US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 3, No 43, October 26, 1992

Title:

FREEDOM Support Act Signed Into Law

Bush Source: President Bush Description: Statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Oct, 25 199210/25/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia, Ukraine, Armenia Subject: Democratization, Media/Telecommunications, Trade/Economics, Nuclear Nonproliferation, Arms Control [TEXT] Today I have signed into law S. 2532, the "FREEDOM [Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets] Support Act." This historic legislation authorizes a range of programs to support free market and democratic reforms being undertaken in Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, and the other states of the former Soviet Union. In particular, the bill endorses the $12 billion increase in the U.S. share of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and authorizes $410 million in U.S. bilateral assistance. In addition, the bill removes a number of outdated Cold War legislative restrictions on U.S. relations with the new independent states. I am proud that the United States has this historic opportunity to support democracy and free markets in this crucially important part of the world. While it is clear to all that the future of the new independent states of the former Soviet Union is in their own hands, passage of the FREEDOM Support Act demonstrates the commitment of the United States to support this endeavor. Once again, the American people have united to advance the cause of freedom, to win the peace, to help transform former enemies into peaceful partners. This democratic peace will be built on the solid foundations of political and economic freedom in Russia and the other independent states. We must continue to support reformers in Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, and the other new states. I am pleased that the bill draws our private sector, as never before, into the delivery of technical assistance to Russia and the other new states. Various provisions of this bill will call upon the specialized skills and expertise of the U.S. private sector. S. 2532 will provide support for the trade and investment activities of U.S. companies to help lay the economic and commercial foundations upon which the new democracies will rest. This is an investment in our future as well as theirs. The IMF quota increase will ensure that the IMF has adequate resources to promote free markets in the former Soviet Union and elsewhere throughout the world. By contributing to a more prosperous world economy, the IMF will expand markets for U.S. exporters and increase jobs for American workers. This bill will allow us to provide humanitarian assistance during the upcoming winter; to support democratic reforms and free market systems; to encourage trade and investment; to support the development of food distribution systems; to assist in health and human services programs; to help overcome problems in energy, civilian nuclear reactor safety, transportation, and telecommunications; to assist in dealing with dire environmental problems in the region; and to establish a broad range of people-to-people exchanges designed to bury forever the distrust and misunderstanding that characterized our previous relations with the former Soviet Union. The bill also provides additional resources and authorities to support efforts to destroy nuclear and other weapons, and to convert to peaceful purposes the facilities that produce these weapons. We undertake these programs of assistance out of a commitment to increased security for ourselves, our allies, and the peoples of the new independent states. These programs will enhance our security through demilitarization and humanitarian and technical assistance. A number of provisions in the bill, however, raise constitutional concerns. Some provisions purport to direct me or my delegates with respect to U.S. participation in international institutions. Under our constitutional system, the President alone is responsible for such matters. I therefore will treat such provisions as advisory. Furthermore, the bill could interfere with my supervisory power over the executive branch by giving a subordinate official in the Department of State the authority to resolve certain interagency disputes and by regulating how other agencies handle license applications by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. I will interpret these provisions in the light of my constitutional responsibilities. The bill also authorizes the creation of supposedly nongovernmental entities--the Democracy Corps and a foundation that will conduct scientific activities and exchanges--that would be subject to Government direction, established to carry out Government policies, and largely dependent on Government funding. As I have said be-fore, entities that are neither clearly governmental nor clearly private undermine the principles of separation of powers and political accountability. In determining whether to exercise the authority granted by this bill, I will consider, and I direct the Director of the National Science Foundation to consider, whether these entities can be established and operate in conformity with those principles. I also note a concern with the provision under which Freedom of Information Act litigation involving the Demo- cracy Corps would be the "responsibility" of the Agency for International Development. This responsibility should not be understood in any way to detract from the Attorney General's plenary litigating authority. Therefore, I direct the Agency for International Development to refer all such matters to the Attorney General consistent with his current authority. George Bush (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 43, October 26, 1992 Title:

US-Vietnam Joint Statement

Boucher Source: Richard Boucher, State Department Spokesman Description: Text of US-Vietnam joint statement issued in Hanoi, Vietnam, released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC Date: Oct, 19 199210/19/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Southeast Asia Country: Vietnam Subject: POW/MIA Issues, Development/Relief Aid, International Law [TEXT] Based on an agreement between the governments of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the United States of America, the President's Special Emissary for POW/MIA [prisoners of war/missing in action] Affairs, General John W. Vessey, Jr., USA[rmy] (Retired), visited Hanoi, 17-19 October 1992. Accompanying General Vessey on this trip were Senator John McCain and representatives of the U.S. Govern-ment's Interagency Group for POW/MIA. While in Hanoi, General Vessey and Senator McCain met with Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet, Defense Minister Doan Khue, Foreign Minister Nguyen Manh Cam, Vice Foreign Minister Le Mai and senior officials from the Foreign Ministry, the Defense Ministry, and the Ministry of the Interior. Foreign Minister Cam and General Vessey reviewed recent activities relating to the humanitarian concerns of both countries. The two sides reached agreement on an important new step which should accelerate results on the POW/MIA issue. The Government of Vietnam informed General Vessey it has been unilaterally conducting a country-wide search of all its archives for documents, photographs and other materials related to American POW/MIA cases and will make all such material available to the U.S. at its military museums. In addition, they agreed that a joint information research team should be formed to examine all the materials collected. This team has already begun its work resulting in important information on specific POW/MIA cases being provided to the U.S. During the visit, Foreign Minister Cam invited General Vessey to visit the Central Military Museum in Hanoi to personally review some of this material. The two sides also agreed on the importance of using this new archival information to seek the prompt and early recovery and repatriations of remains of missing U.S. personnel. General Vessey expressed U.S. appreciation for Vietnam's cooperation in investigating reports of live Americans in Vietnam. He noted that as a result of these efforts, more than 40 of these "live sighting" reports had been satisfactorily investigated. The two sides noted with satisfaction the accelerated pace of joint field investigations which give priority to resolving the remaining last known alive discrepancy cases. This effort, too, has already resulted in important information on specific POW/MIA cases being provided to the U.S. The two sides also reviewed U.S. efforts to address Vietnam's humanitarian needs. General Vessey informed Prime Minister Vo Van Kiet that the United States was making available immediately a new disaster assistance grant to help alleviate the suffering of residents of Quang Binh province which was affected by recent severe floods. General Vessey also noted the recent U.S. contribution of two million dollars through non-governmental organizations to assist areas in Vietnam impacted by retuning refugees, as well as the implementation of 17 Fulbright scholarships for Vietnamese students. General Vessey further informed Foreign Minister Cam that the U.S. would soon submit concrete proposals regarding U.S. technical assistance to Vietnam to address the important health issue of malaria. Foreign Minister Cam appreciated these efforts and proposed that the U.S. side should send a high level delegation to Vietnam to discuss further U.S. contributions to address Vietnam's humanitarian needs. The two sides reaffirmed both their governments' desire for early normalization of relations between the two countries. General Vessey indicated that in the context of accelerated cooperation to resolve the POW/MIA issue, the United States will move more rapidly toward normalization of relations. In this context, Senator McCain expressed his view that there was bipartisan support in the U.S. Congress for improved relations. The Vietnamese side said normalization was in the interests of people of both countries and would contribute to peace, stability and cooperation in Southeast Asia and the world. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 43, October 26, 1992 Title:

Second Year of AA-1 Immigrant Visa Program

Boucher Source: Richard Boucher, State Department Spokesman Description: Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC Date: Oct, 20 199210/20/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Whole World Subject: Immigration [TEXT]
Results of FY 1993 AA-1 Mail-in Program
A total of 52,445 applicants are being registered for the FY 1993 AA-1 immigrant visa program. These applicants were selected at random by computer in early September from the more than 800,000 qualified entries received in the mail. The Department of State will begin notifying the winners within the next 2 weeks. Registered applicants are eligible for the 41,016 total visas available in FY 1993. This figure represents the 40,000 allocated in the Immigration Act of 1990 plus 1,016 visas that were unused from the previous year's AA-1 program. During the selection process, the computer assigned a rank order number for each applicant. This number will serve as the "priority date" for processing visas in the strict numerical order in which they were selected. As in last year's lottery, applicants must be prepared to act immediately on their cases. Once all 41,016 visas have been issued, the program for FY 1993 will end. The law requires that at least 40% of each year's available AA-1 visas must be designated for natives of Ireland (including Northern Ireland), amounting to 16,406 in FY 1993. The Irish visa allotment in FY 1993 will also be augmented by another 1,383--the number of visas that were available to Irish nationals last year but were not used. This year, the share of AA-1 visas available for Irish nationals will be 17,789. A recent amendment to the AA-1 program required that any visas which Irish applicants do not use in one year are allocated to Irish nationals the following year. Up to 25,000 Irish applicants are being registered for this year's program. The final results of the FY 1993 AA-1 registrations for the other countries and dependent areas are: Albania - 43 Algeria - 234 Argentina - 446 Austria - 31 Belgium - 52 Canada - 2,108 Czechoslovakia - 205 Denmark - 98 Estonia - 42 Finland - 169 France - 139 Guadeloupe - 6 New Caledonia - 1 Germany - 270 Great Britain - 1,052 Bermuda - 4 Gibraltar - 0 Hungary - 105 Iceland - 21 Indonesia - 825 Italy - 166 Japan - 970 Latvia - 79 Liechtenstein - 0 Lithuania - 138 Luxembourg - 0 Monaco - 0 Netherlands - 66 Norway - 54 Poland - 19,856 San Marino - 0 Sweden - 94 Switzerland - 106 Tunisia - 65 A total of 1.1 million pieces of mail were received during the 1-month mail-in period that ended August 28. However, 200,000 duplicate entries were received from about 2,000 persons and were thus disqualified from the lottery. An additional 115,000 entries were disqualified for failing to submit a proper application.
Results of FY 1992 AA-1 Program
Preliminary totals for FY 1992 issuances are: Albania - 22 Algeria - 171 Argentina - 1,179 Austria - 83 Belgium - 72 Czechoslovakia - 202 Denmark - 125 Estonia - 4 Finland - 81 France - 530 Guadeloupe - 1 New Caledonia - 5 Germany - 514 Great Britain - 2,484 Bermuda - 4 Gibraltar - 5 Hungary - 196 Iceland - 17 Indonesia - 1,978 Ireland - 14,617 Italy - 371 Japan - 5,164 Latvia - 11 Liechtenstein - 0 Lithuania - 25 Luxembourg - 2 Monaco - 1 Netherlands - 150 Norway - 169 Poland - 10,391 San Marino - 1 Sweden - 206 Switzerland - 126 Tunisia - 81 (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 43, October 26, 1992 Title:

United States and Belarus Sign Assistance Agreement

Boucher Description: Statement released by the Office of the Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC Date: Oct, 22 199210/22/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Belarus Subject: Trade/Economics, Development/Relief Aid, International Law, Arms Control [TEXT] The United States and Belarus today signed the first agreements for the use of Nunn-Lugar funds outside Russia. Deputy Secretary of Defense [Donald] Atwood and Under Secretary of State [Frank] Wisner signed three agreements with First Deputy Minister of Defense Aleksandr Tushinskiy of the Republic of Belarus. The agreements mark a significant achievement in the development of close relations between Belarus and the United States. They were greeted by the Government of Belarus as important manifestations of US recognition of Belarus' independence when they were initialed in Minsk on September 30 [1992]. A US team will depart this weekend for another round of bilateral discussions with Ukraine, Russia, and Kazakhstan on how the United States can assist in the safe, secure dismantlement of nuclear weapons in these countries. The three documents signed today with Belarus include: -- An umbrella agreement providing a legal framework for US assistance; -- An implementing agreement to provide nuclear accident emergency response equipment such as protective clothing and radiation monitoring gear; and -- An implementing agreement to provide a wide range of assistance to help Belarus develop an export control system, with an emphasis on controlling nuclear materials. The Nunn-Lugar program, signed into law by President Bush in December 1991, authorized the expenditure of up to $400 million in fiscal year 1992 Defense Department appropriations specifically for the purposes of facilitating the transportation, storage, safeguarding, and destruction of nuclear, chemical, and other weapons of the former USSR and to prevent weapons proliferation. Congress has passed legislation appropriating an additional $400 million for Nunn-Lugar programs. As of October 19, the Administration had notified Congress of proposed obligations totaling $191 million of the Nunn-Lugar appropriations. In addition to the agreements signed today with the Republic of Belarus, the United States has signed an umbrella agreement and seven implementing agreements with the Russian Federation. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 43, October 26, 1992 Title:

Focus on the Emerging Democracies: A Periodic Update

PA Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Date: Oct, 26 199210/26/92 Category: Focus on Emerging Democracies Region: Eurasia Country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Georgia Subject: Trade/Economics, Development/Relief Aid, International Law, Arms Control [TEXT] The following is a summary of US efforts to assist the new independent states of the former Soviet Union:
Overview
Total US Assistance: To date the US has pledged about $9.2 billion in grant assistance and credits to the new independent states of the former Soviet Union for FY 1991-93. About 63% of this total already has been obligated. US assistance in FY 1993 will total about $3 billion. FY 1993 grant assistance is estimated to be about $1.3 billion (including $923 million in technical and humanitarian assistance and $415 million appropriated to the Department of Defense). FY 1993 credit programs are estimated to be about $1.5-$2 billion ($1 billion in Commodity Credit Corporation credits, $450- $900 million in Export-Import Bank credits, and $125 million in Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) financing). Multilateral Financial Assistance: The US will contribute $5 billion to the $24 billion multilateral financial assistance program ($18 billion in financial support and $6-billion currency stabilization fund for Russia) as agreed by the Group of Seven industrialized countries (G-7) in April 1992. Agricultural Credit Guarantees: The US has announced a total of $5.5 billion in export credit guarantees to the NIS, of which $4.5 billion has been committed; about 32 million tons of agricultural commodities already have been shipped. This includes an additional $1.15 billion credit guarantee and food assistance package announced for Russia on September 14, 1992, consisting of $900 million in loan guarantees and $250 million in grant food aid. Credit guarantees of $100 million were made available immediately; $500 million more followed on October 1; and the remaining $300 million will be made available on January 1, 1993. On October 19, 1992, $200 million of credit guarantees were announced for Ukraine.
Humanitarian Assistance
Operation Provide Hope ($180 million): During Phases I and II of Operation Provide Hope, the United States delivered about 20,000 tons of Department of Defense (DOD) excess food (valued at $34 million) and 3,000 tons of excess medicines and medical supplies and equipment (valued at $112 million) to 26 cities throughout the 12 NIS. These totals do not include transportation costs. Phase III of Operation Provide Hope has begun with the shipment of 4 million ready-to-eat meals (valued at $18 million) to 17 locations in Russia and about 10,000 tons of processed food (valued at $20 million) targeted for needy individuals and families in Russia. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Assistance ($283 million): More than 630,000 tons of food aid (valued at $283 million) has been committed to Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. In addition, on October 9, 1992, USDA announced a $250 million grant food aid package for Russia in FY 1993. US Agency for International Development (USAID) Emergency Immunization Initiative ($6 million): USAID has purchased measles, tetanus, polio, and diphtheria vaccines and related medical equipment to immunize about 520,000 infants in Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. In addition, Project Hope will administer a program to procure US- manufactured vaccines and immunize about 261,000 children in Ukraine and Armenia. Emergency Medical Initiative ($14 million): The US is purchasing critically needed medicines to meet emergency needs in several republics. At least $1 million worth of medicines and supplies are being purchased for the republics of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Plans are also being developed to purchase similar amounts for the republics of Moldova, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. Presidential Medical Initiative ($10 million US contribution): Since February 1992, Provide Hope has delivered pharmaceuticals and medical supplies (valued at $74 million) to all NIS. DOD Medical Supplies ($9 million): The US has shipped and installed medical supplies and equipment (valued at more than $9 million) to outfit a 1,000- bed hospital in Tbilisi, Georgia. The US also is considering providing similar assistance to Kyrgyzstan by the end of 1992. Private Sector Contributions ($49.3 million): More than 5,000 metric tons of food (valued at $24.3 million) and 1,770 tons of medicines and medical supplies (valued at $25 million) were delivered under the authority of the Dire Emergency Supplemental legislation. According to NIS information, at least 50,000 tons of food, medicines, clothing, and other items from other private donors have been delivered.
Technical Assistance
New Technical Assistance Programs: New technical assistance programs proposed for FY 1993 include a $35-million, 3-year environment project to strengthen environmental management institutions and promote environmental technology, and two enterprise funds in Russia and Ukraine. The US Government has allocated $634 million for technical assistance programs in the NIS in FY 1991-93. Examples of current programs follow: Democratic Institution-Building Political Party Training and Civic Education: The National Democratic Institute and International Republican Institute, as well as several other non-governmental organizations, have received grants to carry out political party training and civic education activities and to place long-term experts in the NIS. Rule of Law: To date, the American Bar Association has placed 5 long term program directors and 7 short-term legal advisers in the NIS, provided assessments of draft legislation and constitutions, and sent about 40 US specialists to host 6 technical legal workshops on judicial restructuring. The Department of State held seminars for senior NIS legal officials on the US legal system and is providing judicial training assistance to the Legal Academy of the Russian Ministry of Justice. Independent Media: Internews, a non-profit media organization, is establishing an independent television news distribution system in Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan and is providing journalism training for independent broadcasters throughout the NIS. Public Administration: The US Information Agency (USIA) is sponsoring visitor programs in the US for all NIS presidential chiefs of staff and other high-level national government officials to learn about executive office organization. USIA also is sponsoring training programs for high-level city officials from Russia and Ukraine, providing a grant to Sister Cities to establish a municipal training program between partnered US and NIS cities, and publishing materials on public policy and administration for distribution in the NIS. America Houses: USIA will begin establishing America Houses in Kiev, Ukraine, and in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, by November 1992, and in Vladivostok, Russia, shortly thereafter to serve as focal points for the exchange of people to and from the US and make available on-the-ground logistical and information resources for the American private sector. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) Assistance: Six US private voluntary organizations (PVO) have received funding to enhance the institutional capabilities of indigenous non-governmental organizations in the NIS and to undertake social service projects in Belarus, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, and the Central Asian republics.
Economic Restructuring, Privatization, and Defense Conversion
Financial Sector Advisers: Four short-term tax policy missions have been sent to Russia since May to provide advice to the Ministry of Finance on tax policy and administration. Six short-term advisers have provided assistance on tax and currency policy and regulation in Ukraine. The Treasury Department will send a long-term tax policy adviser to Russia and a financial adviser to Belarus in November 1992, pending approval of a National Security Council directive. Privatization: The US has provided funding to the International Financial Corporation to support NIS privatization through small-scale auctions , to distribute copies of a "how-to" manual for small privatization auctions, and to privatize the transportation sector in Nizhniy Novgorod. The US is sponsoring auctions, modeled after those held in Nizhniy Novgorod, to privatize the retail sector in Volgograd, Russia, and Volgograd oblast (a regional political entity) and Lviv, Ukraine. A team also will be sent to Tomsk, Russia, shortly to begin the auction process. The US is providing funding to the Russian State Committee on the Management of State Property to support design, implementation, and publicity for a mass voucher program, and a project to screen businesses which may serve as demonstration privatizations. The Trade and Development Program (TDP) and OPIC have received funding to conduct investment missions and provide feasibility study financing for infrastructure projects in the NIS. The Department of Commerce has established a business information center on commercial opportunities in NIS. Special American Business Internship Training Program (SABIT): Currently eight Russians are participating in the Commerce Department's SABIT program. An additional 86 candidates have been selected, and 33 of these are expected to arrive in the US shortly. The department has received more than 150 applications from US companies interested in hosting business or scientific interns. It expects 241 interns to participate over the next year. Defense Conversion: The US has sent three defense conversion advisers to Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia, and two advisers to Kharkiv, Ukraine. Additional advisers are planned for Tomsk and Yekaterinburg, Russia, and Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan. The International Executive Service Corps has completed industry restructuring projects in Saratov and St. Petersburg, Russia, and Kiev, Ukraine. It has established offices in Moscow and Kiev and expects to select long-term representatives for new offices in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and Yerevan, Armenia, by the end of 1992.
Agriculture
Farmer to Farmer: About 1,800 agribusiness volunteers in the Farmer-to- Farmer Program will be placed in private agribusinesses and/or farms in all NIS over the next 3 years. Volunteers in Overseas Cooperative Assistance (VOCA) has sent 16 volunteers to Russia and 8 volunteers to Ukraine and has identified 19 to go to Russia and 8 to go to Ukraine in the next few months. Another 15 volunteers have gone to Kazakhstan and Armenia. An additional five implementing organizations received grants in late September. USDA Programs: USDA is establishing a model farm near St. Petersburg and assisting in the development of private wholesale markets in Moscow and Kiev. USDA also will be sending four American agribusiness executives to Russia and two to Kazakhstan to work with newly privatized food industries under its Loaned Executives Program. In addition, USDA has selected 41 Russians and 10 Ukrainians to participate in its Cochran Fellowship program for training in agribusiness. Grain Storage: The US recently signed a contract with North American Agricultural, Inc., to install more than 300 grain storage facilities in 80 sites (including 50 in Russia, 15 in Ukraine, and 15 in Kazakhstan) to reduce immediate grain losses and to demonstrate benefits of modern grain storage technology. Each facility, which consists of four storage bins plus grain- moving and related equipment, has a capacity to store 80,000 bushels. Most facilities will be in place by the end of 1992. Agribusiness: All NIS will be eligible for assistance under the USAID agribusiness project that is designed to get more US agribusinesses involved in the former Soviet Union. This program will emphasize upstream and downstream agricultural activities, such as fertilizers, marketing, processing, and distribution. Proposals are under review, and grants will be awarded by late November or early December, with activities expected to begin in early spring 1993.
Energy
Nuclear Reactor Safety: The Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are implementing a $25-million nuclear reactor safety program which will establish a training center in Russia and Ukraine to enhance operational safety, provide risk reduction measures for nuclear reactors, and assist regulators in developing consistent and effective safety standards and procedures. Energy Efficiency: US technical experts have conducted energy audits in district heating plants in Kostroma and Yekaterinburg, Russia; Kiev, Ukraine; Minsk, Belarus; Yerevan, Armenia; Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan; and Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and are installing necessary equipment to increase energy efficiency this winter. Coal Mine Safety: Partners in Economic Reform is providing equipment and establishing training centers to improve management and safety standards in the Kuzbass and Vorkuta regions of Russia, Donbass region of Ukraine, and Karaganda Basin in Kazakhstan.
Housing
Four of twelve long-term housing advisers are in Moscow, Novosibirsk, and Yerevan working on legal reform in the housing sector, development of a housing privatization law, and municipal management.
Health
Hospital Partnerships: Twelve hospital-to-hospital partnerships have been established in the NIS. These partnerships will create a base for technology and personnel exchanges between US and Russian hospitals. We expect to establish 20 such partnerships by the end of 1993. Trade and Investment in Pharmaceutical Sector: TDP, OPIC, and the Department of Commerce will undertake trade and investment missions to encourage increased trade and investment in the health sector throughout the NIS. Vaccine and Pharmaceutical Production: USAID is working with Merck ∧ Co. and Lederle to procure equipment and spare parts to help restore production of measles, tetanus, diphtheria, and polio vaccines; provide orientation to US standard good manufacturing practices for NIS executives and scientists; and conduct feasibility studies for establishing vaccine manufacturing facilities in Russia at a level of quality comparable to that in the US. A similar program, focusing on vaccine production, will be implemented in Ukraine.
Peace Corps
The Peace Corps will place 250 volunteers in Armenia, Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan by the end of 1993. Assessment visits are planned for Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in October 1992, possibly to be followed by Belarus and Turkmenistan in November. Staff arrived in Armenia in August 1992, and 40 volunteers will arrive in November. Staff arrived in the Russian Far East in June 1992 and established a permanent office on September 14; 50 volunteers are scheduled to arrive in November to work in the Primorski, Khabarovsk, and Sakhalin oblasts. Fifty volunteers are scheduled to arrive in November to work in five oblasts in the Volga River region. Staff arrived in Uzbekistan in September 1992. Initial negotiations on a country agreement are complete, and 50 volunteers are expected to arrive in December 1992.
Nunn-Lugar Funds
DOD appropriations for dismantlement and destruction of nuclear weapons total $400 million in FY 1992 and an additional $400 million for FY 1993. Expanded funding authorities for FY 1993 include defense conversion, nuclear safety, and export controls. International Science and Technology Centers: The US has committed $25 million toward the establishment of an International Science and Technology Center in Russia and $10 million for a similar center in Ukraine to employ former military scientists in civilian projects in the former Soviet Union. (###)