US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992

Title:

US-Iranian Transactions

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Text of a letter to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, released by Office of the White House Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 10 199211/10/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq Subject: Trade/Economics [TEXT] Dear Mr. Speaker: (Dear Mr. President:) I hereby report to the Congress on developments since the last Presidential report on May 14, 1992, concerning the national emergency with respect to Iran that was declared in Executive Order No. 12170 of November 14, 1979, and matters relating to Executive Order No. 12613 of October 29, 1987. This report is submitted pursuant to section 204(c) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1703(c), and section 505(c) of the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985, 22 U.S.C. 2349aa-9(c). This report covers events through October 15, 1992. My last report, dated May 14, 1992, covered events through March 31, 1992. 1. There have been no amendments to the Iranian Transactions Regulations ("ITRs"), 31 CFR Part 560, or to the Iranian Assets Control Regulations ("IACRs"), 31 CFR Part 535, since my last report. 2. The Office of Foreign Assets Control ("FAC") of the Department of the Treasury continues to process applications for import licenses under the ITRs. However, as previously reported, recent amendments to the ITRs have resulted in a substantial decrease in the number of applications received relating to the importation of non-fungible Iranian-origin goods. During the reporting period, the Customs Service has continued to effect numerous seizures of Iranian-origin merchandise, primarily carpets, for violation of the import prohibitions of the ITRs. FAC and Customs Service investigations of these violations have resulted in forfeiture actions and the imposition of civil monetary penalties. Additional forfeiture and civil penalty actions are under review. 3. The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal ("the Tribunal"), established at The Hague pursuant to the Algiers Accords, continues to make progress in arbitrating the claims before it. Since my last report, the Tribunal has rendered 5 awards for a total of 533 awards. Of that total, 359 have been awards in favor of American claimants: 217 of these were awards on agreed terms, authorizing and approving payments of settlements negotiated by the parties, and 142 were decisions adjudicated on the merits. The Tribunal has issued 34 decisions dismissing claims on the merits and 81 decisions dismissing claims for jurisdictional reasons. Of the 59 remaining awards, 3 approved the withdrawal of cases, and 56 were in favor of Iranian claimants. As of September 30, 1992, payments on awards to successful American claimants from the Security Ac-count held by the NV Settlements Bank stood at $2,046,090,574.01. As of September 30, 1992, the Security Account has fallen below the required balance of $500 million 35 times. Iran has periodically replenished the account, as required by the Algiers Accords, by transferring funds from the separate account held by the NV Settlement Bank in which interest on the Security Account is deposited. Iran has also replenished the Security Account with the proceeds from the sale of Iranian-origin oil imported into the United States, pursuant to transactions licensed on a case-by-case basis by FAC. Iran has not, however, replenished the account since the last oil sale deposit on December 3, 1991. The aggregate amount that has been transferred from the interest account to the Security Account is $859,472,986.47. As of September 30, 1992, the total amount in the Security Account was $499,528,936.74, and the total amount in the interest account was $17,301,717.98. 4. The Tribunal continues to make progress in the arbitration of claims of U.S. nationals for $250,000.00 or more. Since the last report, 4 large claims have been decided. More than 85 percent of nonbank claims have now been disposed of through adjudication, settlement, or voluntary withdrawal, leaving 85 such claims on the docket. 5. As anticipated by the May 13, 1990, agreement settling the claims of U.S. nationals against Iran for less than $250,000.00, the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission ("FCSC") has continued its review of 3,112 claims. The FCSC has issued decisions in 849 claims, for total awards of more than $17 million. The FCSC expects to complete its adjudication of the remaining claims in late 1993. 6. In coordination with concerned Government agencies, the Department of State continues to present United States Government claims against Iran, as well as responses by the United States Government to claims brought against it by Iran. 7. As anticipated by my last report, the Tribunal terminated Case No. A/15 (I:G), the case brought by Iran concerning bank syndicate claims against Dollar Account No. 1 at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, on June 12, 1992, on the joint request of the two governments. 8. Jose Maria Ruda, President of the Tribunal, tendered his resignation on October 2, 1992. His resignation will take effect on March 31, 1993, or on such later date as his successor becomes available to take up his duties. 9. The situation reviewed above continues to involve important diplomatic, financial, and legal interests of the United States and its nationals, and presents an unusual challenge to the national security and foreign policy of the United States. The IACRs issued pursuant to Executive Order No. 12170 continue to play an important role in structuring our relationship with Iran and in enabling the United States to implement properly the Algiers Accords. Similarly, the ITRs issued pursuant to Executive Order No. 12613 continue to advance important objectives in combatting international terrorism. I shall continue to exercise the powers at my disposal to deal with these problems and will continue to report periodically to the Congress on significant developments. Sincerely, George Bush (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992 Title:

NO TITLE LISTED

Moten Source: Sarah E. Moten, Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Refugee Assistance Description: Address before the Institute of Medicine's annual meeting, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 20 199211/20/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa, Subsaharan Africa, Southeast Asia, South Asia Country: Burma, Bangladesh Subject: Refugees, United Nations [TEXT] It is truly a pleasure for me to be with you today, despite the early hour of the morning. Many thanks to Dr. Cassells and other members of the Committee on Health and Human Rights here at IOM [Institute of Medicine] for putting together the workshop this morning. Although it's almost too early to talk shop, I am always happy to discuss a group of people who are near to my heart: refugee women. From the day I began my tenure in [Department of State's Bureau for] Refugee Programs over 3 years ago, I have tried to be an advocate and a voice for millions of refugee women. I am continually impressed with the power, dignity, and strength that the refugee women I've met on monitoring trips to Africa, South Asia, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia have demonstrated in efforts to empower themselves under very difficult circumstances. The subject chosen for today's panel--gender differences in refugee health- -is certainly timely. Because of the number and scale of emergencies worldwide that have forced individuals, families, and, in some cases, whole communities to flee to safety, I would like to focus on the health needs of refugee women in emergency situations--although please keep in mind that many of the principles that I will discuss with you today go beyond emergencies and should be applied to longer-term refugee assistance programs. I'm sure that you all have been reading the gruesome details of what has happened to the people of the former Yugoslavia and of the conflict and starvation that has devastated Somalia. Hundreds of thousands of refugees have been forced to flee to neighboring countries in the Horn of Africa. I'd like to tell you about a lesser-known refugee emergency. Although it has not graced the front pages of the newspapers for months, it deserves our attention for efforts by the UNHCR [UN High Commissioner for Refugees] and the asylum government to provide appropriate and accessible health care services, particularly to women. Early this year, a flood of approximately 265,000 Rohingya Muslims, many of them women, crossed the Burmese border into Bangladesh to seek refuge from persecution by the Burmese military. Unfortunately, despite efforts by UNHCR, non-governmental organizations, and the Government of Bangladesh to provide health care to the refugees, UNHCR officials learned 3 months into the crisis that twice as many women were dying as men. In contrast, health data collected also indicated that outpatient visits to camp health clinics were much higher for men than for women. Relief officials had not focused on the particular needs of refugee women. Attention to the health needs of refugee women is so important in an emergency situation. Let us return to the Bangladesh example in a few minutes. First, let me tell you about health considerations for refugee women as target beneficiaries. Assistance affects the health of refugee women in a number of ways. Take, for example, food distribution systems. If the food distribution system and the food basket are not constructed with the needs of refugee women in mind, malnutrition can become a serious problem, especially for pregnant or lactating women--particularly since, in many cultures, women are responsible for preparing, cooking, and allocating food in the household. Certain cultural practices, specifically those in which men eat first [and] women eat last, can also be a problem. To mitigate these problems, food rations should be distributed directly to refugee women, who in most societies are responsible for feeding the family. Male food networks have, in too many refugee situations, been responsible for the diversion of food to resistance forces or the black market. The availability, location, and quality of water supplies can also affect the health of refugee women. Contaminated water supplies can lead to a number of water-borne diseases which affect refugee women more than the rest of the refugee community owing to the time they spend gathering water, washing clothes, and bathing children. Water must be conveniently located to minimize the risks taken by refugee women while undertaking daily chores. Water supplies located too far from refugee homes may discourage women from collecting an adequate supply of water for their families or can cause health problems for women who have to carry water for long distances. Finally, the accessibility to health services is especially important for refugee women. Owing to cultural reasons, some women may be reluctant to seek health care from male providers. If the health care services are not easily accessible, women may hesitate before bringing themselves or their children to seek medical attention. Since 80% of the world's refugees are women and children, providing a sufficient number of female health workers, adequate clinic hours, and convenient health services is crucial to the health of the entire refugee family. Another important aspect of health care for refugee women is mental health. Refugee women have often fled unspeakable circumstances in their home countries. Along with traditional health concerns of women, mental health services in refugee camps and settlements need to be established to handle the number of cases of emotional trauma associated with fleeing persecution, social disruption, physical violence, and lack of [a] traditional support system. In short, the full and effective participation of refugee women in food, water, and heath care services is absolutely necessary. Let's return to the Bangladesh example. The Rohingyas fled to Bangladesh for a number of reasons. Religious sites were desecrated, men were taken for forced conscription, and an unusually large number of women reported having been raped. Although, by and large, the refugees report that they left Burma for several reasons, a significant number of families said that they left because the sanctity of the family had been destroyed with the abuse and torture that many women suffered. UNHCR was asked by the Government of Bangladesh in mid-February to assist in coordinating the relief operation to provide aid to the thousands of refugees who were entering Bangladesh each day. After undertaking an initial needs assessment, UNHCR enlisted the support of several international and national non-governmental organizations to implement, among other things, health, nutrition, and sanitation programs. The goal was for UNHCR to bring the international community's attention and resources into Bangladesh, thereby supporting a country which is already overpopulated and has limited resources of its own to contribute. Since we are focusing on health issues in this workshop, I'd like to talk a little bit about the way health care was provided to the Burmese refugee women. When I was in Bangladesh last April, there were approximately 12 refugee camps. (There are a few more now.) In each camp, the Government of Bangladesh's Ministry of Health operated an outpatient health clinic (in some camps, several beds were held for in-patient care) which provided basic curative care--for example, diagnosed ailments, distributed pharmaceuticals, as well as other limited services. In addition, UNHCR assigned at least one non-governmental organization to each camp to fill in the gaps left by the government health care services. At the beginning of the emergency, the non-governmental organizations focused on child immunizations, supplementary feeding, and limited curative services. Some non-governmental organizations had a more community development/primary health care approach. Health care workers made home visits. In Bangladesh, in the early months of the emergency, the primary causes of death were malnutrition, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, and malaria- -all of which are easily treatable and, in most cases, preventable. UNHCR worked to provide adequate food rations to families, widespread immunization of children under 10 years of age, clean and plentiful water supplies, adequate sanitation in the camps, and proper shelter for all refugees. Owing to cultural considerations, women were reluctant to visit clinics staffed primarily by male health workers. The central location of the health facilities in the camps were inappropriate for women whose time was consumed by collecting water, preparing meals, caring for children, and multiple other tasks, particularly for female-headed households. Time was not available to go to the clinic either for treatment or to collect information to prevent disease. UNHCR identified the urgent need for more community-based health care. Preventive and curative health services were expanded rapidly in order to identify ill patients quickly and to provide health education. Satellite health posts were created throughout the camps from which outreach teams would visit sheds and provide routine care and health education. Emphasis was placed on massively increasing the number of female health care workers. The government and non-governmental organizations were encouraged to designate at least 1 day per week for women to seek care and provide maternal/child health care services. Although refugee participation in assistance programs was prohibited by the government, relief officials made a concerted effort to involve refugee women in decision-making, particularly decisions concerning expanded health care facilities. Women were asked why they were reluctant to seek medical attention. Time, distance, and cultural barriers were most often provided as the reason that women were not visiting the clinics in the same numbers as men. Community-based health services were viewed as the answer to decreasing mortality rates for women. To some extent, UNHCR has successfully used this approach to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in the Burmese refugee camps in Bangladesh. But there is at least one lesson to be learned from this emergency. If we knew the characteristics of the refugee population from the needs- assessment stage of the emergency, we would have been better able to provide adequate and appropriate health care services from the beginning. UNHCR's needs- assessment team estimated the demographic breakdown of the refugee population not from concrete information collected from registration forms, independent calculation, or information from camp officials but based on the "typical" refugee population breakdown. Neither the actual demographic breakdown of the population nor cultural considerations were taken into account in [the] programming, budgeting, or planning exercise. It is imperative in any emergency that we know who our target beneficiaries are. In many ways, the relief operation in Bangladesh has been deemed a success, largely owing to the efforts to UNHCR. However, it's disappointing from a donor's point of view that simple programming tools like the demographic breakdown of the refugee population, the early participation of refugee women in the planning of health service programs, or cultural factors gleaned from other refugee situations are still not utilized. For example, from its genesis, UNHCR's programs in Pakistan have used a community outreach program with female health workers. Knowing that the population crossing into Bangladesh was also Muslim, could UNHCR not have implemented a similar program there? While we compliment UNHCR for an aggressive campaign to decentralize the health services and focus on preventive health care in the Burmese refugee camps, there is room for improvement. We hope that for the next emergency, lessons learned can be applied. Thank you very much for inviting me to speak with you today. I've enjoyed it and hope that you have many questions, so that we can talk further about refugee women and health. This is a particularly important issue since the number of emergencies worldwide are increasing and along with them the number of refugees are also growing. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992 Title:

US-Philippines Statement

Phillippines-US Source: Philippines-U.S. Mutual Defense Board in Manila Description: Joint statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 6 199211/6/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: East Asia Country: Philippines Subject: Refugees, United Nations [TEXT] The monthly meeting of the Philippines-United States Mutual Defense Board (MDB) was held today at the Manila Hotel with the U.S. Co-Chairman, Admiral Charles R. Larson, Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (CINCPAC), as host and the Philippine Co-Chairman, General Lisandro C. Abadia, Chief of Staff, AFP (Armed Forces of the Philippines), presiding. The Mutual Defense Board was created on May 15, 1958 under the Council of Foreign Ministers as provided for in the 1951 Mutual Defense Treaty (MDT). By its terms of reference, the Board has served as an effective mechanism for direct liaison and consultation on military matters of mutual concern. Under the MDT and through the MDB process, the two countries have contributed their share in addressing the need for cooperation to promote and maintain peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. The two sides reviewed the profound changes in the world since the end of the cold war. While the threat of great power conflict has receded, the recent crisis in the [Persian] Gulf, the unresolved search for peace in Cambodia, and continuing threats such as international drug trafficking amply demonstrate that diverse challenges to our common security remain. The closure of the last U.S. military facility in the Philippines later this month will mark the beginning of a new era in U.S.-Philippine defense cooperation, one in which U.S. forces will no longer rely on fixed permanent bases in Southeast Asia, but on a variety of cooperation agreements with virtually all countries in the region. In the case of the Philippines, the MDT and MDB are expected to continue to provide an effective framework and forum for coordinating military-to-military activities between the two allies. The Board has likewise established a mechanism for joint/combined training activities, such as the annual "Balikatan Exercise" which enhances interoperability between U.S. and Philippine armed forces. It has, moreover, provided the framework for exchange of information on defense and security interests of the two allies. Through the MDB, U.S. security assistance has been efficiently managed toward the enhancement of the capabilities of the Philippine armed forces. It is anticipated that, in the spirit of mutual cooperation, various programs and projects would include customary ship visits, aircraft transits, and the rendering of assistance by U.S. forces during natural disasters and calamities such as the killer earthquake in northern Luzon, the floods that destroyed much of Ormoc City and the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in recent years. In this morning's meeting, the Board reviewed some recent and on-going activities, including the 1992 "Balikatan Exercise" which was concluded last Friday, October 30, 1992, and the progress of U.S. forces withdrawal from Subic [Bay]. The MDB also discussed its 1993 calendar which will change the format of its monthly meetings to a quarterly basis, as well as U.S. representation on the Board in view of the departure of cognizant American senior officers from the Philippines on November 24, 1992. During the meeting, former members of the Board and standing committees were given appropriate awards. The U.S. side expressed appreciation of the increasing discussion of regional defense and security issues by the ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] countries within the framework of the annual ministerial meetings. The U.S. side believes the Philippines has a positive role to play in maintaining regional security along with its ASEAN neighbors, as well as through participation in U.N. peacekeeping operations such as the current effort to bring about a democratic settlement in Cambodia. The U.S. side also expressed support for [Philippine] President Ramos' efforts at national reconciliation. While in Manila, Admiral Larson paid courtesy calls on Philippine officials, including President Fidel V. Ramos, [Defense] Secretary Renato S. de Villa, [Foreign] Secretary Roberto L. Romulo and General Lisandro C. Abadia. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992 Title:

Third Report on War Crimes In the Former Yugoslavia

PA Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Description: Supplemental United States Submission of Information to the UN Security Council in Accordance with Paragraph 5 of Resolution 771 (1992) and Paragraph 1 of Resolution 780 (1992) Date: Nov, 6 199211/6/92 Category: Reports Region: E/C Europe Country: Yugoslavia (former), Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, POW/MIA Issues, Human Rights [TEXT] Following is the text of the "Supplemental United States Submission of Information to the UN Security Council in Accordance with Paragraph 5 of Resolution 771 (1992) and Paragraph 1 of Resolution 780 (1992)," released on November 6, 1992. For the text of the first two reports, see Dispatch Vol. 3, No. 39, p. 732 and Vol. 3, No. 44, p. 802. For text of Resolution 771, see Dispatch Supplement, Vol. 3, No. 7, p. 44. For text of Resolution 780, see Dispatch Vol. 3, No. 41, p. 769. Editor's note: The following contains graphic descriptions. This is the third submission by the United States Government of information pursuant to paragraph 5 of Security Council resolution 771 (1992) relating to the violations of humanitarian law, including grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, being committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. As in our two previous reports, we have focused on grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and, in accordance with resolution 771, have provided information that is "substantiated", that is, which rests upon eyewitness testimony directly available to us or that includes detail sufficient for corroboration. For the moment, we have also tried not to duplicate information provided to us from other countries and non- governmental sources, which we understand will submit reports pursuant to resolutions 771 and 780. The information provided is intended to be useful to the Commission of Experts established pursuant to Security Council resolution 780. The United States has further substantiating information concerning the incidents included in this report, which we plan to provide directly to the Commission of Experts on a confidential basis. In accordance with paragraph 1 of resolution 780, the United States intends to continue providing reports as additional relevant information comes into our possession. The United States is pleased that the Commission of Experts established pursuant to resolution 780 is ready to begin its work. The United States played a leading role in the adoption of that resolution and stands ready to assist the Commission in its important work of investigating war crimes allegations with the aim of preparing cases suitable for prosecution and, by doing so, of establishing the record of humanitarian offenses in the former Yugoslavia. As in the two previous US reports, the notations at the end of each of the following items indicate the source from which the information was drawn.
Former Yugoslavia: Grave Breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention, Third Submission
Willful Killing
22 Oct: A group of approximately 18 ethnic Muslims was kidnapped near the Serbian town of Priboj on October 22, while traveling on a bus route that took them into territory controlled by Bosnian Serbs. Belgrade newspapers reported on October 23 that the kidnapped Muslims had been killed. A Serb official has admitted that Serb paramilitaries operating in Bosnia basically had free run in the Sjeverin area prior to the police and army intervention after the kidnapping. (Department of State) 24 Sept: Muslims from Kamenica reportedly killed more than 60 Serb civilians and soldiers in Serbian villages near Milici on September 24-26. (Department of State) An American freelance writer reported that he saw the bodies of mutilated and tortured Serbs from the villages of Rogosija and Nedeljiste at the St. Paul and Peter Serbian Orthodox Church in Vlasenica after the lids on about 10 of the coffins were removed by soldiers for viewing. Some bodies were burned to a charcoal, others had fingers cut off on their right hand which the Orthodox use to bless themselves, some were circumcised as a final affront (Serbian Orthodox males in Yugoslavia are not circumcised, whereas Muslims are), some had their eyes gouged out, gaping knife wounds everywhere, and heads were battered beyond recognition, arms and legs broken and severed. (Serbian American Media Center, Chicago) 27 Aug: Bosnian Muslim forces killed at least 20 Serbians after ambushing a convoy of people fleeing the outskirts of Gorazde on August 27. One of the survivors, a 64-year-old Serbian who lost his left leg after he was wounded in the ambush, told a correspondent that about 15-20 Muslim guerrillas had opened fire with automatic weapons beside the road just north of Kukavice. One witness, who lost his 11-year-old son during the ambush, claimed as many as 300 people were killed on the road. (The New York Times, The Daily Telegraph) Jul-Aug: A 21-year-old man reported he had witnessed the killing of 35-year-old Rizo Habibovic in the beginning of July at Omarska camp. Habibovic was kicked and pummeled with sticks and weapons for what seemed more than an hour by guards, two of whom had earlier worked with the witness at IMPRA meat factory. The victim appeared to be still breathing when he was brought back to the "machine hall" with his chest caved in. A doctor tried to help, but Habibovic quickly succumbed. According to this witness, most of the killings at Omarska took place at night at the "machine hall." Men would leave the facility when their names were called out, ostensibly to participate in a prisoner exchange program. Regularly, shots would be heard not long after they left. No one who was called out after 9:00 pm ever came back. He believed their real destination was a mass grave a stone's throw from the machine hall. The man in charge of Omarska camp, according to several witnesses, was a colonel from the JNA [Yugoslav National Army]. He had been stationed in the area long before the breakup of Yugoslavia and was known to many in the population. He wore a white eagle on his cap; his authority over all the other soldiers in the camp was clearly apparent. On August 3, the ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross] came to oversee the closing of the Omarska camp. Shortly before that time, some 1,250 inmates out of about 5,000 were transferred to Manjaca camp. (Department of State) Mid-Aug: An elderly Serbian farmer was arrested in the village of Idbar, near Konjic, on May 9. He reported that he was first taken to the police station in Konjic where he stayed for 21 days. He was then moved 6 kilometers away to Celebici, where he said that all the prisoners were Serbs and all the guards were Muslims. He said that beatings were carried out frequently by guards from outside the area. The prisoners, mostly young men, were beaten with wooden handles of farm tools or with metal rods. He reported having witnessed 15-16 ethnic Serbs beaten so badly that they died. The witness was able to identify the camp commander and the most vicious of the guards. He was released from Celebici on August 20 with all prisoners over the age of 60. (Department of State) 24 Jul: Three male Bosnian Muslims witnessed and survived a mass slaughter at Keraterm camp on July 24, when guards opened fire with automatic rifles on a room packed with prisoners. About 150 men were killed or wounded in this one incident. According to these witnesses: They were locked along with 200-300 men into a single room estimated to be about 80 square meters in size, with a small alcove in the right rear corner. The room had a single window high up in the front wall above a large sheet-metal "garage-type" door with a smaller opening in it. Prisoners received little water or food. The temperature in the room was stifling, the conditions nearly unbearable. On July 24, the prisoners in the room were given some water, but in the words of one of the witnesses, "they put something in the water" and the men "became crazy." Then something was shot through the window which produced smoke and gas. The prisoners began screaming and pounding on the doors; some began to hallucinate and fight each other. Others managed to force a hole in the sheet metal of a door and started to escape the room, but were then killed by guards standing outside. After the disturbance in the room had gone on for some time, the soldiers opened fire with large machine guns. The bullets came right through the sheet metal doors. Those near the door were killed first. One of the witnesses survived because he had been in the back alcove and out of direct line of fire. Another survived when the body of another prisoner fell on him. An estimated 150 men were killed or wounded. On the following day, July 25, soldiers came into the room and chose about 20 of the surviving prisoners, took them outside, lined them up against an outside wall of the room, and shot them. (Department of State) Another Bosnian Muslim from the Prijedor region, interviewed separately, also witnessed the July 24 massacre at Keraterm camp. He said that prisoners were kept in four rooms. He was in room two. Room three was where prisoners were most severely tortured and where the massacre occurred. From a window in room two, he witnessed the changes of the guards and automatic rifle fire. On July 25, guards chose two prisoners each from rooms one and two to remove the dead. These prisoners counted 99 dead and 42 wounded. They were ordered to put the wounded on the same truck as the dead. The truck was labeled Prijedor Autotransport. Neither the wounded nor the driver [was] seen again. Another witness believes the bodies were buried in the village of Tomasica, near Omarska, in an area called Depunija. The witness's uncle watched a truck unload many bodies into a very deep pit and cover them with a large layer of dirt. A few days later, the uncle saw trucks dump animal corpses into the same pit. Another layer of soil was put on top of the animal corpses. (Department of State) 20 Jun: A 69-year-old Muslim farmer from the village of Kamicani was detained by Serbian forces in June, interned briefly at Trnopolje camp, and, around June 20, transferred to Omarska camp. When he arrived at Omarska, guards searched his pockets, confiscating DM 300, and ordered him to find his son. When the witness found and identified his son, an irregular Serbian soldier, who was a former policeman known to the witness, took the son into a garage and ordered him to lie down. The irregular began to beat the son in his father's presence. Later, another prisoner told the witness that the irregular had killed his son, and that he himself had loaded the son's body onto a truck with many other corpses. The bodies were taken to a nearby mineshaft and there covered over by a bulldozer. According to this witness, this same former policeman also had murdered Jasko Hrnic and another person whose last name was Hrnjak. The witness said that the policeman had a gang at Omarska, of which he named three members. (Department of State) 26 May-6 Aug: A 30-year-old Muslim was imprisoned for over 9 weeks at Omarska camp. He had been apprehended by Serbian forces in Prijedor on May 26. His duty was to help transport the bodies of dead prisoners; he helped transport or bury 10-20 persons each day. He estimates having carried 700-800 bodies during his imprisonment and commented that those killed for personal revenge typically were decapitated. The witness lost some relatives during the killings and reported having seen the following: Guards threw prisoners into large bonfires; as they tried to escape, guards shot them in the back. Guards would periodically round up some of the more highly educated and take them to the 'white house,' from which no one emerged alive. He also witnessed guards beating, torturing, or murdering prisoners. Nine of the guards are known to him. (Department of State) May-Aug: A 40-year-old Muslim from Prijedor, who was interned in Omarska camp from May 30 to August 3, described the final ordeal of a Muslim named Emir Karabasic. Emir, who had been tortured regularly, one day returned to the sleeping room with his back severely burned by a guard. Two days later, two Serbian brothers were let into the camp after 5 pm. They had often visited the camp at night. These brothers entered the sleeping quarters carrying pistols and automatic rifles. They called for Emir, Jasmin, and Alic to come forward. The three were beaten with rifle butts and police batons in full view of the other prisoners, including this witness. The brothers forced Alic first to drink a glass of motor oil and then to drink the urine of the other two prisoners. Alic was next beaten until he was unconscious and then revived with cold water. After further beatings, Alic was forced to take his pants off. The brothers then forced Emir and Jasmin to bite off Alic's testicles. Alic died of his wounds that night. According to the witness, these crimes were committed on the shift of the shift leader under whom the most heinous tortures and beatings occurred. (Department of State) May-Jun: About 3,000 men, women, and children were killed during May and June at the Luka-Brcko camp, which held approximately 1,000 civilian internees at any one time. Some 95% were ethnic Muslims, and the remainder were Croatians. Approximately 95% were men. Until May, the bodies were dumped into the Sava River. Thereafter, they were transported to and burned in both the old and the new "kafilerija" factories located in the vicinity of Brcko. All internees in the camp came from within a 14 kilometer radius of Brcko. The first hangar was occupied by Muslims from Brezovo Polje. The Serbian police appeared to have administrative control of the camp. Upon arrival, all internees were questioned by one of three inspectors who decided their fate. For example, if a person was a member of the SDA or HDZ political parties, he was executed at the camp. Other questions included whether the person had foreign currency, gold, or weapons, or if a neighbor might have any of these items. Without a signature from either the police chief at the camp, or one of the military officers, a person could not be released. Approximately 1,000 people were released from the camp when Serbs vouched with their lives--and signed documents to that effect--that the internees would not leave Brcko, discuss politics, or own weapons. These people were all released within a 48-hour period; thereafter, releases were not authorized. One example was an individual who had his ears cut off with a knife by a Specijalci soldier. As he grabbed for his ears in pain, a young woman cut off his genitalia with an instrument called a "spoon." As he fell forward and lay on the ground, he was shot in the head by a guard. In other instances, ears and noses were cut off and eyes gouged out. Knives were used to cut into the skin of internees all the way to the bone; some fingers were cut off entirely. All was done in front of other internees. Beatings with clubs were common. A Specijalci soldier used a wooden club with metal protruding from it to kill several people. He forced internees to lick the blood from the metal studs. Another shot an individual in the back several times after he had carried a dead body behind the third hangar. In June, some 50-60 men had their genitalia removed. Approximately 10-15 Chetniks, Yugoslav Federal Specijalci, and Serbian police were involved during the daily occurrences, but some participated on a more regular basis. Some were drunk. Internees were told to sing. Those who did not sing loud enough were shot point blank. After they had started singing, the men would come in and randomly start shooting. About 50 men, women, and children were killed in one case, allegedly in retaliation for the death of 12 Chetniks who had been killed on the front. This type of shooting occurred on a daily basis with anywhere from 15 to 50 victims. There was also a torture room at the Luka-Brcko camp. Those tortured were either killed immediately after being tortured or were left to bleed and, if they did not die in 2 to 4 days on their own, shot to death. They were left lying in their own blood in the living areas and other internees were not allowed to help in any way. People were beaten with clubs to the point that the bones in their faces caved in, and they died. The internees were then "volunteered" by camp personnel to carry the dead bodies behind their living area or to the camp garbage dump. During the movement of the bodies, additional internees were killed when a camp official took shots at them. Another frequent occurrence was the shooting of internees with three bullets in the back of the head of each victim. This was done at a drain, and the blood was allowed to go down the drain that emptied into the Sava River. Internees carried victims, some still alive, and had to dump their bodies at the camp garbage dump. Internees were sent on a detail to clean the blood from the floor and dump dead bodies outside of a Serbian building in Brcko. A female internee was sexually assaulted by a soldier while her husband and other internees watched. One Chetnik sexually assaulted several women, some as young as 12, in front of internees as Specijalci soldiers held the women to the ground. The same man killed 80-100 people at the camp. Another Chetnik sexually assaulted women and killed internees, in some cases using an axe to the head. The dead bodies of internees from the Brcko camp were burned at the old "kafilerija" factory. The trucks carrying bodies drove into a building that had three industrial-sized cooking vats with furnaces used ordinarily to make animal feed. The bodies were dumped inside the building with the three furnaces, then Chetniks dumped the dead bodies into the furnaces. Before the bodies were dumped, jewelry was removed from them and, in order to remove rings, fingers were cut off. Gold and silver teeth were removed from the bodies as well. Chetniks kicked the jaws of the corpses open to see if they had gold or silver fillings and, if so, removed them with pliers. The transporting of the bodies to be burned began in mid-May. Trucks left every morning at about 4 am. On a typical morning, three trucks left together. One was a civilian refrigerator truck with the dead bodies and three Chetniks in the cabin, the second had 10-12 internees who unloaded the bodies at the factory, and the third had approximately 13 Chetnik guards. After they arrived at the factory and had begun unloading bodies, two or three more refrigerator trucks often arrived with approximately 20 dead bodies transported in each vehicle, perhaps from another location. All the trucks were Yugoslavian-made civilian trucks. (Department of State) 24-26 May: Statements by Muslim refugees, Western aid officials and diplomats, and Serbian police described the May 24-26 "ethnic cleansing" of Kozarac by Bosnian Serb forces. "They were pulling out private entrepreneurs and educated people, anyone who could ever organize any Muslim life in Kozarac again," said a 42-year- old Kozarac resident. A 60-year-old resident said some of the men had been shot on the spot and others taken into a house or a bus shelter where their throats were slit. Still others had been killed as they were put on buses destined for the Omarska, Keraterm, and Trnopolje camps. (The Washington Post) 23 May: Two brothers, a 17-year-old trade school student and a 28-year- old, described how Serb armored units surrounded their village of Rakovcani on May 23 or 25 and marched them to Prijedor, then transported them to the Serb-run Omarska camp. The brothers were reluctant to estimate how many killings they had personally observed that first week, but suggested it was about 50. They saw five of their fellow prisoners stabbed in the face and cut across the throat until their heads were virtually severed. Others had the Serbian (Orthodox) cross carved into their chests or arms. There seemed to be no pattern or particular motive for these attacks or the execution style shootings that were taking place inside the facility. As far as they could determine, the victims were not being interrogated; the violence appeared totally random. At the beginning of June, the brothers were moved to a nearby hall housing many of the machines used for the facility's iron extraction operation. For the remaining two-and-a-half months of their captivity, they were forced to run a gauntlet to a "dining" hall in another part of the camp in order to get their one daily meal of soup and a piece of bread. Each time they did so they were beaten and kicked. Anyone who fell was killed. (Department of State) 21 May: A former employee of the Zvornik medical center reported that he was required to remain on duty in the center from April 8 until his dismissal on May 26. He said that the need for more hospital space for wounded Serbian soldiers eventually led to the mass murder of Muslim patients on May 21. At about 1 pm that day, he watched as 36 remaining Muslim adult patients were forced outside and shot to death on hospital grounds. Shortly thereafter, uniformed and non-uniformed Serbian soldiers moved through the pediatric center breaking the necks and bones of the 27 remaining Muslim children, the only children left as patients in the hospital. Two soldiers forced him to watch for about 15 minutes, during which time about 10 or 15 of the children were slaughtered. Some were infants. The oldest were about 5 years old. The witness said that a Serbian surgeon, who also stood by helplessly, later went insane. (Department of State) Nov 1991: International observers on November 20, 1991, monitored the evacuation of about 420 Croatian patients and 25 hospital staff of the Vukovar hospital in Croatia. A JNA army colonel selected young, lightly- wounded hospitalized soldiers to get on three buses. Each bus had about 60 men aboard, for a total of about 180 men. Two witnesses--both among the "selected"--described how the buses were taken first to JNA barracks for 2 or 3 hours, then taken to Ovcara, where the prisoners were offloaded and taken to a farming equipment storage building. Paramilitary soldiers beat the prisoners at this location with fists, iron bars, and batons as officers watched. Apparently, two men died there from the beatings they received. At about 5 pm on November 20 after it was quite dark, the men were divided into groups of about 20 men, taken outside the barn, and put on a truck. The truck returned empty about every 15 minutes. The truck drove about 3 kilometers southeast of Ovcara towards Grabovo and turned left onto a dirt road. Knowing that this road led to an extremely isolated area, one of the witnesses jumped from the truck and eventually lived to give this account. A member of the team working with UNHRC Special Rapporteur Mazowiecki discovered evidence on October 18-19, 1992, of a mass grave in the area from which this witness had escaped. The Croatian Government claims that 174 people--believed to be buried in this mass grave--have never been found. The team member found skeletons of young adult males in an area of recently disturbed earth and a skull with a gunshot wound exiting from the left temple. (Department of State)
Torture of Prisoners
27 Aug-16 Sept: Four of seven survivors of the August 21 mass murder at Vlasica (reported to the UN in an earlier submission) testified that 18 Muslim male "patients" were interned in the Paprikovac Optical Hospital on the outskirts of Banja Luka. At the time, this hospital was being used as a military hospital by Bosnian Serbian forces in the region. The four subjects had been found wandering separately in the woods several days after the mass murder at Vlasica. Turned over to Serbian military forces, each was brought to Banja Luka where they spent August 24-27 in the surgical hospital before being transferred to the optical hospital across town. All four remained in the optical hospital until September 16. At the optical hospital, the four subjects were in room 11 on the fourth floor of the hospital with six other Muslims. Their door was always locked. The hallway wall of their room was made of translucent glass permitting the guard stationed outside to see inside. Nightly, wounded Serbian soldiers from elsewhere in the hospital, as well as guards, beat them with cable wires and police batons. Each of the four subjects was beaten every day. There were two other rooms accommodating four Muslims each. The prisoners received a slice of bread a day, with some broth. They were given almost no pure water to drink, but they were forced to drink urine regularly. All four had hospital discharge papers that claimed they had been treated for internal injuries and chronic heart diseases. The prisoners, however, said they had never even received so much as an aspirin. (Department of State) Aug-Sept: A fifth survivor of the incident described above, a 16-year-old Muslim student who had been among the several hundred men taken from Trnopolje camp on August 21 on a convoy to Vlasica Mountain, also survived the mass murder of several hundred prisoners. An elderly Serbian man found the youth unconscious some 9 days later at the edge of the village of Vlasica. Two Serbian soldiers took him to the school in the village where they interrogated and beat him. He was then sent to the Paprikovac hospital in Banja Luka, ostensibly to have a broken finger and bruised back examined. The 16-year-old, on being checked into the "hospital", was beaten 20 times on his kidneys by the military police in attendance. During his month in Paprikovac "hospital," he was fed one slice of bread each day, was rarely given pure water to drink, and dropped in weight from 68 to only 50 kilograms. Every morning and evening, the guards forced the prisoners to drink a glass of urine. The youth was able to identify the military commander of the hospital. (Department of State) 21 Jul: A 42-year-old Bosnian Muslim, married to a Serb, was arrested in his apartment in Prijedor on July 21. Civilian police took him in a police car to Omarska, where at the gate to the camp, guards began to beat him. During the beating, one of the guards said, "Don't forget, his wife is a Serb." The prisoner hoped this would cause the guards to go easier on him. Instead, they beat him more violently. Three soldiers beat him for about 10 minutes. The prisoner was then taken to Omarska's "white house." There the guards began beating him and other prisoners, forcing them to lie on the floor and stomping on them with their jackboots. After 2 days without any food, he was taken for "interrogation." He was led to a room in what he thought had been the administration building of the Omarska facility before the war. There were five guards in the room. He was told to kneel on the floor. The guards then circled him, beating him with metal bars and police batons. Twice he lost consciousness and collapsed on the floor. Each time the guards doused him with water, revived him, and continued to beat him. After 2 or 3 more days of beatings, he was transferred from the smaller room in the white house to a larger hall full of prisoners. For 5 days, he was unable to walk and had to lie next to the sinks that were used as toilets. During his 12 days at Omarska, this prisoner received food only once. (Department of State) 26 May-6 Aug: A 30-year-old Muslim was imprisoned for over 9 weeks at Omarska camp. He had been apprehended by Serbian forces in Prijedor on May 26. The witness reported having seen the following: Guards frequently beat people with thick electrical cables, often so badly that they could not stand afterward; in administering these beatings, guards would hit prisoners in specific places on their bodies, often the kidneys, in an effort to rupture important internal organs. Prisoners were forced to run across broken glass in their bare feet; when they fell, guards would beat them with nightsticks and iron bars. As a punishment administered in front of a group of prisoners, a guard cut off the testicles of a prisoner with a knife; one prisoner was forced, under threat of being executed, to bite off the testicles of another prisoner with his teeth. The only water that prisoners had to drink was from a river contaminated by discharges from an iron mine; the water was yellow, the prisoners' urine ran red. (Department of State) 12 May-18 Aug: A 59-year-old retired Serbian was arrested by Croat authorities on May 12 in Mostar along with his son. No reason was given except that they were Serbs. Held at a detention center in Mostar, they were forced to do hard labor, building bunkers and other defensive structures at the airport. Those who could not work or stopped working to rest repeatedly were beaten around the head and kidneys with nightsticks. (Department of State) May-Jun: The Luka-Brcko camp at any one time held about 1,000 civilians, predominately Muslim internees. At one point, approximately 50% of the internees had crosses engraved into their foreheads with knives by Chetniks who gave them Orthodox names such as Alexander. The internees were required to say "I am Alexander." One internee agreed to say "I am Alexander" only after 3 to 4 days of beatings. He was convinced by fellow internees that it was better to say it than to die. This did not happen to Croatians, only Muslims. Also a daily occurrence, a police commander, and other camp personnel came into the hangar with Raki (an alcoholic beverage) and tartan (white pills). An internee had his mouth opened and the police commander forced the Raki and pills into his throat. The police then told the internee to beat with a club everyone in the hangar. He obeyed, and for 1-2 hours beat up his fellow internees in the third hangar until they passed out. Internees lived in one of three hangars: the first, 20 by 28 meters in size, housed 650-700 men; the second, 20 by 40 meters, housed 120-180 men; and the third, 20 by 40 meters, housed approximately 300 men, women, and children. Many killings and tortures occurred in front of internees in the third hangar. There was also one more area where women and children were kept. The second and third hangars were connected by a large door through which people could see each other. Internees in the first hangar slept standing up because of the limited space. In the other two hangars, they were allowed to sit but legs had to remain straight on the ground, all internees had to remain along the wall, and the center area had to be left empty. They were allowed to go to the toilet once a day for no longer than a minute. The toilet was located in another building. In many instances, approximately five 10-liter buckets were placed in each of the hangars and used as toilets. The conditions at the camp were so bad, that some of the internees went crazy. One man rammed his face into a wall, causing it to bleed. In June, goats were placed in the hangars and lived with the internees. The stench inside the hangars was a combination of goats, human excrement, and dead internees placed behind the third hangar. Blood was ankle deep in the area where the bodies were placed. The internees initially each received 50 grams of bread and approximately 0.15 liters of thin bean soup each day. Later, every 10 persons received 800 grams of bread per day, and every two people shared a 0.16-liter portion of bean porridge once a week. The porridge was always spoiled. Still later, 10-12 people shared 800 grams of bread every 4 days. (Department of State) Late May: A 32-year-old Muslim said Serbian irregular forces had entered his village of Donji Garevci in late May 1992 and rounded up all the Muslim men for incarceration. The group was marched to Trnopolje, then bused to Omarska camp. When they arrived at Omarska, they found that the camp was "full," and the group was taken by buses to a converted ceramic tile factory called Keraterm in Prijedor. Guards at Keraterm formed the prisoners into three groups and administered a beating, from which the witness still had a lump on his skull in October. The healthiest looking were beaten most severely. The men were herded into an airless room about 20 x 25 feet. The room held over 200 people. The witness, detained there for 29 days, received one meal a day--usually a few beans and two small slices of stale bread--and lost 17 kilograms during this period. The witness saw and was forced to participate in sadistic brutality. Guards would force the prisoners to run in a circle and kick the person in front of them in the kidneys. Every evening, irregulars came to the room and called out names from a list. These persons were taken to another room and beaten severely. To revive the prisoners from these beatings, guards would urinate on their heads or turn a fire hose on them. The witness was able to identify several of the guards. (Department of State) Early May: A witness described conditions at the five detention centers in Bosanski Samac. The prisoners were Croats, Muslims, and Albanians. According to this personal account, nearly everyone--including women and elderly men--suffered beatings and other forms of torture. The beatings were at the beginning done by special forces. Later the job was taken over by policemen who guarded us. They were local Serbs who carried out their jobs far more brutally than the special units men. They beat us with iron bars, wooden 2x4s and truncheons, iron and rubber devices. The witness reported being prevented from drinking water and from going to the toilet. Prisoners were forced to eat sand, swallow their own feces, and perform sex acts on fellow prisoners. (New York Newsday)
Abuse of Civilians In Detention Centers
Sept: At least 150 Muslim women and teen-age girls--some as young as 14- -who have crossed into Bosnian Government-held areas of Sarajevo in recent weeks are in advanced stages of pregnancy, reportedly after being raped by Serbian nationalist fighters and after being imprisoned for months afterward in an attempt to keep them from terminating their pregnancies. "When we let you go home you'll have to give birth to a Chetnik," Serb fighters supposedly repeated to some of the women. "We won't let you go while you can have an abortion." A 15-year-old Muslim girl told the BBC [British Broadcasting Corporation] on October 1 that she had been seized by Serbian fighters in May in the Serb- held Sarajevo district of Grbavica. She said she had been held in a small room with about 20 other girls where they were ordered to undress. We refused, then they beat us and tore our clothes off. They pushed us on the floor. Two of the men held me down while two others raped me. I shouted at them and tried to fight back but it was no use. As they raped me they said they'd make sure I gave birth to a Serbian baby, and they kept repeating that during the rest of the time that they kept me there. Most of these charges were made by women and girls who said they were attacked in April and May in towns and villages in eastern Bosnia. (The New York Times) May-Aug: A 41-year-old Croatian female from Kozarac, a 40-year-old Muslim male from Prijedor, and a 39-year-old Muslim male were interned for approximately 3-month periods at Omarska camp. All three subjects claim to have witnessed severe beatings, sexual torture, mutilation, and killings. In part because they had spent such long periods in the camp, they were able to identify what they believed to be virtually the entire personnel structure of Omarska camp. Omarska was one of four very large camps in the Prijedor area. It was an aluminum mine before the conflict. The other three camps are Keraterm, Trnopolje, and Manjaca. Civilians were interned at all four camps, while most alleged POWs were sent to Manjaca. Many detainees described Omarska as the worst of the four. Omarska camp was commanded by a retiree from Prijedor. His administrative deputy was a middle-aged woman who kept the camp records, i.e., the payroll ledger of the guards and officers, the guard shift schedule, etc. The commander of security at Omarska (Obezbjedjenja) was a 29-year-old inspector in the Bosnian Serbian police before the war. He came from the village of Petrov Gaj, near Prijedor. Because of his position and the amount of time he spent at the camp, many internees concluded, incorrectly, that he was the overall commander at Omarska. In late May, his deputy was a 30- year-old Serb from the nearby village of Lamovita who had Muslim brothers- in-law whom he tried to hide in his house. When this was discovered, he was replaced. This change of deputies occurred in late June. Omarska camp had three regular guard teams. The teams worked 12-hour shifts, from 7 am to 7 pm. They rotated consecutively. The three shift leaders were named and identified. A 40-year-old policeman from Lamovita was identified as the most brutal of the shift leaders. The most heinous tortures and beatings, and the largest number of deaths, took place during his shifts. A middle-aged waiter who used to work at the Hotel Europa in Omarska before the war was identified as a generally less brutal shift leader. A man in his thirties from the village of Maricki, who was in the police reserve and had worked in the Omarska mine before the war, was identified as less brutal than the former shift leaders. Each shift team was comprised of 15-20 guards. Omarska had various inspectors who regularly interrogated the prisoners. Six of them were named. At least two of the three witnesses personally identified and named 39 Omarska guards. The female witness said 38 women in the camp slept near the commander's headquarters, in rooms 102 and 103. As they tried to sleep, the women heard screams of prisoners being tortured next door, in the "interrogation" room. Each morning the women were awakened at 6 am, and two were chosen randomly to clean the "interrogation" room, which was covered with fresh blood each morning. The women were always hidden from journalists. Omarska had two buildings used exclusively as torture centers, the "white house" and the "red house." Some people returned from the white house, but no one sent to the red house ever came back. Educated internees tended to be sent to the red house. All three witnesses, as well as other detainees from Omarska, said that each day 10 to 15 new corpses lay in the field next to one of the "dormitories." These corpses, as well as others, were driven away by small trucks. The trucks often had blood stains all over them. These witnesses were able to identify at least six of the drivers. (Department of State) 14-15 June: A 32-year-old Muslim auto mechanic was arrested in Hrnici near Trnopolje on June 14 and was locked up at Trnopolje camp with 10 others in what was called the "shock room." He spent 24 hours locked in this room on June 14 and 15 with no food, water, or toilet. Through a window, the detainee saw prison guards bring 12-15 teen-age girls to the camp. The girls struggled to get away from the guards, but none escaped. The girls were forced to enter a building across from his cell. That evening, through the window, he saw a guard rape a young girl next to the Red Cross building at the camp. The witness was able to identify this guard, considered one of the cruelest guards at Trnopolje. (Department of State) May: One of the victims of an earlier reported rape of 40 young women from Brezovo Polje told a reporter in late August that her Serbian abductor had told her: We have orders to rape the girls. I am ashamed to be a Serb. Everything that is going on is a war crime. (New York Newsday)
Deliberate Attacks On Non-Combatants
Oct: By October, five members of the UNPROFOR [UN Protection Force] contingent in Sarajevo had been killed by combatants. In one incident, two French soldiers were killed by fire from Bosnian Government forces, which were engaged in a firefight with Bosnian Serbian forces after a local cease- fire negotiated by UNPROFOR broke down. (Department of State) 13 Aug: American ABC television producer David Kaplan was killed on August 13 by a sniper while traveling in a motorcade in Sarajevo with Prime Minister Milan Panic. He was hit in the back and died at UN headquarters in Sarajevo. (The New York Times, Department of State) July: A CNN [Cable News Network] camerawoman was shot and severely wounded in July by sniper fire in Sarajevo. She is recovering after several operations at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. (The New York Times) 18 May: An ICRC convoy carrying food and medical relief on May 18 was attacked as it entered Sarajevo, despite the security guarantees obtained from the parties concerned. Three ICRC staff members were wounded, and one of them, Frederic Maurice, died the next day in Sarajevo hospital. (ICRC Bulletin No. 197) April: A Belgian member of the EC [European Community] monitoring mission was killed south of Mostar in April, apparently in an attack by SDS forces. (Department of State)
Other, Including Mass Forcible Expulsion and Deportation of Civilians
Note: Given the massive scale of forced exoduses from various regions in the former Yugoslavia, the episodes below were selected only to give an indication of how people have been forced from their homes. 2 Nov: A huge column of 15,000-30,000 Bosnians--mostly Muslims, thousands on foot--fled from Serbian assaults on Jajce and three-way fighting between Serb, Croat, and Bosnian Government forces in the area. (Department of State) 25 Oct: Stores and restaurants were still burning in Prozor on October 29 following a Croatian offensive, in an apparent attempt to overtake western Bosnia-Herzegovina. "Come on boys, let's get the filthy Muslims!" shouted Croatian fighters through megaphones. Croatian Mayor Jozic estimated that six Muslims died and 68 were wounded during the attack, but sources in Sarajevo estimated that at least 300 Muslims were killed or wounded. (The New York Times) 17 Oct: About 1,500 persons from several Croatian and Muslim towns around the city of Kotor Varos, near Banja Luka, surrendered after having been under Serbian attack for 2 weeks and left in an organized evacuation for Travnik. During the night convoy, uncontrolled Serbian militia robbed passengers as international escort volunteers looked on, helpless to prevent it. (Department of State) 26 May: Statements by Muslim refugees, Western aid officials and diplomats, and Serbian police described the May 24-26 "ethnic cleansing" of Kozarac by Bosnian Serb forces. "Muslims get out! Muslims get out!" shouted Serbs during 37 hours of shelling the city. "Surrender and everyone will be safe!" (The Washington Post) 23 May: Two brothers--a 17-year-old trade school student and a 28-year- old--described how Serb armored units surrounded their village of Rakovcani on May 23 or 25 and marched its mostly Muslim inhabitants about 5 kilometers to a soccer stadium in Prijedor. Some 800 Serbs were allowed to remain in the village. After nearly a day at the stadium, they were transported with thousands of men by buses and trucks to the Omarska camp. (Department of State) (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992 Title:

UN Security Council Resolutions On the Former Yugoslavia

UN Source: UN Security Council, United Nations Description: UN Security Council Resolutions 760, 764, and 769, New York City Date: Nov, 16 199211/16/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: E/C Europe Country: Yugoslavia (former), Serbia-Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina Subject: Regional/Civil Unrest, POW/MIA Issues, Human Rights [TEXT] The following UN Security Council Resolutions 760, 764, and 769 were omitted inadvertently from Dispatch Supplement Vol. 3, No. 7, "Material Relating to the London Conference (August 26-27, 1992) and the Crisis in the Former Yugoslavia," September 1992. Resolution 760 (June 18, 1992) The Security Council, Recalling its resolutions 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992 and 758 (1992) of 8 June 1992, and in particular paragraph 7 of resolution 752 (1992), in which it emphasized the urgent need for humanitarian assistance and fully supported the current efforts to deliver humanitarian aid to all the victims of the conflict, Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, Decides that the prohibitions in paragraph 4 (c) of resolution 757 (1992) concerning the sale or supply to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) of commodities or products, other than medical supplies and foodstuffs, and the prohibitions against financial transactions related thereto, contained in resolution 757 (1992) shall not apply, with the approval of the Committee established by resolution 724 (1991) under the simplified and accelerated "no objection" procedure, to commodities and products for essential humanitarian need. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0). Resolution 764 (July 13, 1992) The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolutions 713 (1991) of 25 September 1991, 721 (1991) of 27 November 1991, 724 (1991) of 15 December 1991, 727 (1992) of 8 January 1992, 740 (1992) of 7 February 1992, 743 (1992) of 21 February 1992, 749 (1992) of 7 April 1992, 752 (1992) of 15 May 1992, 757 (1992) of 30 May 1992, 758 (1992) of 8 June 1992, 760 (1992) of 18 June 1992, 761 (1992) of 29 June 1992 and 762 (1992) of 30 June 1992, Noting with appreciation the further report of the Secretary-General (S/24263 and Add.1), Disturbed by the continuing violation of the Sarajevo airport agreement of 5 June 1992, in which the parties agreed, inter alia: -- that all anti-aircraft weapon systems would be withdrawn from position from which they could engage the airport and its air approaches; -- that all artillery, mortar, ground-to-ground missile systems and tanks within the range of the airport would be concentrated in areas agreed by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) and subject to UNPROFOR observation at the firing line; -- to establish security corridors between the airport and the city, under UNPROFOR's control, to ensure the safe movement of humanitarian aid and related personnel; Deeply concerned about the safety of UNPROFOR personnel, Cognizant of the magnificent work being done in Sarajevo by UNPROFOR and its leadership, despite the conditions of great difficulty and danger, Aware of the enormous difficulties in the evacuation by air of cases of special humanitarian concern, Deeply disturbed by the situation which now prevails in Sarajevo and by many reports and indications of deteriorating conditions throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina, Commending the determination and courage of all those who are participating in the humanitarian effort, Deploring the continuation of the fighting in Bosnia and Herzegovina which is rendering difficult the provision of humanitarian assistance in Sarajevo and its environs, as well as in other areas of the Republic, Noting that the reopening of Sarajevo airport for humanitarian purposes constitutes a first step in establishing a security zone encompassing Sarajevo and its airport, Recalling the obligations under international humanitarian law, in particular the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Stressing once again the imperative need to find an urgent negotiated political solution for the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1. Approves the report of the Secretary-General of 10 July 1992 (S/24263); 2. Authorizes the Secretary-General to deploy immediately additional elements of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) to ensure the security and functioning of Sarajevo airport and the delivery of humanitarian assistance, in accordance with paragraph 12 of his report dated 10 July 1992 (S/24263); 3. Reiterates its call on all parties and others concerned to comply fully with the agreement of 5 June 1992, and to cease immediately any hostile military activity in Bosnia and Herzegovina; 4. Commends the untiring efforts and the bravery of UNPROFOR for its role in securing humanitarian relief in Sarajevo and its environs; 5. Demands that all parties and others concerned cooperate fully with UNPROFOR and international humanitarian agencies to facilitate the evacuation by air of cases of special humanitarian concern; 6. Calls on all parties and others concerned to cooperate with UNPROFOR and international humanitarian agencies to facilitate the provision of humanitarian aid to other areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina which remain in desperate need of assistance; 7. Reiterates its demand that all parties and others concerned take the necessary measures to secure the safety of UNPROFOR personnel; 8. Calls again on all parties concerned to resolve their differences through a negotiated political solution to the problems in the region and to that end to cooperate with the renewed efforts of the European Community and its member States, with the support of the States participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), within the framework of the Conference on Yugoslavia, and in particular to respond positively to the invitation of the Chairman of the Conference to talks on 15 July 1992; 9. Requests the Secretary-General to keep close contact with the developments within the framework of the Conference on Yugoslavia and to assist in finding a negotiated political solution for the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina; 10. Reaffirms that all parties are bound to comply with the obligations under international humanitarian law and in particular the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and that persons who commit or order the commission of grave breaches of the Conventions are individually responsible in respect of such breaches; 11. Requests the Secretary-General to keep under continuous review any further measure that may be required to ensure unimpeded delivery of humanitarian assistance; 12. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0). Resolution 769 (August 7, 1992) The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolution 743 (1992) and all subsequent resolutions relating to the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), Having examined the report of the Secretary-General of 27 July 1992 (S/24353 and Add.1) in which the Secretary-General recommended certain enlargements in the mandate and strength of UNPROFOR, Taking note of the letter dated 7 August 1992 from the Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia to the President of the Security Council (S/24390, annex), 1. Approves the Secretary-General's report; 2. Authorizes the enlargements of UNPROFOR's mandate and strength recommended by the Secretary-General in that report; 3. Reiterates its demand that all parties and others concerned cooperate with UNPROFOR in implementing the mandate entrusted to it by the Security Council; 4. Condemns resolutely the abuses committed against the civilian population, particularly on ethnic grounds, as referred to in paragraphs 14- 16 of the above-mentioned report of the Secretary-General. VOTE: Unanimous (15-0). (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992 Title:

Entry Into Force Of the CFE Treaty

Boucher Source: Richard Boucher, State Department Spokesman Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 9 199211/9/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, Europe, E/C Europe Country: Kazakhstan, Belarus Subject: Arms Control [TEXT] (The treaty is reproduced on this disk in Dispatch Supplement, Volume 2, Number 4 and may be ordered in print rom the Government Printing Office.) Today is a milestone in the history of European security and arms control. With the deposit on October 30 of instruments of ratification by the Governments of Belarus and Kazakhstan, all 29 signatories to the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe--the CFE Treaty--have formally completed ratification. Today, 10 days later, the treaty formally enters into force. CFE is the cornerstone of the new, cooperative security order we and our NATO allies have worked to build in Europe. It establishes comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment: tanks, artillery, armored combat vehicles, combat aircraft, and combat helicopters. Perhaps most important, the treaty provides for the destruction of weaponry in excess of those limits throughout Europe. CFE's extensive verification regime is complemented by detailed information requirements which ensure an unprecedented level of transparency concerning national military structures and equipment deployments. Background Information. The CFE Treaty was signed in November 1990 and ratified by the United States 1 year later. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the role of the CFE Treaty in establishing a binding, stable framework for the defense policy choices of the newly independent states assumed added importance. The treaty was originally negotiated between the members of NATO and of the old Warsaw Treaty Organization. Today, the eight independent states on the territory of the former Soviet Union in the CFE zone--Europe west of the Urals--are CFE States Parties in place of the former Soviet Union. The CFE Treaty was provisionally applied on July 17 so that the new States Parties could complete internal ratification procedures. Literally hundreds of inspections have already been conducted under the provisions of the CFE Treaty by the United States, our allies, and the Eastern members of the Treaty. More important, the destruction of equipment that is mandated by the treaty has already begun. When the CFE Treaty and related agreements have been fully implemented, we expect that some 35,000 pieces of former Soviet military equipment will have been destroyed. Many thousands of East European armaments will also be destroyed under CFE Treaty provisions, in order to reach the levels mandated by the treaty 3 years from today.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992 Title:

Somalis Demand Withdrawal Of UN Security Force

Boucher Source: Richard Boucher, State Department Spokesman Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 12 199211/12/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa, Subsaharan Africa Country: Somalia Subject: United Nations, Regional/Civil Unrest [TEXT] The UN Secretary General has informed us of a demand by General Aideed, the Somali factional leader who controls parts of Mogadishu, that the United Nations withdraw the Pakistani security force from the airport at Mogadishu. The Pakistani troops took control of the airport 2 days ago. The airport of Mogadishu is essential in the effort to feed the country's starving population. This demand is totally incomprehensible to the international community and to the United States. The 500 Pakistani troops were sent to Somalia pursuant to a resolution of the UN Security Council and with the concurrence of General Aideed. His refusal to keep his agreement is in defiance of the international community. The Government of the United States condemns this demand and calls for its immediate reversal. If Aideed persists in his position, he will have clearly defined himself as responsible for the perpetuation of starvation in Somalia.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992 Title:

Fisheries Agreement With Lithuania

Boucher Description: Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC Date: Nov, 12 199211/12/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: E/C Europe Country: Lithuania Subject: Resource Management, Environment, International Law [TEXT] Acting Secretary of State Eagleburger and Lithuanian Prime Minister Aleksandras Abisala today signed a fisheries agreement between the United States and Lithuania. Once the agreement is in force, Lithuania may apply for permission for its vessels to fish within the US 200-nautical-mile exclusive economic zone for stocks of fish which have been determined to be surplus to the needs of the US fishing industry. Prior to Lithuania's withdrawal from the former Soviet Union, vessels from ports in Lithuania fished in the US zone, flying the flag of the Soviet Union. Previously, the vessels from Lithuania which have fished in the US zone harvested Atlantic mackerel. Prospects for direct fishing for mackerel in US waters are limited, but significant opportunities may exist for joint venture operations. Under these arrangements, US harvesting vessels may transfer their catches at sea to Lithuanian vessels for processing and delivery to Lithuanian ports. Both sides hope that more effective use of the Atlantic mackerel resource will occur as a result of this agreement. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 46, November 16, 1992 Title:

Country Profile: Norway

PA Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Date: Nov, 16 199211/16/92 Category: Country Data Region: Europe Country: Norway Subject: Trade/Economics, Democratization, History, Cultural Exchange, Science/Technology, Military Affairs, Resource Management [TEXT]
Official Name:
Kingdom of Norway
Geography
Area (including the island territories of Svalbard and Jan Mayen): 386,000 sq. km. (150,000 sq. mi.); slightly larger than New Mexico. Cities: Capital-- Oslo (pop. 467,000). Other cities--Bergen (216,000), Trondheim (139,600), Stavanger (99,800). Terrain: Rugged with high plateaus, steep fjords, mountains, and fertile valleys. Climate: Temperate along the coast, colder inland.
People
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Norwegian(s). Population (1991 est.): 4.3 million. Annual growth rate (1991): 0.5%. Density: 14 per sq. km. Ethnic groups: Norwegian (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapp (or Sami, a racial-cultural minority of 20,000); foreign nationals (148,000 from Denmark, UK, Sweden, US, Pakistan, Vietnam, Germany, Turkey). Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 94%. Languages: Norwegian (official), Lapp. Education: Years compulsory-- 9. Literacy--100%. Health: Infant mortality rate--7/1,000. Life expectancy--men 73 yrs; women 80 yrs. Work force (1991, 2.1 million): Government, social, personal services--37%. Wholesale and retail trade, hotels, restaurants--18%. Manufacturing--15%. Transport and communications--8%. Financing, insurance, real estate, business services- -8%. Agriculture, forestry, fishing--8%. Construction--6%. Oil extraction- -1%.
Government
Type: Hereditary constitutional monarchy. Independence: 1905. Constitution: May 17, 1814. Branches: Executive--king (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), council of ministers (cabinet). Legislative--modified unicameral parliament (Storting). Judicial--Supreme Court, appellate courts, city and county courts. Political parties: Labor, Conservative, Center, Christian People's, Socialist Left, Progress. Suffrage: Universal over 18. Administrative subdivisions: 18 fylker (counties), the city of Oslo, and Svalbard. National holiday: May 17. Central government budget (1991): $52 billion. Defense (1991): 3.2% of GNP. Flag: White cross with blue inner cross on red field. The white cross and red field are derived from the Danish flag; the blue cross was added to symbolize Norway's independence.
Economy
GNP (1991): $103 billion. Annual growth rate (1991): 1.9%. Per capita GNP (1991): $24,200. Natural resources: Oil, gas, fish, timber, hydroelectric power, mineral ores. Agriculture and fishing (3% of GNP): Products--dairy, livestock, grain (barley, oats, wheat), potatoes and other vegetables, fruits and berries, furs, wool. Arable land--3%.Oil, gas, shipping: 19% of GNP. Industry (manufacturing, 13% of GNP): Types--food processing, pulp and paper, ships, aluminum, ferro-alloys, iron and steel, nickel, zinc, nitrogen, fertilizers, transport equipment, hydroelectric power, refinery products, petrochemicals, electronics. Construction: 4% of GNP. Trade (1991): Exports--$36 billion: crude oil, natural gas, pulp and paper, metals, chemicals, fish and fish products. Major markets--UK, Germany, Sweden, US (5%). Imports--$26 billion: machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs, iron and steel, textiles and clothing. Major suppliers--Sweden, Germany, UK, US (8%). Official exchange rate (average 1991): 6.5 Norwegian kroner=US$1. Aid sent (1991): $1.1 billion. Primary recipients--Tanzania, Mozambique, Bangladesh, Nicaragua, Zambia, UN organizations.
History
The Viking period (9th to 11th centuries) was one of national unification and expansion. The Norwegian royal line died out in 1387, and the country entered a period of union with Denmark. By 1586, Norway had become part of the Danish Kingdom. In 1814, as a result of the Napoleonic wars, Norway was separated from Denmark and combined with Sweden. The union persisted until 1905, when Sweden recognized Norwegian independence. The Norwegian Government offered the throne of Norway to Danish Prince Carl in 1905. After a plebiscite approving the establishment of a monarchy, the parliament unanimously elected him king. He took the name of Haakon VII, after the kings of independent Norway. Haakon died in 1957 and was succeeded by his son, Olav V, who died in January 1991. Upon Olav's death, his son Harald was crowned as King Harald V. Norway was a non-belligerent during World War I, but as a result of the German invasion and occupation during World War II, Norwegians generally became skeptical of the concept of neutrality and turned instead to collective security. Norway was one of the signers of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949 and was a founding member of the United Nations. The first UN General Secretary, Trygve Lie, was a Norwegian.
Government
The functions of the king are mainly ceremonial, but he has influence as the symbol of national unity. Although the 1814 constitution grants important executive powers to the king, these are almost always exercised by the Council of Ministers in the name of the king (King's Council). The Council of Ministers consists of the prime minister--chosen by the political parties represented in the Storting (parliament)--and other ministers. The 165 members of the Storting are elected from 18 fylker (counties) for 4-year terms according to a complicated system of proportional representation. After elections, the Storting divides into two chambers, the Odelsting and the Lagting, which meet separately or jointly depending on the legislative issue under consideration. The special High Court of the Realm hears impeachment cases; the regular courts include the Supreme Court (17 permanent judges and a president), courts of appeal, city and county courts, the labor court, and conciliation councils. Judges attached to regular courts are appointed by the king in council after nomination by the Ministry of Justice. Each fylke is headed by a governor appointed by the king in council, with one governor exercising authority in both Oslo and the adjacent county of Akershus.
Principal Government Officials
King--Harald V Prime Minister--Gro Harlem Brundtland Minister of Foreign Affairs--Thorvald Stoltenberg Ambassador to the United States--Kjeld Vibe Ambassador to NATO--Bjorn Kristvik Ambassador to the United Nations--Martin Huslid Norway maintains an embassy in the United States at 2720 34th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20008, tel.202-388-6000 and consulates in Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco.
Political Conditions
Until the 1981 election, Norway had been governed by Labor Party governments since 1935, except for three periods (1963, 1965-71, and 1972-73). The Labor Party lost its majority in the Storting in the 1961 elections; thereafter, when in power, its rule has depended largely upon support of other parties, according to the issue under consideration. Labor dropped to 66 seats in the 1981 election, and the Conservative Party formed a minority government with the parliamentary backing of the two other non-socialist parties, the Center Party and the Christian People's Party. In June 1988, the Conservative government was reorganized into a majority coalition government with those two parties. The three-party coalition government suffered a setback in the 1985 election and lost a vote of confidence in April 1986 when the Progress Party withdrew its support over a proposed gasoline tax increase. Since under the Norwegian constitution the parliament cannot be dissolved, the Labor Party had to form a minority government in May 1986 with the same parliamentary composition as existed before the no-confidence vote. The Labor Party governed for more than 3 years with the support of the Socialist Left Party and individual members of the other parties on a case-by-case basis. After suffering losses in the September 1989 elections, the Labor Party left the government in October 1989 and was replaced by a minority non-socialist coalition led by the Conservative Party of Jan P. Syse. One year later, the Syse Government fell over the issue of Norwegian policy toward the European Community and was replaced in November 1990 by a minority Labor Party government. Gro Harlem Brundtland is again Prime Minister after forming her third government in 10 years. Norway holds national elections in September 1993.
Economy
Norway is one of the world's richest countries. It has an important stake in promoting a liberal environment for foreign trade. Its large shipping fleet is one of the most modern among maritime nations. Metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are the most significant traditional industries. Norway's emergence as a major oil and gas producer in the mid-1970s transformed the economy. Large sums of investment capital poured into the offshore oil sector, leading to greater increases in Norwegian production costs and wages than in the rest of Western Europe up to the time of the global recovery of the mid-1980s. The influx of oil revenue also permitted Norway to expand an already extensive social welfare system. High oil prices in the 1983-85 period led to significant increases in consumer spending, wages, and inflation. The subsequent decline in oil prices since 1985 has sharply reduced tax revenues and required a tightening of both the government budget and private sector demand. As a result, the non-oil economy showed almost no growth during 1986-88, and the current account went into deficit. As oil prices recovered sharply in 1990 following the Persian Gulf crisis, the 1990 current account posted a large surplus which continued into 1991. Unemployment as of the first quarter of 1991 rose to a post-1945 high of 6.2%. Given the volatility of the oil and gas market, Norway is seeking to restructure its non-oil economy to reduce subsidies and stimulate efficient, non-traditional industry. Norway's exports have continued to grow every year, largely because of favorable world demand. Moreover, the flight of Norwegian-owned ships from the country's traditional register ended in 1987, as the government established an international register, replete with tax breaks and relief from national crewmember requirements. At the same time, a drop in private consumption has helped to reduce Norway's imports. Norway continues to adapt its economic policy to international developments, notably the emerging European Community (EC) single market. Norway and the other European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members are in the process of concluding an economic cooperation agreement with the EC under the framework of the European Economic Area (EEA). This agreement, which promotes free trade, is being designed to limit the distortive impact of the EC single market on commodity trade and the movements of labor and capital. On EC membership, the Prime Minister has indicated that Norway may submit an application before the end of 1992. Its principal trading partners are the EC countries and its Scandinavian neighbors. The United States is fifth.
Energy Resources
Offshore hydrocarbons were discovered in the 1960s, and development began in the 1970s. The growth of the petroleum sector has contributed significantly in recent years to Norwegian economic vitality. Current petroleum production capacity is over 2 million barrels per day. Production has increased rapidly during the past several years as new fields are opened. Total production in 1991 was about 118 million metric tons of oil equivalents, nearly 80% of which was crude oil. Hydropower provides nearly all of Norway's electricity, and all of the gas and most of the oil produced were exported. Production is expected to increase significantly in the 1990s as new fields come onstream. Although not a major energy supplier to the world, Norway provides about 40% of Western Europe's crude oil requirements and 16% of gas requirements. In 1991, Norwegian oil and gas exports accounted for 44% of total merchandise exports. In addition, offshore exploration and production have stimulated onshore economic activities. Foreign companies, including many American ones, participate actively in the petroleum sector.
Foreign Relations
Norway supports international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes, recognizing the need for maintaining a strong national defense through collective security. Accordingly, the cornerstones of Norwegian policy are active member-ship in NATO and support for the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Norway also pursues a policy of economic, social, and cultural cooperation with other Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland) through the Nordic Council. In addition to strengthening traditional ties with developed countries, Norway seeks to build friendly relations with developing countries and has undertaken humanitarian and development aid efforts with selected African and Asian nations. Norway is also dedicated to encouraging democracy, assisting refugees, and protecting human rights throughout the world.
Defense
Norway has a draft system in which all able-bodied males are subject to military service. The Royal Norwegian Navy and Air Force are technically sophisticated organizations and staffed by a core of professionals. The Norwegian Army is a mobile infantry force.
US-Norwegian Relations
The United States and Norway enjoy a long tradition of friendly association. The relationship is strengthened by the millions of Norwegian-Americans in the United States and by about 10,000 US citizens who reside in Norway. The two countries enjoy an active cultural exchange, both officially and privately.
Principal US Officials
Ambassador--Loret Miller Ruppe Deputy Chief of Mission--William C. McCahill, Jr. Chief, Political Section--Elizabeth P. Spiro Chief, Economic Section--F. Brenne Bachmann Public Affairs Officer (USIS)--William M. Zavis Administrative Officer--Vacant Chief, Consular Section--Eli N. Lauderdale, Jr. Commercial Attache--Scott Bozek Defense Attache--Capt. Richard P. Vidosic Labor Attache--Elaine Papazian The US Embassy is located at Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo (tel. 47-2- 44- 85-50; FAX: 47-2-43-07-77). (###)