US Department of State 

Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992

Title:

US-Russian Summit: Secretary's News Conference

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Opening statement from White House press briefing, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 15 19926/15/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: POW/MIA Issues, Democratization, Trade/Economics, Arms Control [TEXT] The starting point for this summit is very straightforward: It is democracy and freedom. Russia is now democratic. The captive nations of the former Soviet Union are free. These facts create an entirely different context for this Washington summit--presenting opportunities that were, indeed, unimaginable during the Soviet era. As he meets with President Yeltsin --the democratically elected leader of an independent and democratic Russia--President Bush is focused on building a democratic peace with Russia. This would be a fundamentally different peace than the peace that existed during the Cold War, because it would be built on our shared democratic values, not competition nor a balance of terror. It would be a true and enduring peace, not a "cold peace" such as existed during the Cold War when all we could hope to do was to manage conflicts and contain crises. Now we aim to build a true partnership and friendship with the Russian Government and the Russian people. The President's discussions with President Yeltsin will focus on the full range of our relations--political, economic, and military. Our hope is not just to exchange views now, but to chart a new agenda in our relations, an agenda built on democratic values that can guide us well into the future. Let me discuss several critical topics that the President expects to discuss with President Yeltsin. First of all, the President will want to hear about the situation in Russia and how President Yeltsin's efforts to build democracy are proceeding. We have been making progress on many issues--for example, POW/MIA [prisoners of war/missing in action] concerns--and the President will want to express our appreciation to President Yeltsin for his efforts in these areas. Second, the President plans to discuss the state of Russia's relations with its neighbors--particularly Ukraine, the Baltics, and the transcaucasus states. The President will also want to see how we might be helpful in resolving the Northern Territories dispute with Russia's neighbor and potential partner in the Pacific, Japan. Third, the two Presidents will want to discuss European security. In particular, they will discuss the continuing humanitarian nightmare in Bosnia, the steps that we and others collectively take to try to alleviate the terrible human suffering in Sarajevo, and the possible mechanisms that we might propose to improve Europe's ability to prevent and manage conflicts and to strengthen the capabilities for peace-keeping, including a role for NATO. Fourth, we will discuss next steps in arms control and defense cooperation. Obviously, the Presidents hope to reach an agreement on further far- reaching reductions in strategic nuclear weapons. But we also plan to discuss how we can work together to combat proliferation, both through efforts in places like North Korea, through strengthening non-proliferation regimes, and through working together on missile warning and strategic defenses. With the Cold War behind us, we also want to move toward partnership between our militaries, and the President will want to discuss ways we can and will deepen and widen our military contacts and dialogue. President Yeltsin is pursuing a courageous path toward free markets, and President Bush will want to hear how recent steps fit into the overall reform effort. In particular, the President will want to discuss Russia's efforts at microeconomic and structural reform, privatization, and demonopolization. As Russia works with the IMF [International Monetary Fund] on putting together its macroeconomic program, we feel it [is] also essential that Russia move forward quickly with progress on microeconomic reform as well. This is, of course, essential for promoting the growth of a middle class in Russia and for stimulating the involvement of our private sector in Russia's reform efforts. Finally, President Yeltsin has various appointments around Washington--the most important of which is undoubtedly his address before a joint session of the Congress. On April 1, the President sent the FREEDOM [Freedom for Russia and the Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets] Support Act to the Congress, asking both the Senate and the House to join him in supporting democracy and freedom in Russia and in the new independent states. It was the President's goal to have the FREEDOM Support Act passed by the time President Yeltsin arrived here. We hope that the Senate will exert leadership and pass the FREEDOM Support Act this week. Further, we hope that after hearing personally from President Yeltsin on this subject, both Houses will move quickly to join in a bipartisan fashion with the Administration to pass the FREEDOM Support Act, thereby signaling America's unequivocal and bipartisan support for democracy in Russia and in the new independent states as a whole.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit: Secretary's Remarks Upon President Yeltsin's Arrival

Baker Source: Secretary Baker Description: Remarks at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland Date: Jun, 15 19926/15/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: POW/MIA Issues, Democratization, Trade/Economics, Arms Control [TEXT] Mr. President and Mrs. Yeltsin, on behalf of President and Mrs. Bush, and on behalf of the American people, Susan and I welcome you to the United States. As you can see, in honor of your state visit, the Russian Federation's tricolor has been raised aloft with America's own stars and stripes. Today, and throughout your trip, our two flags will wave together in a proud profusion of red, white, and blue around our nation's capital. These are the colors of liberty and democracy. Our banners symbolize the democratic values for which our peoples--and for which you personally-- have stood tall and have been prepared to sacrifice dearly. These are the values for which, at long last, Russia and America have come together in democratic partnership. Over the course of two centuries, the foreign affairs of America and Russia have at times converged and at others conflicted--under czarist rule as well as under communist power. But in the 200 years of our relations, it has not been possible until this year for America and Russia to forge a genuine partnership--indeed, a partnership that can truly endure and benefit our two nations, our peoples, and the people of the world. The partnership that you and President Bush launched in February at Camp David means far more than the transitory coincidence of great power interests or some temporary so-called correlation of political forces. It represents something far more basic. -- It is the kind of partnership that is only possible between the elected representatives of democratic governments. -- It is the kind of partnership that deepens through the dynamic interplay of pluralistic, civil societies and unfettered market economies. -- It is the kind of partnership that the United States has been able to build and sustain with many great democracies throughout the world. -- In short, it is the kind of partnership that can endure, because it is based on an unshakable commitment to shared values as well as on the determination to chart a common course for the future. -- Our partnership is one of deeds, not of paper. It is a working partnership that can and will produce results. Consequently, America and Russia have set an ambitious agenda for this state visit, and each of our countries has been preparing intensively in advance to ensure a meaningful and a substantive success. On the eve of what we know will be several days of intensive discussions, President Bush and I want you to know that we recognize the tremendous effort and remarkable progress that Russia is making. We ascribe Russia's many achievements toward full democracy and free markets in no small part to your own courageous and tireless leadership. We reaffirm our determination to match Russia's progress with America's solid support, especially by means of the FREEDOM Support Act. I have no doubt that your visit and your address to the extraordinary joint session of Congress will strengthen bipartisan support for the act's early passage. President Bush and I firmly believe that the American people understand the profound implications of Russia's democratic and economic transformation and that they will not fail to respond. For the American people know that through your success our peoples can reach out to one another and replace decades of distrust with centuries of democratic peace--decades of fear with centuries of friendship. Certainly, this summit holds immense promise for world peace and stability. Moscow and Washington already have done much [to] reduce the weapons of mass destruction and to increase the prospects for peace in the world's troubled regions. We must continue this proud legacy during your visit--for Russia's sake, for America's sake, and for the world's sake. And so, in the spirit of our deepening democratic partnership, and on behalf of President Bush and the American people, I extend to you, Mr. President, to Mrs. Yeltsin, and to your entire delegation, our best wishes for a productive and pleasant stay.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit: Presidents' Remarks at White House Arrival Ceremony,

Bush Yelstin Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Remarks released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 16 19926/16/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Democratization, Trade/Economics [TEXT]
President Bush:
Mr. President and Mrs. Yeltsin, distinguished members of the Russian delegation, welcome to the United States of America. And also a welcome to all of you who have come here to welcome President Yeltsin and Mrs. Yeltsin; welcome to the White House. Today marks the beginning of a new era, a new kind of summit--not a meeting between two powers struggling for global supremacy, but between two partners striving to build a democratic peace. From this summit we see a new horizon; a new world of peace and hope; a new world of cooperation and partnership between the American and Russian people. Our hope is that this partnership will end forever the old antagonisms that kept our people apart, that kept the world in confrontation and conflict. Your nation is embarked on a great experiment, a new Russian revolution with freedom as its goal. The progress that Russia has made and the promise of more to come owes much to the courage and vision of President Boris Yeltsin. Like Peter the Great, you are redefining Russia's understanding of itself; redefining Russia's role in the world. But for the first time in modern Russian history, a leader claims as his authority not the dispensation of history but a democratic mandate. You come here as an elected leader-- elected by the people in free and fair elections. And we salute you. Already, together we're transforming our relations with benefits not simply to our two nations but to the entire world. Today, the threat of a cataclysmic conventional war has vanished with the Warsaw Pact and the rise of democracy in Russia. And, today, the threat of a nuclear nightmare is more distant now than at any time since the dawn of the nuclear age. I say this with a sense of pride, a sense of awe, and, above all, a sense of history. There is no greater gift to the people of America, to the people of Russia, to the people all over the world, than an end to the awful specter of global war. Think for just a minute about what that means, not for presidents, not for heads of state or historians, but for parents and for their children. It means a future free from fear. This first US-Russia summit gives us a chance to lay the foundation of a more peaceful and prosperous future for all of our citizens. We will discuss Russia's historic transition to the free market, its integration into the world economy, and our commitment to support those reforms. We will seek new ways to expand trade between our two nations, to create wealth and growth and jobs, new levels of military cooperation to reduce further the risk of war, and, finally, new agreements to reduce nuclear arms and to remove from our arsenals the most destructive weapons. But this morning I want to focus on our ultimate goal: on the challenge we face to forge a new peace, a permanent peace between two nations who must never again be adversaries. Right now, the people of Russia are waging a valiant struggle for the very same rights and freedoms that we Americans prize so deeply. The fate of that revolution--the future of democracy in Russia and other new nations of the old Soviet empire--is the most important foreign policy issue of our time. The United States and its democratic allies must play a key role in helping forge a democratic peace. That is why I urge the Congress of the United States once again to pass the FREEDOM Support Act, to strengthen democratic reform in Russia and the other new nations of the old Soviet Union. The aid that I've requested from the Congress is significant, but it is also a tiny fraction of the $4 trillion that this nation spent to secure peace during the long Cold War. The resources we devote now are an investment in a new century of peace with Russia. History offers us a rare chance--a chance to achieve what twice before this century has escaped our grasp. It is the vision that perished twice in the battlefields of Europe. The vision that gave us hope through the long Cold War--the dream of a new world of freedom. When we think of the world our children and theirs will inherit, no single factor will shape their future more than the fate of the revolution now unfolding in Russia. Your Russian revolution, like our American Revolution, simply must succeed. Once again, my friend, welcome to the White House. May God grant a peaceful future to the American and the Russian people.
President Yeltsin:
Mr. President, Mrs. Bush. First of all, I take this opportunity to thank you, Mr. President, for the warm words of welcome which you have just addressed to Russia, to the people of Russia, and to the President of Russia. I extend greetings to you and to the people of the United States of America on behalf of the peoples of the Russian Federation. I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to you for this warm hospitality. Today marks the beginning of the first-ever official visit by the President of Russia to the United States of America. The time when our two nations viewed each other with suspicion and even animosity is behind us. Today, we are opening a new agenda. Never before have the prospects for a better world order, hopes for the solution of global problems, been so tangible and reachable. Our two nations are increasingly aware that it is more than wasteful to throw the vital energies and the intellectual resources of our two peoples away into the abyss of confrontation. This is in conflict with the fundamental interests of all nations and poses a very real threat to their future. The bastions of communism were on combat duty for over 70 years. Until very recently, they looked unassailable. They exist no more. They collapsed without a shot being fired, without one human life lost, and have only left behind the sentiment of profound disappointment and bitterness among millions of men and women. We believe that it is our goal today to bring Russia back to normalcy, restore it the values and the fundamentals which have evolved in the course of human history. We have not come to ask your country to solve our problems for us. We have brought along ideas and concrete proposals as well as projects which may provide the foundation in which to build full-scale cooperation between our two nations and peoples. I am aware that the US side is ready to negotiate in that same vein. We have things to offer to the American farmer, to the American industrialist, and to the American banker. I am convinced that practical partnership will make our nations richer and our peoples happier. We have seen a good beginning. Both the Americans and the Russians no longer view each other as adversaries and have made their first important steps toward each other. After the wall of mutual isolation between our two countries came down, citizens of Russia and America were surprised to see how similar they were and how similar their ideals and aspirations are. They raise families, sow crops, love their country, and crave for tranquility and peace on earth so that their families are never endangered. The US experience holds a special importance for us. Our two countries and peoples are commensurate in terms of both size and character: We share values, we have common concerns, and we hold the same hopes for the future. We have a good ground for cooperation. I am hopeful that this visit will see major progress in all the areas of our ties. This refers, above all, to global arms reductions and economic interaction. I thank you, Mr. President, I thank Mrs. Bush and all of you who are present here, especially the military people, for welcoming us here on behalf of the Russian delegation.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit: Presidents' Announcement of Strategic Arms Reduction

Bush Yelstin Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Presidents' Announcement of Strategic Arms Reduction, Opening remarks released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 16 19926/16/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Arms Control, Nuclear Nonproliferation [TEXT]
President Bush:
Mr. President, let me just say that I'm pleased to announce that President Yeltsin and I have just reached an extraordinary agreement on two areas of vital importance to our countries and to the world. First, we have agreed on far-reaching new strategic arms reductions. Building on the agreement reached with Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Byelarus, our two countries are now agreeing to even further dramatic strategic arms reductions, substantially below the levels determined by START [Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty] . We've agreed to eliminate the world's most dangerous weapons--heavy ICBMs [inter-continental ballistic missiles] and all other multiple warhead ICBMs--and dramatically reduce our total strategic nuclear weapons. Those dramatic reductions will take place in two phases. They will be completed no later than the year 2003 and may be completed as early as the year 2000 if the United States can assist Russia in the required destruction of ballistic missile systems. With this agreement, the nuclear nightmare recedes more and more for ourselves, for our children, and for our grand- children. Just a few years ago, the United States was planning a strategic nuclear stockpile of about 13,000 warheads. Now, President Yeltsin and I have agreed that both sides will go down to 3,000 to 3,500 warheads, with each nation determining its own force structure within that range. I'd like to point out that this fundamental agreement, which in earlier years could not have been completed even in a decade, has been completed in only 5 months. Our ability to reach this agreement so quickly is a tribute to the new relationship between the United States and Russia and to the personal leadership of our guest, Boris Yeltsin. In the near future, the United States and Russia will record our agreement in a brief treaty document that President Yeltsin and I will sign and submit for ratification in our countries. President Yeltsin and I have also agreed to work together, along with the allies and other interested states, to develop a concept for a global protection system against limited ballistic missile attack. We will establish a senior group to explore practical steps toward that end, including the sharing of early warning and cooperation in developing ballistic missile defense capabilities and technologies. This group will also explore the development of a legal basis for cooperation, including new treaties and agreements necessary to implement the global protection system. That group, headed by Dennis Ross for the United States, will first meet in Moscow within the next 30 days. In conclusion, these are remarkable steps for our two countries--a departure from the tensions and the suspicions of the past, and a tangible, important expression of our new relationship. They also hold major promise for a future world protected against the danger of limited ballistic missile attack.
President Yeltsin:
Mr. President; ladies and gentlemen, I would like to add a few words to what President Bush has just announced here. What we have achieved is an unparalleled and probably an unexpected thing for you and for the whole world. You are the first to hear about this historic decision, which has been reached today after just 5 months of negotiations. We are, in fact, meeting a sharp, dramatic reduction in the total number for the two sides of the amount of nuclear warheads from 21,000 to 6,000- 7,000 for the United States of America and Russia. Indeed, we have been able to cut, over those 5 months of negotiations, the total number of nuclear warheads to one-third, while it took 15 years under the START Treaty [sic] to make some reductions. This is an expression of the fundamental change in the political and economic relations between the United States of America and Russia. It is also an expression and proof of the personal trust and confidence that has been established between the Presidents of these countries--President Bush of the United States of America and the President of Russia. These things have been achieved without deception, without anybody wishing to gain unilateral advantages. This is a result of the trust entertained by the President of the democratic Russia toward America, and by the President of the United States toward the new Russia. This is the result of a carefully measured balance of security. We were not going in for numbers, for just 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 pieces. Rather, we established a bracket for each country to elect the number they figure that it will consider appropriate for its own defense and security. As I have told you, the total number will go down from 21,000 to 6,000 for two sides. Under the first phase, the reductions for the two sides will be down to 3,800 to 4,250 bracket, including ICBMs, 1,250; and heavy missiles, 650; SLBMs [submarine-launched ballistic missiles], 2,250. Under the second phase, we shall go down to, respectively, 3,000 and 3,500, including total reduction and destruction of heavy missiles. Land-based MIRVs [multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles] will be reduced as well. SLBMs will go down to 1,750. Each country will elect the figure that it will consider appropriate to ensure its defense and security. Thus, we are departing from the ominous parity where each country was exerting every effort to stay in line, which has led Russia, for instance, having half of its population living below the poverty line. We cannot afford it, and therefore, we must have minimum security level to deal with any possible eventuality which might arise anywhere in the world and threaten our security. But we know one thing: We shall not fight against each other. This is a solemn undertaking that we are taking today, and it will be reflected as a matter of partnership and friendship in the charter that we are going to sign. Our proposal is to cut the process of destruction from the proposed 13 years down to 9 years. So the things that I have been mentioning before will be materialized by the year 2000. I am happy to be involved here in this historic occasion, and I will also hope that I will be as happy when this thing is materialized. And President Bush and I will be celebrating together the implementation of that agreement in the year 2000. I want to add that these figures have been agreed with and ratified by the Secretary of Defense, Mr. Cheney, and the Defense Minister Paval Grachev of the Russian Federation.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit: Presidents' Exchange of Toasts at White House

Bush Yelstin Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Remarks released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 16 19926/16/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: History, Democratization [TEXT]
President Bush:
Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to the White House. Mr. President and Mrs. Yeltsin, and distinguished guests all, Barbara and I are delighted to welcome you here tonight on a day that I think history will record as something very, very special. I am very pleased with the arrangements that we were able to work out with President Yeltsin today. I think it's good for mankind; I think it's good for the generations here and the generations to come. You are here on a historic occasion, and we couldn't be more pleased. Tonight's dinner is a little bit more formal than the blue jeans and sweaters that we wore back up there at Camp David in February, but I believe the progress we made today would not have been possible without that private time we spent together and, then, without the hard work of our Secretary and your Foreign Minister; our Secretary of Defense, your Defense Minister; our Ambassador, your Ambassador. As I said this morning as I welcomed you to the White House, this meeting marks a new kind of summit--not a meeting between two powers that are struggling for global supremacy but between two partners striving to build a democratic peace. This new relationship has its roots in the new Russian revolution, and that revolution owes so much to our guest here tonight. Just as crises show the meddle of a man, so, too, they show the strength of an idea. When back in August of 1991 the old guard threatened to take Russia backward, Boris Yeltsin led the defense of democracy from the building the Russians call the White House. The coup plotters set out to destroy democracy, and, instead, thanks to the courage of this man, they made it stronger. You've been described many times as a maverick, a word coined in the American heartland to capture the independent streak that sets some individuals apart from the crowd. I think our fellow Texans, Jim Baker and Bob Strauss [US Ambassador to Russia], would agree you possess a certain spirit that you find on the plains of the west. Tonight we honor your courage and celebrate the new possibilities now open to us. Think back to the Cold War climate that marked earlier summits and how far we've come. How much safer, how much more hopeful to meet tonight as friends united by common ideals. More than 150 years ago, de Tocqueville predicted that the United States and Russia would one day be the world's two great powers--rivals for world dominance. We must prove that prophecy was only true for a time and that our two nations can forge a new future in freedom. Our governments will work to build stronger ties for the sake of peace and prosperity. We in our country, we in this country, must reach out, provide the assistance that can help Russia's democratic revolution succeed. But the bonds that knit democracies together can never be created by government alone. Democracies grow together through the countless encounters that take place every day between private individuals, professionals, business and labor, artists and educators in your country and ours. Gone are the days when vast parts of our countries were off-limits to foreign visitors. Under our new open lands agreement, for the first time Russian and American officials, and more important, Russian and American citizens, will be free to travel anywhere in each other's country to witness the customs and heritage that set us apart and the common humanity that draws us together. Tonight I offer this toast in the spirit of friendship to the new partnership between our people, to the success of the new Russian revolution, and to the health and happiness of Boris Yeltsin, the President of Russia.
President Yeltsin:
Mr. President, our charming hostess, Mrs. Bush, ladies and gentlemen. This is really not an ordinary day for me here. I would rather say that this is the best day in my life because, today, we have resolved something for which I have been striving for a long time. We have decided today to cut nuclear arsenals of the two countries to one-third of their today's strength. Just to give that a numerical expression, we are going down from 21,000 nuclear warheads to 6,000 or 7,000. This is not a reduction by a mere 30%, 40%, or 50%. We are going down to one-third of what we have today. President Bush--George, my friend, George--we have done it today. I believe that the year of 1992 will, indeed, go down in history, because this is the year which has seen an unheard of speed in reaching agreements. And, of course, the unheard of speed in reducing arsenals of the dangerous weapons. Today, there is no deterrence of the mutual suspicion in tolerance or fear. We are really limited and constrained today only by technical reasons. And I think that this is due first and foremost to the personal trust and confidence that has evolved between the two Presidents of these two great countries--Russia and America working hard to get rid of the stereotypes which, for many a year, were in the foundation of the barriers which separated us. Today, it is particularly obvious to what extent they were unnatural and alien to the interests of our two peoples. America and Russia have always affected not only the course of the world history but have also influenced each other. Three million people--men and women of Russian descent--who live in the United States today have contributed to the implementation of the American dream; to its translation into reality. Their labor and inspiration make up an inalienable part of the efforts of the American people to build its wonderful and free country. These people have brought with them not only their tribulations and losses, they have also brought to America their knowledge, their culture, and their moral values. I understand that many of those of you who are sitting here have also Russian parents and grandparents. The names of our countrymen who live in this country, outstanding Americans--Sergei Rachmaninoff, Igor Sikorsky, David Sarnoff, Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Wassily Leontief, and Josef Brodsky, and many others--are well-known throughout the world. Despite the many years of the Iron Curtain, the defunct regime has failed to uproot the current sentiments of the Russian people toward America. America has always remained a role model for us--a role model of enterprise, the ability to build a good life on the great expanses of America and of optimistic outlook. When we see here in this room and also in the streets where we have been today the famous American smiles, we thought for many a time that such a smile, that only free people can have such smiles. In the most critical moments of history when the world was threatened, our states, our two nations, found ways to come together and work together. Unfortunately, our partnership was not long-lived, and, today, we are well aware what was the reason for that. And only the end of the Cold War has removed the main barriers on the road of our cooperation. These were ideological barriers and the logic of confrontation. It has taken us only 5 months--the two Presidents and the people who are helping them--in order to achieve the breakthrough which has been announced today, while it took the Soviet Union and the United States of America over 15 years to negotiate a 30% reduction in nuclear arsenals. The world is changing, and the changing world--it changes us as well. Today comes the time when the changes in our perception must also be continued, in practice. Russia and I, as the freely and popularly elected President of Russia, believe that it's their duty to investigate the fate of each and every citizen of America, which has been victimized by the communist regime. I have given my word of honor to President Bush of the United States of America that, in this subject, no stone will remain unturned. I believe the words of the Founding Father of the American democracy, Thomas Jefferson--that Russia is the most sincere and most friendly power of them all toward the United States of America--are becoming true today. We are prepared to join the United States of America and all the democracies of the world in seeing that the values of freedom and democracy triumph throughout the world in developing international machinery which would strengthen the climate of trust in the human world. Democracy in action is invincible. Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, I am raising this toast to the good health and well-being of you, your charming wife, Mrs. Bush, to peace and prosperity of the peoples of our two countries, to a new beginning, and a great future of friendship and partnership of great Russia and great America.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit: President Bush's Address to the US-Russian Business Summit,

Bush Source: President Bush, Description: Address released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Trade/Economics [TEXT] Yesterday was, indeed, a historic day, and I was proud to be at his [Russian President Yeltsin's] side as we carved out a whole new approach to arms reduction; something big, something important, something that's going to benefit not only present generations, but generations to come. So, you are most welcome here, sir. Let me--before we hear from our special guest, President Yeltsin, let me just make a few comments on the business side of things. The US-Russian business conference is important work. I will follow up in every way I can with the US Congress to get them to pass the FREEDOM Support Act. Let me [be] very clear to the American people: We are not supporting the FREEDOM Support Act simply because it benefits Russia. It is my view that the FREEDOM Support Act will benefit the United States of America, will benefit world peace, and will benefit democracy and freedom. So, I ask the support of everyone in this room, after yesterday's historic accomplishments, to join me in working that Hill up there, Congress, to get them to go along and support the FREEDOM Support Act. President Yeltsin will be talking about this, I'm sure, when he makes a historic address to the US Congress, but I just wanted everyone here to know how committed we are. Yes, it's a tough political time and all of that, but it is in the interest of the United States of America to pass this act, and I need your help. Later, today, we're going to conclude major treaties and agreements related to this new foundation between us: trade, bilateral investment and tax treaties, as well as the OPIC [Overseas Private Investment Corporation] and Ex-Im [Export-Import Bank (Eximbank)] agreements. Also, effective today, the United States will properly extend most-favored-nation status to Russia. But my message to this conference is simple: Neither government programs nor multilateral assistance is going to get this job done. Neither of those can do it. Private-sector participation in the economies of Russia and the other states, especially involvement by American business, is critical to the success of Russia's bold venture into free markets. That participation must be on a vast scale, measured in billions of dollars, for the challenge to be met. To that end, I'm pleased to announce that OPIC--headed by Fred Zeder who's so well-known to everybody here--is going to have an agreement between the United States and Russia, and that one enters into force today. This agreement is going to permit OPIC to provide investment insurance to American private investors. It is also going to provide additional financing and investor services for joint ventures in other products in the federation. With OPIC and Eximbank, everyone wins. Russia can tap into the ingenuity of American business in our capital goods, our know-how, and our technology which are, indeed, the best in the entire world. In my view, that help will enable Russia to develop its food and health sectors, recover its energy resources, privatize state industries, and convert military plants to civilian production. President Boris Yeltsin talked to us in great detail about this yesterday. I can just assure you from what he told me then and from what our business-oriented and able Ambassador Bob Strauss has been telling me all along, he understands this. He understands their need for change, and he understands the fact that they've got to do some streamlining themselves. What we want him to know while he's here is that we are interested in moving forward vigorously with private-sector participation to help not only Russia but, certainly, to help ourselves. That's the approach that I'll be taking as we encourage investment and as we encourage change in Russia to accommodate the needs of the business community. American businesses, by investing in trading with Russia, are going to create thousands of jobs here at home. I think that's a point we ought to keep in mind. With the OPIC agreement now in effect, Fred Zeder is going to be leading a group of 26 business representatives to Moscow and other Russian cities on one-on-one business meetings and site visits to develop private-sector deals. This is just the beginning of what surely will become one of the largest two-way trading relationships in the entire world. In 1991, exports of American manufactured goods to Russia and other states grew by almost 40%. We all know that the totals are not that large yet, but that's an enormous jump in just the 1 year. For the first time, Russia is participating in the community of free market international organizations. You know what they are--IMF [International Monetary Fund] and the World Bank, and at some point, the GATT [General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade]. This would have been unthinkable just a few years ago. We will invite Russia and the other states to join with COCOM [Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls] members in this new, informal, cooperative forum to provide significantly wider access to the high-technology goods that previously were banned--previously denied. So, as I said, the historic transformation of the Russian economy is one of the great challenges of our time. The hundreds of billions of dollars in capital and technologies that Russia will need will come, in large measure, not from governments but from private businesses. As we all know, neither command economies nor any other government can produce wealth. Wealth is produced by the initiative and the energy of individual entrepreneurs. Let me conclude but just signal once again the importance of business investment; business participation. I will do my level best to make that climate--that business climate--good for investment abroad and to do what we can to facilitate the changes that are needed here to guarantee the utmost cooperation with the private sector here with the cooperation with the private sector there. I would be remiss if I didn't tell you of my high regard for President Yeltsin. He came in with that great show of courage that just excited every single American--standing on top of that tank; standing up for democracy and freedom; standing against totalitarianism. The big thing is, we are going to support you. You've shown the way toward democracy and freedom in Russia, and it's in the interest of the United States of America to follow through. And we will.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit: Presidents' Opening Statements at Joint Signing Ceremony

Bush Source: President Bush, Description: Remarks released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Trade/Economics [TEXT] President Bush: Mr. President and distinguished members of the Russian delegation and distinguished guests, all. This has been a historic summit meeting. It brings us to the threshold of a new world, a world of hope and opportunity. The collapse of the USSR and the emergence of a democratic Russia provides us with the greatest opportunity in our lifetime to win the permanent democratic peace that has alluded us through two world wars and the long Cold War that followed. President Yeltsin, as a result of this first-ever US-Russia summit, we've, indeed, formed a truly new relationship--one of peace, friendship, trust, and growing partnership. I am confident that this new relationship and our historic agreements at this summit will lead to a safer, more stable, and peaceful world into the next century. Let me just say to the American people: Our support for Russia is unshakable, because it is in our interest. Success for Russian democracy will enhance the security of every American. Think for just a minute about what that means--not for presidents, or for heads of state or historians, but for parents and their children. It means a future free from fear. That is why I call upon the Congress to act quickly on the FREEDOM Support Act, so that the American support reaches Russia when it is needed most--right now. During the past 2 days, the United States and Russia have defined a new military and security relationship. It is a new era. President Yeltsin and I have just signed a statement that will lead to the greatest arms reductions of the nuclear age--reductions far deeper than we could have hoped for even 6 months ago. At this summit, we've also opened a new chapter in our economic relationship. The economic agreements that we signed today will pave the way for trade and investment in Russia, as will most-favored-nation status, which takes effect today. We hope very much that Russia and the IMF can reach a standby agreement soon in order to unlock the G-7's [Group of Seven] economic support package. And, finally, President Yeltsin and I signed the Washington charter, which states formally our mutual commitment to a peaceful future together as democratic partners. This document, along with the many agreements we signed--from open lands to Peace Corps--will help to put behind us for good the sad and, too often, tragic legacy of the Cold War. President Yeltsin's commitment to me to uncover all facts pertaining to American POWs and MIAs is yet another symbol of our changed relationship. His commitment to also investigate the KAL [Korean Airlines] 007 tragedy in which 61 Americans lost their lives nearly 9 years ago speaks to our mutual willingness to face some of the unpleasant truths of the past together. During these 2 days, we embarked on a new partnership. It is now within our power to alter, forever, our relationship so that it becomes the greatest force for peace--a democratic peace--that the world has ever known. Let that be our vision for the future. Today, I pledge to you to make my commitment--to make that a vision, that vision I've outlined--a reality. President Yeltsin: Honorable Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen. The time has come when we can now take stock of the short but fruitful period in our relationship when new principles of the cooperation between the United States and Russia have been made. I value this as a very important period. We now have a basis for interaction. We now have something that we can fill with substantive content. I doubt if today's documents could have been signed if we had not been looking for points of contact and mutual interest that we have been looking for--for years. But it was very important, also, to cast away negative traditions--the profound disgust to each other which was masked by charming manners and politeness. We have now begun in a very good tempo, and the documents that we signed today are not designed to define what has already been established in context, but to find new ways to move, go forward. The treaties and agreements that we have signed today do not just pertain to the two countries of ours; they are a sketch for a future world. They are characteristic of the kind of features that we want to see in this world. This world is becoming more attractive, more humane, kinder than we see today. We are not trying to think of some global problems of discussing the world. We do not want to force or coerce all the nations to join in this. We are looking for solving mutual problems based on mutual trust, including the personal trust between the Presidents of Russia and the United States. We feel that it is on this basis, primarily, that we can get the best results. Among the Russian-American relations there are two things that are most important to my mind: strategic arms limitations and economic cooperation. The state of strategic arms has now been decided. Once the Cold War was over, they turned out to be obsolete and unnecessary to mankind. It is now simply a matter of calculating the best way and the best time schedule for destroying them and getting rid of them. Another important point is to defend the world from an accidental use of such arms in the world, and we have laid the basis for that also. Another very important area in our relationship is designing a good basis for economic--fruitful economic-- cooperation and establishing all kinds of contacts in this economic sphere. We have concluded very important agreements that have removed obstacles in this way and to make it more attractive for businessmen to join in this effort, and this is very important for our country at this time. After 70 years of travesty as far as personal property was concerned, now, private property is becoming ever more important and will become even more so in times to come. In conclusion, I would like to draw your attention to the following. Less than anything else do we need to delude ourselves by what we have accomplished. We would like to strive to the maximum that we would like to see happen. And if we look at our dialogue in this light, then there is only one conclusion. We have to intensely work and forge ahead, both in the United States and in Russia. For those who come after us, we have to leave a good heritage, and this is important for the peoples of both of our countries. I thank you, Mr. President, for creating wonderful conditions for our work, and I congratulate you for the wonderful results of this work.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit: Presidents' Exchange of Toasts at Russian Embassy

Bush Yeltsin Source: President Bush, President Yelstin Description: Remarks released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Trade/Economics [TEXT] (introductory remarks deleted). President Yeltsin: Our visit is drawing to a close. I want to be very candid with you, and I will tell you that we were not after any sensational news scoop. I think that we have lived up to those expectations. We are at the end of the road for this visit. We have come to understand each other much better than we understood each other before. The documents that we signed today mark a new step toward a better future for all of us to live in. I'd like to pay particular tribute to our guest here, to the President of the United States, Mr. George Bush. I must say that the 4 years of his tenure have seen tremendous change in the foreign policy of our two countries, and President George Bush takes particular, personal credit for this. These were not easy years for the American people or for the American President. However, today, President Bush takes particular credit for the tremendous changes that have taken place in the foreign policy of the United States toward Russia and toward other countries, former republics of the Soviet Union. I must tell you that President Bush was the first among the leaders of the world to understand the true scope and meaning of the victory of the Russian people. On August 19, 1991, President Bush was the first among all the chief executives of the countries of the world to call me in the White House in Moscow and to express his support and say that President of the United States and of the American people stood behind Russia. Whereupon he called other presidents, and they called me. Among those presidents, there were some who called me only in the afternoon on August the 20th when the situation was absolutely clear for all. At that time, President Bush displayed leadership, foresight, and wisdom that were so needed by Russia and the future of Russian democracy. Today, I want to say words of salute to President Bush and Mrs. Barbara Bush in the Russian Embassy in Washington. I want also to say words of welcome to the beautiful and enchanting lady present among us here today, Mrs. Barbara Bush--a lady who is always behind her husband, who stands behind him and lends him the necessary support. I also want to pay tribute and to say thank you to all the Americans who accepted our invitation and who came to this Russian home on the soil of America. Everyone present here in this room today has made his or her personal and very valuable contributions to our common victory over the past 2 days. I have no doubt about the fact that this will be a history-making occasion. We have signed dozens of important papers, but these papers are only a small crack in the wall that used to separate the two nations. This wall has not been brought down yet. It is the implementation of the treaties and agreements that we signed, including the charter for friendship and cooperation, that will help clear away the remaining barriers between the two countries. It is only then that we will be able to compare the level attained by the two countries in their mutual relations, not as function of the number of warheads that we have destroyed but as function of the number of American and Russian families that have thereby been brought closer together and have become good friends. I raise my glass to my good and trusted friend, the President of the United States of America, Mr. George Bush--the President of a great power-- and his faithful companion, Mrs. Barbara Bush, to the well-being and success of our two nations to the partnership and cooperation between Russia and America. President Bush: Mr. President, thank you for those very kind words. After what you did on Capitol Hill today, after that sensational speech--it brought the Members of Congress to their feet over and over again--there is absolutely no point in my giving a speech tonight. What we Americans saw was a true democrat who understood the heartbeat of the American people. It came through over and over again--your sensitivity on the prisoners, for example, and many other ways. I had a note from a very senior person in the communications business--I will give him or her plenty of cover by that definition. That note said that in all the time that that person had been in Washington--and it's many, many years--there has never been a greater day for mankind than yesterday. Some of it was clearly the historic agreement on arms control, arms reduction. Some of it was perhaps the agreements that we were to sign today. But I think much more of it was because that person saw a true democrat, a person committed to democracy and freedom leading the great country of Russia. We could identify with that, as I say, and we salute you, sir. We know the problems at home are extraordinarily difficult, but I think you leave with all of us feeling that you're going to make it. Somehow you and this wonderful group of young leaders you've brought with you here to Washington are going to make it. Let me simply say in conclusion: We want to be at your side. We want to be at your side as you complete the democratic experiment and as you move your great country forward. So, may I propose a toast to President Boris Yeltsin and to his wonderful wife, to his team that taught us all a great deal about what commitment means, and to the friendship between Russia and the United States of America that has never ever been stronger. May God bless your country, and may God bless the United States of America.(###)
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: US-Russian Charter

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Text of charter released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Democratization, Security Assistance and Sales, CSCE, Trade/Economics, International Law [TEXT] A Charter for American-Russian Partnership and Friendship United States of America and the Russian Federation, Striving to provide a solid and enduring basis for American-Russian relations of partnership and friendships; Believing that the advancement of the well-being, prosperity, and security of a democratic Russian Federation and the United States of America are vitally interrelated; Declaring their determination to observe strictly democratic principles and practices, including the rule of law and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities; Recognizing the importance of the rights of the individual in building a just and prosperous society; Reaffirming their commitment to the purposes and principles of the United Nations charter, the Helsinki Final Act, and subsequent CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] documents; Desiring to build a democratic peace that unites the entire community of democratic nations; Noting their special responsibility as permanent members of the United Nations Security Council for maintaining international peace and security; Wishing to promote the development of free markets, economic recovery and growth, and closer economic cooperation, trade, and investment; Have established the following Charter for American-Russian Partnership and Friendship:
Democracy and Partnerships
The United States of America and the Russian Federation reaffirm their commitment to the ideals of democracy, to the primacy of the rule of law, and to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The United States of America fully supports the Russian Federation's efforts to build a democratic state and society founded on the rule of law and respect for fundamental human rights. Beginning with mutual trust and respect as the basis for their relations, they are developing relations of partnership and friendship. The United States of America and the Russian Federation will cooperate closely in the international arena in the interest of advancing and defending common democratic values and human rights and fundamental freedoms. The United States of America and the Russian Federation intend to expand and intensify a comprehensive dialogue at various levels on both bilateral and international issues. Given the crucial importance of contacts between the President of the United States of America and the President of the Russian Federation for defining the basic directions of bilateral relations and also in terms of global cooperation and stability, summit meetings will be held on a regular basis. The United States of America and the Russian Federation express their determination to promote confidence and enhance understanding between their peoples. They proceed on the assumption that an expansion of contacts between citizens will help ensure the irreversibility of the new quality of American-Russian relations. For this purpose, they intend to facilitate the establishment of direct contacts between citizens and political, social, labor, religious, and other organizations. The United States of America and the Russian Federation are prepared to facilitate the work of each other's diplomats, journalists, businessmen, scientists, and other citizens by reaching agreement in opening their lands to travel, by lifting other travel restrictions, and by expanding their consulates. The United States of America and the Russian Federation place particular emphasis on developing appropriate contacts between all levels of government--federal, regional, and local--and between private sector and voluntary organizations. The United States of America intends to continue cooperation toward strengthening democratic institutions and a rule of law state in Russia, including developing an independent judiciary and institutionalizing guarantees for respect of individual rights.
International Peace and Security
The United States of America and the Russian Federation reiterate their determination to build a democratic peace, one founded on the twin pillars of political and economic freedom. The United States of America and the Russian Federation recognize the critical importance that democracy's success in Russia and the other former Soviet republics can have on international peace and security. The United States of America and the Russian Federation, proceeding from the basis of mutual trust and respect and a common commitment to democracy and economic freedom and reaffirming the Camp David Declaration of February 1992, the November 1990 Charter of Paris, the December 1991, March 1992, and June 1992 communiques of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, and the April 1992 communique of the Defense Ministers' Meeting, once again declare that they do not regard each other as adversaries and are developing relations of partnership and friendship. Consistent with the United Nations Charter and other treaty obligations; the United States of America and the Russian Federation confirm their commitments to settle disputes between them by peaceful means and to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity and political independence of each other. Beginning on the basis of their shared democratic values, the United States of America and the Russian Federation will unite in their efforts toward strengthening international peace and security, preventing and settling regional conflicts, and solving global problems. While working toward a democratic peace, the United States of America and the Russian Federation realize that the end of the Cold War has not meant the end of insecurity and conflict in Europe. Ethnic tensions, territorial disputes, and international rivalries already threaten to turn an opportunity for peace into yet another phase of European turmoil. The United States of America and the Russian Federation reaffirm their respect for the independence and sovereignty and the existing borders of the CSCE-participating states, including the new independent states, and recognize that border changes can be made only by peaceful and consensual means, in accordance with the rules of international law and the principles of CSCE. Like the other nations of the Euro-Atlantic Community, the United States of America and the Russian Federation cannot accept another phase of European instability. They therefore intend to lend both support and leadership to the effort to spare this community further tragedies like that which has befallen the peoples of Yugoslavia. The need is clear: International means of collective engagement must be devised and strengthened to help prevent conflicts by addressing their root causes, to help resolve disputes before they become violent, to help mediate an end to conflicts wherever they occur, and to help keep the peace once it is established. Therefore, mechanisms for conflict prevention, management, and settlement and European peacekeeping capabilities must be strengthened if we are to adequately cope with future conflicts. To this end, the United States of America and the Russian Federation support the following initiatives: -- The creation of a CSCE special representative to help strengthen efforts to address ethnic antagonisms and the treatment of minorities. -- The strengthening of means within CSCE to provide for more effective international dispute prevention, management, and settlement. -- The creation of a credible Euro-Atlantic peacekeeping capability, based on CSCE political authority, which allows for the use of the capacities of NACC [North Atlantic Cooperation Council], NATO, and WEU [Western European Union] to prepare, support and manage operations for CSCE as well as allows for the contribution of forces and resources from any and all CSCE states. With the security of North America and Europe inseparable, the United States of America and the Russian Federation support the strengthening of the Euro-Atlantic Community, believing that security is indivisible from Vancouver to Vladivostok. The parties share a vision of such a Euro- Atlantic Community as being open to cooperation with all democratic societies. A prominent role for institutions like NACC, NATO, and WEU along with CSCE contributes uniquely to Euro-Atlantic security. The potential of other institutions and mechanisms, including the Commonwealth of Independent States, in support of security and peace in the area is also noted. The United States of America and the Russian Federation believe that strengthening confidence and stability in Asia and the Pacific region in cooperation with other states will also promote global security. The parties are prepared to cooperate on these goals. They aim at a fuller utilization of the potential of economic-commercial cooperation in this region of the world, particularly in view of the geographic positions of the United States of America and Russia. Noting the progress in the resolution of long-standing conflicts, promotion of democracy and human rights, and advancement of economic freedom and prosperity in vast areas of Latin America, Africa, and Asia, the United States of America and the Russian Federation stress the necessity to continue this process. Both sides are ready to contribute to tapping the new potential for peace, to putting an end to conflicts, to bolstering mutual confidence and trust, and to enhancing democracy--which forms the basis of an enduring peace in all parts of the world. With the aim of coordinating crisis prevention activities, the United States of America and the Russian Federation recognize the critical importance of maintaining open lines of communication and exchange. The United States of America and the Russian Federation recognize the importance of the United Nations Security Council and intend to maintain communications with other members of the Security Council to prevent, manage, and resolve crises. The United States and the Russian Federation recognize the prominent role of the United Nations in solving major international problems. They welcome in particular the contribution of the United Nations to peace and security, including the strengthening of UN peace-keeping. The United States of America and the Russian Federation are prepared to work together toward further arms control and disarmament with the aim of promoting stability through implementation with all countries involved of the treaties on conventional forces in Europe and on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms and by carrying out respective U.S. and Russian unilateral and complementary nuclear initiatives. They are committed to discuss further steps which might improve stability and result in further reductions of nuclear and conventional weapons, the global elimination of chemical weapons, and the promotion of confidence-building and crisis prevention measures. The United States of America and the Russian Federation are prepared to cooperate in the matter of eliminating nuclear warheads and chemical weapons subject to destruction within the framework of treaty obligations and unilateral and complementary initiatives. The United States of America and the Russian Federation believe that non- proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a critical priority. Both parties will work towards strengthening and improving the non- proliferation regimes of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons; of missiles and missile technology; as well as of destabilizing conventional weapons in accordance with international rules and agreements. In this regard, the United States of America and the Russian Federation, in a separate statement, have expressed their determination to cooperate in exploring the potential to create a Ballistic Missile Early Warning Center and to cooperate in the development of ballistic missile defense capabilities and technologies. In view of the potential for building a strategic partnership between the United States of America and the Russian Federation, the parties intend to accelerate defense cooperation between their military establishments including: intensifying contacts at all levels; expanding activities that encourage doctrinal and operational openness; establishing expanded exchange and liaison programs; exchanging ideas on fostering proper civil- military relations in a democratic society. The parties will also pursue cooperation in peacekeeping, counter-terrorism; and counter-narcotics missions.
Economics
The United States of America and the Russian Federation believe that the surest path to Russia's long-term prosperity and integration into the global economy is the continuation of the present path of free market reform. In order to achieve this goal, the Russian Federation intends to speed up the processes of privatization and demonopolization, the introduction of structural and sectoral reform, and the creation of policies directed at furthering competition and effective property and contract rights. Of special importance will be the introduction of land reform and reforms in the energy sector. The United States of America, realizing the importance of these processes for the world economy as a whole and for democracy's success, recognizes the courageous path of reform the Russian government has chosen and is determined to continue its support for the reform course chosen by the Russian government on a bilateral and multilateral basis, including through the G-7, the international financial institutions, and the Coordinating Conference process on humanitarian and technical assistance. The United States of America recognizes the critical importance cooperative technical assistance can play in support of reform and the importance of continuing to expand its efforts in this area. The United States of America and the Russian Federation recognize the critical role the private sector will play in Russia's economic revival and integration into the global economy. The United States of America and the Russian Federation intend to encourage mutually beneficial Russian- American cooperation in trade, investment, and business promotion and science and technology. The Russian Federation assumes that it is absolutely necessary to create a favorable investment climate in Russia. For this purpose, in accordance with its constitutional procedures, it intends to improve its laws in the fields of taxation, property, and contract law and those relating to intellectual property rights. In the interest of promoting trade and investment and facilitating the work of their businessmen in each other's countries, the United States and the Russian Federation intend to lower barriers to their businesses and corporations operating in each other's countries and to remove Cold War-era restrictions on business. The United States of America and the Russian Federation note the importance they attach to widespread private sector involvement in the interest of promoting economic reform and cooperation in all sectors, in particular agriculture and food distribution; energy, including oil, gas, and peaceful and safe uses of nuclear power; peaceful exploration of space, consistent with international obligations; telecommunication; environment; and defense conversion. The United States of America and the Russian Federation are determined to continue their cooperation, both on a bilateral basis and within the framework of appropriate multilateral mechanisms, for the purpose of increasing the effectiveness and universality of existing international export control regimes. The parties will also continue the exchange of experience in the field of national export control systems. Desiring to expand opportunities for trade and investment in high- technologies with Russia and the other new independent states while also acutely aware of the responsibility to establish and maintain strict controls to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the United States of America and Russia intend to work toward these objectives bilaterally and in appropriate multilateral fora, particularly COCOM through the new COCOM Cooperation Forum. The United States of America and the Russian Federation confirm that they will encourage exchanges in the fields of science, technology, education, culture and other areas. The United States of America and the Russian Federation intend to accelerate joint work on the conversion of defense industries to civilian production. DONE at Washington, in duplicate, this seventeenth day of June, 1992, in the English and Russian languages, each text being equally authentic.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Arms Control, Security, And Related Issues

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Text of joint understanding released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Arms Control, Nuclear Nonproliferation [TEXT]
Joint Understanding on Reductions in Strategic Offensive Arms
The President of the United States of America and the President of the Russian Federation have agreed to substantial further reductions in strategic offensive arms. Specifically, the two sides have agreed upon and will promptly conclude a Treaty with the following provisions: -- Within the seven-year period following entry into force of the START Treaty [Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty], they will reduce their strategic forces to no more than: -- an overall total number of warheads for each between 3800 and 4250 (as each nation shall determine) or such lower number as each nation shall decide. -- 1200 MIRVed [multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles] ICBM [intercontinental ballistic missile] warheads. -- 650 heavy ICBM warheads. -- 2160 SLBM [submarine-launched ballistic missile] warheads. -- By the year 2003 (or by the end of the year 2000 if the United States can contribute to the financing of the destruction or elimination of strategic offensive arms in Russia), they will: -- reduce the overall total to no more than a number of warheads for each between 3,000 and 3,500 (as each nation shall determine) or such lower number as each nation shall decide. -- eliminate all MIRVed ICBMs. -- reduce SLBM warheads to no more than 1750. For the purpose of calculating the overall totals described above: -- The number of warheads counted for heavy bombers with nuclear roles will be the number of nuclear weapons they are actually equipped to carry. -- Under agreed procedures, heavy bombers not to exceed 100 that were never equipped for long-range nuclear ALCMs [air-launched cruise missiles] and that are reoriented to conventional roles will not count against the overall total established by this agreement. -- Such heavy bombers will be based separately from heavy bombers with nuclear roles. -- No nuclear weapons will be located at bases for heavy bombers with conventional roles. -- Such aircraft and crews will not train or exercise for nuclear missions. -- Current inspection procedures already agreed in the START Treaty will help affirm that these bombers have conventional roles. No new verification procedures are required. -- Except as otherwise agreed, these bombers will remain subject to the provisions of the START treaty, including the inspection provisions. The reductions required by this agreement will be carried out by eliminating missile launchers and heavy bombers using START procedures, and, in accordance with the plans of the two sides, by reducing the number of warheads on existing ballistic missiles other than the SS-18. Except as otherwise agreed, ballistic missile warheads will be calculated according to START counting rules. The two Presidents directed that this agreement be promptly recorded in a brief Treaty document which they will sign and submit for ratification in their respective countries. Because this new agreement is separate from but builds upon the START Treaty, they continue to urge that the START Treaty be ratified and implemented as soon as possible. For the United States of America: George Bush For the Russian Federation: Boris Yeltsin
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Side Letter on Reductions in Strategic Offensive Arms

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 18 19926/18/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Arms Control, Nuclear Nonproliferation [TEXT] In a separate letter, Secretary Baker outlines understandings reached concerning the implementation of the Joint Understanding signed by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin. Russian Foreign Minister Kozyrev signed the letter as having accepted and agreed to the points in the letter. The START Treaty [Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty] provides numerical limits for downloading strategic ballistic missile warheads; aggregate downloading is limited to not more than 1,250 warheads at any one time. In addition, except for the Minuteman-III and SS-N-18, neither side may download more than 500 warheads. The letter makes clear that the reductions to reach the limits in the Joint Understanding may exceed these limits. The START Treaty also requires that, if a missile is downloaded by more than two re-entry vehicles, then its re-entry vehicle platform must be destroyed and replaced with a new re-entry vehicle platform. In the interest of facilitating additional reductions in warheads at the least cost, this provision does not apply to the Joint Understanding. The side letter makes clear that missiles that have been downloaded pursuant to this new understanding may not be uploaded to their former status. The letter states that conversion will not be required for up to 100 heavy bombers that have been reoriented for conventional roles. The letter states that these provisions will be incorporated into the treaty that will record the agreements in the Joint Understanding signed by the Presidents today. The United States also provides a separate assurance that bombers that have been so reoriented will be used solely for conventional missions.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Joint US-Russian Statement On a Global Protection System

Fitzwater Source: White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater Description: Text of joint statement released by the released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Arms Control, Nuclear Nonproliferation [TEXT] The Presidents continued their discussion of the potential benefits of a Global Protection System (GPS) against ballistic missiles, agreeing that it is important to explore the role for defenses in protecting against limited ballistic missile attacks. The two Presidents agreed that their two nations should work together with allies and other interested states in developing a concept for such a system as part of an overall strategy regarding the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Such cooperation would be tangible expression of the new relationship that exists between Russia and the United States and would involve them in an important undertaking with other nations of the world community. The two Presidents agreed it is necessary to start work without delay to develop the concept of the GPS. For this purpose they agreed to establish a high-level group to explore on a priority basis the following practical steps: -- The potential for sharing of early warning information through the establishment of an early warning center. -- The potential for cooperation with participating states in developing ballistic missile defense capabilities and technologies. -- The development of a legal basis for cooperation, including new treaties and agreements and possible changes to existing treaties and agreements necessary to implement a Global Protection System. For the United State of America: George Bush For the Russian Federation: Boris Yeltsin
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Joint Statement on Cooperation in Space

Bush Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Text of joint statement released by the released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Science/Technology [TEXT] The United States and the Russian Federation have agreed on steps to broaden cooperation in the use and exploration of outer space:
Space Agreement:
A new space agreement has been signed today that puts space cooperation between the two countries on a new footing, reflecting their new relationship. The new agreement provides a broad framework for NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] and the Russian Space Agency to map out new projects in a full range of fields: space science, space exploration, space applications and the use of space technology. Cooperation may include human and robotic space flight projects, ground- based operations and experiments and other important activities, such as monitoring the global environment from space, MIR Space Station and Space Shuttle missions involving the participation of U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts, safety of spaceflight activities, and space biology and medicine. Pursuant to the agreement, the two governments will give consideration to the following: -- flights of Russian cosmonauts aboard a Space Shuttle mission (STS 60), and U.S. astronauts aboard the MIR Space Station in 1993; and -- a rendezvous docking mission between the MIR and the Space Shuttle in 1994 or 1995. An important part of the agreement involves annual subcabinet consultations led at the undersecretary of state/deputy foreign minister level, a new mechanism for high-level government review of the bilateral civil space relationship between the two countries.
Joint Study of Space Technology:
The two governments are also announcing detailed technical studies of the possible use of space technology. NASA is awarding a contract to the Russian firm NPO Energyia; the principal area being examined is the Russian Soyuz-TM spacecraft as an interim crew return vehicle for Space Station Freedom. Other important areas to be studied are the suitability of the Russian developed Automated Rendezvous and Docking System in support of NASA spaceflight activities, the use of the MIR Space Station for long-lead time medical experiments, and other applications by NASA of Russian hardware.
Space Commerce:
Both governments also agreed on steps to encourage private companies to expand their search for new commercial space business. The United States has accepted an invitation from the Russian Federation for American businessmen to visit Russia. The Department of Commerce will lead a delegation of U.S. aerospace firms to Russia in the near future on a space technology assessment mission. The Russian Federation has accepted an invitation from the United States to send a delegation of business leaders to the United States to meet with their counterparts in the American aerospace private sector.
Space Launch:
Reflecting its support for economic reform in Russia, the United States has decided to consider favorably a decision expected by the INMARSAT Organization in July 1992 to launch one of the INMARSAT 3 satellites from Russia. The INMARSAT 3 satellite is manufactured primarily in the United States. If approved by INMARSAT, this would mark the first time that a U.S. manufactured commercial satellite would be launched from Russia. The United States and Russia have agreed to negotiate a bilateral agreement on technology safeguards for the INMARSAT 3 satellite to enable issuance of a U.S. export license. The United States and the Russian Federation support the application of market principles to international competition in the provision of launch services, including avoidance of unfair trade practices. Recognizing Russia's current transition to a market economy, and in order to allow consideration of future proposals involving Russian launch of U.S. satellites, the Russian Federation and the United States have agreed to enter into international negotiations on an expeditious basis to develop international guidelines concerning competition in the launch of commercial satellites. In the case of INMARSAT, the Russian Federation has also assured the United States that the terms and conditions of the Russian proposal, including pricing, are consistent with those that would normally be offered in the international market.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Joint Statement on Chemical Weapons

Bush Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Text of joint statement released by the released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Arms Control [TEXT] President Bush and President Yeltsin stressed their continuing commitment to the global elimination of chemical weapons. They expressed their conviction that the Geneva negotiations on a multilateral convention banning chemical weapons can be concluded by the end of August. They agreed to instruct their representatives accordingly, and called on all participants in the negotiations to do their utmost to achieve this goal. They expressed the hope that a ministerial meeting could be convened in that timeframe to approve the convention. The two leaders underscored their support for the 1989 Wyoming Joint Memorandum on phased confidence-building measures in the area of chemical weapons destruction, and agreed to implement the new, cooperative provisions for detailed data exchanges and inspections included in the Joint Memorandum as soon as arrangements can be completed. They also agreed that the June 1990 bilateral chemical weapons Destruction Agreement would be updated and brought into force promptly.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Chemical Weapons Issues

Bush Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Text of joint statement released by the released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Arms Control, Security Assistance and Sales [TEXT] Determined to promote increased openness and facilitate achievement of a comprehensive, worldwide prohibition on chemical weapons this summer, the United States and Russia agreed on several initiatives to increase cooperation between their two countries regarding chemical weapons and to assist the Russian Federation to destroy its chemical weapons stockpile.
Confidence-Building Measures
. The United States and Russia agreed to exchange detailed data on their chemical weapons capabilities and carry out inspections at both declared and undeclared facilities. The sides will build on the activities already completed under Phase One of the 1989 Wyoming Memorandum of Understanding. In Phase One, the sides exchanged general information on locations of production facilities and storage sites, the aggregate size of their respective stockpiles, and data on the types of agents and munitions. The sides also exchanged visits to several chemical weapons facilities and to relevant industrial chemical production sites. The decision to begin Phase Two will result in a more detailed information exchange, including specific inventories for each storage site and information on plans for chemical weapons destruction and additional inspections of chemical weapons-related sites.
Destruction Assistance.
To support this initiative, both sides have begun discussions aimed at formulating specific projects to assist in the destruction of Russia's existing chemical weapons stockpile. An agreement detailing the nature of initial projects has been negotiated with the goal of beginning implementation next month. To support Russian efforts, the United States will commit to provide financial assistance under the Nunn-Lugar Act for detailed planning and resources management to expedite the destruction process. The United States will also assist Russia in obtaining appropriate US contractor support for its demilitarization activities and planning. For its part, Russia has already initiated funding for the first phase of its destruction program. Bilateral US-Russian discussions to promote further cooperation will continue. Both countries agree that other nations should be encouraged to participate in assisting Russia in the rapid completion of this important task.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Joint Russian- American Declaration on Defense Conversion

Bush Yeltsin Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Text of joint declaration released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Arms Control, Security Assistance and Sales [TEXT] The United States of America and the Russian Federation recognize that defense conversion is a key challenge of the post-Cold War era and essential for building a democratic peace. Both parties realize the hardships involved in defense conversion efforts. But the parties realize, too, that the successful conversion of resources no longer needed for defense is in the long-term economic and national security interests of their peoples. Therefore, the United States of America and the Russian Federation declare their intention to devote priority to cooperation in advancing defense conversion. Recognizing the important role of the private sector and of practical participation by business communities in the complex task of defense conversion, the United States of America and the Russian Federation are establishing a U.S.-Russian Defense Conversion Committee to facilitate conversion through expanded trade and investment. The intergovernmental committee will be established within the framework of the U.S.-Russian Business Development Committee and will be designed to facilitate the exchange of information and the promotion of trade and investment, including through the development of contacts between interested groups, the expansion of information exchange on enterprises undergoing conversion, and, the improvement of conditions for commercial activities in both countries through the identification and removal of obstacles to expanded trade and investment. The Committee will inform the governments of both countries on a regular basis of the results of its activities, in order that they may take timely and effective measures to eliminate impediments to bilateral cooperation in the area of conversion. With the aim of promoting successful cooperation in conversion, each of the parties intends to take a number of practical steps in the near future. The Russian Federation intends to establish on its territory a favorable political, economic, legal, and regulatory climate for American trade and investment, including the adoption of macroeconomic reforms necessary to institute convertibility of the ruble; the pursuit of complementary micro- economic reforms to support the privatization and demonopolization of industry; the enactment of laws to guarantee contract and property rights; and, the dissemination of internationally-accepted standards of basic business and financial information on enterprises undergoing conversion. The United States intends to facilitate U.S. business engagement in commercially-viable conversion projects in Russia, including joint ventures, through the placement of long-term defense conversion resident advisers to serve as catalysts for U.S. business engagement and to provide expertise to local leaders and enterprise directors; the establishment in Russia of business centers with translation, education, and training facilities for U.S. businesses operating in Russia; the creation of a business information service ("BISNIS") in Washington to match businesses in Russia with potential investors in the United States; and, the involvement of the Trade and Development Program, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, and the Export-Import Bank to provide incentives to American private investment in commercially viable defense conversion projects. The United States of America and the Russian Federation endorse the COCOM [Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls] Cooperation Forum on Export Control as a means to heal Cold War divisions and advance conversion through helping to remove barriers to high technology trade, assisting in the establishment of COCOM-comparable export control regimes in Russia and the other new independent states, and establishing procedures to ensure the civil end-use of sensitive goods and technologies on matters of common concern. Both parties agree that this process is based on their mutual determination strictly to adhere to world standards of export controls in the area of the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and related technologies, missiles and missile technology, destabilizing conventional armaments, and dual-use goods and technologies. The parties strongly encourage the expansion of bilateral defense and military contacts and the work of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council in addressing the full range of military issues that are critically linked to the success of conversion including civilian control of the military in a democracy; defense planning, budgeting, and procurement in a market economy; base closings and conversions; and demobilization and retraining as well as social protection.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Agreement on the Destruction and Safeguarding of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation Between the US and Russia

Bush Yeltsin Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Text of joint declaration released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Arms Control, Security Assistance and Sales, Nuclear Nonproliferation [TEXT] The agreement signed by Presidents Bush and Yeltsin on June 17, 1992, provides a legal framework for the transfer of up to $400 million of Department of Defense funds authorized by US Public Law 102-229. The agreement is the basic vehicle for providing Nunn-Lugar assistance to Russia for the transport, safeguarding, and destruction of nuclear, chemical, and other weapons of the former Soviet Union. The agreement specifies that the Department of Defense will be the executive agent for the United States. The agreement allows the parties to enter into implementing agreements to accomplish these objectives. The first of these implementing agreements also were signed during the visit of President Yeltsin. These cover: Armored Blankets. The United States will immediately transfer to Russia 200 sets of special nylon blankets and an additional 250 sets of Kevlar blankets to be produced in the United States within the next year. The blankets will provide protection for Russian nuclear weapons containers. Emergency Response Equipment. The United States will transfer to Russia beginning in FY 1993 over 1,000 pieces of accident response clothing and equipment to improve Russia's ability to respond in the event of an accident involving a nuclear weapon. Fissile Material Containers. The United States will produce 10,000 fissile material containers by December 1995. These containers will be used to store and transport the fissile components from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons. Chemical Weapons. The United States will provide financial assistance for detailed planning and resource management and will assist Russia in obtaining appropriate US contractor support to expedite chemical weapons demilitarization activities. Discussions continuing in other areas may result in additional implementing agreements. These include: -- Safe and secure storage for nuclear materials and recovered components from dismantled nuclear weapons; -- Security enhancement for Russian railcars that transport nuclear weapons; -- Options for the ultimate disposition of fissile material from dismantled Russian nuclear warheads; and -- The provisions of US assistance to establish a system for the control and accountability of fissile materials.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Joint Statement on Korean Nuclear Non-proliferation

Bush Yeltsin Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Text of joint statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, East Asia Country: Russia, North Korea, South Korea Subject: Nuclear Nonproliferation [TEXT] Russia and the United States, supporting the efforts by the international community to counter the proliferation of nuclear weapons, note the positive changes in strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime in Korea. They applaud the North-South Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula of December 31, 1991, and call for the full implementation of this agreement, which will make an essential contribution to strengthening regional peace and security and to reconciliation and stability on the Korean Peninsula. The sides welcome DPRK [Democratic People's Republic of Korea] ratification of the safeguards agreement with the IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency] and encourage further cooperation with the agency in placing its nuclear facilities under appropriate safeguards. Full compliance by the DPRK with its obligations under the NPT [Non-Proliferation Treaty] and the Joint Declaration, including IAEA safeguards as well as credible and effective bilateral nuclear inspections, will make possible the full resolution of international concerns over the nuclear problem on the Korean Peninsula.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Joint Statement on Bosnia-Hercegovina

Bush Yeltsin Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Text of joint declaration released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia, E/C Europe Country: Russia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia-Montenegro Subject: Democratization, Regional/Civil Unrest [TEXT] The United States of America and the Russian Federation are deeply disturbed by the continuing human tragedy on the territory of the former Yugoslavia. They condemn those responsible for failing to take effective measures to fulfill the requirements of the relevant United Nations resolutions and call upon all members of the United Nations to implement full and effective compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 757. The United States of America and the Russian Federation strongly support current United Nations efforts to establish a secure zone around Sarajevo airport as a first step toward ensuring the safe delivery of humanitarian relief to the citizens of Bosnia-Hercegovina. They are closely monitoring the degree of cooperation with these efforts on the part of Belgrade, Bosnian-Serb political leaders, and the commanders in Bosnia-Hercegovina. As part of the United Nations' efforts, the United States of America and the Russian Federation are prepared to join in the United Nations effort to provide humanitarian aid to Bosnia-Hercegovina. They call on other members of the international community to join them and other nations already participating in this humanitarian mission.
Dispatch, Vol 3, No 25, June 22, 1992 Title:

US-Russian Summit Documents: Economic and Trade Issues

Bush Yeltsin Source: President Bush, President Yeltsin Description: Text of joint declaration released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC Date: Jun, 17 19926/17/92 Category: Speeches, Testimony, Statements Region: Eurasia Country: Russia Subject: Trade/Economics, Science/Technology, Environment, Media/Telecommunications, Development/Relief Aid, Resource Management, Immigration, State Department [TEXT]
US Assistance to Russia
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The US Government has undertaken a historic effort to provide support for the democratic changes taking place in Russia. While the ultimate responsibility for the success of the reform program can rest only with the Government and people of Russia, the United States can, and is, doing much to help. US strategy is to offer, as part of an internationally coordinated effort, humanitarian, technical, and macro- economic assistance designed to help the Russian people establish democratic forms of government and free economies fully open to trade and investment with Western partners.
Humanitarian Assistance
. The United States completed 24 flights with an estimated 1,200 tons of food and 100 tons of medical supplies to Russia under Operation Provide Hope Phase I. Operation Provide Hope Phase II currently is delivering about 16,000 tons of surplus Department of Defense food and 262 tons of medical supplies to nine Russian cities. The United States has shipped $12.3 million in medical assistance under the President's Medical Initiative through Project Hope, a private voluntary organization. Under the Food for Progress Program, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has signed agreements with five private voluntary organizations to deliver approximately $90-million worth of commodities (including transportation) to Russia. USDA has signed an agreement with the Government of Russia to provide a further grant of $34-million worth of butter, which will be sold in Russian markets. As agreed with the Government of Russia, the proceeds from the sales will be used to provide support for humanitarian assistance. Working with our allies, the United States will be prepared to respond to additional requests for emergency humanitarian assistance in the coming months should that need arise.
Macroeconomic Assistance.
The United States is participating in a $24-billion multilateral financial assistance program to support Russia's economic reform program. The US [estimated share] of this package for calendar year 1992 is approximately $4.5 billion. This includes $900 million as the US share in the international financial institutions' efforts (roughly 20%), $1.5 billion for a currency stabilization fund for Russia (up to $3 billion could be made available to include stabilization funds for other new independent states), and approximately $2.1 billion in bilateral assistance (on a disbursements basis). Initiation of most of these activities, including the stabilization fund and financing from the IMF [International Monetary Fund] and World Bank, will depend upon the conclusion of a stand-by agreement between the Russian Government and the IMF. US contributions will come both through multilateral assistance efforts through the international financial institutions and through bilateral US programs. For example, the President is seeking approval from Congress of a $12.3-billion increase in the IMF quota, allowing it to expand its lending capabilities.
Credit Guarantees.
USDA has allocated $3.75 billion in CCC [Commodity Credit Corporation] credit guarantees to the former Soviet Union for the purchase, mostly by Russia, of almost 25 million tons of agricultural products. An additional $600 million in CCC credit guarantees for Russia was announced by the President on April 1. Eximbank [Export-Import Bank] financing has been made available. To date, nine export-financing transactions worth $185 million have been approved, and Eximbank has reached agreement, in principle, on financing for US oil and gas equipment and services. Eximbank also is engaged in discussions with the Russian Government concerning support for $200 million in US exports in the fields of environment and nuclear safety. Eximbank estimates financing of $500 million to $1 billion will be approved through fiscal year 1993. An OPIC [Overseas Private Investment Corporation] agreement has been signed, and OPIC has approved one Russian project worth $159 million over several years.
Technical Assistance.
The Administration has requested $620 million in new appropriations for American humanitarian and technical assistance for FY 1992 and FY 1993 for the former Soviet Union. This funding request will support implementation of the FREEDOM [Freedom for Russia and the Emerging Eurasian Democracies and Open Markets] Support Act. In the meantime, the Administration has initiated assistance programs with $85 million reprogrammed specifically for this purpose. The US Government is prepared to spend an additional $400 million on projects related specifically to destruction of nuclear weapons and countering nuclear weapons proliferation. Some of these funds will be available for employment of scientists from the former Soviet Union. Toward this end, we have committed $25 million to establish an International Science and Technology Center in Russia. We have sent defense conversion advisers to Nizhny Novgorod and will be sending advisers to other Russian cities within the coming months. We have begun work with the International Finance Corporation to run privatization auctions in three cities in Russia and Ukraine. These auctions will be based on the recent successful auctions in Nizhny Novgorod and will be used particularly to sell the small and medium-[size] retail businesses in each city. USDA plans to establish a model agricultural farm near St. Petersburg and will provide experts to establish private wholesale food markets in Moscow. USAID [US Agency for International Development] plans to send specialists in post-harvest loss and feed storage. The majority of the 1,500-1,800 US volunteers in the Farmer-to-Farmer Program will be placed in Russia. -- Special American Business Initiative (SABIT) will provide training internships for Russian scientists and managers (13 have been trained so far). -- International Executive Service Corps will provide private sector advisers. -- One hundred Peace Corps volunteers are in training for October placement. -- A resident housing adviser is on the ground in Moscow. -- A US-Russia Children's Health Partnership began in May. -- An energy efficiency team will install energy-saving equipment in Moscow this fall. Pharmaceutical production assistance will be provided through commodity, equipment, and short-term technical assistance activities to provide a quick fix for plants producing DPT [diphtheria, polio, tetanus, measles] vaccines. This will bring production of two of these vaccines up to 100% of their previous production for consumption inside Russia. The United States announced at the Lisbon Coordinating Conference its intention to provide $25 million in support of nuclear reactor safety in the former Soviet Union. The initiative's objective is to improve the operating safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. It will emphasize improved safety procedures, appropriate safety upgrades, and operator training through the establishment of regional training centers in Russia and Ukraine. Other technical assistance programs in planning include coal mine safety, rule of law, public policy training, democratic initiatives, legal advisers, and investment promotion.
Agreement on Trade Relations Between the United States and Russia
. The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The US-Russian Trade Agreement provides for reciprocal most-favored- nation (MFN) tariff treatment to the products of each country. The trade agreement was originally concluded with the Soviet Union in June 1990 and approved by the US Congress in November 1991. The United States and Russia agreed on technical adjustments to that agreement to reflect the establishment of an independent Russia. US congressional reapproval is not required. The agreement will permit Russia to export goods to the United States while receiving non-discriminatory treatment of their goods. We expect that this agreement will create commercial opportunities for Russian enterprises and promote the development of a market-based economy in Russia, and at the same time will lay the groundwork for enhanced trade opportunities for US business. In addition to providing MFN for both parties, the agreement: -- Provides improved market access and non-discriminatory treatment for US goods and services in Russia and also calls for step-by-step provision of national treatment for US products and services; -- Facilitates business by allowing free operation of commercial representations in each country and by permitting companies to engage and serve as agents and consultants and to conduct market studies; and -- Offers strong intellectual property rights protection by: reaffirming commitments to the Paris Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention, obligating adherence to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, providing copyright protection for computer programs and data bases and protection for sound recordings, giving product and process patent protection for virtually all areas of technology, and providing comprehensive coverage of trade secrets.
Bilateral Investment Treaty
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The United States and the Russian Federation today signed a bilateral investment treaty (BIT). By entering into this treaty, the United States and the Russian Federation have joined together to create the bilateral legal framework designed to stimulate private investors to play a dynamic role in economic relations between the two countries. The BIT with Russia: -- Guarantees non-discriminatory treatment for US investments in their admission to Russia and their operations there (i.e., assures "competitive equality"); -- Guarantees the right to repatriate, into hard currency, profits earned in rubles; -- Guarantees prompt, adequate, and effective compensation in the event of an expropriation; and -- Provides the right to third-party international arbitration in the event of a dispute between the US investor and the Russian Government. The completion of the treaty with these provisions demonstrates the determination of the Russian Government to establish a market-oriented, open investment climate. Together with the Treaty for the Avoidance of Double Taxation of Income, the Trade Agreement granting most-favored-nation tariff treatment, and the programs being established under the new OPIC [Overseas Private Investment Corporation] agreement with Russia, the BIT will encourage US business investment in Russia and facilitate our private sector's involvement in Russia's economic reform.
Treaty for the Avoidance of Double Taxation of Income
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. President Bush and Russian President Yeltsin signed [on June 17] the Treaty for the Avoidance of Double Taxation. The treaty will help promote expansion of economic, technical, and cultural ties between the two countries. It replaces the Convention on Matters of Taxation, signed in 1973 by the United States and the USSR. The new treaty will modernize the tax relations between the two countries. Specifically, it provides certainty to potential investors concerning their tax treatment on income earned from sources in the other country and will, in many cases, eliminate or reduce the tax liability at source so as to encourage greater investment flows. For example, under the new treaty, dividends will be subject to a maximum rate of tax of 10% at source, reduced to 5% on subsidiary--parent dividends and branch--profits. Interest and royalties will be exempt from tax at source. In addition, the treaty will provide: -- Relief from double taxation; -- Assurances of non-discriminatory tax treatment; -- Cooperation between US and Russian tax officials to resolve potential problems of double taxation; and --╩╩Exchange of tax information between tax authorities to help improve compliance with respective income tax laws and the provisions of the treaty. The treaty will be subject to the advice and consent of the Senate. The provisions of the treaty concerning taxes withheld at source on dividends, interest, and royalties will have effect on the 1st day of the 2nd month following the exchange of instruments of ratification. For other taxes, the treaty provisions will have effect for taxable years beginning on or after January 1 following the exchange of instruments of ratification. However, a taxpayer can elect to apply the 1973 convention in full for 1 taxable year if that is more beneficial.
OPIC Investment Incentive Agreement
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The Government of the Russian Federation informed us [on June 17] that it has fulfilled all the legal requirements for entry into force of the bilateral OPIC [Overseas Private Investment Corporation] Investment Incentive Agreement signed in Washington, DC, on April 3, 1992. As the United States has already completed all its legal requirements, the agreement enters into force [on June 17]. This agreement will allow OPIC to make its investment insurance, finance, and promotion programs available to US businesses considering investing in Russia. Fred M. Zeder, OPIC President and Chief Executive Officer, will lead a presidential mission to Moscow and other Russian cities June 21-30, 1992. The mission will provide American firms with detailed information on Russia's changing investment climate through meetings with high-level government officials and key business leaders. OPIC also has arranged meetings and site visits with potential joint-venture partners.
Export-Import Bank Operations In Russia
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. In response to President Bush's initiative, the Congress repealed legislative restraints on US Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) activity in Russia on April 1. -- Repeal of Stevenson and Byrd amendments lifted a $300-million Eximbank financing ceiling and constraints on financing of oil and gas transactions. Eximbank medium-term loans and guarantees and short- and medium-term insurance programs are available for US exporters. -- Eximbank has approved $185 mil-lion in financing for US exports to Russia. Eximbank estimates financing of $500 million to $1 billion will be approved through fiscal year 1993. -- Eximbank has entered into two separate "full faith and credit guarantee" framework agreements. The first, dated April 16, 1992, is with the Bank for Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation. The second, dated May 7, 1992, is with the Bank for Foreign Economic Affairs, formerly the Bank for Foreign Economic Affairs of the USSR. Eximbank is preparing a draft framework agreement to cover financing for US exports of oil equipment and services to Russian oil production associations for improvements in existing fields and development of new fields. The Russian Central Bank and the Ministry of Fuel and Energy will be Eximbank's partners. Negotiations are expected to take place in Moscow in July on the framework agreement. Transactions under the framework agreement will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
COCOM Issues
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. Russia is embarking on a path toward democratic reform and economic integration with the West. In light of this welcome change, the Administration recently proposed the establishment of an informal COCOM [Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls] Cooperation Forum on Export Controls. COCOM partners agreed at the June 1 high-level meeting to establish such a cooperative forum. Russia and the other new states of the former Soviet Union will be invited to participate in this forum.
COCOM Cooperation Forum.
The forum's purpose is to extend our cooperation and dialogue with Russia and other reforming countries to the important area of export controls as well as to assist these countries in developing effective safeguards regimes of their own. The goals of the new COCOM forum mirror new strategic relationships, particularly with Russia and the other republics of the former Soviet Union. These goals include: -- Significantly wider access by those countries to advanced Western goods and technology; -- Procedures for ensuring against diversion of these sensitive items to military or other unauthorized users; and -- Further cooperation on matters of common concern on export controls. Telecommunications Liberalization. The COCOM partners also agreed to an immediate improvement in the availability of advanced telecommunications equipment to the new states of the former Soviet Union effective July 1, 1992. As these states seek to reform and establish closer ties to the economies of the West, better telephone, fax, and other data networks are clearly needed. This very positive COCOM decision will provide: -- Rapid and reliable telecommunications between the newly independent states and the West; and -- Modern, cost-effective domestic telecommunications systems.
Science/Technology and Related Issues
Joint Statement on Science and Technology Cooperation
Text of joint statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The Presidents of the United States and the Russian Federation note with satisfaction their long-standing cooperation in science and technology. Wishing to build on that cooperation, the two Presidents declare their intent to promote scientific and technological cooperation in areas of mutual benefit and to broaden and expand contacts and ties between the scientific and technological communities of their countries. In the new spirit of partnership between their two countries, the Presidents underscore the potential of their scientific communities to make important contributions to economic development and enhancement of the quality of life. They deem to be of cardinal significance efforts underway in both countries to convert defense-related industries to civilian purposes and stress the desirability of further cooperation in this regard. Both sides expressed satisfaction at the progress made in establishing the International Science and Technology Center in Moscow with its important task of redirecting the talents of weapons scientists to peaceful purposes. Consistent with their firm support for democratic and market economic principles, the two Presidents recognize the private sector's role in the science and technology area and support industry's efforts to seek opportunities to acquire goods, services, or technologies that benefit economic and security interests. The two countries will promote greater levels of trade and will seek to remove barriers to trade in scientific and technological matters. The two Presidents further declare their intent to advance the state of science and technology by broadening and expanding contacts and combining the talents and resources of both countries. To this end, the Assistant to the President of the United States for Science and Technology and appropriate officials of the Russian Federation will meet no later than this fall to discuss avenues for expanding cooperation in science and technology, the Presidents reaffirm their intent to continue cooperation and improved coordination in particular the fields of basic sciences; earth and mapping sciences; energy and natural resources; peaceful uses of atomic energy; space research for peaceful purposes; health; protection of the environment; transportation; oceans studies; and agriculture. They also note the importance of continued cooperation in major projects such as the superconducting super-collider and the international thermonuclear experimental reactor. The two Presidents assert that their scientific and technological relationship shall be governed in particular by the following principles of: shared responsibilities, contributions, and benefits commensurate with the two countries' respective scientific and technological strengths and resources; equitable protection and distribution of intellectual property rights resulting from joint activities; transparency of policy and programs to facilitate identification of opportunities for cooperation; comparable access to government-supported and government-financed facilities; and the widest permissible dissemination of research results and information. The two Presidents further declare that high-level government contacts will be important to setting the direction of future scientific and technological cooperation. They charge the Secretary of State on the United States side and the Minister of Foreign Affairs on the Russian side to continue to coordinate the development of expanded scientific and technological cooperation and of appropriate legal arrangements between their two countries, in conjunction with the interested governmental bodies and agencies.
Joint Statement on The Need for Voluntary Suspension on Fishing in the Central Bering Sea
Text of joint statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. In the course of the state visit by the president of Russia to the United States of America, the sides recalled the joint statement on Bering Sea Fisheries Conservation issued at the summit meeting of June 4, 1990. The sides noted with concern that, in spite of four international conferences held since that joint statement to develop an international regime for the conservation and management of living marine resources of the central Bering Sea, the pollock resource in that region has suffered a precipitous decline, which could upset the balance of the Bering Sea ecosystem as a whole. In light of the dependence of the U.S. and Russian coastal communities on the living marine resources of the Bering Sea, the sides noted that, more than ever, strong and urgent conservation measures must be taken, including a prohibition on fishing in the central Bering Sea. The sides reiterated that, in accordance with international law as reflected in the relevant provisions of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, all concerned states, including coastal states and fishing states, should cooperate to ensure the conservation of these resources. Accordingly, the sides called for all the states fishing in the central Bering Sea to abide by a voluntary suspension of fishing activities in the area in question, consistent with steps already taken by Russia and the United States to conserve the resource.
Joint Statement on Research And Conservation of the Bering Sea Ecosystem
Text of joint statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. In the course of the state visit by the President of Russia to the United States of America, the sides stated their common interest in the wise use of the natural resources of the Bering Sea. The sides noted that the Bering Sea is one of the world's most productive marine areas, with many species of marine mammals, seabirds, and approximately 450 species of fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. The sides also noted that the Bering Sea fishery accounts for approximately 10 percent of the world's annual fishery production. The sides noted with concern that populations of several species of Bering Sea animals are declining, and that some species of fish and shellfish are at depressed levels. The sides also expressed concern that certain marine mammal and seabird populations have declined substantially in the past 15- 20 years. The scope and magnitude of these declines indicate fundamental changes may be occurring in the Bering Sea ecosystem. In this connection, the sides agreed that there is need for more careful study of the Bering Sea. In particular they recognize the need to employ an expanded comprehensive ecosystem approach to Bering Sea research. The sides agreed that it is important to cooperate in the conservation of the Bering Sea resources to protect the biodiversity of the Sea, to maintain the viability of coastal communities that depend on its resources, and to continue to manage the fisheries in a manner that insures sustainable yields.
Joint Statement on Conservation of Lake Baikal
Text of joint statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The United States and the Russian Federation, reaffirming their readiness to promote expansion of cooperation in the field of protection of the environment and basic scientific research, declare their determination to conserve the unique ecosystem of Lake Baikal and to utilize its potential for research in limnology, geology and global climate change. To attain these goals, the two Presidents will strive to create conditions for fruitful contacts between appropriate agencies, scientists and non-governmental organizations, and also to convene as soon as possible a meeting of environmental experts, to discuss U.S.-Russian environmental cooperation aimed at preserving for present and future generations this unique treasure of nature.
Joint Statement on Beringia International Park
Text of joint statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The Presidents of the United States of America and the Russian Federation support the creation of an American-Russian international park on the Bering Straits and reaffirm their vision of the Beringia International Park as formal recognition of the shared natural and cultural heritage of the Bering region. They note the park will assure long-term collaboration for the conservation of this heritage and provide an enduring symbol of the friendly relations now existing between the American and Russian people. The Presidents note that specialists in both countries have cooperatively engaged in special studies and planning which has significantly advanced the concept of the park. They recognize that these studies and plans will be the basis for continuing collaboration. They also intend to increase their efforts to complete the action. The leaders are pleased with the steps aimed at introducing appropriate legislation in the United States Congress and the Russian Parliament that will enable the international park designation to be legally conferred and maintained. They feel that both proposals should move along parallel tracks so that the international park designation may be jointly issued by both governments at the appropriate time. Upon the formal designation of the Beringia International Park, the U.S. government will enter into agreements with the Russian government outlining the basic directions of support for specific joint programs, exchanges, development projects, research, training and specialized studies that will facilitate the long-term development and operation of the International Park.
Fuels and Energy Agreement
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The new US-Russian Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Field of Fuels and Energy provides a framework for cooperation in a key sector of the economy and one of the priority areas for US Government cooperation with Russia. -- The US Department of Energy and the Russian Ministry of Fuels and Energy are the executive agents for the agreement. -- The agreement provides for cooperation in the fields of energy data exchange, energy and ecology, fossil energy sources, electric power, energy conservation and end-use efficiency, and renewable energy sources. -- Other fields of cooperation can be added by mutual consent. -- Activities will be implemented in each field through separate memoranda of cooperation. -- A joint committee will convene each year, alternately in the United States and Russia, to oversee implementation of the activities.
Nuclear Reactor Safety Assistance for Russia
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The United States has been working with the former Soviet Union on civilian reactor safety since 1988. On April 26, 1988, the United States and the USSR signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the Field of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety. Under this memorandum, 12 working groups were established to cover a number of nuclear reactor issues. These programs focus on safe operating procedures and practices, reactor maintenance and backfitting, severe accident research, and regulatory procedures and practices. By the end of fiscal year 1992, the United States will have invested $15 million in these programs. At the Lisbon Coordinating Conference (May 23-24, 1992), the United States announced a $25-million nuclear safety initiative that builds and expands on this cooperation program. It provides for: -- Immediate operational safety enhancement through improvement of emergency operating procedures and equipment servicing and maintenance practices, development of alarm response procedures, improvement of diagnostics methods and hardware, and training for technical support personnel at nuclear power plants. -- Risk reduction measures for RMBKs and VVER 440/230 reactors through improvement of confinement performance for severe accidents, development of methods to prevent uncontrolled hydrogen explosions, installation of dedicated emergency diesel and feedwater pumps in protected areas, and improvement of basic fire detection and response capability. -- Assistance to regulators in developing consistent and effective safety standards and procedures and training in nuclear materials safety, safeguards practices, regulatory law, and use of radioactivity monitoring equipment. To facilitate activities in the first area, the United States will establish a nuclear safety training center in Russia. The center will serve as a focal point for training, establishing comprehensive Western safety management systems in existing reactors in the newly independent states, and identifying opportunities for short-term improvement in operations and instrumentation. It will fit well within the framework of multilateral efforts now under discussion in the preparation for the 1992 G-7 summit in Munich.
Bilateral and Other Issues
Joint Statement on Bilateral Issues
Text of joint statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. During the Cold War the United States and the USSR erected a series of barriers for each side's official representatives which affected their ability to carry out their functions and to travel in the country to which they were assigned. As the United States and Russia move into a new era of partnership and cooperation, these old barriers have become anachronisms. No longer appropriate to the new more open relationship between our countries, they have outlived their usefulness and hinder the efficient operation of our embassies and consulates. In Washington, we have reached agreement to dismantle many of these old barriers and to expand the possibilities for bilateral cooperation. In particular, we have decided upon the following: -- We have agreed to eliminate closed areas and establish Open Lands as the basis for travel by official personnel. -- The United States will open a consulate in Vladivostok. Russia will open a consulate in Seattle. We have agreed to consider opening further consulates, perhaps in Yekaterinburg and Chicago, in the near future. -- There will no longer be any limit placed on the number of official personnel of the embassies and consulates of our two countries. Taken together, these steps will bring our diplomatic practices into conformity with international norms, and create a better basis to work together constructively and efficiently to improve U.S.-Russian relations.
Open Lands Memorandum Of Understanding
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Open Lands signed today envisions that the two countries will abolish all closed areas and other travel controls on US and Russian diplomatic, consular and other personnel. Under the MOU, Russian officials will have the same opportunity to travel in the United States as do American citizens. A comparable opportunity will apply for US officials in Russia. In 1941, the Soviet Government imposed formal controls on the travel of all foreign nationals. In 1955, the United States instituted reciprocal controls on Soviet officials in this country. This understanding with the Russian Government on an Open Lands travel policy eliminates another vestige of the Cold War. It marks a major step in the new US-Russian relationship by helping provide a solid and enduring basis of openness and friendship.
Opening New US and Russian Consulates
Text of joint statement released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. During the meetings between President Bush and President Yeltsin, the United States and the Russian Federation reached agreement to open a new US consulate general in Vladivostok, Russia, and a new Russian consulate general in Seattle, Washington. These openings represent another aspect of the expanding US-Russian relationship. Both sides have expressed an interest in opening additional consulates in the future. The United States maintained a consulate in Vladivostok from 1898 to 1923 and again from 1941 to 1948, when it was closed because of rising Cold War tensions. Vladivostok is becoming the center of commercial activity in the Russian Far East and has the potential to be one of the important ports on the Pacific Rim. Ties between the Russian Far East and the Pacific United States have grown rapidly over the last few years, and Vladivostok has established active cultural and commercial exchanges with several US cities, including San Diego, its sister city. Along with the US Embassy in Moscow and the US Consulate General in St. Pet-ersburg, the Consulate General in Vladivostok will promote US commercial interests in the Russian Far East, and provide services for American travelers, as well as issue tourist and business visas to Russian citizens. The opening of a Russian consulate general in Seattle also reflects the importance the Russians place on Pacific trade and investment. The Russian presence in Seattle will be in addition to their Embassy in Washington and Consulates General in San Francisco and New York.
Removal of Ceilings On US and Russian Personnel
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The United States and the Russian Federation reached agreement during the summit to remove numerical ceilings on diplomatic, consular, and other official personnel who could be assigned to each other's countries. Mutual ceilings have been in effect since 1986 and have limited the size of our embassies and consulates. Lifting the ceilings is another sign of the US Government's new relationship with the Russian Federation and will help support US assistance efforts in Russia. In April 1992, the United States lifted the ceiling on Russian officials assigned to the Russian Permanent Mission to the United Nations. No restrictions are placed on the number of diplomats or officials from the other states of the former Soviet Union who can be assigned to the United States.
US-Russian Peace Corps Agreement
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The United States and Russia signed an agreement [on June 17] establishing a Peace Corps program in the Russian Federation. The agreement is part of an extended Peace Corps initiative in the new independent states of the former Soviet Union. The focus of the Peace Corps program in Russia will be small enterprise development. The Peace Corps plans to establish Small Business Centers, staffed by Peace Corps volunteers, in oblast (regional) capitals and economic centers. These centers will: -- Advise local governments on economic planning and development programs to support small businesses; -- Advise on the privatization of small public enterprises; -- Provide hands-on technical assistance to local entrepreneurs on a walk- in basis; -- Organize and conduct training programs; -- Develop a business library and a resource center in conjunction with local organizations and training institutes; and -- Review proposals from foreign investors for local officials. Generally, within its region, each center will support the work of an additional 8-12 Peace Corps volunteers who will be assigned individually in cities as resident small business advisers. Some 100 volunteers are expected to be in place in Russia before the end of 1992. About 80 are expected to begin work in the Volga River valley and 20 in the Vladivostok area. Staff to implement this effort has begun arriving in Russia. The first volunteers are expected to arrive in late October to begin training.
US-Russian Civil Aviation Memorandum of Understanding
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The Governments of the United States and Russia signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) today on air navigation, airspace use, and air traffic control. The MOU is intended to increase the safety and efficiency of international aviation. The Russian Government commits itself to opening, as soon as possible, new international air traffic services (ATS) routes connecting North America with countries of the Asian Pacific region by the most efficient ATS routes through Russian airspace in eastern Siberia. -- All international air carriers will save money by using new ATS routes across the Pacific and Siberia to Japan and the People's Republic of China. -- The Russian Government, by allocating this airspace to its civilian air traffic control authorities, will gain considerable hard currency from overflight fees. The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will provide advice and assistance to the Russian Commission for Airspace Use and Air Traffic Control concerning the codification of aviation regulations and air traffic control procedures. FAA and the Russian commission also will establish a joint group of specialists that will work to expand the use of airspace and further develop air traffic control in the North Pacific region. Both parties will promote the opening of new international airports in Russia and help expand the number of emergency airports available.
Technical Migration Assistance for Russia
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 17, 1992. The United States plans to provide nearly half of the $1,064,000 appeal by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to fund its program of technical assistance to Russia. The IOM has developed a plan for technical assistance to the Russian Federation to build the government institutions essential to managing orderly migration and refugee flows. The project will focus on training staff of the principal national organizations concerned with migration issues. The IOM plans to provide experts to the Russian State Migration Service, the Russian Committee on Migration, the Sub-Committee on Refugees and the Presidential Commission on Citizenship to assist them with institution- building, policy-planning, project design and drafting, migration and refugee matters, and legislation. The IOM will also organize workshops in Moscow and Geneva which will cover managing and resettling migrants, working with non-governmental and other institutions, and developing and implementing citizenship law, agreements with other republics, and early warning procedures.
Joint US-Russian Commission on POW/MIAs
The following was released by the White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Washington, DC, June 16, 1992. In January 1992, the United States and Russia established a joint commission to investigate unresolved cases of prisoners-of-war and missing-in-action [POW/MIAs]. The creation of this commission underscores the commitment of both the United States and Russia to work together in a spirit of friendship to account for missing servicemen on both sides. The joint commission's objectives are to pursue all reports alleging the presence of American POW/MIAs in the former Soviet Union; facilitate their return to the United States if they so wish; establish a mechanism by which remains identified as American can be returned to the United States; and obtain access to people, documents, and archival information in Russia which could help account for American servicemen missing from World War II, the Korean war, the Vietnam war, and the Cold War period. Former Ambassador to the Soviet Union, Malcom Toon, is the President's representative and chairman of the US delegation to this commission. The commission also includes Senators John Kerry and Robert Smith, Congressmen Pete Peterson and John Miller, and officials from the State and Defense Departments. The Joint US-Russian Commission on POW/MIAs has based three investigators in Moscow to work closely with our Embassy and with Russian commission members. The Russian delegation is chaired by Gen. Dmitri Volkogonov, a senior adviser to President Yeltsin. The first meeting of the joint commission was held March 26-28 in Moscow. A working-level group met May 28-June 3, and the full commission will meet again in late July. Statements made by Russian Government officials indicate that Americans were held by the former Soviet Government at various times in the past 50 years. Little is known about the fate of these individuals. Research by Russian representatives to the joint commission is at an early stage and has not yet revealed verifiable information that indicates the presence of live Americans currently on the territory of the former Soviet Union. Presidents Bush and Yeltsin have instructed the co-chairs of the joint commission to pursue the latest information on the POW issue. Ambassador Toon will be returning to Moscow to work with the commission as soon as possible. (###)