US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 3, No 36, September 7, 1992

Title:

Humanitarian Relief Efforts In Somalia and Kenya

Natsios Source: Andrew Natsios, President's Special Coordinator for Somali Relief, USAID Description: Statement released by the Office of External Affairs, US Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC Date: Sep, 1 19929/1/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa, MidEast/North Africa Country: Somalia, Kenya Subject: Development/Relief Aid, Refugees [TEXT] I just returned last night from Somalia and Kenya and would like to comment on three aspects of the situation: one, a brief review of what has already been accomplished and is now underway; two, some observations of current conditions; and, three, our overall relief strategy for Somalia. First, what has been accomplished. The United States has been involved in humanitarian relief activities in Somalia now for over a year and a half. We have committed more than $85 million to the effort, and over 80,000 tons of US food has either arrived or is in the pipeline for this fiscal year. Of all the food that has moved into Somalia over the past year, 57% is from the United States. I know many of you have heard this before, but I want to underscore it to disabuse anyone of the notion that we suddenly woke up this summer to the crisis in Somalia. We have been working hard on it for a long time, and the new initiatives the President announced on August 14 represent an augmentation of earlier efforts. Seven days after the President's August 14 announcement, we began to airlift food into Wajir in northern Kenya. To date, more than 1,600 metric tons have been flown to Wajir, consigned to CARE [Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, Inc.] and targeted for Somali refugees who have crossed over into Kenya and for Kenyans stricken by the drought. On Friday, August 28, 14 days after the President's announcement, the US military began airlift operations into Belet Weyne in central Somalia. As of this morning, we have flown 134 metric tons of food into Belet Weyne. This food is consigned to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) for storage and distribution. Flights are continuing, and I anticipate they will be expanded to other locations in Somalia in the very near future. I spent considerable time with Brig. Gen. Frank Libutti, who is heading up the military airlift portion of our effort. He and the other task force members are doing an outstanding job, as are the ICRC and other private voluntary organizations in the area. The day before the airlift into Somalia began, I flew to Belet Weyne and visited several other locations in Somalia. Rather than give you some kind of summary review of the situation, I want, instead, to give you a few very specific examples of what I saw and heard. I think when you hear these you will have a better understanding of the rationale behind our overall relief strategy. There is a village near Belet Weyne. Several weeks ago, the population of that village was about 600. Within 1 week, the number of people grew to an estimated 7,000. Why? Because of rumors or hints that food was coming into the area. Second story: food prices. When I was in Belet Weyne, we met with the clan leaders and elders of the area. I asked them to tell me about the price of a 50-kilogram bag of rice on the open market. Two years ago, before the war and famine, they said it was about 35,000 Somali shillings. Last summer, the price rocketed up to over 300,000 shillings, and last spring, as relief food began to move into the area, prices dropped to about 120,000 shillings. One day after we announced the American airlift to Belet Weyne, the price dropped to 80,000 shillings, still too high but a marked improvement over earlier prices. In Oddur, we went into the market-place and spoke directly with merchants. There, prices had gone up over 1,400% for a bag of rice during the past 2 years. Third story: food distribution. When I met with representatives of ICRC on Thursday in Belet Weyne, they described a food shipment in March. The shipment arrived and was stored in a warehouse for "immediate"--they thought--distribution. That food stayed there for 2 tortuous weeks while the ICRC had to engage in protracted negotiations with various clan leaders on which sub-clan would receive what percentage of the shipment of food when. When unanimous agreement is reached among the clans, only then can food move safely. If one sub-clan is dissatisfied, they make attempts, usually successful, to recover their just proportion by organized clan-based looting. Incidentally, the Somali clan leaders with whom I spoke all expressed eagerness for American assistance. Fourth story: Some teen-aged, armed hoodlums recently moved into the area and began raping women and looting food. Local clan leaders, attempting to put a stop to the violence, designated a particular elder to meet with the young group. They blew his head off. I tell these stories not to shock but to give you some sense of the environment in which we and the non-governmental relief groups are trying to operate. And I believe you have to understand that environment to understand the rationale behind our relief strategy. Our relief strategy consists of [these] key elements: One, sale of food to Somali merchants to reduce market prices, probably through an auction mechanism; Two, providing free food through feeding stations or soup kitchens. This is primarily targeted at internally displaced populations within Somalia in urban areas; Third, providing free dry food in bulk quantities in rural areas; Fourth, enhancing security. And in that regard we fully support and welcome the UN call for additional peace-keeping forces; [and] Fifth, decentralization. One of the classic phenomena that occur in famine situations is that populations, in search of food, begin walking to other areas. But, when they do, many die along the way, and for those who do make it, they put additional pressure and burdens on already overcrowded urban areas. We had reports in Somalia, last week for example, that in some areas 50% of the people moving into the Belet Weyne area were dying along the way. So, as part of our strategy, we want to distribute food in a number of areas outside the major cities to try and stop, or at least slow down, this deadly migration. In this connection, I want to say a word about Mogadishu. Our conscious strategy, certainly in the near term, is to move that airlifted food into areas outside Mogadishu. Not only for the reasons I just mentioned having to do with stemming the flow of people, but having to do with security. We will concentrate our rehabilitation efforts on those areas that are relatively more stable and secure. We will still feed the hungry wherever they are. And I want to say this as clearly and as strongly as I can: The clan leaders must understand that we intend to focus rehabilitation on those areas. This includes providing seeds and tools, rehabilitating animal herds, reconstructing wells to provide water, and rehabilitating hospitals. To the extent that they continue the inter-clan violence in their own areas, they will be preventing help from reaching their own people. We are all working very hard on this, but, in the final analysis, the fate of Somalia is in the hands of the Somalis. Let me say a word about food monetization, because it is a concept that is widely misunderstood. Of the 145,000 tons of food that the President pledged for the next fiscal year, I estimate that no more than 10% of that will be transported by air. The airlift is a specific short-term aspect of our overall strategy. Of the 145,000 tons, we are projecting that about half will be "free food" and half will be sold on the open market. People have said: How in the world can we sell food to people who are starving? The answer is that we must use several approaches simultaneously to move food into the country. Clearly there are thousands who are destitute, and for those we and other donors are targeting free food. But, at the same time, it is imperative to get the commercial food markets going again. As both free and monetized food flow into Somalia, we will see--we are already seeing in some locations--dramatic price reductions. Within the last 2 weeks, CARE reported that in the port of Kismayo looters commandeered several trucks with 500 bags of US sorghum. The Somalis do not particularly care for sorghum. So when the looters approached local merchants, they were offered only a very low price for their catch. The end of the story is that the sorghum was later found by CARE abandoned, intact, [and] still on the trucks, because it wasn't worth enough to loot. We need to drive food prices down so it isn't worth looting. We must break the vicious cycle in Somalia where food equals money. Providing more food to the country will not only make it more affordable, but it will also increase security. I want to conclude with one final specific case. Last Friday, we traveled to Baidoa. The conditions there are horrific. Over the last several years, I have been witness to most of the major famines in the world, and I can tell you that what I saw in Baidoa, Somalia, a few days ago is the worst in terms of human suffering that I have seen. The ICRC has been collecting bodies from the streets and burying them. These, mind you, were only the people who had no relatives who could bury them. ICRC collected 176 bodies. The daily average is 150 in that particular town. We visited a feeding center in Baidoa that was feeding over 4,000 displaced people. As I walked into the building, two elderly women, deceased, were at my feet. As I walked out, a 12-year-old boy who had just died on the street was being moved out of the center in a wheel barrow. There was a 5-year-old girl in that center. Her mother and father were both already dead. Only her 11-year- old sister remained to look after her. That morning, the littlest girl died, leaving the older sister alone in the world. There are a lot of heroes in Somalia now: American and European private voluntary relief workers, UN workers, the US military , the International Committee of the Red Cross--and Somalis who are working extremely hard. I can only hope that through their efforts, and the efforts of the United States, we can make these kinds of stories a thing of the past. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 36, September 7, 1992 Dispatch, Vol 3, No 36, September 7, 1992 Title:

Zaire: Department Statement

Boucher Source: State Department Spokesman Richard Boucher Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Sep, 1 19929/1/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Zaire Subject: Democratization [TEXT] We welcome the formation of the new transitional government in Zaire. It represents an important step forward as the country moves toward national reconciliation and a peaceful transition to democratic elections. We congratulate the leadership and delegates of the national conference, the President, the new Prime Minister, and all those who cooperated in its formation. We urge all Zairians throughout the country, no matter what their position, political persuasions, or ethnic group, to work together to avoid confrontation and violence as the new government takes up the challenge of governing the country between now and national elections.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 36, September 7, 1992 Title:

Equatorial Guinea: Department Statement

Snyder Source: Acting State Department Spokesman Joesph Snyder Description: Statement, Washington, DC Date: Sep, 3 19929/3/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Subsaharan Africa Country: Equatorial Guinea Subject: Democratization [TEXT] The United States strongly condemns the recent action by Equatorial Guinean security forces against the Progressive Party, a major opposition group. On September 1, government security forces ransacked and closed the party's headquarters, detaining and beating several members although they offered no resistance. This incident appears to signal a resumption of government repression of legitimate opposition, in spite of President Obiang's recent public statements on political pluralism and the recent legalization of political parties. We call on the Government of Equatorial Guinea to respect the rights of its citizens to freedom of expression and assembly and to honor its pledge to establish a more open and democratic political process. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 36, September 7, 1992 Title:

Iraqi Harassment of UN Personnel

Boucher Description: Department Statement, released by the Office of the Acting Assistant Secretary/Spokesman, Washington, DC Date: Sep, 3 19929/3/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq Subject: United Nations, Development/Relief Aid, Human Rights [TEXT] The President of the UN Security Council, on behalf of the entire Council, issued a strong statement yesterday, criticizing Iraq's "continuing failure to ensure the safety of United Nations personnel and the personnel of non- governmental organizations." The statement concluded: "The Council urges Iraq in the strongest possible terms to cooperate with the United Nations." Iraq's repression of its own people continues. The August 11 statement before the Security Council of UN Human Rights envoy Max van der Stoel is further graphic proof of [Iraqi President] Saddam's brutality. -- The blockade in the North has gone on for nearly a year; Iraq has refused to provide fuel, and delivery of humanitarian assistance is virtually non- existent. -- The Iraqi regime continues to control the distribution of humanitarian assistance, favoring Saddam's cronies, while vulnerable groups throughout Iraq continue to suffer. -- The Iraqi Government increased its military attacks on civilians in the South. -- Iraq has refused to grant visas to UN guards, driving the number of guards down from 500 to 117, further endangering UN and non-governmental organization humanitarian relief workers. -- Iraq has refused to extend the UN's memorandum of understanding detailing the administrative arrangements for the presence in Iraq of UN and other humanitarian workers and the efforts they undertake for the Iraqi people. The United Nations in Geneva has described over 133 incidents of harassment against UN personnel in Iraq since June 25, citing increasingly frequent verbal abuse, vandalism, and violent attacks: -- A car bomb attack aimed at [the French President's wife] Mrs. Mitterrand when she visited northern Iraq, which killed 7 Kurds and wounded 19; -- A bomb found underneath a UN guard vehicle; -- A driver of a UN guard vehicle threatened with a knife as his car is spray-painted; -- UN personnel in the Babylon Hotel in Baghdad have their electricity and telephones disconnected, then an unidentified gas is sprayed into their rooms; -- At the Al-Hayat Hotel, one UN guard staffer had garbage thrown on him; another had his clothes sprayed with acid; -- Grenades were thrown into UN guard offices in northern Iraq; -- A UN guard was shot at and injured while on patrol; [and] -- The windshield of a UN truck was smashed with a crowbar, and some UN staff inside the vehicle were hit by flying glass. The Government of Iraq continues to shamelessly flout UN Security Council resolutions. Its behavior is an affront to the civilized world. We continue to hold the Government of Iraq responsible for the security of all UN workers. We also expect Iraq to respect all UN Security Council resolutions, including the prohibition in Resolution 687 against any hostile or potentially hostile action mounted from one state to another and Resolution 688 regarding repression of the Iraqi people. (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 36, September 7, 1992 Title:

Iraqi Harassment of UN Personnel

UN Source: UN Security Council Description: Note by the President of the UN Security Council, Released by the UN Security Council, New York City Date: Sep, 2 19929/2/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: MidEast/North Africa Country: Iraq Subject: United Nations, Development/Relief Aid, Human Rights [TEXT] Following consultations with the members of the Security Council, the President of the Council made the following statement, on behalf of the Council, at its 3112th meeting, on 2 September 1992, in connection with the Council's consideration of the item entitled "Letter dated 24 August 1992 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council (S/24509)": "The Security Council is deeply concerned at the current situation of the Inter-Agency Humanitarian Programme in Iraq, as outlined in the Secretary- General's letter of 24 August 1992 to the President of the Council (S/24509), including its reference to Iraq's failure to renew its Memorandum of Understanding with the United Nations. "The Security Council recalls the statement of 17 July 1992 (S/24309), in which the Council expressed its profound concern at the deteriorating conditions affecting the safety and well-being of United Nations personnel in Iraq. The Council is particularly disturbed by Iraq's continuing failure to ensure the safety of United Nations personnel and the personnel of non- governmental organizations (NGOs). "The Security Council expresses its concern regarding the conduct and statements of Iraq on the Inter-Agency Humanitarian Programme which are inconsistent with the previous Security Council resolutions that demand that Iraq cooperate with the international humanitarian organizations. "The Security Council affirms that the critical humanitarian needs of vulnerable groups in Iraq require the speedy conclusion of arrangements that would ensure the continuation of the Inter-Agency Humanitarian Programme. In this respect, the Council considers unrestricted access throughout the country and the assurance of adequate security measures as essential prerequisites for the effective implementation of the programme. To this end, the Council fully endorses the Secretary-General's insistence upon appropriate field offices for participating United Nations agencies and programmes and the continuing deployment of the United Nations Guards. The Council strongly supports the Secretary-General's continuing efforts to sustain a United Nations and NGO humanitarian presence throughout Iraq, and urges him to continue to use all resources at his disposal to help all those in need in Iraq. The Council urges Iraq in the strongest possible terms to cooperate with the United Nations." (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 36, September 7, 1992 Title:

The United Nations

PA Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Description: Date: Sep, 7 19929/7/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Whole World Subject: United Nations, History [TEXT]
PROFILE
Established: By charter signed in San Francisco, California, on June 26, 1945; effective October 24, 1945. Purposes: To maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to achieve international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends. Members: 179. Official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish. Principal organs: Secretariat, General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council, Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice. Budget: UN assessed budget (calendar year 1991)--$1.2 billion. US share--$298 million. In calendar year 1991, the United States paid its full assessment of $1.1 billion to the United Nations, its agencies, and other international organizations, including UN peace-keeping operations, voluntary contributions for other UN organizations such as UNICEF, and $25 million for UN refugee programs.
Secretariat
Chief Administrative Officer: Secretary General of the United Nations, appointed to a 5-year term by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. Secretary General: Boutros Boutros-Ghali. Staff: A worldwide staff of 23,000, including more than 2,800 US citizens. The staff is appointed by the Secretary General according to UN regulations.
General Assembly
Membership: All UN members. President: Elected at the beginning of each General Assembly session. Main committees: First--Political and Security, primarily disarmament; Special Political Committee. Second--Economic and Financial. Third-- Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural. Fourth--Trusteeship. Fifth-- Administrative and Budgetary. Sixth--Legal. Many other committees address specific issues, including peace-keeping, outer space, crime prevention, status of women, and UN Charter reform.
Security Council
Membership: Five permanent members (China, France, Russia, UK, US), each with the right to veto, and 10 non-permanent members elected by the General Assembly for 2-year terms. (In December 1991, Russia assumed the permanent Security Council seat previously held by the USSR.) Five non- permanent members are elected from Africa and Asia combined; one from Eastern Europe; two from Latin America; and two from Western Europe and other areas. Non-permanent members are not eligible for immediate reelection. The 1992 non-permanent members are Austria, Belgium, Cape Verde, Ecuador, Hungary, India, Japan, Morocco, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. President: Rotates monthly in English alphabetical order of members.
Economic and Social Council
Membership: 54; 18 elected each year by the General Assembly for 3-year terms. President: Elected each year.
Trusteeship Council
Membership: China, France, Russia, UK, US. President: Elected each year.
International Court of Justice
Membership: 15, elected for 9-year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council from nominees of national groups under provisions of the International Court of Justice Statute.
BACKGROUND
The immediate antecedent of the United Nations was the League of Nations. It was created under US leadership following World War I (although the United States never became a member). The League existed from 1919 until its reduced organization and functions were replaced by the United Nations in 1945. The idea for the United Nations found expression in declarations signed at conferences in Moscow and Tehran in October and December 1943. In the summer of 1944, representatives of the USSR, the UK, and the United States met at Dumbarton Oaks, a mansion in Washington, DC. Later, discussions among China, the UK, and the United States resulted in proposals concerning the purposes and principles of an international organization, its membership and principal organs, as well as arrangements to maintain international peace and security and international economic and social cooperation. These proposals were discussed and debated by governments and private citizens worldwide. On March 5, 1945, invitations to a conference to be held in San Francisco in April were issued by the United States on behalf of itself, China, the USSR, and the UK to 42 other governments that had signed the January 1, 1942, "Declaration by United Nations" and that had declared war on Germany or Japan no later than March 1, 1945. The conference added Argentina, Denmark, and the two republics of Byelorussia and the Ukraine, bringing the total to 50. The 50 nations represented at San Francisco signed the Charter of the United Nations on June 26, 1945. Poland, which was not represented at the conference but for which a place among the original signatories had been reserved, added its name later, bringing the total of original signatories to 51. The United Nations came into existence 4 months later, on October 24, 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by the five permanent members of the Security Council--China, France, the USSR, the UK, and the United States--and by a majority of the other signatories. UN membership is open to all "peace-loving states" that accept the obligations of the UN Charter and, in the judgment of the organization, are able and willing to fulfill these obligations. In September 1991, there were 166 members. By August 1992, 179 countries were members of the UN. Admission to membership is determined by the General Assembly upon recommendation of the Security Council. In New York City, the UN owns its headquarters site, which is inter-national territory. The UN headquarters building was constructed between January 1, 1949, and August 21, 1950, beside the East River on donated land. Under special agreement with the United States, certain diplomatic privileges and immunities have been granted, but generally the laws of New York City, New York State, and the United States apply.
SECURITY COUNCIL
Under the UN Charter, the Security Council has "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security," and all UN members "agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter." Other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to member governments. The Security Council, however, has the power to make decisions, which member governments must carry out under the Charter. A representative of each Security Council member must always be present at UN headquarters so that the Council can meet at any time. Decisions in the Security Council on all substantive matters--for example, a decision calling for direct measures related to the settlement of a dispute- -require the affirmative votes of nine members, including the support of all five permanent members. A negative vote--a veto--by a permanent member prevents adoption of a proposal that has received the required number of affirmative votes. Abstention is not regarded as a veto. A permanent member usually abstains when it does not wish to vote in favor of a decision or to block it with a veto. A state that is a member of the UN but not of the Security Council may participate in Security Council discussions in which the Council agrees that the country's interests are particularly affected. In recent years, the Council has interpreted this loosely, enabling many countries to take part in its discussions. Non-members routinely are invited to take part when they are parties to disputes being considered by the Council. Although the UN Charter gives the Security Council primary responsibility for international peace and security, it recommends that states first make every effort to settle their disputes peacefully, either bilaterally or through regional organizations. Under Chapter Six of the Charter "Pacific Settlement of Disputes," the Security Council "may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute." The Council may "recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment" if it determines that the situation might endanger international peace and security. These recommendations are not binding on UN members. Under Chapter Seven, the Council has broader power to decide upon measures to be taken in situations involving "threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression." In such situations, the Council is not limited to recommendations but may take action, including the use of armed force, "to maintain or restore international peace and security." This was the basis for UN armed action in Korea in 1950 and for the use of coalition forces in Iraq and Kuwait in 1991. In the case of Iraq, the Security Council adopted 12 resolutions in 1990 that clearly laid out the path of peace for that country to follow. Those resolutions demanded that Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally from Kuwait, established an economic embargo against Iraq backed by force, and authorized the use of "all means necessary" to expel Iraqi armed forces from Kuwait if the Iraqis did not withdraw by January 15, 1991. When the Iraqis did not withdraw, the international coalition of forces launched Operation Desert Storm at 4:50 pm Eastern Standard Time on January 16 to force Iraq into complying with the 12 UN Security Council resolutions. As a result of that joint military operation, the Iraqi armed forces were expelled from Kuwait.
GENERAL ASSEMBLY
The General Assembly is made up of all 179 UN members. Member countries are seated in English alphabetical order. Each year, seating begins at a point in the alphabet determined through a drawing. The Assembly meets in regular session once a year under a president elected from among the representatives. The regular session usually begins on the third Tuesday in September and ends in mid-December. Special sessions can be convened at the request of the Security Council, of a majority of UN members, or, if the majority concurs, of a single member. There have been 14 special sessions of the General Assembly. The 10th special session, in 1978, constituted the largest inter-governmental conference on disarmament in history. Voting in the General Assembly on important questions--recommendations on peace and security; election of members to organs; admission, suspension, and expulsion of members; trusteeship questions; budgetary matters--is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting "yes" or "no." Abstentions are not counted. Other questions are decided by a simple majority vote. Each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment, Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members. It may make recommendations on any questions or matters within the scope of the UN except matters of peace and security under Security Council consideration. As the only UN organ in which all members are represented, the Assembly has been the forum in which members have launched major initiatives on international questions of peace, economic progress, and human rights. It may initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation; develop and codify international law; realize human rights and fundamental freedoms; and further international economic, social, cultural, educational, and health programs. The Assembly may take action if the Security Council is unable--usually due to disagreement among the five permanent members--to exercise its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace in a case involving an apparent threat to the peace, breach of peace, or act of aggression. The "Uniting for Peace" resolutions, adopted in 1950, empower the Assembly, if not already in session, to convene in emergency special session on 24-hour notice and to recommend collective measures--including the use of armed force in the case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression. Two-thirds of the members must approve any such recommendation. Emergency special sessions under this procedure have been held on nine occasions. The eighth emergency special session, in September 1981, considered the situation in Namibia. The situation in the occupied Arab territories, following Israel's unilateral extension of its laws, jurisdiction, and administration to the Golan Heights, was the subject of the ninth emergency session in January and February 1982. Recently, the Assembly has become a forum for the North-South dialogue-- the discussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries. These issues have come to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup of the UN membership. Smaller countries that achieved independence after the UN's creation have caused a massive shift in the Assembly. In 1945, the United Nations had 51 members: now more than two-thirds of its 179 members are developing countries. There are many differences in wealth, size, and outlook among the developing countries. Nevertheless, this large group (some 120 countries in the General Assembly), known as "the Third World," the "non-aligned," and the "Group of 77," has generally voted and acted in concert. Because of their numbers, they tend to determine the agenda of the Assembly, the character of its debates, and the nature of its decisions. For many developing countries, the United Nations is particularly important. It is the collective source of much of their diplomatic influence and the basic outlet for their foreign relations initiatives. Increasingly, they seek inclusion in the councils of power, and the UN provides such a policy forum. The UN has devoted significant attention to the problems of the developing countries, in response to their growing political importance in multilateral arenas. The General Assembly has guided, and in many cases created, special programs to help developing nations acquire the skills, knowledge, and organization they need for more productive economies. These programs complement the work of the various specialized agencies in the UN system. Through its economic committee, the Assembly remains concerned with the question of economic development.
Economic and Social Council
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ECOSOC has 54 members, 18 of whom are selected each year by the General Assembly for a 3-year term. A retiring member is eligible for immediate reelection--the United States, France, the UK, and the USSR have been members since the UN was founded. ECOSOC has held two major sessions each year: a spring meeting, usually in New York, and a summer meeting, usually in Geneva, but now is merging the two sessions into one 7-week session, alternating locations between New York and Geneva. The president is elected for a 1-year term. Voting is by simple majority. ECOSOC undertakes studies and makes recommendations on development, world trade, industrialization, natural resources, human rights, the status of women, population, narcotics, social welfare, science and technology, crime prevention, and other issues.
Trusteeship Council
The UN trusteeship system was established to help ensure that non-self- governing territories were administered in the best interests of the inhabitants and of international peace and security. The Trusteeship Council operates under the authority of the General Assembly or, in the case of strategic trusts, the Security Council. It assists those bodies in carrying out their responsibilities under the UN Charter. A UN member administering a trust territory is pledged to promote the political, economic, and educational advancement of the territory's people. It also promotes "progressive development towards self-government or independence as may be appropriate to the particular circumstances of each territory and its people and the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned." As recently as 1957, 11 territories--most of them former mandates of the League of Nations or territories taken from enemy states at the end of World War II--were part of the UN trusteeship system. All but one have attained self-government or independence, either as separate nations or by joining neighboring independent countries. The only one remaining is the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI), designated as a strategic area and administered by the United States under a 1947 agreement with the Security Council. On May 28, 1986, the Trusteeship Council determined that the United States had fulfilled its obligations as trustee and asked it to make arrangements for trusteeship termination by September 30, 1986, according to the new status arrangements negotiated with TTPI governments and ratified by their peoples in UN-observed acts of self-determination. As a result of these arrangements, the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia became sovereign, self-governing states in free association with the United States. A third TTPI entity, the Northern Mariana Islands, had become a self-governing US commonwealth in 1986. On December 22, 1990, the Security Council confirmed the Trusteeship Council's action in Resolution 683. A fourth TTPI entity, the Republic of Palau, remains subject to the Trusteeship Agreement. The United States and Palau have negotiated a Compact of Free Association, under which Palau would have a status comparable to that of the Marshall Islands and Micronesia. Efforts to bring the compact into effect have been thwarted, however, by failure to obtain the approval of 75% of Palau's voters in order to reconcile nuclear provisions of the compact with non-nuclear provisions of the Palauan Constitution. Membership of the Trusteeship Council consists of the United States--the only country now administering a trust territory--and the other permanent members of the Security Council--China, France, the UK, and Russia.
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the UN. The Court was established under the Charter in 1945 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. Its main functions are to decide cases submitted to it by states and to give advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by the General Assembly or Security Council, or by such specialized agencies as may be authorized to do so by the General Assembly in accordance with the UN Charter. The seat of the Court is in The Hague, Netherlands. It is composed of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council from a list of persons nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Electors are mandated to bear in mind the qualifications of the candidates and the need for the Court as a whole to represent the main cultural groups and principal legal systems. No two judges may be nationals of the same country. Judges serve for 9 years and may be reelected. One- third of the Court (five judges) is elected every 3 years. Questions before the Court are decided by a majority of judges present. Nine judges constitute a quorum. In case of a tie, the president of the Court casts the deciding vote. In certain circumstances, parties may be entitled to request a specific judge for a specific case. Only states may be parties in cases before the International Court of Justice. This does not preclude private interests from being the subject of proceedings if one state brings the case against another. Jurisdiction of the Court is based on the consent of the parties. The United States accepted the Court's compulsory jurisdiction in 1946 but withdrew its acceptance following the Court's decision in the Nicaragua case in 1986. In the event of a dispute concerning the Court's jurisdiction, the matter is settled by the Court. Judgments are binding upon the parties. The Security Council can be called upon by a party to determine measures to be taken to give effect to a judgment if the other party fails to perform its obligations under that judgment. Examples of cases include: -- A dispute between Greece and Turkey over the boundary of the continental shelf in the Aegean Sea; -- A complaint by the United States in 1980 that Iran was detaining American diplomats in Tehran in violation of international law; -- A dispute between Tunisia and Libya over the delimitation of the continental shelf between them; -- A dispute over the course of the maritime boundary dividing the United States and Canada in the Gulf of Maine area; and -- A complaint brought by Nicaragua against the United States concerning military and paramilitary activities.
Secretariat
The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General, assisted by a staff of about 10,000 international civil servants worldwide. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by UN bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the Security Council, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, and other authorized UN bodies. The Charter provides that the staff be chosen by application of the "highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity," with due regard for the importance of recruiting the staff on as wide a geographical basis as possible. The Charter also provides that the Secretary General and staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any government or authority other than the United Nations. Each UN member is enjoined to respect the international character of the Secretariat and not seek to influence its staff. The Secretary General alone is responsible for the staff selection. The Secretary General's duties include helping resolve international disputes, administering peace-keeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information on the implementation of Security Council decisions, and consulting with member governments regarding various international relations initiatives. The Secretary General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that, in his or her opinion, may threaten international peace and security. In 1977, the General Assembly created a new position in the Secretariat--a Director General for Development and Economic Cooperation. The incumbent, second only to the Secretary General, works to obtain better efficiency and coordination of the many economic and developmental programs operating within the UN system.
THE UN FAMILY
In addition to the 6 principal UN organs, the UN family includes nearly 30 major programs or agencies. Some were in existence before the UN was created and are related to it by agreement. Others were established by the General Assembly. Each specialized agency provides expertise in a specific area. Some of the important agencies are discussed below. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Headquartered in Vienna, Austria, the IAEA seeks both to promote the peaceful application of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. The IAEA's programs encourage the development and transfer of the peaceful application of nuclear technology, provide international safeguards against its misuse, facilitate the application of safety measures in its use, and help to ensure the environmentally safe disposal of nuclear waste. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Headquartered in Montreal, Canada, ICAO develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. Currently, the United States is actively involved in the adoption and bringing into force of an ICAO-sponsored multilateral convention to ensure that manufacturers of plastic explosives insert chemical additives to make the explosives detectable by screening devices at airports. International Labor Organization (ILO). Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, ILO is unique among international organizations because of its tripartite character: National delegations consist of representatives from government, management, and labor. US delegations are comprised of representatives from the federal government, the AFL-CIO, and the US Council for International Business. ILO seeks to strengthen worker rights, improve working and living conditions, create employment, and provide information and training opportunities. ILO programs of direct benefit to the United States include the occupational safety and health-hazard-alert system and the labor standards and human rights programs. International Maritime Organization (IMO). Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, IMO promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to prevent marine pollution. A significant IMO accomplishment was the adoption in 1986 of a set of measures, drafted by the United States following the 1985 hijacking of the Achille Lauro, to protect passengers and crews on board ships. IMO has also played a major role in coordinating global response to major oil spills. In November 1990, in reaction to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in response to the 1989 Group of Seven economic summit in Paris, a new international convention on oil pollution preparedness and response was completed and opened for signature. Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the UN and assists in their return or resettlement. UNHCR was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1954 and 1982. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). Headquartered in New York City, UNICEF is headed by a US executive director and provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. A voluntarily funded agency, UNICEF relies on contributions from governments and private donors. Its programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965. In September 1990, it hosted a World Summit for Children to address problems and opportunities for children and to rally the political will and resources to meet their needs. President Bush headed the US delegation. UN Development Program (UNDP). Headquartered in New York City, UNDP has a US administrator and is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. Voluntarily funded, it provides expert advice, training, and limited equipment to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the poorest countries. UN Environmental Program (UNEP). Headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP leads and coordinates UN environmental activities, calling attention to global and regional environmental problems and stimulating programs to address the problems. UNEP assists developing countries in implementing environmentally sound development policies and has produced a worldwide environmental monitoring system to standardize international data. UNEP also has developed guidelines and treaties on issues such as the international transport of potentially harmful chemicals, trans-boundary air pollution, and contamination of international waterways. UNEP is implementing two important new agreements aimed at protecting the earth's ozone layer. The United States helped establish, through UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which provides a forum to analyze the climate changes in the atmosphere resulting from natural and man-made chemicals (the so-called greenhouse effect). World Food Program (WFP). Headquartered in Rome, Italy, the WFP distributes food commodities to support development projects, for protracted refugee and displaced persons projects, and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and manmade disasters. Development projects, traditionally about two-thirds of WFP programs, now constitute about 55%, as emergency and protracted refugee situations worldwide result in increasing demands for WFP programs and resources. WFP operates exclusively from voluntary contributions of both commodities and cash donated by governments. World Health Organization (WHO). Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, WHO acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. After years of fighting smallpox, WHO declared in 1979 that the disease had been eradicated. It is nearing success in developing vaccines against malaria and schistosomiasis and aims to eradicate polio by the year 2000. WHO also is coordinating global research into the causes, cures, and potential vaccines against acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Overall, the agency is working toward the goal of "health for all by the year 2000" by seeking a level of health for all the world's people that will enable them to lead productive lives.
US REPRESENTATION
The US Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York is headed by the US Representative to the United Nations, with the rank of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary. The mission serves as the channel of communication for the US Government with the UN organs, agencies, and commissions at the UN headquarters and with the other permanent missions accredited to the UN and the non-member observer missions. The US mission has a professional staff made up largely of career Foreign Service officers, including specialists in public affairs and in political, economic, social, financial, legal, and military issues. The United States also maintains missions in Geneva, Montreal, Nairobi, Rome, and Vienna as well as offices in other cities where various UN agencies are based. All of these missions report to the Department of State and receive guidance on all questions of policy from the President through the Secretary of State. Relations with the UN and its family of agencies are coordinated by the Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs. US delegations to the annual regular sessions of the General Assembly include two members of the US Congress--one Democrat and one Republican, selected in alternate years from the Senate and the House of Representatives. Delegations also include prominent US citizens from fields outside the government. The US Mission to the United Nations is located at 799 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017 (tel. 212-415-4000). In 1992, UN membership increased from 166 to 179 with the addition of 13 new countries: Armenia (March) Azerbaijan (March) Bosnia-Hercegovina (May) Croatia (May) Georgia (July) Kazakhstan (March) Kyrgyzstan (March) Moldova (March) San Marino (March) Slovenia (May) Tajikistan (March) Turkmenistan (March) Uzbekistan (March) (###)
Preamble to Charter of the United Nations
We the Peoples of the United Nations Determined To Save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and To Reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women of nations large and small, and To Establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and To Promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, And for these ends To practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbors, and To Unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and To Ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and To employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples, Have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims. Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.
179 Members of the United Nations (1)
Afghanistan (1946) Albania (1955) Algeria (1962) Angola (1976) Antigua and Barbuda (1981) Argentina Armenia (1992) Australia Austria (1955) Azerbaijan (1992) The Bahamas (1973) Bahrain (1971) Bangladesh (1974) Barbados (1966) Belarus (formerly Byelorussian SSR) Belgium Belize (1981) Benin (1960) Bhutan (1971) Bolivia Bosnia-Hercegovina (1992) Botswana (1966) Brazil Brunei Darussalam (1984) Bulgaria (1955) Burkina Faso (1960) Burma (1948) Burundi (1962) Cambodia (1955) Cameroon (1960) Canada Cape Verde (1975) Central African Republic (1960) Chad (1960) Chile China (2) Colombia Comoros (1975) Congo (1960) Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (1960) Croatia (1992) Cuba Cyprus (1960) Czechoslovakia Denmark Djibouti (1977) Dominica (1978) Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea (1968) Estonia (1991) Ethiopia Fiji (1970) Finland (1955) France Gabon (1960) The Gambia (1965) Georgia (1992) Germany (1973) Ghana (1957) Greece Grenada (1974) Guatemala Guinea (1958) Guinea-Bissau (1974) Guyana (1966) Haiti Honduras Hungary (1955) Iceland (1946) India Indonesia (1950) Iran Iraq Ireland (1955) Israel (1949) Italy (1955) Jamaica (1962) Japan (1956) Jordan (1955) Kazakhstan (1992) Kenya (1963) Korea, North (1991) Korea, South (1991) Kuwait (1963) Kyrgyzstan (1992) Laos (1955) Latvia (1991) Lebanon Lesotho (1966) Liberia Libya (1955) Liechtenstein (1990) Lithuania (1991) Luxembourg Madagascar (1960) Malawi (1964) Malaysia (1957) Maldives (1965) Mali (1960) Malta (1964) Marshall Islands (1991) Mauritania (1961) Mauritius (1968) Mexico Micronesia (1991) Moldova (1992) Mongolia (1961) Morocco (1956) Mozambique (1975) Namibia (1990) Nepal (1955) Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger (1960) Nigeria (1960) Norway Oman (1971) Pakistan (1947) Panama Papua New Guinea (1975) Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal (1955) Qatar (1971) Romania (1955) Russia (3) Rwanda (1962) St. Kitts and Nevis (1983) St. Lucia (1979) St. Vincent and the Grenadines (1980) Samoa (1976) San Marino (1992) Sao Tome and Principe (1975) Saudi Arabia Senegal (1960) Seychelles (1976) Sierra Leone (1961) Singapore (1965) Slovenia (1992) Solomon Islands (1978) Somalia (1960) South Africa Spain (1955) Sri Lanka (1955) Sudan (1956) Suriname (1975) Swaziland (1968) Sweden (1946) Syria Tajikistan (1992) Tanzania (1961) Thailand (1946) Togo (1960) Trinidad and Tobago (1962) Tunisia (1956) Turkey Turkmenistan (1992) Uganda (1962) Ukraine (formerly Ukrainian SSR) United Arab Emirates (1971) United Kingdom United States of America Uruguay Uzbekistan (1992) Vanuatu (1981) Venezuela Vietnam (1977) Yemen (1947) Yugoslavia (4) Zaire (1960) Zambia (1964) Zimbabwe (1980) ============================================================== (1) Year in parentheses indicates date of admission; countries with no date were original members in 1945. (2) By Resolution 2758 (XXVI) of Oct. 25, 1971, the General Assembly decided "to restore all its rights to the People's Republic of China and to recognize the representative of its Government as the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations." (3) In December 1991, Russia assumed the permanent Security Council seat previously held by the USSR. (4) The claim of Serbia-Montenegro to the seat of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia has not been generally recognized by the other members of the UN ===============================================================
UN SECRETARIES GENERAL
Trygve Lie (Norway) Feb. 1, 1946-April 10, 1953 Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) April 10, 1953-Sept. 18, 1961 U Thant (Burma) Nov. 3, 1961-Dec. 31, 1971 (Initially appointed acting Secretary General; formally appointed Secretary General Nov. 30, 1962.) Kurt Waldheim (Austria) Jan. 1, 1972-Dec. 31, 1981 Javier Perez de Cuellar (Peru) Jan. 1, 1982-Dec. 31, 1991 Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt) Jan. 1, 1992-present (###)
US REPRESENTATIVES TO THE UNITED NATIONS:
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. - March 1946-June 1946 Hershel V. Johnson (acting) - June 1946-Jan. 1947 Warren R. Austin - Jan. 1947-Jan. 1953 Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. - Jan. 1953-Sept. 1960 James J. Wadsworth - Sept. 1960-Jan. 1961 Adlai E. Stevenson - Jan. 1961-July 1965 Arthur J. Goldberg - July 1965-June 1968 George W. Ball - June 1968-Sept. 1968 James Russell Wiggins - Oct. 1968-Jan. 1969 Charles W. Yost - Jan. 1969-Feb. 1971 George Bush - Feb. 1971-Jan. 1973 John A. Scali - Feb. 1973-June 1975 Daniel P. Moynihan - June 1975-Feb. 1976 William W. Scranton -March 1976-Jan. 1977 Andrew Young - Jan. 1977-April 1979 Donald McHenry - April 1979-Jan. 1981 Jeane J. Kirkpatrick - Feb. 1981-April 1985 Vernon Walters - May 1985-Jan. 1989 Thomas R. Pickering - March 1989-May 1992 Edward J. Perkins - May 1992-present (###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 36, September 7, 1992 Title:

What's In Print: Foreign Relations of the United States

PA Source: Office of Public Communication, Bureau of Public Affairs Date: Sep, 7 19929/7/92 Category: Features Region: Southeast Asia, East Asia Country: China, Taiwan, Philippines, France Subject: History, State Department [TEXT] The Office of the Historian has released on microfiche Secretary of State's Memoranda of Conversation, November 1952-December 1954, a supplement to the Foreign Relations of the United States series. This publication provides the documentary record of 873 meetings and telephone conversations held or made by John Foster Dulles or his principal deputy between November 1952 and December 1954. No other set of documents provides so complete an accounting of the Secretary's duties and responsibilities and his views on the whole range of American foreign policy interests and commitments. The documents focus on such issues as the deteriorating French position in Indochina, agreements with the Philippines and the Chinese Nationalist government in Taiwan, US participation in SEATO, and European defense. Some of the memoranda of conversation contained in the microfiche previously have been printed in appropriate Foreign Relations volumes. This set of memoranda is being issued to provide a unique scholarly aid to evaluating the early years of Secretary Dulles. Secretary of State's Memoranda of Conversation, November 1952-December 1954 (GPO Stock No. 044-000-02341-5) contains about 2,600 pages on 29 microfiche cards and is accompanied by a 149-page printed guide containing both a chronological list of documents and an index. Copies of the publication may be purchased for $15.00 domestic postpaid (international customers please add 25%) from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, New Orders, PO Box 37154, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954. For further information, contact Glenn W. LaFantasie, General Editor of the Foreign Relations series at (202) 663-1133. (###)