US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 3, No 47, November 23, 1992


Status of Iraqi Compliance With UN Resolutions

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Text of a letter from the President to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 16 199211/16/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq Subject: Military Affairs, United Nations [TEXT] Dear Mr. Speaker: (Dear Mr. President:) Consistent with the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution (Public Law 102-1), and as part of my continuing effort to keep Congress fully informed, I am again reporting on the status of efforts to obtain Iraq's compliance with the resolutions adopted by the U.N. Security Council. In my report of September 16, 1992, I described Operation Southern Watch, with its accompanying "no-fly zone." Operation Southern Watch implements Security Council Resolution 688, which requires Iraq to end the repression of its civilian population immediately, allow immediate access by international humanitarian organizations to all parts of Iraq, and make available all facilities for the operation of these organizations. Southern Watch has been working extremely well. Iraq's use of aircraft to repress its civilian population, in particular Iraq's bombing of its citizens in and around the southern marsh areas, has stopped. There have been no major Iraqi military operations south of the 36th parallel since the monitoring zone was announced, nor has there been any major increase in Iraqi forces in the southern region. Some Iraqi repression of the civilian population in the region continues, however. Meanwhile, the Coalition's effort to ensure compliance with Resolution 688 in northern Iraq, Operation Provide Comfort, also continues to discourage major Iraqi military operations against the inhabitants of northern Iraq. Since my previous report, the Iraqi opposition has held two meetings in northern Iraq to broaden the base of the Iraq National Congress (INC). We support the efforts of the INC to rally Iraqis against the Saddam regime and in favor of a future Iraq based on the principles of political pluralism, territorial unity, and full compliance with all the U.N. Security Council resolutions. We encourage other governments to do the same. Moreover, the U.N. Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have continued to investigate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction program and to verify the destruction of relevant facilities, equipment, and weapons. The fourteenth ballistic missile inspection team, UNSCOM 45, October 16- 29, was the largest and most complex inspection UNSCOM has conducted. It inspected declared and undeclared facilities associated with the manufacture and storage of ballistic missile fuels in an effort to learn whether Iraq is attempting to maintain a clandestine SCUD force. Initial fuel sample analyses were inconclusive. The team found little evidence of SCUD missile activity at any site. Russian cooperation was essential to this inspection, which depended heavily on both information and technical assistance from Russian experts. A nuclear inspection team, UNSCOM 46/IAEA 15, was in Iraq in early November. Weather permitting, it will have completed water sampling throughout Iraq. Initial results from the first round of water samples taken in early September (and mentioned in my last report) [see Dispatch Vol. 3, No. 38, p. 718] have not revealed evidence of any facility in Iraq producing fissionable fuel. Some new sites likely will be designated for inspection. In late September, the Chemical Destruction Group in residence at the Muthanna State Establishment destroyed the following items: 120 122mm rocket warheads; 350 122mm propellant grain; 153 122mm rocket motor tube assembly; 1335 liters of nerve agent (GB/GF); 13 al Hussein warheads; 228 liters of isopropyl alcohol; 4 500 gauge oil-filled bombs; 2 155mm oil- filled projectiles; 4250 gauge oil-filled bombs; and 14 R400 aerial bombs. Destruction activity will continue for the next twelve months. The inspectors continue to be subjected to harassment, but harassment subsided to a low level after the strong international protests in response to Iraq's actions in August and September. UNSCOM continues to face a shortage of funds. As I noted in my previous report, the United States has contributed over $40 million to UNSCOM since its inception. Recent pledges from two other countries exceed $40 million, but the funds have not reached UNSCOM. On October 2, the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 778 [see Dispatch Vol. 3, No. 40, 750], which permits the use of a portion of frozen Iraqi oil assets to fund crucial U.N. activities concerning Iraq, including UNSCOM, humanitarian relief, and the Compensation Commission. On October 21, I signed Executive Order No. 12817, which implements that Resolution in the United States. We are prepared to transfer up to $200 million in frozen Iraqi oil assets held in U.S. financial institutions, provided that U.S. contributions do not exceed 50% of the total amount contributed. These funds will be repaid, with interest, from Iraqi oil revenues as soon as Iraqi oil exports resume. The Iraq-Kuwait Boundary Demarcation Commission continues its work, without Iraqi participation. The land boundary is expected to be completely demarcated through the placement of boundary pillars in the ground by the end of the year. During its seventh session October 12-16, the Commission considered the offshore boundary section, which it will take up again at its next meeting, tentatively scheduled for December. The U.N. Compensation Commission has continued to prepare for the processing of claims from individuals, corporations, other entities, governments, and international organizations that suffered direct loss or damage as a result of Iraq's unlawful invasion and occupation of Kuwait. The next session of the Governing Council of the Commission is scheduled in Geneva December 14-18, with a further meeting in March 1993. At its latest session September 21-24, the Governing Council adopted decisions on extending the filing deadlines for certain types of claims (including claims for environmental damage) and on protection against multiple recovery. The Council discussed business losses, interest, and costs, without making decisions. The Executive Secretary reported that the Commission already has received over 150,000 claims and expects many times that number. He noted that the Commission will require at least $9 million in one-time expenditures, plus $1.2 million annually, for a computer system for processing and verifying such a large number of claims. We plan to meet some of the Commission's needs with funds derived from frozen Iraqi oil assets. Thirty percent of the funds derived from frozen oil assets transferred under U.N. Security Council Resolution 778 are to go to the Compensation Fund. This should generate sufficient funding for the Commission to proceed with its permanent computer system and to begin processing claims. Meanwhile, the Department of State has distributed the forms for claims by governments (Form F) to federal agencies and state governments. On September 23, the U.S. Government filed its second set of 180 consolidated individual claims with the Commission, bringing the total of U.S. claims filed to 380. The Department is reviewing about 1200 additional claims received from individuals and is now receiving claims from corporations. The next filing is scheduled for December. In accordance with paragraph 20 of Resolution 687, the Sanctions Committee has received notices of approximately 3.1 million tons of foodstuffs to be shipped to Iraq thus far in 1992. The Sanctions Committee also continues to consider and, when appropriate, approve requests to send to Iraq materials and supplies for essential civilian needs. Iraq, in contrast, has for months maintained a full embargo against its northern provinces. Iraq has also refused to utilize the opportunity under Resolutions 706 and 712 to sell $1.6 billion in oil, proceeds from which could be used by Iraq under U.N. supervision to purchase foodstuffs, medicines, materials, and supplies for essential civilian needs of its population. The Iraqi authorities bear full responsibility for any suffering in Iraq that results from their refusal to implement Resolutions 706 and 712. Through the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the United States, Kuwait, and other Coalition members continue to press the Government of Iraq to comply with its obligations under Security Council resolutions to return some 800 detained Kuwaiti and third-country nationals. Likewise, the United States and its allies continue to press the Government of Iraq to return to Kuwait all property and equipment removed from Kuwait by Iraq. Iraq continues to withhold necessary cooperation on these issues and to resist unqualified ICRC access to detention facilities in Iraq. As I stated in previous reports, in concert with our Coalition partners, we will continue to monitor carefully the treatment of Iraq's citizens, and together we remain prepared to take appropriate steps if the situation requires. To this end, we will continue to maintain an appropriate level of forces in the region for as long as required by the situation in Iraq. I remain grateful for the support of the Congress for these efforts, and look forward to continued cooperation toward achieving our mutual objectives. Sincerely, George Bush (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 47, November 23, 1992 Title:

UN Security Council Resolution 787 On the Former Yugoslavia

UN Source: Security Council, United Nations Description: New York City, New York Date: Nov, 16 199211/16/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq Subject: Military Affairs, United Nations [TEXT] Resolution 787 (November 16, 1992) The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolution 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991 and all subsequent relevant resolutions, Reaffirming its determination that the situation in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina constitutes a threat to the peace, and reaffirming that the provision of humanitarian assistance in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is an important element in the Security Council's effort to restore peace and security in the region, Deeply concerned at the threats to the territorial integrity of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which, as a State Member of the United Nations, enjoys the rights provided for in the Charter of the United Nations, Reaffirming also its full support for the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia as the framework within which an overall political settle-ment of the crisis in the former Yugoslavia may be achieved, and for the work of the Co-Chairmen of the Steering Committee of the Conference, Recalling the decision by the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia to examine the possibility of promoting safe areas for humanitarian purposes, Recalling the commitments entered into by the parties and others concerned within the framework of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia, Reiterating its call on all parties and others concerned to cooperate fully with the Co-Chairmen of the Steering Committee, Noting the progress made so far within the framework of the International Conference, including the Joint Declarations signed at Geneva on 30 September 19921 and 20 October 19922 by the Presidents of the Republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); the Joint Statement made at Geneva on 19 October 1992 by the Presidents of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro);3 the Joint Communique issued on 1 November 1992 at Zagreb by the Presidents of the Republic of Croatia and the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina;4 the establishment of the Mixed Military Working Group in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; and the production of a draft outline constitution for the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina,5 Noting with grave concern the report of the Special Rapporteur ap-pointed following a special session of the Commission on Human Rights to investigate the human rights situation in the former Yugoslavia, which makes clear that massive and systematic violations of human rights and grave violations of international humanitarian law continue in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Welcoming the deployment of additional elements of the United Nations Protection Force for the protection of humanitarian activities in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in accordance with its resolution 776 (1992) of 14 September 1992, Deeply concerned about reports of continuing violations of the embargo imposed by its resolutions 713 (1991) and 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, Deeply concerned also about reports of violations of the measures imposed by its resolution 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, 1. Calls upon the parties in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to consider the draft outline constitution as a basis for negotiating a political settlement of the conflict in that country and to continue negotiations for constitutional arrangements on the basis of the draft outline, under the auspices of the Co-Chairmen of the Steering Committee, these negotiations to be held in continuous and uninterrupted session; 2. Reaffirms that any taking of territory by force or any practice of "ethnic cleansing" is unlawful and unacceptable, and will not be permitted to affect the outcome of the negotiations on constitutional arrangements for the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and insists that all displaced persons be enabled to return in peace to their former homes; 3. Strongly reaffirms its call on all parties and others concerned to respect strictly the territorial integrity of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and affirms that any entities unilaterally declared or arrangements imposed in contravention thereof will not be accepted; 4. Condemns the refusal of all parties in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in particular the Bosnian Serb paramilitary forces, to comply with its previous resolutions, and demands that they and all other concerned parties in the former Yugoslavia fulfil immediately their obligations under those resolutions; 5. Demands that all forms of interference from outside the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including infiltration into the country of irregular units and personnel, cease immediately, and reaffirms its determination to take measures against all parties and other concerned which fail to fulfil the requirements of resolution 752 (1992) and its other relevant resolutions, including the requirement that all forces, in particular elements of the Croatian army, be withdrawn, or be subject to the authority of the Government of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, or be disbanded or disarmed; 6. Calls upon all parties in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to fulfil their commitments to put into effect an immediate cessation of hostilities and to negotiate in the Mixed Military Working Group, continuously and in uninterrupted session, to end the blockades of Sarajevo and other towns and to demilitarize them, with heavy weapons under international supervision; 7. Condemns all violations of international humanitarian law, including in particular the practice of "ethnic cleansing" and the deliberate impeding of the delivery of food and medical supplies to the civilian population of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and reaffirms that those that commit or order the commission of such acts will be held individually responsible in respect of such acts; 8. Welcomes the establishment of the Commission of Experts provided for in paragraph 2 of its resolution 780 (1992) of 6 October 1992, and requests the Commission to pursue actively its investigations with regard to grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, in particular the practice of "ethnic cleansing"; 9. Decides, acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, in order to ensure that commodities and products transships through the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) are not diverted in violation of resolution 757 (1992), to prohibit the transshipment of crude oil, petroleum products, coal, energy-related equipment, iron, steel, other metals, chemicals, rubber, tyres, vehicles, aircraft and motors of all types unless such transshipment is specifically authorised on a case-by-case basis by the Committee established by resolution 724 (1991) under its no- objection procedure; 10. Further decides, acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, that any vessel in which a majority or controlling interest is held by a person or undertaking in or operating from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) shall be considered, for the purpose of implementation of the relevant resolutions of the Security Council, a vessel of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) regardless of the flag under which the vessel sails; 11. Calls upon all States to take all necessary steps to ensure that none of their exports are diverted to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) in violation of resolution 757 (1992); 12. Acting under Chapters VII and VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, calls upon States, acting nationally or through regional agencies or arrangements, to use such measures commensurate with the specific circumstances as may be necessary under the authority of the Security Council to halt all inward and outward maritime shipping in order to inspect and verify their cargoes and destinations and to ensure strict implementation of the provisions of resolutions 713 (1991) and 757 (1992); 13. Commends the efforts of those riparian States which are acting to ensure compliance with resolutions 713 (1991) and 757 (1992) with respect to shipments on the Danube, and reaffirms the responsibility of riparian States to take necessary measures to ensure that shipping on the Danube is in accordance with resolutions 713 (1991) and 757 (1992), including such measures commensurate with the specific circumstances as may be necessary to halt such shipping in order to inspect and verify their cargoes and destinations and to ensure strict implementation of the provisions of resolutions 713 (1991) and 757 (1992); 14. Requests the States concerned, nationally or through regional agencies or arrangements, to coordinate with the Secretary-General inter alia on the submission of reports to the Security Council regarding actions taken in pursuance of paragraphs 12 and 13 of the present resolution to facilitate the monitoring of the implementation of the present resolution; 15. Requests all States to provide in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations such assistance as may be required by those States acting nationally or through regional agencies and arrangements in pursuance of paragraphs 12 and 13 of the present resolution; 16. Considers that, in order to facilitate the implementation of the relevant Security Council resolutions, observers should be deployed on the borders of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and requests the Secretary-General to present to the Council as soon as possible his recommendations on this matter; 17. Calls upon all international donors to contribute to the humanitarian relief efforts in the former Yugoslavia, to support the United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Programme of Action and Appeal for the former Yugoslavia and to speed up the delivery of assistance under existing pledges; 18. Calls upon all parties and others concerned to cooperate fully with the humanitarian agencies and with the United Nations Protection Force to ensure the safe delivery of humanitarian assistance to those in need of it, and reiterates its demand that all parties and others concerned take the necessary measures to ensure the safety of United Nations and other personnel engaged in the delivery of humanitarian assistance; 19. Invites the Secretary-General, in consultation with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other relevant international humanitarian agencies, to study the possibility of and the requirements for the promotion of safe areas for humanitarian purposes; 20. Expresses its appreciation for the report presented to the Council by the Co-Chairmen of the Steering Committee of the International Conference on the former Yugoslavia, and requests the Secretary-General to continue to keep the Council regularly informed of developments and of the work of the Conference; 21. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter until a peaceful solution is achieved. VOTE: 13-0-2 (China, Zimbabwe abstaining) 1S/24476, annex. 2S/24704, annex. 3S/24702, annex. 4S/24748, annex. 5S/24795, annex VII (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 47, November 23, 1992 Title:

Human Rights Situation In Cameroon

Boucher Source: Richard Boucher, State Department Spokesman Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 13 199211/13/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Cameroon Subject: Human Rights, Democratization [TEXT] The United States has consistently supported the democratization process in Cameroon. It, therefore, notes with concern that, following the seriously flawed October 11 presidential election, the Government of Cameroon has resorted to intimidation to consolidate its position. Through various diplomatic channels, the Government of Cameroon has been fully informed of our concerns. Despite the lack of an imminent threat to national security, the Government of Cameroon has imposed a 3-month state of emergency in the Northwest Province; has detained without charge and reportedly abused numerous opposition supporters and journalists; and has held the President's main rival under virtual house arrest since October 25. Such actions are not conducive to a genuine democratic process or to the dialogue which Cameroonians so urgently need in order to address their country's profound social and economic challenges and to realize its great potential. All individuals responsible for acts of violence or the destruction of property following the election, regardless of who they are, should be formally charged; all others should be released. In addition, the Government of Cameroon should immediately lift the state of emergency in the Northwest Province as a signal that reconciliation, not punishment, now tops its agenda. We call on all of the parties concerned to refrain from the use or threat of violence and to find a mutually acceptable solution to this problem which is consistent with democratic principles and procedures.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 47, November 23, 1992 Title:

Partial Suspension of Aid to Togo

Boucher Source: Richard Boucher, State Department Spokesman Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 13 199211/13/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Togo Subject: Development/Relief Aid, Democratization [TEXT] The United States has consistently supported a transition to democracy in Togo and is opposed to actions by members of the military and others in Togo which threaten to derail the transition process. The events of October 22--when members of the transitional High Council of the Republic were held hostage and physically abused by soldiers--are only one of a series of actions which have disrupted the democratic process through intimidation and fear. Disagreements over technical issues also threaten to delay indefinitely the election schedule. The United States wishes to encourage Togo's transition to democracy. As an expression of our disappointment over the way that transition process is being frustrated and delayed, we are suspending the disbursements under a $19-million aid project to the Government of Togo. In addition, we are canceling visits by US defense attaches and other military officials to Togo and continuing the suspension of military training under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program. These programs will remain suspended until it becomes clear that democratization is under way in Togo. Free and fair elections will be indications of such progress. We ask Togo's highest authorities to ensure that Togo moves forward promptly toward peaceful elections without further intimidation of its people or its institutions.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 47, November 23, 1992 Title:

Guatemala: Human Rights

Boucher Source: Richard Boucher, State Department Spokesman Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 16 199211/16/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Central America Country: Guatemala Subject: Human Rights [TEXT] The Department of State notes that Guatemalan President Serrano and Catholic Church officials met over the weekend to resolve recent differences between the Guatemalan Government and the church concerning the work of the archbishop's Human Rights Office. We welcome this reconciliation and hope [that] it will further strengthen respect for human rights and those who defend human rights in Guatemala, particularly those Guatemalan human rights activists who participated in a human rights conference held in Washington [DC on] November 14-15. We also note with hope the November 15 statement by the conciliator in the Guatemalan peace talks, Monsignor Quezada, that the Guatemalan Government and the URNG [Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union] guerrillas are close to reaching a human rights accord. We urge the parties to do their utmost promptly to conclude an agreement which will further strengthen respect for human rights in Guatemala, help end unnecessary suffering, and be a major step toward a comprehensive and lasting peace accord. US Ambassador to Guatemala Thomas Stroock made the following statement on human rights in Guatemala on November 13: We encourage the Government of Guatemala to continue to address human rights issues and work in a spirit of cooperation with human rights advocates. In particular, we call on the Government of Guatemala to make clear that the human rights activists now attending a conference in Washington [DC] are free to return to Guatemala without fear of retribution. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 47, November 23, 1992 Title:

Feature: The Department Of State Today

PA Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Date: Nov, 23 199211/23/92 Category: Features Region: North America Country: United States Subject: State Department, History [TEXT]
The Role Of Diplomacy
The role of the Department of State today is changing dramatically as it leads the United States toward the global challenges of the 21st century. The sweep of democratic reform throughout the world--especially evident in Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union--has brought the Cold War to an end and led to the beginning of a new world order. Former adversaries in what had been an East-West competition for power and influence are quickly becoming partners in efforts to resolve outstanding regional disputes--such as those in the Middle East and Africa--and to address such transnational issues as environmental pollution, international narcotics trafficking, and terrorism. These changes have carved new professional roles for the State Department. Departmental elements such as the Bureau for International Narcotics Matters, which did not even exist 10 years ago, now command a significant share of State Department resources. Others, such as the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, have become increasingly important as the issues they cover take center stage in the world community. The opening of the former communist countries of Europe to international trade resulted in a groundswell of demand for services from the Department's Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Unfortunately, the increase in violence against diplomats and other Americans who travel the world has required the Department to dramatically upgrade its diplomatic security and counter-terrorism elements. As a result of these new diplomatic challenges, Department of State employees are becoming increasingly specialized. The political challenges of Cold War diplomacy were handled by generalists, who took the same skills from job to job. However, the new focus on technical issues such as the environment and scientific affairs has found a growing number of people with technical and scientific backgrounds working with generalists with training in the "traditional" fields of history, political science, and law. As the United States approaches the year 2000, diplomacy can be characterized more as a "hands-on'' profession and less of an analytical or advisory discipline--a fact reflected in the changing role of the Department of State today.
Foreign Policy Machinery
Executive Branch
The conduct of US foreign relations is centered in the executive branch and has evolved from the constitutional responsibilities of the President. Under the Constitution, the President has the authority to make treaties and appoint diplomatic and consular officials (with the advice and consent of the Senate), to receive foreign emissaries, and to exercise other authority provided by legislation. To assist the President in these duties, Congress created the Department of State in 1789, replacing the Department of Foreign Affairs established in 1781. As head of the Department, the Secretary of State was made the President's principal adviser on foreign affairs and chiefly responsible for US representation abroad. Consular and diplomatic systems also were established; originally separate, they were united in the Foreign Service of the United States in 1924. The current machinery was developed after World War II when US global responsibilities expanded greatly. The Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, and the Treasury acquired new duties in world economic affairs; the Department of Defense (created in 1947) in military aid and cooperation. New agencies were placed under the general direction of the Secretary of State--the United States Information Agency (1953), the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (1961), and the Agency for International Development (1961, to manage the principal foreign aid programs). To assist the President on foreign policy and to coordinate the work of the many agencies involved, Congress passed the National Security Act of 1947 creating the National Security Council (NSC). Chaired by the President, the NSC includes the Vice President and the Secretaries of State and Defense as regular members. Presidents have shaped NSC functions and made use of the position of Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, established in 1951, to suit their own administrative preferences.
The Constitution also gives Congress a role in US foreign policy. As noted, the Senate must provide its advice and consent to treaties and to diplomatic and consular appointments. Other major congressional powers include providing for the common defense and general welfare of the United States, regulating international commerce, and declaring war. Congressional influence on US foreign policy rests in part on legislative control over the federal budget. Congress appropriates the money to support the agencies executing foreign policy and frequently mandates specific foreign affairs actions and sets personnel ceilings for those agencies. In addition, it provides funds to finance US foreign assistance programs carried out by executive agencies, and it legislates in such areas as immigration, foreign trade, and international monetary arrangements. Foreign affairs legislation is guided through Congress by members of the appropriate committees. The most important are the House Foreign Affairs and Senate Foreign Relations Committees and the Armed Services and Appropriations Committees of both Houses. The Secretary of State and other Administration officials consult with and testify frequently before these committees and brief them on foreign policy developments. Members of Congress make periodic trips abroad to inspect US programs and also may serve as delegates to the United Nations and international conferences.
General Organization: In the United States
The Department of State is the primary source of foreign affairs information for the US Government. It provides much of the national security and economic facts available to the government and most of the data on the internal politics of foreign countries. US embassies provide in-depth analyses of the politics, economic trends, and social forces at work in foreign countries. This information goes to some 60 federal agencies concerned with national security, intelligence, economic and commercial matters, and science and technology. As the President's principal adviser in formulating foreign policy, the Secretary of State uses it in making policy recommendations to the President. The State Department, in turn, is responsible for implementing the President's policies.
The Secretary and Principal Aides
The Secretary of State, the President's principal foreign policy adviser, is the ranking member of the cabinet and fourth in line of presidential succession (after the Vice President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the President pro tempore of the Senate). Principal aides are: -- Deputy Secretary of State; -- Under Secretary for Political Affairs; -- Under Secretary for Economic and Agricultural Affairs; -- Under Secretary for International Security Affairs; -- Under Secretary for Management; -- Counselor; and -- Assistant Secretaries of regional and functional bureaus. Other advisers include several ambassadors at large with special assignments (e.g., refugees, nuclear energy, burdensharing, terrorism), the Executive Secretary, the Director of the Policy Planning Staff, and the Chief of Protocol.
Geographic Bureaus
Six geographic bureaus are responsible for US foreign relations in Africa, Europe and Canada, East Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Near East, and South Asia. Assistant Secretaries, who head each bureau, advise the Secretary and guide the operation of the US diplomatic establishments within their regional jurisdiction. They are assisted by Office Directors and country desks who are responsible for interdepartmental coordination and who work closely with US embassies overseas and with foreign embassies in Washington, DC.
Functional Bureaus
Other bureaus have functional responsibilities that cross geographic lines in dealing with matters such as economics, intelligence, or human rights. Bureau of Administration is responsible for administrative support policies, programs, and activities for the Department and overseas posts. These responsibilities include both domestic and foreign building operations; acquisition management; supply and transportation; presidential and vice presidential travel support; overseas schools assistance; establishing allowance rates; and providing translation services and safety, occupational health, and other support services. Additionally, the bureau provides domestic and worldwide information services for the Department, which include providing a secure and reliable global communications network; maintaining the Department's central automated data processing system; managing Department documents; and annually responding to more than 5,000 requests under the Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts. Other services include maintaining the Department's library and overseeing the printing of more than 1 million copies of Department publications per year. Bureau of Consular Affairs assists American citizens traveling or living abroad and issues visas to foreign nationals who wish to visit or reside in the United States (also see "Consular Services"). Through 13 passport agencies in the United States and more than 255 diplomatic and consular posts, about 3.5 million passports are issued each year. Annually, the Citizens Emergency Center in the State Department monitors the cases of an estimated 6,500 Americans arrested in other countries, responds to 200,000 welfare and whereabouts inquiries, repatriates about 1,000 US citizens, assists about 3,000 returnees with family/friend prepaid trust funds, and deals with crises (e.g., hostage-taking) as they occur. Bureau of Diplomatic Security protects US embassies against mob violence, terrorist attacks, electronic surveillance, and unauthorized intrusion; helps Americans living and working overseas to protect themselves against terrorist, espionage, and criminal threats; shares information on terrorist threats and protective techniques with US businesses operating abroad; works with other agencies to foil electronic threats to communications systems; investigates passport and visa fraud; conducts background security investigations on prospective employees and contractors; and protects the Secretary of State and visiting foreign dignitaries. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs deals with issues on energy, international finance, trade, commodities, agriculture, aviation, shipping, foreign investment, intellectual property, and technology transfers . It also assists US businesses with overseas interests. Bureau of Finance and Management Policy provides resource planning direction and assistance, develops annual budget requests to the Office of Management and Budget and Congress, and monitors budget execution. It also provides management analysis, oversees Chief of Mission authority and staffing issues, and implements initiatives affecting the organization and management of the Department. The bureau administers the Department's worldwide financial accounting and disbursement program; provides payroll services, including foreign currency management as well as monitoring accounting, payrolling, and fiscal records; and provides pension services for US citizen Foreign Service employees. Bureau of Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs ensures that human rights conditions in foreign countries are taken into account in the US policy- making process. The bureau submits an annual report to the Congress reviewing human rights practices abroad. Bureau of Intelligence and Research analyzes information from US embassies, other government agencies, and worldwide media to provide the Secretary and other Department decision-makers with finished intelligence in support of the development and execution of US foreign policy. Bureau of International Communications and Information Policy promotes agreement among nations to allow the free flow of information across national frontiers. It represents US interests in several international organizations (International Telecommunication Union and the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization) and actively encourages the US private sector's involvement in promoting a multilateral cooperative approach to global telecommunications. Bureau of International Narcotics Matters works with foreign governments to increase awareness of the importance of narcotics control in multilateral relations. It coordinates efforts with other governments and international organizations to halt the flow of illegal drugs into the United States by providing assistance to foreign governments to eradicate narcotics crops, destroy illicit laboratories, train interdiction personnel, and develop education programs to counter drug abuse among their own populations. Bureau of International Organization Affairs builds the coalitions necessary to advance US policies in the United Nations and its specialized and technical agencies. The scope of interests includes the UN Security Council and the maintenance of international peace and security, and issues such as refugees, human rights, food production, air safety, health, terrorism, and the environment. Bureau of Legislative Affairs serves as the liaison between the State Department and the Congress. Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs melds the new emphasis on environmental issues and science and technology with traditional diplomacy. Experts are concerned with such specialized fields as global climate, environmental pollution, marine conservation, space and advanced technology, nuclear energy, and population. Bureau of Personnel determines employment requirements and administers recruitment, evaluation, assignment, career development, and retirement policies and programs for Civil and Foreign Service employees. Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs advises the Secretary and other Department principals on security and defense issues worldwide, including arms control negotiations, regional security arrangements, security assistance and arms sales programs, technology transfers, and non- proliferation. The bureau also is responsible for licensing and regulating commercial exports of military equipment and services. Bureau of Public Affairs provides information on US foreign policy through publications and electronic dissemination, as well as conferences and briefings. Bureau for Refugee Programs is at the center of a cooperative effort among the State Department, other US Government agencies, private voluntary organizations, and international agencies to assist refugees in first-asylum countries and in their admission to the United States. Other offices in the State Department headed by assistant secretary- level appointees include the Office of the Inspector General, who audits the activities of all elements of the Department; the Foreign Service Institute, which is responsible for all professional and language training for Department personnel; Medical Services, whose doctors and nurses monitor the health and provide medical services to Foreign Service personnel in the United States and abroad; and the Office of the Legal Adviser, which counsels the Secretary and Department on legal considerations involved in foreign policy and administering the Department and Foreign Service.
General Organization: Overseas
US Diplomatic Missions
The United States has diplomatic relations with more than 170 countries and maintains about 270 embassies, consulates, and missions around the world, including the US Mission to the United Nations in New York City and the Permanent US Mission to the Organization of American States in Washington, DC. The US embassy is the basic unit for conducting US diplomacy overseas. It is headed by an Ambassador, who is the personal representative of the President and, as "chief of mission," directs all US programs and personnel (except for non-diplomatic military staff under a US military commander) in the country to which he/she is accredited. The Ambassador's staff normally includes a Deputy Chief of Mission and other Foreign Service Officers responsible for political, economic, consular, press, and administrative matters as well as cultural and educational exchanges. Many embassies also have personnel from the Departments of Commerce, Agriculture, and Defense and representatives from the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the US Information Agency (USIA), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The number of persons assigned to an embassy depends on the size of the foreign country and the depth and breadth of bilateral relations. From the earliest days of its diplomatic presence abroad, the United States has employed local citizens to perform many administrative and maintenance tasks. These Foreign Service nationals (FSNs) provide continuity for the transient American staff. FSNs have language and cultural expertise, and the costs of employing them are far less than those incurred by moving an American citizen temporarily into a country. The 9,000 FSNs around the world are cultural assistants, consular and press aides, economic analysts, secretaries, receptionists, telephone operators, drivers, and cleaning crews. Because of the national security aspects of diplomacy, FSNs do not occupy decision-making or managerial positions. A US consulate is located in many cities outside the capital. The staff is under the direction of the Ambassador and performs consular duties and provides the embassy with economic and political reporting. Consular officers at a US diplomatic post abroad are the State Department employees that American citizens overseas are most likely to meet. They are the key players involved in the protection of millions of Americans living and traveling abroad. Every year, about 2 million US citizens need emergency help--consular officers help transfer personal funds to those in financial difficulty, search for missing Americans, issue travel advisories, visit those in prison, assist hospitalized Americans, re-issue lost or stolen passports, and assist next of kin in the United States when relatives die abroad. They also perform non-emergency services--dispense information on absentee voting, international parental kidnaping and child custody, selective service registration, and acquisition and loss of US citizenship; provide US tax forms; notarize documents; and process estate and property claims. US consular officers issue about 6 million visas to foreign nationals who wish to visit the United States and almost 500,000 immigrant visas to those who wish to reside here permanently. In addition, several other US Government agencies make vital contributions to the success of US foreign relations and in promoting US interests abroad.
Authority of US Ambassadors
In a July 1990 letter to all US Ambassadors, the President strengthened their authority overseas. Referring to each as his personal representative, as well as a "partner" in advancing US objectives and interests in helping to shape a freer, more secure, and more prosperous world, he stated that their responsibilities at their respective posts are to: -- Direct all executive branch US offices and personnel (except those under the command of a US area military commander, personnel under the authority of another US diplomatic post, or US personnel detailed to an international organization); -- Maintain security from terrorism; -- Reduce staffing and costs whenever possible; -- Approve every change each agency seeks to make in the size, composition, or mandate of its staffing; -- See all communication to or from the mission, except those specifically excepted by law or executive decision; -- Ensure that ethical conduct is a hallmark of US presence overseas, on and off the job; and -- Ensure fair treatment of all staff members regardless of race, color, creed, sex, or national origin.
Related Agencies
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA)
ACDA's creation in 1961 came on the heels of growing interest in disarmament issues in the United States in the late 1950s. Today, ACDA remains the only independent government agency in the world whose mandate deals solely with arms control and disarmament policies. ACDA manages US participation in negotiations on disarmament and arms control, conducts research, participates in verifying compliance with existing agreements, and disseminates information to the public. ACDA's concerns span the full range of modern weaponry--conventional, nuclear, chemical, and biological. It monitors arms transfers worldwide and engages in international negotiations on nuclear safety. ACDA has led all of the US delegations to what is now known as the Conference on Disarmament, the principal forum for negotiating multilateral arms control agreements. The Limited Test Ban Treaty, the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Seabed Arms Control Treaty, the Biological Weapons Convention, and the Environmental Modification Convention have been negotiated since the establishment of ACDA. In addition, ACDA has actively participated in all major US-Soviet arms negotiations since 1961, such as the Limited Test Ban Treaty, the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), talks on nuclear and space issues, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), and Open Skies.
US Agency for International Development (USAID)
USAID administers US economic and humanitarian assistance in more than 100 countries in Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Near East, and the new independent states of the former Soviet Union. USAID programs concentrate on providing assistance designed to: -- Support economic and political reforms that will generate employment, promote broad-based and environmentally sound economic growth, and encourage political freedom and good governance; -- Invest in human resources development (such as child survival, health, and education), support voluntary family planning programs, and respond to natural and man-made disasters; and -- Strengthen the institutions and infrastructure necessary to expand the production of goods and services. USAID programs advance US foreign policy objectives by promoting democratic values and international cooperation and by helping establish economic conditions for expanding markets for US goods and services in developing countries. USAID funds technical assistance and commodity assistance, trains thousands of foreign students each year at American colleges, and supports development research. USAID also enlists the collaboration of the American for-profit private sector, non-governmental and private organizations, and universities in its programs. USAID assistance programs are administered through overseas missions, which have broad decision-making authority, and through specialized offices in Washington, DC.
US Information Agency (USIA)
The US Information Agency is an independent foreign affairs agency within the executive branch that explains and supports US foreign policy and national security interests abroad through a wide range of information programs. These public diplomacy efforts by USIA promote mutual understanding between the United States and other countries through a series of educational and cultural exchange activities. USIA's programs include the Voice of America, Radio and TV Marti, the WORLDNET satellite television system, the Fulbright scholarship program, the US Speakers Abroad program, the International Visitor program, publications translated in more than 15 languages, three foreign press centers in the United States, and a network of overseas libraries and cultural centers. The agency has more than 200 posts in over 130 countries.
Public Services
Electronic Services
Federal Bulletin Board Service In September 1992, the US Government Printing Office (GPO) began a new service to give the public immediate, self-service access to federal electronic information. The State Department is one of the first participants in the Federal Bulletin Board Service (BBS), along with the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency. The Bureau of Public Affairs provides Dispatch, various Background Notes, and the daily press briefing on BBS. A user with a personal computer, modem, and telecommunications software can access the bulletin board by calling 202-512-1387. Prices are reasonable: the minimum charge per file is $2 (up to 50 kilobytes); a full megabyte file costs $21 (exclusive of telecommunication charges). There is no charge for browsing the list of files or for downloading copies of instructional and product description files. Currently, downloading only is available to users with GPO deposit account numbers, but any user can review free services. To open a deposit account, contact GPO's Office of Electronic Information Dissemination Services at 202-512-1530 (FAX 202- 512-1262). For additional information about GPO's service, contact Shelley Ford or Michael Bright (202-512-1524). Computer Information Delivery Service In 1991, the Bureau of Public Affairs inaugurated the Computer Information Delivery Service (CIDS), which complements traditional methods of printing and distribution. Through CIDS, the State Department electronically transmits US foreign affairs information, such as: -- Transcripts of the daily press briefing; -- Full texts of speeches by the President, the Secretary, and senior Department officials; -- Congressional testimony by the Secretary and senior Department officials; -- Complete texts of the weekly magazine Dispatch; -- Background Notes and Country Profiles on countries and selected international organizations; -- Travel advisories; -- Fact sheets, chronologies; -- Foreign policy summaries (Gist); -- Brief historical studies; and -- Current treaty actions. To obtain an information packet (noting rates, services, contents, etc.), contact the CIDS Message Center at 703-802-5070. CD-ROM In 1993, the Bureau of Public Affairs plans to release a CD-ROM which will include selected material from 1990 to mid-1992. More information will appear in weekly issues of Dispatch upon its release.
General The United States Department of State Dispatch is a weekly magazine produced by the Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs. It chronicles US foreign policy, using major speeches by the President and Secretary of State, congressional testimony by the Secretary and other senior State Department officials, fact sheets and chronologies on international events, analyses of foreign policy issues, maps and profiles of countries in the news, updates on US initiatives on crisis areas, and regular listings of US treaty actions and ambassadorial appointments. It is indexed every 6 months. Dispatch is available only by subscription from either of the following: Superintendent of Documents US Government Printing Office Washington, DC 20402-9371 Tel: 202-783-3238 Fax: 202-512-2233 GPO offers first-class or third-class delivery of Dispatch. Call the number above for prices. National Technical Information Service (NTIS) US Department of Commerce 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Tel: 703-487-4630 Fax: 703-321-8547 NTIS offers first-class and overnight delivery service for Dispatch. Call the number above for prices. Subscriptions to other State Department publications also may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents. All questions concerning availability and price should be directed to the Superintendent of Documents. -- Background Notes are concise pamphlets describing 170 countries (excluding the US) and selected international organizations. -- Diplomatic List is a quarterly accounting of foreign diplomatic representatives in Washington, DC. -- Employees of Diplomatic Missions, issued every 3 months, lists employees of foreign diplomatic missions in Washington, DC, who are not in the Diplomatic List -- Foreign Entry Requirements, updated every year, lists entry (including AIDS testing) and visa requirements for all countries of the world. Available from the Consumer Information Center, Pueblo, CO 81009 for 50. -- Geographic Notes, issued quarterly, offers official updates of changes in foreign geographic names and international boundary designations; analyses of boundary, sovereignty, and territorial disputes; coverage of resource conflicts and environmental issues; reports on political and economic issues; and perspectives on maritime, migration, and refugee issues. -- A Guide to Doing Business With the Department of State identifies procurement opportunities for small, minority, and female-owned firms seeking to do business with the Department. It is issued quarterly, but timing varies. -- Key Officers of Foreign Service Posts: Guide for Business Representatives, issued biannually, lists key officers at Foreign Service posts with whom American business representatives would most likely have contact. -- A Safe Trip Abroad offers precautions one can take to minimize the chances of becoming a victim of terrorism or crime and other safety tips. -- Tips for Americans Residing Abroad offers information for US citizens living abroad on dual citizenship, tax regulations, voting, and other overseas consular services. -- Tips for Travelers to specific countries contains information on currency regulations, customs, and dual nationality. -- Travel Tips for Older Americans contains information on special health, safety, and travel information for older Americans. -- Treaties and Other International Acts, issued irregularly, contains the official and full texts of agreements entered into by the United States with other nations. -- US Department of State Telephone Directory is published three times a year--spring, summer, and fall. -- Your Trip Abroad offers tips on obtaining a passport, things to consider in preparing for your trip, and other resources for travel and customs information. All questions concerning availability and price should be directed to the Superintendent of Documents at the address/telephone given above. Historical The Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, is responsible for researching, compiling, editing, and publishing the foreign affairs documentary record of the United States. It prepares and issues two major documentary series, occasional special documentary volumes, and periodically updated historical reference works. -- Foreign Relations of the United States is the official documentary record of American foreign policy. The most important classified records of the White House, the State Department, and other foreign affairs agencies have been declassified, edited, and published in more than 300 volumes since the series began in 1861. Volumes covering the late 1950s and early 1960s are now being released. -- American Foreign Policy: Current Documents are annual volumes published 1 year after the events. This series covers the years since 1941 and presents a selection of the most important public documents on major foreign policy subjects and geographical areas. The volumes contain principal public foreign policy messages, addresses, statements, interviews, press briefings and conferences, and congressional testimony by executive branch officials. The series also documents public aspects of US bilateral relationships with key foreign nations and US participation in multilateral forums and initiatives. Each volume is arranged chronologically by geographic and topical chapters and includes a table of contents, editorial annotations, lists of documents, names and abbreviations, and an index. Beginning with the year 1981, microfiche supplements have been published. Historical reference works include lists of principal officers of the Department and US Chiefs of Mission from 1776 to 1990; lists of visits of US Presidents and Secretaries of State to foreign countries; and a comprehensive history of the Great Seal of the United States. Tel: 202-663-1122 Fax: 202-663-1289
Public Affairs Bureau Contacts
State/Local Contacts
State, county, and city officials interested in international markets, sister- city relationships, and information to prepare for official trips abroad and to welcome visiting foreign dignitaries or potential investors can obtain assistance from the State Department. The Coordinator for Intergovernmental Affairs arranges meetings with Department experts and contacts US embassies to facilitate travel. Special foreign affairs briefings also are held in the Department for intergovernmental representatives. Coordinator for Inter-governmental Affairs Bureau of Public Affairs US Department of State Washington, DC 20520-6810 Tel: 202-647-7416 Fax: 202-647-5939
Media Contacts
More than 1,500 news correspondents from around the world cover the Department of State; nearly 60 news- gathering agencies have facilities in the State Department building and attend the daily press briefing. The Press Office provides correspondents with information on US foreign policy. Tel: 202-647-2492
Direct Contacts
The Office of Public Liaison assists groups and organizations in arranging the following types of programs with State Department officials. Regional Programs. State Department officials will address meetings and conferences throughout the United States. While the speaker is in the city or area, Regional Program Officers also will schedule additional speaking engagements with universities, civic and foreign policy groups, and set up interviews by local newspapers, radio, and TV stations to maximize use of the speaker's time. Tel: 202-647-2176 Washington Programs. Briefings and conferences emphasizing foreign policy and global economic issues are arranged in the Department for national business organizations and civic leadership groups. In addition, Department officials are available to speak at foreign policy platforms in the metropolitan Washington, DC area. Office of Public Liaison Bureau of Public Affairs US Department of State Washington, DC 20520-6810 Tel: 202-647-1710 Fax: 202-647-1579
Public Information
To request information on foreign affairs or to express an opinion about US foreign policy, call or write the Office of Public Liaison: Public Information Division Office of Public Liaison Bureau of Public Affairs US Department of State Washington, DC 20520-6810 Tel: 202-647-6575
Locator Services
To obtain the office telephone numbers of Department personnel, contact: Tel: 202-647-4000 (See [the] information on purchasing the US Department of State Telephone Directory from the Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office.)
Consular Services
Travel Information
US citizens traveling abroad can obtain information about the health, security, and general travel situation in countries around the world from Consular Information Sheets. Consular Information Sheets contain data on the location of the US embassy or consulate, unusual immigration practices, health concerns, political disturbances, unusual currency and entry regulations, crime and security information, and drug penalties. Contact: Citizens Emergency Center Tel: 202-647-5225 (recorded information) Fax: 202-647-6201 The Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB) enables users to access the Consular Information Sheets described above, as well as information on US citizen passports, visas for foreigners wishing to come to the US, acquisition and loss of US citizenship, international adoptions, and entry requirements for Americans wishing to travel to other countries. Information comes from the Overseas Security Advisory Council's (OSAC) electronic bulletin board, maintained by the Department of State's Bureau of Diplomatic Security. To access CABB from your modem: Tel: 202-647-9225
Emergency Services
For inquiries about the welfare or whereabouts of a US citizen traveling or living abroad, contact the Citizens Emergency Center at the numbers listed above.
US Passports
US passports are issued through passport agencies in Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York City, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Seattle, Stamford, and Washington, DC. Passport applications are accepted at more than 3,500 authorized post offices and clerks of courts across the country. Check your local telephone book listing: "United States Government, Department of State, Passport Agency." Tel: 202-647-0518 (recorded information)
Visa Services
For information on issuing immigrant and non-immigrant US visas to foreign nationals, contact: Visa Services Public Inquiries, VO/P US Department of State Washington, DC 20522-0013 Tel: 202-663-1225 (recorded information)
Citizens Consular Services
For non-emergency consular information involving US citizens abroad other than that described above, contact: Bureau of Consular Affairs US Department of State Washington, DC 20520-4818 Tel: 202-647-3444 Fax: 202-647-6201
Business Affairs
For information on the foreign economic environment and its impact on business and investment opportunities, contact: Office of Commercial, Legislative, and Public Affairs Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs US Department of State Washington, DC 20520-5820 Tel: 202-647-1942 Fax: 202-647-5713
Office of Recruitment, Examination and Employment US Department of State Box 9317 Arlington, VA 22209-0317 Tel: 703-875-7490 (recorded information about the Foreign Service Exam) Tel: 202-647-7284 (recorded information on Civil Service positions in Washington, DC. Programmed to pick up only one call at a time; please dial again.)
Tour Office
Reservations for tours of the 8th floor diplomatic reception rooms. Tel: 202-647-3241
Freedom of Information
Requests for Department of State records must be made in writing. There is a fee for copying documents. Director, Office of Freedom of Information, Privacy, and Classification Review Bureau of Administration US Department of State Washington, DC 20520-1239 Tel: 202-647-8484 Fax: 202-647-7120
Document Authentication
The Department certifies, with the seal of the Department of State, certain documents for use in foreign countries (e.g., certificates of incorporation and powers of attorney for Americans doing business abroad; educational papers such as degrees and transcripts of foreign students returning to their own countries; and papers carrying seals of other federal agencies or the seals of the 50 states). Walk-in Service Monday through Friday, 9-11 am and 2-4 pm (limit of three documents per person per day): 2400 M Street NW, Room 1001 US Department of State Recorded Information: Tel: 202-647-5002 Mailing Address: Document Authentication A/OPR/FMSS/AUTH US Department of State Washington, DC 20520-2815 (###)