liaison staff to the Field Headquarters of the unified command; 16. Acting under Chapters VII and VIII of the Charter, calls upon States, nationally or through regional agencies or arrangements, to use such measures as may be necessary to ensure strict implementation of paragraph 5 of resolution 733 (1992); 17. Requests all States, in particular those in the region, to provide appropriate support for the actions undertaken by States, nationally or through regional agencies or arrangements, pursuant to this and other relevant resolutions; 18. Requests the Secretary-General and, as appropriate, the States concerned to report to the Council on a regular basis, the first such report to be made no later than fifteen days after the adoption of this resolution, on the implementation of this resolution and the attainment of the objective of establishing a secure environment so as to enable the Council to make the necessary decision for a prompt transition to continued peace-keeping operations; 19. Requests the Secretary-General to submit a plan to the Council initially within fifteen days after the adoption of this resolution to ensure that UNOSOM will be able to fulfil its mandate upon the withdrawal of the unified command; 20. Invites the Secretary-General and his Special Representative to continue their efforts to achieve a political settlement in Somalia; 21. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0).(###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 50, December 14, 1992 Title:

US Concern for Democratic Transition in Zaire

Boucher Source: Richard Boucher, State Department Spokesman Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Dec, 7 199212/7/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Zaire Subject: Democratization, Regional/Civil Unrest, Trade/Economics [TEXT] The United States remains concerned by the deadlock between the Prime Minister and the President in Zaire. Zaire's National Conference ended on December 5, and its president, Archbishop Monsengwo, was elected president of the High Council of the Republic. The council has been established to ensure that the decisions of the National Conference are implemented; differences, however, remain between President Mobuto and Prime Minister Tshisekedi. The US Government believes that President Mobuto should recognize the legitimate authority of the prime minister chosen by the sovereign National Conference. President Mobutu should transfer day-to-day authority to the transitional government headed by Prime Minister Tshisekedi so it can begin its essential work of preparation for elections and the long and difficult road to economic recovery. As the Governments of France, Belgium, and the United States stated jointly on December 1, the transition government should assume full control over the central bank, major public enterprises, and all other economic activities essential to Zaire's economic recovery. It should also establish an economic stabilization plan acceptable to the World Bank and International Monetary Fund without further delay. The United States calls upon all of Zaire's political leaders to dedicate themselves unconditionally to the democratic transition underway in the country. President Bush has expressed the views of the US Government in a letter to President Mobutu. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 50, December 14, 1992 Title:

Meeting of the Middle East Peace Process Multilateral Steering Group

Djerejian, Source: Edward P. Djerejian, Assistant Secretary for Near East Affairs and Acting Assistant Secretary for South Asian Affairs Description: Statement before the Multilateral Steering Group Meeting, London, United Kingdom Date: Dec, 4 199212/4/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, United Kingdom, Russia Subject: Mideast Peace Process, EC, Arms Control, United Nations [TEXT] I am pleased to report that the second meeting of the Middle East Peace Process Steering Group on multilateral negotiations has concluded on a very positive note. I want to express my appreciation to the British Government for hosting this session, to my Russian colleague for co-sponsoring, and to all parties for their serious work in making this meeting a success. The multilateral dimension of the Arab-Israeli peace process launched at Madrid last year is working and working well. Since our last session of the Steering Group in May, we have overcome a number of procedural obstacles: -- Israel and diaspora Palestinians now participate in all five working groups; -- The United Nations and [the] World Bank now contribute in significant ways; -- Each of the five working groups is focused on practical steps; [and] -- [The] European Community is now participating fully in the Arms Control and Regional Security Group. In this regard, as the multilateral negotiations move forward, it is our hope that Syria and Lebanon will soon participate. The co-sponsors will continue their efforts in this regard. The discussions over the past 2 days were serious and productive. They reflected the seriousness with which all parties regard the multilateral negotiations. They were also conducted in a friendly and constructive tone. In this regard, we were impressed by the way in which Israelis and Palestinians addressed one another directly. This effort to reach out to one another is precisely the kind of approach that leads to problem-solving and consensus-building required to bridge gaps and resolve difficulties. As we have noted many times before, the multilateral track is designed to facilitate and complement the bilateral negotiations. To that end, all parties expressed the hope that the eighth round of the bilaterals, which we would expect to convene in Washington next week, will make progress. During our session here in London, the steering group reviewed progress made in the five working groups and heard reports on those efforts from the organizers of each group. We were struck by the range and number of activities currently being undertaken by the working groups as a whole. I am pleased to note that in each group--water, environment, economic development, refugees, and arms control and regional security--all parties focused on practical ways to address these issues--issues basic to regional stability and development. Indeed, one of the purposes of the multilateral negotiations is to demonstrate that peace will bring to the region concrete benefits that will promote the well-being of all the peoples of the region. At the same time, all parties recognize that only through the resolution of the political issues that divide them, can real peace be achieved. Our discussions also focused on a number of procedural issues related to the work on the multilateral negotiations. In some areas, consensus was achieved; in others, it was not. The important point is that all parties are determined to make the process succeed to find the most effective format to make it work, and to see its purpose and value enhanced. In this regard, I am pleased to announce venues for the next sessions of the multilateral working groups. In some cases, we have dates scheduled; in others, we are in the process of scheduling. -- Arms Control and Regional Security--Washington, DC, February 1993; -- Water--Geneva, February 16-18, 1993; -- Environment--Tokyo, February 1993; -- Refugees--Oslo, February 16-18, 1993; -- Economic Development--Rome, February 9-10, 1993; [and] -- Steering Group--Moscow, in late March, early April 1993. In conclusion, let me reiterate again that this session demonstrated a serious and positive tone and a willingness on the part of all those who attended to work through difficult issues in a friendly and constructive manner. I am certain that with the resolve and goodwill shown by all the parties over the past 2 days, we will be able to achieve the peace and security that the peoples of this region so richly deserve. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 50, December 14, 1992 Title:

Commemoration of Refugee Day 1992

Bush Lafontant-Mankarious Kanter Zimmermann Sources: President Bush, Ambassador at Large and US Coordinator for Refugee Affairs Jewel Lafontant- Mankarious, Acting Secretary of State Arnold Kanter, and Director of Refugee Programs Warren Zimmermann, Description: Washington, DC Date: Oct, 30 199210/30/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Whole World Country: Yugoslavia (former), Somalia, Afghanistan, Mozambique, Sudan, Liberia, USSR (former), Israel, Angola, Cambodia, Vietnam, Pakistan, Burma, Thailand, Guatemala Subject: Refugees, United Nations [TEXT]
Proclamation by President Bush, October 29, 1992.
The United States has long welcomed to its shores refugees from oppression and persecution--generations of whom have built new lives for themselves in this country and, in so doing, contributed to its cultural and economic development. Early immigrants to America sought sanctuary from tyranny and persecution, and our first President, George Washington, exhorted that the United States should ever be "an asylum to the oppressed and needy of the earth." The origins of this great land as a place of refuge and our rich heritage as a nation of immigrants give Americans a special understanding of, and sympathy for, the plight of some 17 million refugees worldwide today. In addition to opening its doors to tens of thousands of refugees each year, the United States is working to overcome the conditions that force large numbers of people to flee their homelands. Through a wide range of public and private organizations, we have been promoting education, disease prevention, and sustainable economic development in countries beset by illiteracy and poverty. Because millions of refugees have been driven from their homes by the scourge of political repression and war, we have placed a high priority on working to promote freedom and democracy, which are the only sure foundation for lasting peace and progress. With the collapse of imperial communism and with the emergence of democratic nations around the globe, more of our fellow human beings are living in freedom than at any other time in history. This trend has had a positive impact on a number of serious, long-standing refugee situations throughout the world, such as those in Central America, Cambodia, and Afghanistan. However, while these developments are encouraging, we know that in some regions of the world, the plight of refugees continues to demand our urgent attention. Nowhere are conditions more deplorable today than in the Horn of Africa and the former Yugoslavia. The United States serves as an international leader in efforts to meet the challenges of current refugee crises. We will continue to fulfill our fundamental responsibilities to help refugees, and we will continue to urge our allies and all governments to remain firmly committed to protecting refugees and to contributing toward international relief efforts. The United States remains steadfast in its support of the efforts of the United Nations to develop effective worldwide programs to alleviate human suffering. Because the suffering of refugees is most often the result of systematic government repression and violent unrest in some regions of the world, we will also continue to champion respect for human rights, the peaceful resolution of conflicts, and the principles of national sovereignty and liberty under law. Now, Therefore, I, George Bush, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 30, 1992, as Refugee Day. I urge all Americans to observe this day with appropriate programs and activities, including efforts to provide humanitarian assistance to refugees and to promote freedom and peace among all peoples. In Witness Whereof, I have here-unto set my hand this twenty-ninth day of October, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and seventeenth. George Bush
Lafontant-Mankarious: Opening Remarks at Commemoration
Address by Ambassador at Large and US Coordinator for Refugee Affairs Jewel Lafontant-Mankarious, Washington, DC, October 30, 1992. It is with great pleasure that we welcome all of you to the Department of State for this third annual commemoration of Refugee Day. Our Refugee Day initiative, which began in the spring of 1990, has been a bipartisan effort designed to sensitize the public to the activities of the United States at home and abroad on behalf of the world's refugees. With congressional leadership from Senators Rudy Boschwitz, Nancy Kassebaum, [and] Paul Simon and Representatives Dante Fascell, William Broomfield, Merv Dymally, and Lamar Smith these past 3 years, Refugee Day has become a day which brings together those individuals concerned with the plight of refugees. It is a time when we compare notes, exchange ideas, and rededicate our joint efforts to alleviating human suffering. The world has changed significantly and fundamentally since we began our Refugee Day commemoration 3 years ago. These changes have had a major impact not only on the number of refugees around the globe but [on] their composition and the nature of the refugee problem. As you may recall, at the beginning of the Bush Administration we were actively involved in calling on the Soviet Union to liberalize its emigration policies. In 1989, 230,000 refugees--a record at the time--were granted permission to leave what is now the former USSR. The United States rose to meet the challenge of increased refugee flows by revamping our system for resettling Soviet citizens more efficiently by establishing in-country refugee processing in Moscow. Today, with the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War and despite the numbers still waiting to be resettled, more people in the region are engaged in the process of institutionalizing democracy, promoting human rights, and building pluralistic societies than ever before. In 1989, President Bush called on the regimes of Eastern Europe to join the ranks of free nations by allowing multi-party elections. Elections were held, and one-party rule ended in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and elsewhere. With the fall of the Berlin wall and the reunification of Germany, we saw the number of refugees from the region decline dramatically. Meeting the challenges posed by the refugee situation in Southeast Asia, the United States--along with our friends in the ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] countries, our Western allies, and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)--put into place a framework called the Comprehensive Plan of Action (CPA) to deal with the continued flow of Indochinese asylum seekers. By reaffirming the importance of first asylum, we, along with the ASEAN nations and UNHCR, worked within the CPA framework for a more humanitarian answer to the plight of refugees in the region. We have resettled a generous number of these refugees in the United States, and today, I am proud to say, we stand before a new horizon of relations in Southeast Asia. The end of the Cold War has had a positive effect on a number of serious, long-standing refugee situations around the world. Voluntary repatriation of refugees to their homes--the most desirable solution for refugees--has become possible for hundreds of thousands of Latin Americans, Cambodians, and Angolans. By the end of this year, it is estimated that at least 1 million Afghans will have returned home after spending more than a decade in Pakistan and Iran. We are heartened that, even though political solutions are less than complete in several of these situations, the overwhelming majority of refugees wish to overcome differences and get on with rebuilding their war-torn homelands. As the Cold War was coming to a quiet end, the development of hostilities in the Persian Gulf as a result of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait produced more than 1 million refugees and displaced persons throughout the Middle East region. Our military proved its power against aggression very effectively in the Persian Gulf. I would like to highlight the military's great humanitarianism [which was] demonstrated in the Gulf as well. With the help of our troops in Operation Provide Comfort and with the command of President Bush and [Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff] General Powell, we were able to care for all the refugees on the Turkish-Iraqi border and ensure that all who wished to return to their homes in safety were able to do so. Today, our troops are engaged in another humanitarian effort, this one to provide food and clothing to the refugees in the war-torn lands of former Yugoslavia and Somalia. We applaud their efforts and pray that they meet their challenge with success. I might add that the Army band and chorus will be entertaining us later in our program. Significant and positive as these developments are, they must be measured against both new and continuing emergencies--emergencies which occur, by and large, outside the context of post-Cold War relations. With the world refugee population at more than 17 million, we are compelled to rededicate our efforts to address the root causes of refugee flows. As we survey the causes of conflict around the globe which produce refugee flows, we shall find that chief among these causes is the recurring violation of human rights which takes the form of ethnic discrimination. Throughout Europe, Central Asia, and Africa, we see instance after instance where persecution based on ethnic, national, or religious origins continues to serve as a major cause of international conflict and human suffering. Nowhere in the world is the example of this more striking than in former Yugoslavia and Somalia. And no group suffers more than refugee women and children. The United States is working with the international community on multilateral approaches to the latest trends producing refugees around the globe. At the 43rd Executive Committee meeting of the UNHCR held earlier this month, we were pleased with High Commissioner Ogata's ideas for a more active UNHCR role in preventive measures designed to stem potential refugee flows. Regrettably, the fact remains that persecution, discrimination, and systematic abuse of peoples by their fellow countrymen, tribesmen, or co-religionists runs rampant around the globe. We also remain concerned over the situation throughout the Horn of Africa and, of course, over the unchanged political situation in Haiti. Since the fall of the Aristide government last fall, the United States has attempted to rescue the tens of thousands of Haitian boat people who have fled the island. Of the 38,000 asylum seekers who have been picked up by the [US] Coast Guard [since] last fall, 10,490 have been found, after a USINS [US Immigration and Naturalization Service] interview, to have a plausible claim for asylum and have been flown to the United States from the Guantanamo Bay naval base. We have established in-country refugee processing in Port- au-Prince and, to date, have admitted 238 Haitian refugees to the United States for resettlement under this program. To help address many of the refugee situations around the globe, we continue to rely on the support and assistance of the non-governmental organization community, which includes, among others, church groups, civic organizations, and concerned individuals. Your input is always valued and has made a difference on many occasions, especially during my tenure. We all come to Refugee Day with our accomplishments behind us and with many challenges yet ahead. In a bipartisan, humanitarian spirit we can tackle these challenges in order to make the world more equal or, perhaps, more fair but always with the goal of alleviating suffering. We have done so in the past, and we shall continue in this vein.
Kanter: America's Humanitarian Leadership
Address by Acting Secretary of State Arnold Kanter, Washington, DC, October 30, 1992. It is my privilege to join with you in commemorating Refugee Day. You may ask--and rightly so--what benefit does a day of commemoration provide? Why are we here today? We are here to send a message--to those who suffer from persecution, war, and hunger; to those who aid and comfort them; and to those who cause their anguish--that the United States renews its historical commitment to be a world leader in refugee and humanitarian affairs, to work to combat the forces which compel people to flee their homes from fear or hunger, and to help relieve the suffering of those in distress. To the men and women of America--and the world--who devote their lives to aiding this cause, we praise your commitment; we are grateful for your tireless efforts; and we respect you as exemplars of our common respect for human dignity. To the international organizations who are present on the program this afternoon--we praise you for your skill and courage and resourcefulness. Your work brings the world community's help and its concern home to millions. We thank you for the countless lives that you have saved, the mouths that you have fed, and the bodies you have helped to heal. To the private volunteer organizations and agencies or non-governmental organizations who deliver the food, provide medical care, and build shelter, you combine, in unparalleled measure, our humanitarian impulse with the technical skills that bring critical relief to the desperate.
The Humanitarian Challenge
The United States salutes and actively supports the efforts of all of you. And as we renew our commitment to leadership in refugee and humanitarian affairs, we also pledge to remain at the forefront of the world's efforts to address the root causes of their suffering: violence based on ethnic hatred, resurgent nationalism, and the break-up of nation states; armed conflict among political and cultural factions and blatant disregard for fundamental human rights. The consequences are massive: -- Seven million in distress in Somalia; -- Five million refugees from Afghanistan; -- More than 2 million displaced in the former Republic of Yugoslavia; -- More than half a million fled from Liberia; and -- Millions more distressed in and around Mozambique, Sudan, and elsewhere around the world. Through our bilateral programs and with our support of international efforts, the United States will continue to: -- Promote respect for human rights and the rule of law by nurturing the growth of democratic values; -- Engage in efforts to prevent conflict, and where preventive efforts do not succeed, promote the peaceful resolution of conflict to help achieve the stability essential for economic growth and political freedom; and -- Help to build strong market-oriented economies in less developed countries so their citizens may prosper where they live and not be forced to flee to survive.
Promotion of Human Rights
The promotion of human rights and democratic values are key priorities in our global foreign policy efforts. -- We have championed free and fair elections by providing legal and technical assistance to countries moving forward to democracy all over the world. -- Our annual reports on human rights in every country in the world not only inform our own decision-making, they also reinforce universal norms of conduct. -- This year, the US Congress approved President Bush's FREEDOM [Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets] Support Act and appropriated $417 million for aid to the republics of the former Soviet Union. This aid will help them make their transitions to more peaceful, democratic, and market-oriented nations. To promote respect for the rule of law, we provide assistance to countries to improve the access of individuals to legal services, reform their judicial systems, and to help them understand the importance of due process and protection of the rights of all citizens, including minorities. Promotion of Peace and Stability To promote international peace and stability, to help prevent and resolve the conflicts which now drive millions from their homes, the United States has undertaken a number of important efforts. -- In September, President Bush announced to the UN General Assembly American support for the [UN] Secretary General's Agenda for Peace and our national commitment to enhancing our own peace-keeping capabilities and those of the United Nations. We also support regional peace-keeping efforts by the CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe], WEU [Western European Union] and NATO, and others. -- We have strongly supported UN peace-keeping efforts from Cyprus to Lebanon to Cambodia and the former Yugoslavia. -- We provided stabilizing aid to countries ridden with narcotics traffickers and terrorist groups. -- We support UN efforts to ostracize those countries, such as Iraq and Libya, whose actions destabilize their neighbors and offend our sense of basic human decency.
Building Market Economies
From the Marshall Plan after World War II to the FREEDOM Support Act of 1992, the United States has helped to build stable, market-based economies that provide the basis for nurturing democratic values and human dignity. This year, as in the decades past, the United States, more than any other nation, has committed billions of dollars of aid to facilitate this crucial task. The Administration and Congress have worked together to provide over $10 billion to support our economic development and humanitarian assistance objectives. Let me cite briefly a few of the important elements: -- We provide billions to help bring broad-based sustainable economic growth to more than 70 countries. -- We provide technical assistance to develop the private sector economies and to further develop democratic institutions. -- We contribute billions to multilateral development banks and also in bilateral assistance through Economic Support Fund programs as well as millions in voluntary contributions to UN agencies, such as UNICEF [UN Children's Fund] and the UN Development Program. -- We provide export credits and overseas private investment insurance to countries to facilitate private investment. But, even as we seek to alleviate the root causes of these refugee flows and other man-made disasters, the United States recognizes the necessity of maintaining the means and the resources to respond to the emergencies which do occur.
Disaster and Refugee Assistance
With the strong support of the Congress, the United States will continue to be a leader in providing relief for those afflicted by man-made, as well as natural disasters. The audience knows well the magnitude of our commitment: using USAID [US Agency for International Development] resources and working with the United Nations and NGOs [non-governmental organizations], we lead the effort to feed the millions suffering from the conflicts in Somalia and Liberia, the nearly 20 million at risk of starvation due to drought in Southern Africa, and the effort to feed and warm and shelter the refugees and displaced in the former Republic of Yugoslavia. We also have made a major commitment to refugee affairs in this year's foreign assistance program. Many in this audience have contributed to maintaining the prominence of these relief programs in US foreign assistance and I salute you for your efforts and your support. First, under the Food for Peace Program, nearly $1.6 billion has been appropriated for relief from famine, malnutrition, and economic development, of which nearly one-half is expressly for emergency and humanitarian relief. In the past year, Food for Peace has provided a major share of the US response to the emergency needs of distressed populations in or fleeing from Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Liberia, Afghanistan, and the former Yugoslavia. Second, this year, Congress has more than doubled the funding level for disaster assistance. USAID's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is currently on the ground to help coordinate private relief efforts for both Somalia and the former Yugoslavia. We also continue to provide food and fuel for relief in northern Iraq. The third element--and I conclude here by returning to the focus of today's conference--is the US refugee program. This year, through the migration and refugee assistance appropriation and the President's Emergency Fund, the United States will have available a total of $670 million to assist the victims of political, social, and religious persecution. Two- thirds of this is directed to overseas assistance. About $200 million, approximately 30%, is applied to the resettlement of refugees in the United States--such as the fine individuals with us here today--refugees now, but citizens in a few hours. In international refugee assistance, the United States is the largest donor to the multilateral assistance programs of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestinians, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the International Organization for Migration. Through support to these agencies and other international and non-government organizations, the United States is providing assistance to the majority of the world's 15 to 20 million refugees, and to millions of displaced persons. In addition to its dollar contributions, the United States continues to play a decisive leadership role in refugee policy worldwide. The United States is the only government I know of which has a Special Coordinator for Refugee Affairs at the ambassadorial level and has established a separate Bureau for Refugee Affairs to ensure that sufficient policy focus is given to these issues. In this regard, I am extraordinarily proud of the work of Ambassador Lafontant-Mankarious and pleased that the Department's Refugee Programs Bureau has as its new director Ambassador Warren Zimmermann, who is providing exceptional leadership on the Yugoslavia crisis, as his predecessor, Ambassador Princeton Lyman, did so ably on the Kurdish crisis and many others.
Conclusion
We are proud, as a government and as a people, of US leadership and of the US record of achievement in refugee and humanitarian affairs. Our commitment is founded on strong bipartisan support reflecting, above all, the inherent generosity of spirit of the American people. Our humanity and our willingness to volunteer are two of the traits which define us as a nation. That much of the world appears lately to have entered a phase of increasing ethnic violence, and civil conflict constitutes a challenge to us all. So we commemorate Refugee Day as an expression of our commitment to meet that challenge. Not to look back on what we have done but to look forward to what we can and must do--to combat the forces which have caused the crisis we face today and to relieve their devastating effects. It is a challenge the United States is committed to meet, as a fundamental part of our foreign policy. And it is a challenge that we--the United States, the United Nations, its family of organizations, the international and private voluntary organizations represented here today-- will face together as committed and caring members of the world community.
Zimmermann: US Refugee Assistance Programs
Address by Director of Refugee Programs Warren Zimmermann, Washington, DC, October 30, 1992. I am relatively new to the refugee field, having assumed the directorship of the Bureau for Refugee Programs only last June. In my previous assignment as ambassador to Yugoslavia, however, I had ample opportunity to witness the tragedy of people driven from their homes by persecution and violence. No single issue will challenge us more in the post-Cold War world than the problems of refugees and displaced people. The crises in Yugoslavia and Somalia are symbolic of the new world we have entered--a world where nationalism and ethnic and tribal conflict are no longer held in check by superpower involvement. On the positive side, the end of East-West tension has produced political settlements which should allow millions to return to their homes. For those of us in the State Department who work on refugee programs, this is, thus, a time when both the opportunities and the needs are great. New demands for humanitarian assistance, often in countries where we least expected them, are growing exponentially. But the other side of the equation--our support for voluntary repatriation programs under the auspices of the United Nations--is extremely encouraging. Four major repatriations are currently underway. -- More than 1 million Afghans in Pakistan have already returned to their country, following the fall of the Najibullah regime last spring. -- More than 30,000 Vietnamese have voluntarily returned home, and UNHCR [UN High Commissioner for Refugees] monitors have found no evidence of persecution of returnees to Vietnam. -- In Cambodia, 160,000 people have gone home, and UNHCR expects that nearly all Cambodians in Thailand will repatriate by March or April at the latest, in time for next spring's elections. -- And in Angola, 80,000 refugees have already repatriated spontaneously from Zaire. The United States has contributed $14 million to UNHCR's logistics program for the return of 220,000 Angolan refugees. In addition, in Central America, there is new hope that the 40,000 to 45,000 Guatemalan refugees in Mexico will begin the process of return as a result of the recent agreement between the Government of Guatemala and refugee representatives. Repatriation to Nicaragua and El Salvador from Central American countries is essentially complete. As we structure our assistance priorities in the coming years, we will be grappling with these contrasting "good news, bad news" perspectives on refugee issues. On the one hand, we are devoting more of our resources to repatriation and building solutions for future returns of refugees in safety and dignity. On the other hand, we are being increasingly drawn into assistance programs in conflict situations through the growing emphasis in the United Nations on "humanitarian intervention," that is, the effort to ameliorate or terminate the conditions that create or threaten to create refugees. For FY 1993, the Bureau for Refugee Programs has budgeted more than $320 million for international assistance. Of necessity, many of our resources will go toward meeting humanitarian needs related to the crises in the former Yugoslavia and Somalia. We also plan to allocate a major portion of our assistance funds to support repatriation programs. Yet even as repatriation moves forward, the need for major relief efforts to assist refugees in their countries of first asylum continues to grow. One population of refugees which is of great concern to the United States is the more than 260,000 Burmese Muslims--known as Rohingyas--in Bangladesh. In the past 2 years, the Rohingyas have fled to Bangladesh as a result of human rights abuses by the Burmese military. The Governments of Bangladesh and Burma have reached agreement on a program for the Rohingyas' voluntary repatriation. Any return program for the Rohingyas must, however, include UNHCR monitoring. In Africa, the United States is caring for refugees throughout the continent with our contributions to international organizations. Relief operations in this region, however, are often extremely complex. Security problems-- today most notably in Somalia but also a factor in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Liberia --impede the ability of the international community to deliver assistance. The United States has been in the forefront of the effort to combat the ongoing tragedy in Somalia. The United States has contributed $150 mil- lion in assistance, and our military aircraft are flying in food daily. Although great strides are being made in increasing food deliveries to Somalia, the continuing flight into Kenya of 400 to 600 refugees per day, as well as continued high death rates in Somalia itself, show that the international community has not yet turned the corner on the secure delivery of adequate relief supplies. While there has been a great deal of focus on the situation inside Somalia, the plight of the more than 800,000 Somalis outside their country catches the media's attention less. In FY 1992, we provided more than $23 million to assist Somali refugees who have fled their country's chaos. Much of this funding went to meet the needs of the Somalis in Kenya. This past summer, I visited refugee camps in Kenya and met with [Kenyan] President Moi to urge him to continue to grant asylum to Somalis and others and to work with UNHCR in designating new, secure sites to house additional refugees. Another area of concern is the Sudan. Some experts have estimated that Sudan is only about 6 months away from hunger on the scale of the current crisis in Somalia. It is imperative that the international community be able to act now, with large-scale feeding programs for those Sudanese in danger before they reach the point of no return. Tragically, the warring parties continue to stymie our relief efforts in Sudan. Mozambicans, both those remaining in the country and those refugees living outside it, are also facing the possibility of starvation because of conflict and drought in Southern Africa. The new peace agreement paves the way for expanded relief operations in the country and gives us hope that the 1.5 million Mozambican refugees who are sheltered in neighboring countries may soon be able to return. Unfortunately, drought-related migration will complicate the repatriation process; if relief does not reach the drought- affected population, UNHCR fears that hundreds of thousands more could leave Mozambique in search of food and water. I would also like to mention the anarchy in Liberia. More than 600,000 Liberians have been driven into neighboring countries since civil unrest broke out in 1989. Fighting has recently resumed outside Monrovia, forcing even more Liberians from their homes. The international relief community has been working hard to meet their needs, both inside and outside Liberia. The crisis in the former Yugoslavia has returned the continent of Europe to the refugee map for the first time since World War II. The United States has already given more than $100 million in cash and in-kind contributions to assist people affected by the conflict in the former Yugoslavia. In addition, Congress has earmarked $55 million for FY 1993--$35 million to aid refugees in Bosnia, Croatia, and Slovenia and $20 million for USAID funds for private voluntary organizations working in the region. Looking further east, we see troubling signs that significant new refugee populations are being created by conflicts breaking out across the former Soviet Union. The magnitude of the population movements that have already taken place is striking. More than 500,000 people in Nagorno-Karabakh, 250,000 people in Tajikistan, 100,000 people in Georgia, and 100,000 people in Moldova have become refugees or been displaced as a result of armed conflict. There are also more than 400,000 registered refugees on Russian soil. The United States has contributed $7 million over the past year to refugees, conflict victims, and other vulnerable groups in the Caucasus region. In coordination with UNHCR and the International Organization for Migration, the United States is supporting programs to build the capacity of national institutions to handle movements of refugees and displaced persons. We think it is particularly important to encourage the development of private voluntary agencies to complement the relief and resettlement activities of these governments. Last year, for the first time, the Bureau for Refugee Programs began to provide assistance in the refugee and migration field to Eastern Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union. Finally, on the admissions side, the United States is continuing to respond to the large number of applications for resettlement from Vietnam and the countries of the former Soviet Union. In addition to these populations, the US admissions program focuses on persons of special humanitarian concern to the United States, for whom repatriation or local integration is not an option. We adapt to new refugee populations as they develop, for example, by expanding our admissions processing capability in Kenya in response to the outflows of Somalis. Our projected 1993 refugee admissions of 122,000 are broken down as follows: -- 52,000 from East Asia, including Amerasian immigrants; -- 50,000 from the former Soviet Union and 1,500 from Eastern Europe; -- 7,000 from Africa; -- 7,000 from the Near East and South Asia; -- 3,500 from Latin America and the Caribbean; and -- 1,000 unallocated slots to be used if needs arise. In addition, we will be taking up to another 10,000 admissions funded by the private sector. Bear in mind that although the United States accepts more refugees for resettlement than any other country, the number of refugees we resettle in the United States annually is only a very small percentage of the total number of refugees receiving protection in countries of first asylum. Our tradition of welcoming large numbers of refugees--nearly 1.7 million since 1975--and fully integrating them into American life is part of what we are commemorating here today. Our policy of offering "outsiders" the right to become equal members of our political and social life is an important part of what we stand for as a nation and a people. (###)